Scotland Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba (Scottish Gaelic ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

[12][13][14] Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland is made up of more than 790 islands[15] including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides. Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centers.[16] Edinburgh was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city,[17] was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scottish waters consist of a large sector[18] of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.[19] The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707, although it had been in a personal union with the kingdoms of England and Ireland since James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603. On 1 May 1707, Scotland entered into an incorporating political union with England to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain.[20][21] This union resulted from the Treaty of Union agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow and elsewhere.

Scotland's legal system continues to be separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law.[24] The continued existence of legal, educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the Union.[25] In 1999, a devolved legislature, the Scottish Parliament, was reconvened with authority over many areas of home affairs following a successful referendum in 1997. In 2011, the Scottish National Party (SNP) won an overall majority in parliament and intends to hold a referendum on independence[26] in the autumn of 2014.[27] Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council,[28] the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly and also participates within the Area agreement. The land area of Scotland is 78,772 km2 (30,414 sq mi), 32% of the area of the United Kingdom (UK). The mainland of Scotland has 9,911 km (6,158 mi) of coastline. Scotland contains the most mountainous terrain in Great Britain. Much of the highest uplands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault in the Northwest Highlands and Grampian ranges. The Cuillin on the Isle of Skye, represents a major mountain range that is not located on the Scottish mainland. Located at the western end of the Grampian Mountains, at an altitude of 1,344 m (4,409 ft), Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland


not part of any range. the second and third tallest peaks in Scotland.500 and 3. Several of these elevations are volcanic in origin and are known by the Scots word Law.[11]There are 284 Munros in Scotland. very roughly. Central Lowlands The Central Lowlands can be thought of. whose use was supported by the development of canals and then of railways. the Highlands comprises the north western 60% of Scotland. as the next 20% of the country as you progress north from the English Border and include the Forth-Clyde valley. The Southern Uplands fault line running north-east from near Girvan in Ayrshire. but like the fertile plains of eastern Aberdeenshire it has more in common with the Central Lowlands than with the rest of the Highlands. Mountains in Scotland are categorised by their height.[12] 2 .532 ft. The Pentland Hills and the Lammermuir Hills are several of the local ranges which make up the Southern Uplands.4 m). lies just to the north of the Highland Boundary Fault. Deep-mined coal and large scale iron and steel works are no longer part of the picture in Scotland. [edit]Highlands By far the largest zone. the Ochils to the east of Stirling and the Campsie Fells to the north of Glasgow constitute important upland ranges in the Central Lowlands. a fault line running from Arran andHelensburgh in the West to Stonehaven in the east. The Central Lowlands were also the home of widespread industrialization from the late 18th century onwards. mainland Scotland can be divided into three main areas which reflect the underlying geology.000 ft (762.4 m) are known as Munros. a pastoral upland area characterised by lines of hills divided by broad valleys.4 m) . at 467 m or 1. Ben Macdui and Braeriach are.[12] The Sidlaw Hills to the north of Dundee. with a relative height of at least 500 ft (152. Peaks over 3. Wanlockhead. Scotland's third largest city. This was based on the large and widely scattered reserves of coal and iron ore found across most of the Central Lowlands.and Great Britain.000 ft (914.[11] The classification of peaks in Scotland is kept under periodic review by the Scottish Mountaineering Club. It is also home to some of the most remote and least populated areas in Scotland and to the country's highest village.[11] Topographically. In addition to the main upland zones in southern Scotland there are many individual hills. These are divided from one another by south-west to north east lines that roughly parallel the artificial line representing the English Border.0 and 914. all within the Highlands. to the North Sea near Dunbar separates the Southern Uplands from the Central Lowlands. [11] Corbetts are peaks with an altitude of between 2. [12] [edit]Southern Uplands The southern 20% or so of the country makes up the Southern Uplands. Aberdeen. respectively. meaning hill. Technically this includes everywhere north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. North Berwick Law and Traprain Law are two examples of these extinct volcanic outliers.

which is less than 0. with that to its east forming the Grampians. The Grampians are characterised by large areas of upland plateau. this honour falls to Glasgow.9% of the population). which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007.[164] Religion Just over two-thirds (67%) of the Scottish population reported having a religion in 2001. Scotland also has a significant Roman Catholic population. a rift valley running from Fort William to Inverness.The Highlands are extensive mountainous areas rising to peaks of a maximum height of around 4400 ft or 1300m. This has risen to 5. and enjoys independence from the state. 28% of the population reported having no religious adherence. with 40% claiming affinity.2 million. includes the largest Buddhist temple in western Europe 3 . 19% claiming that faith. while the North West Highlands have a much rougher.295.[193] After the Reformation. the highest ever.[192] By contrast. particularly in the west. Scotland's mountains are not high by international standards but their exposure to highly changeable and unpredictable weather patterns influenced by the meeting of Atlantic and European air streams gives them a seriousness out of proportion to their height. with Christianity representing all but 2% of these. Traditionally. Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s.000. coal mining and steel industries. [12] The area of the Highlands is split in two by the line of the Great Glen.000.062. With a population of just over 584. [20] About 12% of the population are currently members of the Church of Scotland. Islam is the largest non-Christian religion (estimated at around 40. according to the first results of the 2011 Census. is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population. also known as The Kirk) has been Protestant and Reformed in theology. Since 1689 it has had a Presbyterian system of church government. [163] This would make Scotland the 113th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state. Demographics The population of Scotland in the 2001 Census was 5. The land to the north west of the Great Glen is usually referred to as the North West Highlands. Roman Catholicism in Scotland continued in the Highlands and some western islands like Uist and Barra. Hinduand Sikh communities. The Church operates a territorial parish structure. The Greater Glasgow conurbation. with the landmass deeply indented by numerous sea lochs. rockier look and feel. with a population of almost 1.011.[12] Economy Scotland has a western style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of Europe and the wider world. especially in the north east of Scotland. especially in Glasgow.000. Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560. the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow. and the Scottish Episcopal Church. various other Presbyterian offshoots. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland it is not the largest city. Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland.[194] The Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir. with every community in Scotland having a local congregation. and it was strengthened during the 19th century by immigration from Ireland. the national church (the Church of Scotland.[194] and there are also significant Jewish.

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