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A. Discuss this questions: What is Ecology? Which responsibilities does it imply? What should be known about it? Is Global Warming related to Ecology? Explain. Mention some keywords related to Ecology.
B. Guess the answers of the following quiz. Ecology is the study of environmental systems the economy of nature both The area of ecology that focuses on attempting to understand how natural selection develop the structure and function of the organism and ecosystems is Ecosystems ecology Evolutionary ecology Physiological ecology Ecology includes the analysis and study of living parts of the world non-living parts of the world both The discipline that has as objective to follow the energy and material used throughout the process of fabrication in order to improve the efficiency of manufacturing is Manufacturing Ecology Industrial Ecology Processes Which is the principal objective of most ecologists ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
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1 2 3 Ecology is the study of environmental systems, or as it is sometimes called, the economy of nature. "Environmental" usually means relating to the natural, versus human-made world; the "systems" means that ecology is, by its very nature, not interested in just the components of nature
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individually but especially in how the parts interact. The subject matter of ecology is normally divided onto four broad categories or levels: Physiological Ecology, having to do with the response of single species to environmental conditions such as temperature or light; Population Ecology, usually focusing on the abundance and distribution of individual species and the factors that cause such distribution; Community Ecology, having to do with the number of species found at given location and their interactions; and Ecosystems Ecology, having to do with the structure and function of the entire suite of microbes, plants, and animals, and their abiotic environment, and how the parts interact to generate the whole. It often focuses on the energy and nutrient flows of ecosystems, and when this approach is combined with computer analysis and simulation we often call it systems ecology. Evolutionary ecology, which may operate at any of these levels but most commonly at the physiological or population level, is a rich and dynamic area of ecology focusing on attempting to understand how natural selection developed the structure and function of the organisms and ecosystems at any of these levels. Ecology is usually considered from the perspective of the specific geographic environment that is being studied at the moment: tropical rain forest, temperate grassland, arctic tundra, benthic marine, the entire biosphere, and so on. The subject matter of ecology is the entire natural world, including both the living and the non living parts. Biogeography focuses on the observed distribution of plants and animals and the reasons behind it. More recently ecology has included increasingly the human-dominated world of agriculture, grazing lands for domestic animals, cities, and even industrial parks. Industrial ecology is a discipline that has recently been developed, especially in Europe, where the objective is to follow the energy and material use throughout the process of, e.g., making an automobile with the objective of attempting to improve the material and energy efficiency of manufacturing. For any of these levels or approaches there are some scientists that focus on theoretical ecology, which attempts to derive or apply theoretical or sometimes mathematical reasons and generalities for what is observed in nature, and empirical ecology, which is concerned principally with measurement. Applied ecology takes what is found from one or both of these approaches and uses it to protect or manage nature in some way. Related to this discipline is conservation biology. Plant ecology, animal ecology, and microbial ecology have obvious foci. Ecology should be more than just a set of ideas and principles that one might learn in a classroom or book but rather more a way of looking at the world which emphasizes the assessment and understanding of how the pieces fit together, how each influences and is influenced by the other pieces and how the whole operates in ways not really predictable from them. When we are lucky we are able to capture these relations in conceptual, mathematical or, increasingly, computer models that allow us some sense of truly understanding the great complexity of nature, including as it is impacted by human activity. This is the goal of most ecologists.
From the previous text identify what the words italicized refer to.
this situation can be created by: Excess emission of gases/vapors into atmosphere Saturation of chemical compounds/particulates Rate of dissipation < (smaller than) rate of absorption through various cycles (i. the circulation of water in earth.8 9 10 11 13 13 such their their It it these 29 30 30 31 36 38 which these it this them it E. Carbon and nitrogen cycle) Emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and non-biodegradable compounds. simply saying. underground water and bays. Fertilizers plants Building demolition Solid waste disposal Solvent evaporation Volcanic eruption Fuel production Roadway construction Electrical components manufacturing Extraction of metals Forest fires AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction of particles that contaminates the composition of compounds in the atmosphere. ozone depletion are some effects of air pollution. namely air. easy-soluble substances. POLLUTION There are 6 (six) types of pollution that are going to be discussed in this site. WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is contamination of water by foreign matter that deteriorates the quality of the water. In fact. lakes. smog. the water in the earth's biosphere is used and reused again and again. This . pathogenic germs. land. etc. Water pollution covers pollutions in liquid forms like ocean pollution and river pollution. substances that require much oxygen to decompose. noise. acid rain. As the term applies. rivers. It involves the release of toxic substances. in short liquid-containing areas. the eutrophication: lack of oxygen in a water body caused by excessive algae growths because of enrichment of pollutants. Global warming. that become deposited upon the bottom and their accumulations will interfere with the condition of aquatic ecosystems. radioactive. Read the text.e. The major sources that lead to air pollution are the following: Motor vehicle exhaust Heat and power generation facilities Industrial processes Auto manufacturing Water Cycle and Pollution Water cycle is. and thermal pollution. streams. radioactivity. water. liquid pollution occurs in the oceans. For example.
phosphorus and sulfur unplenished supply after cultivation of vegetation. unable to stabilize the soil physicality which ultimately let to desertification . communities in beach and estuary will be affected by the pollutants. What's the relation of water cycle and pollution? According to the water cycle. naturally. water around us will be absorbed to the land (soil) and rivers will stream from the upstream to the downstream and released to the sea. both inorganic and organic pollutants safely decompose throughout the stream. And for the inorganic pollutants. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to water pollution to the following categories: Petroleum products Synthetic agricultural chemicals Heavy metals Hazardous wastes Excess organic matter Sediment Infectious organisms Air pollution Thermal pollution Soil pollution SOIL POLLUTION Revered to as soil pollution. and they don't harm the sea ecosystem and its distribution. In a small scale. and can heavily harm them. living the soil prone to soil infertility.is called water cycle or continuous movement of water between the earth and the atmosphere. in the same situation. It involves the following mechanisms: Evaporation: changing of water from liquid to gas Transpiration: Release of water vapor from plant leaves Condensation: Changing of vapor to liquid (cooled down) Precipitation: Water that returns to the earth (water droplets in clouds become large enough and there comes the rain). Non-maintenance of a proper supply of organic matter in the soil from the imbalance composition of the reserves of organic matter especially nitrogen. their concentration decrease in the sea. But in an excessive scale. land pollution involves the following mechanism: Deposition of solid waste Accumulation of non-biodegradable materials Toxification of chemicals into poisons Alteration of soil chemical composition (imbalance of chemical equilibrium to soil medium) Causes The causes for such devastation are generally due to 2 (two) forms of malpractices: Unhealthy soil management methods. don't bring to much hazards because they are widely dispersed and have almost no effect to the environment which they are released to. In normal situation organic pollutants are biodegraded by microbes and converted to a form that brings benefits to the aquatic life.
minerals are more insoluble which form complex minerals unable to be absorbed into the flora system physiological usage. Noise levels can be measured by decibel method: Decibel .Irregular maintenance of a proper nutrient supply of trace elements gives rise to the use of excessive synthetic fertilizers. an actual difference of 10.000 units. I0 where one is ten times greater than the other. These are the few examples of threshold decibels of noises made: Threshold of hearing 0 dB .one tenth of a bel where one bel represents a difference in level between two intensities I1. can be expressed as a difference of 4 bels or 40 decibels. In a more acidic soil. Improper irrigation practices. Poorly drained soil result in salt deposits leading to high soil salinity that inhibit plant growth and may lead to crop failure Unirrigated land giving rise to stagnation of agriculture waste products whichaccumulates and increases land toxicity and also decreasing Irregular irrigation leads to decreasing moisturization of land for soil medium and replenishments of solvents for minerals NOISE POLLUTION This particular pollution is ever increasing with due to the rise in the utilization of heavy duty machineries of industrial facilities and vehicles. but to the extend it has reached an unfavorable high intensity which had cause many disturbances and irritation to others emotionally that has adverse effects on our daily activities. Thus. fungi and other organisms Improper maintenance of the correct soil acidity which ultimately disrupt the adaptation of various crops and native vegetation of different soils as the solubility of minerals present will be affected. the intensity level is the comparison of one intensity to another and may be expressed: Intensity level = 10 log10 (I1/I0) (dB) Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to land pollution to the following categories: Agriculture Mining and quarrying Sewage sludge Dredged spoils Household Demolitions and constructions Industrial For instance. which are non biodegradable and accumulate in the soil system which eventually destroys useful organisms such as bacteria. We make sounds practically every seconds of our day. minerals tend to be more soluble and washed away during rainfall while alkaline soil. synonymous to the increase in the standard of living in most countries. the difference between intensities of 10-8watts/m2 and 10-4 watts/m2.
it has also been used to generate electricity. There are commonly three types of radiation. reducing emissions of CO2 for about 500 million metric tons of carbon. Gamma rays can penetrate easily to human skin and damage cells on its way through. When an element decays. which is a form of pollution. Nuclear energy is a form of energy that’s released by the splitting of atoms. while can be blocked by some pieces of glass and metal. Radioactivity is emitted when a radioactive element become unstable and begin to decay in the attempt to regain their molecular stability. reaching far. This process is expressed in units called becquerels. Radioactivity is a form of radiation (a form of energy that travels through space). by showing its massive ability of destroying things. can be blocked by a piece of paper and human skin. it emits energy and small particles. namely: Alpha particles. Beta particles can penetrate through skin. This process constantly remains. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to noise pollution to the following categories: Road traffic noise Air traffic Rail traffic Neighborhood and domestic noise Incompatible land use Industrial noises RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION The 40's was the era where the first nuclear bomb is being developed.5 billion years (Uranium 238) and as short as 8 days (Iodine 131). The time that it takes for half way of decaying process is called half-life. the big concern is the waste resulted from nuclear reaction. and this differs for each radioactive element. Nuclear Despite the advantage of nuclear as a clean energy. It possibly takes up to 4. it will repeat the process. It's also known that nuclear energy has reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emission. called radioactivity. Since scientists have found a way to make use of the energy. nuclear energy has already researched back since 1900. Nuclear era reached its greatest peak in the world war. and that's why it's called the nuclear era.Rustling leaves Quiet whisper (3 feet) Quiet home Quiet street Normal conversation Inside car Loud singing (3 feet) Automobile (25 feet) Motorcycle (30 feet Food blender (3 feet) Subway (inside) Diesel truck (30 feet) Power mower (3 feet) Pneumatic riveter (3 feet) Chainsaw (3 feet) Amplified Rock and Roll (6 feet) Jet plane (100 feet) 20 dB 30 dB 40 dB 50 dB 60 dB 70 dB 75 dB 80 dB 88 dB 90 dB 94 dB 100 dB 107 dB 115 dB 117 dB 120 dB 130 dB energy has been recognized as a clean energy because it doesn’t release pollutants such as CO2 to the atmosphere after its reaction that could damage our environment. If it’s still radioactive. until it finally regains its molecular stability and stop decaying. Some elements in this world are naturally radioactive while some others are made to be. not considering external factors such as pressure or temperature. However. and can only be . One becquerel is equal to one disintegration of nuclei per second.
Heat produced from industries is a major contribution to the pollution. Match the methods of contamination of water with their sources Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to thermal pollution to the following categories: Power plants creating electricity from fossil fuel Water as a cooling agent in industrial facilities Deforestation of the shoreline Soil erosion Sources a. strong. massive piece of concrete. and the graph to detect the temperature trend from a period of 10 years will be compared with the previous batch of period. much to the operation of the heavy industries which produces high amount of heat energy. f. d. Excess Organic Matter Hazardous wastes Heavy metals Infectious Organisms Petroleum Products Sediments Synthetic Agricultural Chemicals Methods . b. F. owing to the increasing call of globalization everywhere. g.blocked by a very thick. Measurements of atmospheric temperature are done by meteorological center of the weather forecast annually. c. Thus we may be able to know the rate of temperature increase overall and make reference to the standard level of heat that should be maintain in the atmosphere to avoid large deviation of heat in the system. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to radioactive pollution to the following categories: Nuclear power plants Nuclear weapon Transportation Disposal of nuclear waste Uranium mining THERMAL POLLUTION This has become an increasing and the most current pollution. e.
1998. or your motorbike. The United Nations panel on climate change projects that the global temperatures will rise 3-10 degrees Fahrenheit by the century’s end. The extra heat produced by our homes also affects the planet. when fully grown. Something as simple as walking instead of taking the car will help reduce pollution. enough to have the polar caps melted. tanker trucks. As well as stopping pollution. The warmest since the mid 1800’s was the 1990s. Accumulation of chemicals in plants and animals when die. or spend masses of money. you are giving yourself exercise. You don’t have to go miles away from home to protest. Firstly. reuse and recycle. So the next time you get into your car. only buy what you need. this could be easier than it sounds. The hottest years recorded were 1997. and your getting a little cold. something important for our bodies. including New York City. pipelines and leaky underground storage tanks.__________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Accidental spills from ships. It really is as simple as that. as well as save you money. Finally turning off unused sources of power such as televisions and heaters will help the environment. How can we do to help save the planet? The answer is simpler than you may think. will help keep the planet cooler. only put a jumper on and do not adjust the heating. If possible use solar energy. 2003. we would be . and recycle what you cannot reuse. If the ice caps melt. You can get much of your hot water and heating from the sun and even generate electricity.When you are at home. Monuments and great buildings. think – do I have to make this journey by vehicle or can I walk?. a vast majority of our countries borders will be under water. Emission of oxides of lead from tractors and machineries used during mining or in industries which dissolves in water Improper refinery processes with the production of toxic byproducts Improper storage of heavy metals in storage containers Improper treatment of waste which are still toxic upon release Leak pipelines __________ __________ __________ Old and faulty machineries in industrial factories which are inefficient Stimulate algae growth and during decomposition of algae Unfiltered industrial discharge which flows into water sources G.6 of a degree Celsius). Over the last century. all you need to buy is the equipment. 2001. 2002. after all it is free. you will have started to help us all. as well as homes and lives will be under water. Trees. GLOBAL WARMING There is little doubt that the planet is warming. Reduce. If everybody stuck to these rules. like containers and paper. plant a tree. So try wearing an extra layer in winter. reuse whatever you can. Read the text. If you try to follow the few simple steps that I shall now give you. the planets temperature has risen by around 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.
________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Sewage ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Temperate ________________________________________________________________ Read the following sentences. After all. Look up the following words: Abiotic Benthic Ecosystem Grazing lands Microbe Pollution Projects ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ J. when concentrations of those substances cause adverse metabolic change to humans or other species. it will be our next generation that will feel the effects. _________________ is the introduction of chemicals. Complete each sentence with one of the words in the box. . The most common and widespread air _________________ include carbon monoxide. So please take into consideration what I have written and try to do your part. sulfur dioxide. or microscopic organisms into the atmosphere. in particular. particulate matter. nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. biodiversity sewage pollutants deforestation contamination reservoirs morbidity streams habitat species Air Pollution Ecotoxicology tillage sedimentation temperature _________________ is the environmental science sub-discipline that melds the fields of ecology and toxicology. H.doing a great thing by protecting the earth. Answer the following questions: Is the passage describing the Global Warming? _______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Which is the principal objective of the passage? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY I.
biodiversity reduction and loss of ecosystem services. tobacco smoking. radioactive or pathogenic microbial substances. although many are purposefully introduced for food cultivation or for attempts (usually misguided) at ecological intervention. in particular. but a preponderance of these instances result from human intervention in the environment (such as discharge of raw _________________) or human overpopulation phenomena. Widespread consequences of water pollution upon ecosystems include _________________ mortality. The concept is most frequently discussed in the context of elevating natural water temperature. Indoor air pollution is a significant source of human death and disease —mortality and _________________— through indoor burning of wood and charcoal (especially in developing countries). but may also be caused by the release of cooler water from the base of _________________ into warmer rivers. decrease in _________________ and creation of an environment hospitable to alien aquatic species may occur. Water pollution is the _________________ of natural water bodies by chemical. Thermal pollution is the act of altering the _________________ of a natural water body. pesticide and herbicide use create massive amounts of sedimentation and chemical discharge to natural waters. An alien species is an organism that finds itself in a new geographic location or _________________. fertilizer. since their sources may be construed as natural. The most problematic of water pollutants are microbes that induce disease. lake or ocean environment. There can be significant environmental consequences of thermal pollution with respect to surface receiving waters such as rivers and lakes. natural causes. however. printing supplies and cleaning products. Some water pollution may occur from natural causes such as _________________ from severe rainfall events. radon trapping and a host of chemical substances found in paints. One of the chief causes of water pollution is agricultural activity where _________________ practices. EXTENDING SKILLS K. including volcanic eruptions and algae blooms from natural causes constitute a minute amount of the instances of worldwide water pollution. Activity 1 Are you concern about global warming? How do you help the planet? Do you and your family classify garbage at home? . physical. Elevated river temperatures can also arise from _________________ or urbanization that can reduce _________________. which may be a river. Many of these species arrive in the new location due to inadvertent human activities such as shipping or agriculture.
the less there is available in rivers. when water levels in rivers fall. and oxygen levels can fall dangerously low for fish. in fact you save money when you and your family save water. In 2005. By saving water you can help protect wildlife that live in rivers and wetlands as the more water that is used in our homes. the more energy that is needed. which is the principal verb? _________________________ How many gerunds are there in the paragraphs? _____________________________________ How many of these gerunds are being used as subjects? _______________________________ What tense is the passage mainly written in? _________________________________________ What type of reading is it? ______ _________________________________________________ GLOSSARY Abiotic Air pollution Air Pollution Alien species Applied ecology Benthic . What is the main purpose of these paragraphs? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ How many sentences are there in the first paragraph? _________________________________ How many sentences are there in the second paragraph? ______________________________ How many sentences or clauses are in imperative form? _______________________________ Underline the subject of each sentence. It is not necessary to keep the water running while brushing your teeth. these leaks can waste about 20 gallons of water per day. lakes and wetlands. For saving water inside the house you can check your faucets. How many modal verbs are there? ________________ In the 2nd sentence of paragraph 1. pipes and toilet for leaks. Take shorter showers and turn off the water when soaping and after that turn it back on to rinse. and conservation of water is necessary. Highlight each verb in the paragraphs. It comes naturally when everyone in the family is aware of its importance. Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing. food sources for birds can be lost. take the time to teach children these simple water-saving methods around the home and you will make a big difference. groundwater levels were lower than they have been for 20 years. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads. Activity 1 Study the following reading WASTING WATER Water is one of the earth’s most valuable resources.L. Water conservation at home is one of the easiest measures to put in place. For example. Saving water at home does not require any significant cost outlay. and saving water should become part of everyday family practice. so the more water used. The energy impact with the use of water is also high as heating water accounts for a lot of the energy used in homes.
” SPEAKING A. Solid. Atomic Structure Anything that has weight and that takes up space.Biogeography Community ecology Ecology Ecosystem ecology Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Enviroment Evolutionary ecology Global Warming Grazing lands Industrial ecology Microbe Morbidity Noise Pollution Physiological ecology Pollutants Pollution Population ecology Projects Projects Radioactive Pollution Sewage Soil Pollution Temperate Thermal Pollution Tillage Water pollution MATERIALS SCIENCE “The properties of any material depend not only on what it's made of. Discuss this questions: What are materials? Where do we obtain materials? What is Material Science? Which are the forms of the matter? What is an atom? Which is the difference between metals and ceramics? VOCABULARY Match the following words with its definition. 1. Atom . Molecule 3. Liquid. Gas It is the smallest particle of matter that retains the same properties 2. but also how the atoms and molecules within it are arranged.
Forms of Matter 7. and structural products could not exist. READING B. our world of modern devices. and neutrons. and especially in the last decade. There are now about 300. aircraft. security. It is the smallest part of a substance that retains the same properties of that substance and cannot be broken down any further.for example. well. These were the first materials to be "engineered. people changed them to fit what they needed to do. communication equipment. 4. Materials scientists and engineers will continue to be at the forefront of these and other areas of science and engineering in the service of society as they achieve new levels of understanding and control of the basic building blocks of materials: atoms. EXACTLY? That's a big question . prosperity.because materials are the basic substances that make up. computers. molecules." that is. you name it! Materials can be natural . WHAT ARE MATERIALS. WHAT IS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING? Materials have been central to the growth.are named for metals.000 different known materials (if you named one every second.of that matter.like plastic.like wood. crystals. has the intellectual foundation of the field that we call materials science and engineering begun to take shape and to achieve recognition. Compound Substance This substance can be broken down into two or more simpler substances. general categories: Metals Whole periods of human civilization . automobiles. machines. These days. The free atom is composed of electrons. This has occurred just as the field itself is expanding greatly and contributing significantly to society.such as the Bronze and Iron ages . and noncrystalline arrays. the number's almost infinite. it would take you more than three whole days and nights just to get through the list!). materials scientists are using metals in ways no one could have pictured even a few years ago . Most materials fit into a few big. Element 5. Read the following passage. It is the smallest particle of an element which retains the distinct structure characteristic of an element. Without new materials and their efficient production. protons. and quality of life of humans since the beginning of history. Only in the last 25 years. rather than just letting their natural properties determine what they could be used for. Matter 6. or human-made . And as materials scientists create and combine materials in new ways. shaping copper into tiny wires a thousand times skinnier than a strand of your hair! .
that's one type of ceramic. super-strong cutting tools. so are paints and every kind of plastic. most of the food you eat is made of natural polymers! Composites Composites are combinations of materials. Polymers Polymers are just very big molecules made of smaller molecules linked together into long. Some scientists try to mimic nature's designs to create materials for other uses. When did the materials science started to be recognize? _______________________________________________________________________________ 2.the "interfaces" . as scientists create new materials atom-by-atom and moleculeby-molecule .such as buckyballs and nanotubes. or to conduct electricity. such as using the foam structure of bone as an inspiration for designing materials that are lightweight and strong. to cutting and grinding your food.is making it possible for you to read these words right now! That's because silicon is the essential material in an electronic computer chip. carbon-fiber bicycle. and protecting you from heat or cold. With the addition of oxygen or nitrogen. But ceramics can also be used to create bone and tooth replacements. which are very tiny spheres or cylinders made of carbon atoms.silicon . metals become ceramics. repeating chains. Semiconductors One of these materials ." Your CD. hair. investigate if it is necessary. and better. You may not know it. Why is important to study materials science in your career? . Rubber bands are made of polymers. Then there are aerogels. too. The places where different materials meet . fingernails. "Semiconductor" means a material can conduct electricity with a bit of help in the form of added "impurities.all depend on semiconductors. and skin are all examples of different types of materials found in your body with remarkable properties that help you survive . which are extremely lightweight porous materials made almost entirely of air! Nanotechnology is taking materials science into a new dimension. Exotic and Strange Materials Materials scientists are discovering and creating entirely new types of materials . 1.often produce new properties that are radically different.leading to properties and performance never before imagined. Answer the following questions. C. and telephone . Biomaterials Every part of your body is a material! Bone. which can be as simple as concrete reinforced with steel bars or as leading edge as an ultralight. but you're in touch with polymers every day more than any other kind of material. than those in any single material. And by the way. muscles.from keeping you upright. DVD player.Ceramics Think about a china teapot .
According to your experience. which is the principal characteristic of ceramics? ______________________________________________________________________________ 6.strangematterexhibit. 3. Are new materials helping to the development of technology? Explain your answer. _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. which other semiconductor is used to fabricate electronic devices.html?asset=whatis_panel&page=videowhatis http://www.strangematterexhibit. Mention five everyday products made with polymers. _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What is materials science according to Dr.com/popup.html?asset=whatis_panel&page=videoeveryone 1.strangematterexhibit. What are boats made of? _______________________________________________________ What do materials scientists do? _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ READING . Why biomaterials are important nowadays? _____________________________________________________________________________ LISTENING D. Watch the videos in these links and answer the questions http://www.com/popup. _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. Ross?_____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Mention at least 5 types of metals _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 5.html?asset=whatis_panel&page=videospecial http://www.com/popup._______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Additionally to the silicon.
Examples for secondary bonds are: Hydrogen Bonds: Hydrogen bonds are common in covalently bonded molecules which contain hydrogen. and the acceptor will have a negative PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Describe how the material supports applied forces. Sometimes.E. such as water (H2O). Since the electrons are free to move. The elements are composed of atoms which have distinct structure characteristic of each element. compression. electron shells are filled. These bonds are especially important in noble gases which are cooled to very low temperatures. so the neutral atom must contain an equal number of electrons and protons. Hardness: The resistance a material opposes the penetration. without deforming or breaking sudden efforts that apply to them. Covalent Bonds: Some atoms like to share electrons to complete their outer shells. cyclic fatigue. Each atom gives up its outer electrons and becomes slightly positively charged. Each pair of shared atoms is called a covalent bond. charge. and form bonds. including forces of tension. Then you mention are defined below: Toughness: The property of certain materials to withstand. Flexibility: It consists in the ability of some materials to recover their shape and size of primitive when it ceases the effort that had given deformation. they lead to good thermal and electrical conductivity. These are the smallest units that are distinguishable on the basis of their chemical activity and physical properties. Secondary Bonds: Secondary bonds are much weaker than primary bonds. the outer electrons are shared among all the atoms in the solid. . The charged atoms or ions will be attracted to each other. ATOMIC BONDS There are two types of bonds: Primary Bonds: Primary bonds are the strongest bonds which hold atoms together. An atom consists of a minute positively charged nucleus surrounded by a sufficient number of electrons (negative charges) to keep the atom as a whole neutral. The three types of primary bonds are: Metallic Bonds: In a metal. Ionic Bonds: Atoms like to have a filled outer shell of electrons. The negatively charged electrons hold the metal atoms together. by transferring electrons from one atom to another. They often provide a "weak link" for deformation or fracture. Van der Waals Bonds: Van der Waals bonds are very weak compared to other types of bonds. impact. The electron and proton have equal but opposite electrical charge. The donor atom will take a positive charge. or forces at high temperatures. Read the following topic MATERIAL STRUCTURE All matter is considered to be composed of unit substances known as chemical elements.
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid The above mechanical properties are measured accurately by mechanical tests: Test drive: Provides a rough idea of the tenacity and elasticity of a material. magnetic and optical.The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.Properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present. electrical or thermal conductivity. Testing technology: They show the features of plasticity that has a material to carry out his forge. Conductivity . Hardness . Density .The ability of a substance to be drawn into thin wires.A measurement of the gravitational force of attraction of the earth acting on an object. Describe features such as color.How shiny a substance is. but it can create sound. Length Intensive . Mass . Flammability: Ability to burn. etc. usually not altered by force acting on the material. Melting/Freezing Point . Odor Luster .The mass of a substance divided by its volume PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Rely on the structure and material processing.The ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity.A measurement of the amount of matter in a object (grams). Weight .How easily a substance can be scratched. magnetic and optical behavior. when a reaction happen you can see bubbling. fizzing. Boiling Point . Ductility . Plasticity: Ability of some solid material to acquire permanent deformation under the action of an external force or pressure without rupture. Malleability . Fragility: A material is brittle when broken easily by the action of a shock. Color CHEMICAL PROPERTIES These describe the substances and their abiolity to change into a new substance with different properties. stamping. .A measurement of the amount of space a substance occupies. Testing Shock: The practice allows us to know the fragility and tenacity of a material. water or acid. color change. They can be divided into electrical.The ability of a substance to be beaten into thin sheets.Properties that do depend on the amount of matter present. Reactivity can be created mixing a element with oxygen. (generally atmospheric pressure). color or heat. Physical properties of matter are categorized as either Intensive or Extensive: Extensive . Volume . Hardness Testing: allows knowing the hardness of the material. light. Reactivity: It is when two substances cause any reaction together. bending.
Select a material and describe their physical properties. Write the name of 2 materials that present the following properties. Toughness __________________________________________________________ Flexibility: Hardness: Fragility: Plasticity: Ductility: Malleability: Flammability: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ H. Prepare a summary of the previous reading. Material __________________________________________________________ Color Odor Luster Malleability Ductility Conductivity Hardness __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Melting/Freezing Point ___________________________________________________ Boiling Point Density __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ GLOSSARY . G.F.
Atom Atomic Bond Atomic Structure Biomaterial Boiling Point Bond Ceramics Composite Compound Substance Conductivity Covalent Bond Density Ductility Element Flammability Flexibility Fragility Hardness Hydrogen Bond Ionic Bond Length Malleability Mass Matter Melting Point Metallic Bond Metals Molecule Plasticity Polymer .
Reactivity Semiconductor Toughness Van der Waals Bond Volume Weight .
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