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1 Introduction to Scaling Scaling theory is a value guide to what may work and what may not work when we start to design the world of micro.
Three general scale sizes: (a) Astronomical (天體的) objects; (b) Macro-objects; (c) micro-objects. - Things effective at one of these scale sizes often are insignificant at another scale size. - Examples: Gravitational forces dominate on an astronomical scale (e.g., the earth
The second type: involves both the size and material properties of the system. but not on smaller scales.Volume: related to the mass and weight of a device. (thermal inertial: related to the heat capacity of a solid. Examples S/V ratio of an elephant (10-4) vs.2 Scaling in Geometry Surface and volume are two physical quantities that are frequently involved in micro-device design. 2. (Reference: MEMS Handbook. as well as heat absorption or dissipation by a solid in convective heat transfer. . but micro-sized ones usually use electrostatic fields instead of magnetic. of a dragonfly (10-1) 2 . Macro-sized motors use magnetic forces for actuation. CRC Press) Two types of scaling laws: 1. edited by Mohamed Gad-el-Hak. which is a measure of how fast we can heat or cool a solid. → important in designing a thermal actuator) Surface: related to pressure and the buoyant forces in fluid mechanics. V ∝ l3 S / V ∝ l −1 As the size l decreases. The first type: depends on the size of physical objects.moves around the sun). 6. its S/V ratio increases. Surface to volume ration (S/V ratio) - S ∝ l2 . which are related to both mechanical and thermal inertial.
Organisms whose cells are compartmentalized by internal cellular membranes to produce 3 .) Eukaryotes . unless it is highly elongated like a vertebrate nerve cell. (Biochemistry by Mathews et al. (Biochemistry by Mathews et al.8: Range of sizes of objects studied by biochemists and biologists.An elephant and a flea have cells of about the same size. Too large a cell will not have enough surface for substance exchanges with its surroundings to support the active metabolism ( 新陳代謝 ) within. increasing the S/V ratio.) Figure 1.
5) F = Ma = 6. Force scaling factor: ⎡l 1 ⎤ ⎢ 2⎥ l F F = [l ] = ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢l ⎥ ⎢ 4⎥ ⎢ ⎣l ⎥ ⎦ (6.5 ⎥ ⎢l ⎥ ⎢ 0⎥ ⎢ ⎣l ⎥ ⎦ t= 2 sM ∝ ([l 1 ][l 3 ][l − F ]) 0.8) 4 .5 F (6. (6.脂質.脂 6. a= 2s t2 2sM ∝ (l )(l 3 )t − 2 2 t (6.5).2 The Trimmer Force Scaling Vector Trimmer (1989) proposed a unique matrix to represent force scaling with relative parameters of acceleration a. Lipids .6) Acceleration a: from Eq.3) (6.3. and power density P/V0.5 ⎤ ⎢ 1⎥ l = ⎢ 0.3. ⎡l 1.a nucleus and organelles.4) (6.3 Scaling in Rigid-Body Dynamics 6.7) Time t: from Eq.1 Scaling in Dynamic Forces 1 s = v0 t + at 2 2 By letting v0 = 0 . (6. time t.5). ⎡l −2 ⎤ ⎡l 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ l ⎥ −3 ⎢ l −1 ⎥ 3 −1 F ⎢ a = [l ][l ] = 3 [l ] = 0 ⎢l ⎥ ⎢l ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ 4⎥ ⎢l ⎦ ⎥ ⎢l ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ (6.
5).Power Density P/V0: from Eq.4.7) Breakdown voltage .For d > 10µm .5) 5 . .4 Scaling in Electrostatic Forces In Fig.9) ⎡l −2.The voltage required to initiate discharge.5 ⎥ V0 ([l ][l ][l ]) [l ] ⎢ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣l ⎥ ⎦ (6. 6.10) 6. Since P = W F ⋅s . (6. the electric potential energy induced in the parallel plates is: ε ε WL 1 U = − CV 2 = − r 0 V 2 2 2d (2. V ∝ l 1 (see Fig.5 ⎤ ⎢ −1 ⎥ l P [l F ][l 1 ] ⇒ = 1 3 − F 0. thus = t t P Fs = V0 tV0 (6. 6.5 3 = ⎢ 0.
6.11) - Fd . ∂U 1 ε r ε 0WLV 2 =− ∂d 2 d2 ∂U 1 ε r ε 0 LV 2 = ∂W 2 d ∂U 1 ε r ε 0WV 2 = ∂L 2 d Fd = − FW = − FL = − (2. FW . 6. the electrostatic forces are. and FL ∝ (l 2 ) A 10 times reduction in the plate sizes means a 100 times decrease in the induced electrostatic forces.8) (2.- (l 0 )(l 0 )(l 1 )(l 1 )(l 1 ) 2 = l3 (6. ⇒U ∝ In Fig.5 Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces In this section. it is shown that electromagnetic actuation is not scaled down 6 .11) l1 A factor of 10 decrease in linear dimension will decrease the potential energy by a factor of 1000.6.10) (2.
length. . Electric Resistance: R = ρL Electric Power Loss: P = V2 ∝ l1 R 7 (6. ∝ l −1 (6.15b) - For constant current case. L. piezoelectric.The electromagnetic forces can be induced in a conductor or a conducting loop in a magnetic field B by passing current i in the conductor. and A are the resistivity. U = 1 2 Li 2 (6. and cross-sectional area.14) The induced electromagnetic force would be ∂U F= ∂x φ =cons tan t F= ∂U ∂x i = cons tan t (6. F ∝ l 4 - If 10 times reduction in size (l) ⇒ Electromagnetic force: 10.13) - Since φ = Li . 6.15a) (6. 1 φ2 2 L where φ is the magnetic flux.nearly as favorably as electrostatic forces.19) .000 times reduction Comparison: Electrostatic force: only 100 times reduction Conclusion: Electromagnetic force is less favorable in scale-down than Electromagnetic force.18) A where ρ. and thermal resistance heating. 1 ∂L F = i2 2 ∂x Since i ∝ l 2 and ∂L / ∂x ∝ l 0 . U= - - (6.6 Scaling in Electricity Examples: Microsystem actuation by electrostatic. The electromotive force (emf) is the force that drives the electrons through the conductor. respectively. and L is the inductance.
a 10 times reduction of l leads to 100 times greater power loss due to the resistance increase. moving the top plate to the right induces the motion of the fluid.That is. µ = τ Rs (6.21) Eav .where V is the applied voltage ∝ l 0 1 Electric field energy density: u = εE 2 ∝ l − 2 2 where the dielectric permittivity ε ∝ l 0 . Example: For a system that carries its own power. .20) 6. V: fluid velocity. μ: coefficient of viscosity (黏滯性). the available power Eav ∝ l 3 . dθ dθ dV . Thus. or τ = µ =µ dt dy dt where τ: shear stress.22) - where Rs =Vmax/h Rate of volumetric fluid flow: Q =AsVave (6. 6. 8 . dθ/dt: strain rate. (6.7.Disadvantage of scaling down of power supply systems.23) where As: cross-sectional area for the flow. (6. and the electric field E ∝ l −1 . P ⇒ ∝ l −2 .Newtonian flow: τ ∝ . Vave: average velocity of the fluid.7 Scaling in Fluid Mechanics In Fig.
s. 1996) In Fig. (2) laminar flow: smooth and steady.8. the rate of volumetric flow of the fluid is (Hagen-Poiseuille law). V & L: characteristic velocity and length scales of the flow.: (1) turbulence flow: fluctuating and agitated. 6. with the pressure drop ΔP over the length L. Oxford University Press. Q= πa 4 ∆P 8µL 9 (6. Re ∝ (inertial forces)/(viscous force) Macro flows: high inertial forces → high Re → turbulence flow Micro flows: high viscosity → low Re → laminar flow p.Renolds number: Re = ρVL µ where ρ: fluid density.” by Iwao Fujimasa.24) . (3) transition from laminar to turbulent: 103~105 (from “Micromachines: A New Era in Mechanical Engineering.
27) 1 k = cVλ ∝ l 1 (6. Q ∝ (l 2 )(l −1 ) = l 1 That is.y. z . 10 .Thus. Q ∝ a 4 . Rate of heat conduction: Q = qA = −kA For solids in meso. molecular velocity. q x = −k ∂T ( x. V. Q ∝ (l 1 )(l 1 ) = l 2 (6. respectively. y. and λ are specific heat.8 Scaling in Heat Transfer 6. the thermal conductivity is. 6.- With Vave = 8µVave L Q . t ) ∂x where qx: heat flux along the x axis.28) 3 where c. .z. k: thermal conductivity of the solid. T(x.t): temperature field.and microscales. ∆T ∆x (6.25) Thus.1 Scaling in Heat Conduction (傳導) Scaling of Heat Flux Heat conduction in solid is governed by the Fourier law. Scaling in Submicrometer Regime In the submicrometer regime.8. reduction in size leads to the decrease of total heat flow.29) A reduction in size of 10 would lead to a reduction of total heat flow by 100. and average mean free path. ∆P = 2 πa a2 ∆P ∝ a −2 L (6.
q: heat flux.h: depends primarily on the fluid velocity. which does not play a significant role in the scaling of the heat flow. Q = qA = hA∆T (6. Q ∝ A ∝ l 2 For the cases in which gases pass in narrow channels at submicro-meter scale.9. called the Fourier number. . 6. The classical heat transfer theories based on continuum fluids break down. and t: time for heat to F0 = αt flow across the characteristic length L. In Fig.Thus. ∆T : temperature difference between these two points. - L2 where α: thermal diffusivity of the material.3 μm for liquids. F0 is used to determine the time increments in a transient heat conduction analysis. in meso.32) where Q: total heat flow between two plates. 11 .8. t= F0 α L2 ∝ l 2 6. The seemingly convective heat transfer has in fact become conduction of heat among the gas molecules as the effect of the boundary layer becomes a dominant factor. and 1.and Micro-scales A dimensionless number. .2 Scaling in Heat Convection (對流) Heat transfer in fluid is in the mode of convection (Newton’s cooling law). H < 7λ where λ =65nm for gases.and micro-regimes. h: heat transfer coefficient.Scaling in Effect of Heat Conduction in Solids of Meso. A: cross-sectional area for the heat flow.
2. methane.7λwith H>7λfor H2.λ∝ 1 ρ 1 k = cVλ 3 8kT πm where T: mean temperature of the gas.34) where ∆T : temperature difference between two plates. O2. 12 .4λ<ε<2. ε: depends on the gases entrapped between two plates. and m: molecular weight of the V= gas.9λfor air. Effective heat flux: qeff = k∆T H + 2ε (6. CO2. N2. and ε=11. and He.