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Patterns of Nsenga Kalimba Music Author(s): John Blacking Source: African Music, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1961), pp.

26-43 Published by: International Library of African Music Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30249528 Accessed: 28/05/2010 14:39
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PATTERNS OF NSENGA KALIMBA MUSIC

JOHN BLACKING

Introduction:
on whichthisanalysis is based,weremadebetween The recordings 24thand July oftheEastern ofNorthern District Province Rhodesia. August7th,1961,in thePetauke Some ofthem records, appearon Side 1 ofVolumeII in theseriesofthree long-playing Music New York. Petauke, published from byEthnicFolkways Library, in his capacity as ResearchSociologistof the RhodesDr. Raymond Apthorpe, Institute, Lusaka, had alreadydone severalmonths'fieldwork Livingstone amongst to theactingdirector of the Institute, Mr. C. M. N. the Nsenga,whenhe suggested but concentrated, White,M.B.E., thatI shouldbe invitedto make a brief, studyof

I ammost music. to all those whohavemade this and grateful study possible, Nsenga andto cover Aboveall,I this someofthecostsofpreparing analysis. Tape Recorder,
and graciously theNsenga musicians who responded to shouldlike to thank patiently abouttheir art. myenquiries

whose Research of the Witwatersrand, especiallyto the Council of the University to enable me to have a Committee made a mostgenerous Nagra grant IIIC Portable

withcalabashresonator. kalimba Fig. 1. 14-note on "Fieldwork in thestudyof Nsenga music A brief communication cooperation to and ritual"appearsin AfricaXXXII, 1, 1962, p.72, and a generalintroduction three more of the detailed music records: long-playing analyses accompanies Nsenga thatof thepuberty will appearlater. otheraspectsof Nsengamusic,especially rituals, ofthekalimba thestyle musicto thatofNsenga does notrelate The present analysis have not yetbeen analysed in detail;nor musicas a whole,sincetheotherrecordings other An attempt is madeto does it compare it withkalimba musicfrom partsofAfrica. tunesin such a way thatwe mayexplore,as faras possible,the the kalimba present and observethe relative of musicalinclination of theirperformers, r6les of patterns of the tunes.Even if the Nsenga of melodyin the structure movement and patterns to suit the generalstyleof theirmusic,it have developedtheirown typesof kalimba tunes is assured more thedifferent within willbe seenthat bythephysical unity properties and the way in whichit is played,thanby purely musicalfactors. of the instrument

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The kalimbaand ndimnba hand-pianos are distinguishedchiefly by the layout of their keys(see Fig. 2). Fig. 1 shows a kalimbawith calabash resonator,on which tunes I to IV were played. Its manufacture is similarto that of the Lala Kankowela described by A. M. differ from the Lala Jones in Africa, XX, 3, 1950, p. 324 ff.The Nsenga instruments in theirshape and the number of theirmetal keys, and in the covering of the calabash resonator, which is made of animal skin fastened with wooden pegs, instead of with sisal fibre.The Nsenga instrumentsvary in length from 4N to 5-4inches, the average being about 5 inches. They are played with the thumbs only: the soundboard is held and the resonatoris held underneathwiththe remaining by the two extendedfirst fingers, of both hands, so thatit does not quite touch the soundboard. fingers i) ii) e'bb'd'a' o' g' e c o" g g' a fl b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 21314

iii)

4 o

3b2a 15
SI

4
1 3
0
W1

Left thumb
Keys A 8 7 10 12 14

Right thumb
1

1
12

(2)(9)

Keys

10

11

13

14

ii)

i)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

c s a' g g' a t' b o'd' e'g' a'!bp


8 9 0 11121314

4 5 Left thumb Right thumb 2. Diabrams of the of Fig. keys (A) kalimba,and (B) ndimba. (i) Usual pitches of keys,transposedinto C. (ii) Numbers of keys,fromleftto right. (iii) Numbers given in this analysis to the 'fingering'of the keys. Common alternativepitches are given for all keys A13 and B14. In the key numberswhich accompany the musical notation,the short keysare underlined. iii) a4b3 b 2 123

I studied in detailtwo ndimba and five and looked at severalother instrukalimba, mentsof the same class. Though the exactpitchof different instruments varies,the relative in thoseinstrupitchof their keysdoes not,and I onlyfoundunusualtunings whichwereadaptedfortheperformance ments of modern suchas No. 6 jive melodies, fortunesXVIII and XIX. Fig. 2 shows thebasic layoutof the in the transcriptions, withpitches instruments into C. The relative ten studied, transposed pitchof thefirst ofthe'scale' and their on thekalimba arethesameas thoseof position keyboard degrees As might be expected, theLala kankowela. notevery instrument thatI heardor saw was

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ofthosekeys that for to be in tune, andeventhepitch weretuned considered performance between it sometimes was not alwayscorrected items, although slippedas a resultof the instruments formeasuring UntilI haveat mydisposalsatisfactory vigorous playing. I am quitesatisfied withtheapproximate indications of thekeys, exactpitches givenby of fact, of someinstruments thetuning was remarkably As a matter notation. thestaff concerned closeto theEuropeanscale,andinanycaseperformers werenotalways unduly ofXVI and XVII, who was considforinstance, in pitch; theplayer bysmallvariations becausethee' on his kalimba eredto be good, was not disturbed (No. 5) was distinctly it flaton thekalimba. and he happily a quarter-tone flat, sang e in tunewhilstplaying of the 'fingering' to the have been standardised and thenumbering The diagrams instruments. Thirteen-and-twelve-note patternof the more common,fourteen-note I cameacrossone instrument lack keys9, and 9 and 2 respectively; instruments usually excep(No. 6, fortunesXVIII and XIX) whichlackedkey7, but thiswas considered tional. has been based on Europeanpiano fingering, The 'fingering' althoughonly the thanparallel of thethumbs motion is morecommon areused,becausecontrary thumbs thusthe in thelayoutof the keysof thekalimba: motionand is, in anycase, inherent 2 4 of the whilst R-1 3 motion of thumbs, contrary represents sequence 'fingering', L-1 2 3 4 of thumb in the graphic illustrations R-1 2 3 4 represents parallelmotion.Similarly, L-4 2 3 1 thetranscriptions, thecontrary motionof tuneI can be whichappearafter movement It is hopedthatthistype the motion of Tune VI. a from at parallel distinguished glance from the musicof hand-pianos illustration of graphic mayproveusefulin comparing different partsof Africa. who repeatsimplephrasesover is mostfrequently The kalimba playedby youths, walkalone,or withfriends. and overagain,as they Theyare,ofcoursemuchconcerned withgirlsand courting: they songs' (nZimbo generally although play'walking Zoyendalatheemotions titles whichexpress words,suchas tuneXX, they give them mu)without or areat leastassociated withtheir their that either performance. composition, underlay and the same typeof brisk The musicof such songs appearsto be entirely abstract, in a feelswhenhis girlgoes off thattheplayer tunecan conveyequallytheresentment whenshe showsthatshe loves him(No. III). richer man'scar (No. 1), or his pleasure on a nuclear tunesarein fact variations different In many cases,theapparently rhythmic of 'fingering' of 'fingering' (e.g. Nos. I and II), or even a completepattern pattern (e.g. Nos. VIII and IX). for adults who are semi-professional The ndimbaseems to be an instrument are either 'transI neverhearda walking musicians: songplayedon it,and its melodies such as thefuneral heardin othercontexts, of songs normally song XV, or criptions such as XIII and XVI, whichare frequently (nZimbo 'songs forkalimba' Za kalimba), it moresuitable formelodic The layoutofits keysrenders by theperformer. composed for'harmonic' and thiscontrast is ideally suited which workthanthekalimba, figuration, I to X withXIII and XVII. The chief of transcriptions can be seen by a comparison whose keysare tunedsimilarly, thetwo instruments, between differences maybe sumas mutually thefeatures shouldnotbe regarded as follows-though marised independent: Ndimba: Kalimba: For adults. For youths. Generalized (semi-professional). Specialized play). (mostyouths Public performance Private (e.g. accompanying performance. etc.). songsat beer-parties, Melodicbasisof tunes, and rhythmic 'Harmonic' figuration longperiods. short variations, periods.

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and performing 'Stage presence' gambits expected. of the kalimba and the ndimba withthose of the A comparison of the functions and there is no doubtthat and the concert irrelevant; grandis not entirely minipiano of thumbs tunesare the musicalresults wandering 'idlyover thenoisy manykalimba is 'weary andill at ease'. thedistracted whilst keys', player of the tunes. The structure and ocarinas',I have shownhow musicalpatterns of musicforflute In analyses factors: thissameprinciple maybe generated by physical appliesmoreto theanalysis music.An analysisof the of kalimba musicthanto almostany othertypeof African itis hardto tellwhich I to X (andin suchmusic intervals aresignificant intervals oftunes to thedifferent common to theperformer) revealsno pattern melodies.But as soon as we see thatseveral are compared, tunesdiffer and of rhythm of 'fingering' only patterns are applied to certain variations in so faras rhythmic of nuclear,or total,patterns thenoteson tunesI and II, and V, VIII and IX). The contrast (see especially 'fingering' melodiesand of vocal melodiesthatare of kalimba betweenthe interval frequencies is in Table I after thetranscriptions. on the demonstrated kalimba, clearly accompanied is no reasonto believethatthepattern thesampleis small,there of intervals Although boththevocal melodiesand the if it weredoubledor trebled: would changeradically shouldpresent areNsengamusic, andtheoretically similar kalimba melodies they patterns differ becausethephysical in fact, their interval ofinterval frequencies frequency; layout the typeof tunethatis playedon it. The most significant conditions of the kalimba tunesare not their melodicstructures, buttherecurring factors of thekalimba common withdifferent of polyrhythm of 'fingering' between which,combined patterns patterns of melodies.Tunes such as V, VIII and IX are the two thumbs, producea variety is physical andnotpurely musical. butthetheme on a theme, variations in Table 2, and showsthepolyrhythis summarised basis of thetunes The metrical hasthemonopoly thumb item. Neither ofanyparticular ofalmost micfoundations every different are of the otherstyles and of of generally typical many rhythm, patterns type two drumspartstogether, music:it is as if one personwereplaying African withthe of thehands. instead thumbs values:fivehave periodsof fourbeats, Eleven tunesare based on dottedcrotchet two of eightbeats,one of six beats,one of (6+6) beats,and one of (8+8) beats;No. of2 (4+5) + 2 (4+4) beats.The other XI has theunusual ninetunesarebased pattern values:fourhave periodsof fourbeats,and one of eightbeats;No. XIII on crotchet has (4+4+4) beats,No. XIV has (6+9) beats,No. XVI has (4+4+6) beats,withan No. XV has a remarkably interlude ofvariable length; longperiodof2 (6+6) + (4+4) and it may tunes havethelonger + 2 (4+6) + (4+4) ) beats.Ndimba generally periods, I heardwerebasedon crotchet that beats. mostthat also be significant of thetunesmustawaitthedetailed A fulldiscussion of thetonality of the analysis and thisappliesparticularly to the ndimba tuneswhichare Nsenga musicaltradition, are in the keyof the melodies.Most of the tunestranscribed based on recognizable in mostcases, on whichtheyare played,and thetonicof thiskey(which, instrument at three thesameas a Europeanmajor)is produced different is essentially on all pitches 14-note kalimba 5, 8 and 9 (see Fig. 2). TunesXI and XII arenotable bykeys exceptions: are in thekeyof thedominant, theF sharpshouldnotbe takenas a signthatthey nor arerather in theLydian(F) mode,transposed that arein thetonic; theB natural they they to C. Tune XVI is not in thetonickeyof F major,but in theMixolydian (G) mode, in thePhrygian to A). to C (or perhaps (E) mode,transposed transposed that C is thetonicofthescale(see Fig. 2), thetwo other notes Assuming important whichare produced at two pitches and G (dominant), are E (mediant) by keys1 and 7, of thesenotesprobably The 'harmonic' and 10, 6 and 11 respectively. eximportance musical Essentially doodling.

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thebottom three notesof every scale.'Harmonic' shifts away plainswhytheconstitute

on the tonic tointervals orbroken that the tunes from include these drive chords notes,
and aehivean effect of shifting there is no modulation. tonality, although

1 0

Fig. 3.

ofshifting itsbasic TuneI is a goodexample 'harmonic' ,and tonality Fig.3A shows themost of'harmonic' form framework. fluctuation based rudimentary Fig.3B shows anda comparison anddominant; ofthis with on thetonic, mediant 3C shows that itis arein fact most used.In 3A and3B,thenotes which these intervals frequently played an ostinato-like which binds thumb the'harmonic' figure bytheleft provide together fluctuations. oftune XII is closely related tothe Theleft-thumb anditwasthe sung melody, part wascrucial inthecorrect ofXIX (seedetailed which left-thumb notes performance part there is more between the ontranscriptions); left-thumb than the furthermore, similarity melodies. of different Thisall suggests that theleft-thumb kalimba right-thumb parts ofthemusic, theme I was unable thenuclear to clarify thisby though part provides musicians. withNsenga in thecontrol of conversation Fig. 3 showsits importance that the andinaddition evidence left-thumb ofthe 'harmonic' fluctuations, Jones's part the cit. becited as evidence Lalakankowela insupport melody (op. p. 333)may reduplicates inNsenga music. Thefunction ofthe function ofitsthematic kalimba right-thumb part, tunes andthose kalimba vocalmelodies, inndimba music which merely reduplicate except toembroider the nuclear left thumb. as No. XI, is therefore such pattern produced bythe the kalimba the tunes arevery for Thuswemay Nsenga player thythsaythat frequently whosesignificance is primarily variations on a pattern rather than mical 'harmonic', melodic. showed intervals no relationship of overt between The analysis Nsengavocal butan analysis oftherespective andthekalimba oftheleft and melodies tunes, r61es ofthetunes foundations hasrevealed certain andofthe'harmonic' tonal thumbs, right related to thestructure oftheinstrument, that neednotbe specially butmay principles musical features oftheNsenga tradition. thestructure rather be fundamental Although is much affected oftheinstrument and kalimba melodies ofseveral bythe physical layout thephysical in turn, thethumbs moveoverthekeys, thewayin which layout, maybe tonal It nowremains ofcertain to be seento to meet thedemands principles. designed aretypical ofthe main ofNsenga music. these tonal extent what body principles
Notes on individual items. are followed by (a) theirnumberson the originaltapes, which The numbersof the transcriptions of the Witwatersrand, are stored in the Ethnological Museum, University e.g. N8/31a (the numbers and (b) theirnumbersin the threerecordsof Music the originalsequence of performance); represent New York: since all thekalimba appear recordings publishedby EthnicFolkwaysLibrary, fromPetauke,

of tuneI, transposed into C. (A) 'Harmonic'framework 'harmonic'fluctuation based on the tonic,mediant (B) Rudimentary and dominant. The black notesin (A) and (B) are those generally playedon the kalimba withthe leftthumb;'fingering' is indicated below. of all the intervals on the kalimba in thetranscrip(C) Synthesis played tions.The blacknotessignify thosethatare mostcommonly used.

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on Side1 ofVolume cutnumbers aresimply II, their EF, anda dashindicates preceded bytheletters that items doesnotappear on therecord, taped anyoftheoriginal e.g.EF/2a,-, b, c. The names ofperformers arefollowed in brackets. clan-names bytheir I received The transcriptions arebasedbothon therecordings and on theinstruction in kalimba I havenotgiven from informants. which with several Nsenga playing anyofthedoodles players begin their these consist ofa run down the a few scaleandthen atrandom, intervals performances: usually played butalways thekeyof thetuneto be played. If themusic ofAfrican is to be emphasising hand-pianos andcomparative understood studies areto be made, methods oftranscription must I be standardised: a system of writing theright-and-left-thumb havedevised thecomplete under so that the tune, parts ofthe tune be discovered, foundations andthegraphic aredesigned illustrations toshow the may physical I hopethat ofthe thumbs. ofmovement these methods a satisfactory basis onwhich patterns may provide other workers improve. may Tunes I to IV (N8/31a, b, c, d: EF/2a,-, b, c). on the14-note kalimba which inthe byAckson Played Zuly(Ng'oma)ofEndawalo village, appears (Fg. 1), on 31/7/61. photograph He called these songsrespectively:walking in Daligeni's motor-car. I. Shehasridden us let go together. II. Come, andI willopenup foryou. III. Wait, let'sdancejive. IV. Come, man, related of'fingering': I andII areclosely bynuclear patterns 1. R-(2c4b2) 42b II. R-lb (2c4b2) b L-21 (2 423) 1 L-(2 4 2 3) The left-thumb of III and IV is similar--43 'fingering' (2432)and (2432)43 respectively. (This thesequence alsobe compared with thethumbs moveincontrary (324)(324)in XII). In general, might thegeneral in IIIA, theright-thumb elaborates drift motion: of contrary motion with motion. parallel on therecorded ofIII andIV were:The sequences performances III. (3A+B+C)+(4A+2(B+D)+2(6A+1(D+B) )+(11A+2(D+B) )+2A. IV. 2A+9B+4A+7B+4C+2A. Tunes V toX (N8/33c, d, b, e, f,a,: EF/lc,d, b, e, f,a). Mwanza(Banda)of Mawilili on a 14-note kalimba on 31v7/61. Played by Taiad ('tired') village, The titles ofthesongs were:ofBooi. mother V. Good morning, arenotmany ofyouwhoareafter VI. There women. VII. Letus runoutoftherain. killa chicken, should thehusband a cow. VIII. Thewife is small soon. IX. 1. Cornthat getsdry 2. I havebeenchewing youfora longtime. hasno child. X. The housewhich VIII andIX wereoriginally haveidentical of 'fingering', and played they consecutively: patterns V hasthesame as IX, andanalmost differ inrhythm. identical itspattern offingering tempo only rhythm; thesame, is the first what of is basically thumb-movement IX occurs at the end of the though phrase:V. R-(21421/21431) L-(2414/2413) VIII. R-431)(2/4212 L-133)(24/1424 IX. R-431)(2/4212 L-13)(24/1424 theleft thumb alsooccurs for Thenuclear inVI (i.e.2414). motion ofthe In general, pattern parallel V to X than inI to IV. intunes thumbs is usedmore of 13,with Mwanza theleft thumb. 14,instead beganbothVIII andIX byplaying Tunes XI, XII, and XIIA (N2/12b, 12a,andNl/lb:EF/5b,-, -). XI and XII played on a 12-note on Lungu(Ng'oma)of Congololo by Ackson village, kalimba, 26/7/61. ofa Congololo on a 13-note on 25/7/61. XIIA played village, bya youth kalimba, text whose 'Camba hasgoneaway, XI is a funeral alas" means, song, ofXII are:Thewords child. 1. You haveconfused me,myorphan a European I growup,I willmarry 2. When woman. ofXII, andrefer ofXIIA arebasedon those Thetopical words to a European farmer whose aeroplanecrashed:'Van derSteen, aeroplane'. youhavelostyour ofXI is unusual--2(4+5)+2(4+4 dotted crotchets. The period itis entirely different in Although usethesame nuclear for theleft from and224):there XII, bothsongs patterns is also style thumb-324) between theright-thumb considerable patterns:similarity XI. --bc 4 2 c4/2.

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XII. -b2c 4b2 c 4/b2b4b2b4. Tunes XIII to XV (N2/11a, b, c: EF/4a, b, 5a). Played by Simoni Zulu (Nguluwe) of Cimatevillage,on a 14-notendimba,on 26/7/61. XIII is his own composition:'Tear up; European wealthis forus all'. XIV is a traditional hunting song:'There is meat:theycannotcryforno reasonwhen the motherof Lova has died'. He omitsthe solo, 'Where the cultures crykoo,thereis meat'. line of thissong is, 'They cannotcry(i.e. thevultures) forno reasonwherethe Another well-known hunters have slept'. funeral XV is a traditional song:1. Kachepa will be mournedonly by the honey-guide (a bird); 2. He has died a poor man. tunes are basicallyan accompaniment The ndimba of the melodies,with the addition of fourths, fifths and octaves. Tunes XVI and XVII (N7/26a, b: EF/3,-) Played by Gideon Bingaili (Mwanza) of Mawilili village,on a 14-notendimba ,on 30/7/61. The words of XVI are, 'We have laughed,kakaka. Let us mournand look at the beer standingin lines.' to the puberty The thirdline of XVII was a topicalreference ritualof whichDr. Apthorpewas the patron:1. Luvemba, my child. 2. Luvemba was born out of love (lit. a child of the back). 3. A European has made us dance, Luvemba mychild. Tunes XVIII and XIX (N2/13a and N1/4a, N2/13b-2:EF/-,-, 6b). XVIII is a compositeoftwo performances. SikisiPhiri(Tembo) sangSumbali to theaccompanitsotsi used forvulamatambo, mentwhichis morenormally whichI had heardperformed on a previous correctly much criticism occasion (Nl/4a). He was rather he resignedin favourof his younger drunk,and after of thesame song on threedifferent brother, kalimba BeliyaPhiri(Tembo), who gave threeperformances (Nos. 3, 6 and 7-EF/6), on 26/7/61,at Congololo village.XIX is thesecondofthesethree performances, shows the 'fingering' which he used for each differently and the transcription pitched kalimba. These are melodiesforsawa-sawa,,the Nsenga versionof tsaba-tsaba, a Johannesburg urban dance whichreachedNortherRhodesia in about 1945 and was in vogue in urbanareas untilabout 1952,when it was supersededby jive. It was accompaniedby eroticdance movements of thelegs and thighs, while the top of the body was keptstill.The musicwas playedchiefly on guitars, and this is a 'transcription' forhand-piano. The words are:1. Open up forme, mytsotsifriend. 2. Open yourlegs, Evalina. Tsotsis are the cityslickerswho live by theirwits in urban areas in SouthernAfrica. tuningmay be an 'advance' on the traditional Although the chromatic Nsenga scale, the graphic show clearlythatin complexity of 'fingering' illustrations and rhythm these tunes rankwith the most patterns. rudimentary are seen side by side,themistake Whentheanalytical whichBeliya'selderbrother was transcriptions the rhythm clear: is should be played by the left making played by the rightthumbin vulamatambo,

2432. L-(2432) also appearsas a nuclearpatternin in sumbali istosi,thoughwith the same 'fingering', tunesIII and IV. Tune XX (N1/la.). tunethatI heardin Petauke,playedon a badlytunedinstrument This was the first at Conkalimba but it embracesthe gololo village, on 25/7/61. It was a 'walking song' with a verysimple structure; betweenleftand rightthumbs, basic principleof polyrhythm which applies to almostall kalimba tunes -R-(b2c4), foundin I, II and XII; and L-(2413), foundin V, VIII and IX. R-(b2c4) is, in fact,as the on in 'natural' which the thumb slidesfrom theshortto thelong keys, kalimba, easilyplayed, sequence to the leftand thento the right. first Note: There is a considerabledifference betweenthe relativepercentages of ascendingand descending intervals. When theseare takenseparately, thereis a notablesimilarity in the frequency of thirds, but differences of seconds and intervals betweenthe frequencies thanthethird, the most greater markedof whichis the high percentage of fourths in the kalimba tunes.

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TABLE 1 I to XII andvocalmelodies IX of tunes interval frequencies kalimba Comparative andXI to XVII. Vocal melodies Total Percentage 60 23.4 41.0 105 35.6 91 100.0 256

Ascending Descending Unison TOTAL

Total 71 64 19 154

Percentage 46.1 41.6 13.3 100.0

2nd-minor 3rd-minor -major 4th Aug.4th 5th 6th-minor --major 7th-minor Octave 9th-minor 10th-minor TOTAL

-major

Percentage Descending Ascending 7.8 2.8 32.8 7.0 28.2

4.2

25.0
12.5 15.6 15.6 3.1 1.6 3.1 6.3 7.8 1.6

Percentage Ascending Descending 25.7 20 30 74. 30 33.3 20 8.3 3.3

10

48.6
10.5 9.5 4.7

25.4 32.4 5.6 1.4 100.0


-

53.6

53.3

20.0

0.95 -

9.4

1.7 1.7 1.7


-

100.0

100.0

100.0

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IN, II
-,IC

Soe

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v Ir

IX
Metrical

TABLE 2 of left

basis

J J I J

and right thumb parts

FT

f rfr

fff

S II

XVI

XIII

_ 't C' f

r r

PATTERNS OF NSENGA

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c3

b 2. a

Ri

6b 3

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mA

PATTERNS OF NSENGA

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39
c 4

L 4 (\3

bz

RI

6 b 3 A

903-

-f3

-iI

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6L LLs
= 144M.M.

3b

R
L.

to-lI. s*na -(ni-)ole

imbe,

(I-a-lba-la

mg -

Uabo.

36 3 & I

3 3

PATTERNS- OF NSENGA

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MM.z

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-IL

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L4-c3 3
Voice

2. al

26 b 3 c 4