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Appendix (ix)

Practical Solutions
Hints, advice and information on the theory and practice of ARMSTRONG pumps and hydronic systems ... in everyday language STARTING VERTICAL IN-LINE PUMPS

Recommended installation for Armstrong Vertical In-Line pump, with Suction Guide and Flo-Trex valve

Start up kick Large base mounted pump motors may kick, or rotate counter to shaft direction, when energized. Particularly if the motor is started across-line, or Direct-On-Line. It is, therefore, natural for questions to be asked about possible movement of large vertical shaft pipe mounted pumps, when energized. Do they kick? Is there any appreciable pipe movement when the motor is started? The answer is simply: No! As any motor is activated, the starting torque produces moments on the rotor and on the motor casing that are equal and opposite. If the pump and motor are installed on a baseplate that is, in turn, mounted on a spring mounted inertia base, the tendency is for the unit to move, or kick, as the pump accelerates the liquid in the system up to speed. The reason for this movement is that the motor casing will be driven in the opposite direction to the shaft rotation. The motor is

bolted to the pump/motor baseplate; the baseplate is secured to the inertia base and the inertia base is mounted on springs. Consequently, the inertia base springs allow the movement by absorbing the motor torque not already absorbed by the combined weight of the pump/motor, baseplate and inertia base. The unit kick is only apparent if the inertia base is spring mounted and the unit is connected to the piping by flexible connectors. Locked in place Base mounted pumps that have been installed contrary to recommended instructions, with the pump/motor baseplate bolted directly to the mechanical room floor, will show no movement when activated. Similarly, when a Vertical In-Line, pipe mounted, pump/motor unit is started the equal and opposite torque (To the shaft torque) on the motor casing is absorbed by the pump pedestal and casing, where the pump casing is bolted to the piping and the piping is supported by the structure. So no pump or pipe movement is discernable.

Starting Torque effect The actual moment on the pump flanges is relatively small. Using 350-hp motor as an example, considered a large size motor by HVAC&R standards, the starting torque is approximately 80% of full load torque. A typical pump for this size of motor is an Armstrong 14x14x15 Vertical In-Line pump. To simplify the formula we have assumed that each pump connection flange is equidistant from the shaft centerline, at about 2.17-ft. This is not typically the case but the usual difference in the suction and discharge flange distances from the shaft is slight Full load torque of a 350-hp 1800-rpm motor is approximately 1029 lb.ft. Therefore the starting torque would be (80%*1029) 823 lb.ft.

Appendix (ix)

The shaft key must, also, accept the full starting torque, at approximately 1.1 inches from the center of the shaft. Meaning that the key experiences an equivalent of 9000 lbs. force. c) The 190 lbs. of force indicated does not include any absorption of the starting torque by the motor and pump weight. d) 14 flanges accept 1 diameter bolts that need in excess of 500 to tighten properly. This tightening, if not done properly (Assembler levering on 4-foot wrench extension) would exert a great deal more stress on the connection than motor torque. Still, one would not expect any shorter life from a pump installed in this manner, as many are. It is not suggested that the forces are comparable with motor torque, this is merely to indicate that the 190-lb. force on the flange, produced by the motor, is relatively low. e) The above figures are based on across line starting, which is the worse case scenario. Motors of this size usually are equipped with soft starting to reduce the starting current and torque. Pipe movement It may be worth noting that, as water is accelerated to full velocity, in any system, the liquid will tend to flow in a straight line, until turned by elbows or other pipefitting. There may be some pipe movement, particularly in grooved pipe systems, caused by this phenomenon, until the working velocity is achieved. This pipe movement occurs whether the pump is pipe mounted or base mounted, as anyone who has started up fire suppression systems (Where grooved pipe is normally used) can attest. Smooth Operator In short, Vertical In-Line pumps, installed in any properly supported piping will demonstrate no discernible kick, or aggressive movement when activated. The start up of any Vertical In-Line pump, from the smallest (1 hp) to the largest (600 hp, in Armstrongs current range) will demonstrate quiet and smooth operation.

Forces on pump flanges. (Pump casing illustrated as a beam)

By further simplifying the pump casing as illustrated by the beam above, it may be stated that: MB = 0 823 - FA (4.34) = 0 FA = 823 / 4.34 = 190 lb. force Where each connection flange is approximately 2.17 ft feet from the shaft, the force on each flange would be: 823 lb.ft./4.34 ft or 190 lbs. on each flange To put this in perspective:

a) At each connection, the combined

weight of the pipe flange and pump flange only, is in excess of 200 lbs. b) Consider the size of the flange compared to the size of the shaft key.