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Signaling (telecommunications)

In telecommunication, signaling (or signalling in British English) has the following meanings: the use of signals for controlling communications the information exchange concerning the establishment and control of a telecommunication circuit and the management of the network, in contrast to user information transfer the sending of a signal from the transmitting end of a telecommunication circuit to inform a user at the receiving end that a messageis to be sent.

In-band versus out-of-band signaling


In the public switched telephone network (PSTN), in-band signaling is the exchange of call control information within the same channel that the telephone call itself is using. An example is dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF), which is used on most telephone linesto customer premises. Out-of-band signaling is telecommunication signaling on a dedicated channel separate from that used for the telephone call. Out-of-band signaling is used in Signalling System No. 7 (SS7), the standard for signaling among exchanges that have controlled most of the world's calls for over twenty years.
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Line versus register signaling


Line signaling is concerned with conveying information on the state of the line or channel, such as on-hook, offhook (answer supervision and disconnect supervision, together referred to as supervision), ringing current (alerting), and recall. In the middle 20th century, supervision signals on long-distance trunks in North America were usually inband, for example at 2600 Hz, necessitating anotch filter to prevent interference. Late in the century, all supervisory signals were out of band. With the advent of digital trunks, supervision signals are carried by robbed bits or other bits in the E1-carrier dedicated to signaling. Register signaling is concerned with conveying addressing information, such as the calling and/or called telephone number. In the early days of telephony, with operator handling calls, the addressing information is by voice as "Operator, connect me to Mr. Smith please". In the first half of the 20th century, addressing information is by using a rotary dial, which rapidly breaks the line current into pulses, with the number of pulses conveying the address. Finally, starting in the second half of the century, address signaling is by DTMF.

Channel-associated versus common-channel signaling


Channel-associated signaling (CAS) employs a signaling channel which is dedicated to a specific bearer channel. Common-channel signaling (CCS) employs a signaling channel which conveys signaling information relating to multiple bearer channels. These bearer channels therefore have their signaling channel in common.

Compelled signaling
Compelled signaling refers to signaling where receipt of each signal from an originating register needs to be explicitly acknowledged before the next signal is able to be sent.
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Most forms of R2 register signaling are compelled (see R2 signaling), while R1 multi-frequency signaling is not. The term is only relevant in the case of signaling systems that use discrete signals (e.g. a combination of tones to denote one digit), as opposed to signaling systems which are message-oriented (such as SS7 and ISDN Q.931) where each message is able to convey multiple items of information (e.g. multiple digits of the called telephone number).

Subscriber versus trunk signaling


Subscriber signaling refers to signaling between the telephone and the telephone exchange. Trunk signaling is signaling between exchanges.

Classification
DTMF is an in-band, channel-associated register signaling system. It is not compelled. SS7 (e.g. TUP or ISUP) is an out-of-band, common-channel signaling system that incorporates both line and register signaling. Metering pulses (depending on the country, these are 50 Hz, 12 kHz or 16 kHz pulses sent by the exchange to payphones or metering boxes) are out-of-band (because they do not fall within the frequency range used by the telephony signal, which is 300 through 3400 Hz) and channel-associated. They are generally regarded as line signaling, although this is open to debate. E and M signaling (E&M) is an out-of-band channel-associated signaling system. The base system is intended for line signaling, but if decadic pulses are used it can also convey register information. E&M line signaling is however usually paired with DTMF register signaling. By contrast, the L1 signaling system (which typically employs a 2280 Hz tone of various durations) is an inband channel-associated signaling system as was the SF 2600 hertz system formerly used in the Bell System. Loop start, ground start, reverse battery and revertive pulse systems are all DC, thus out of band, and all are channel-associated, since the DC currents are on the talking wires.

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

One of the few production telephone DTMF keypads with all 16 keys, from anAutovon Telephone. The column of red keys produces the A, B, C, and D DTMF events.

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. The version of DTMF that is used inpush-button telephones for tone dialing is known as Touch-Tone. It was developed byWestern Electric and first used by the Bell System in commerce, using that name as a registered trademark. DTMF is standardized by ITU-T Recommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other multi-frequency systems are used for internal signaling within the telephone network. Introduced by AT&T in 1963, the Touch-Tone system using the telephone keypad gradually replaced the use of rotary dial and has become the industry standard for landline service.

Multifrequency signaling
Prior to the development of DTMF, numbers were dialed on automated telephone systems by means of pulse dialing (Dial Pulse or DP in the U.S.) or loop disconnect (LD) signaling, which functions by rapidly disconnecting and re-connecting the calling party's telephone line, similar to flicking a light switch on and off. The repeated interruptions of the line, as the dial spins, sounds like a series of clicks. The exchange equipment interprets these dial pulses to determine the dialed number. Loop disconnect range was restricted by telegraphic distortion and other technical problems,
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and placing calls over longer distances required either operator assistance

(operators used an earlier kind of multi-frequency dial) or the provision of subscriber trunk dialing equipment.

Multi-frequency signaling (see also MF) is a group of signaling methods that use a mixture of two pure tone (pure sine wave) sounds. Various MF signaling protocols were devised by the Bell System and CCITT. The earliest of these were for in-band signaling between switching centers, where long-distance telephone operators used a 16-digit keypad to input the next portion of the destination telephone number in order to contact the next downstream long-distance telephone operator. This semi-automated signaling and switching proved successful in both speed and cost effectiveness. Based on this prior success with using MF by specialists to establish long-distancetelephone calls, Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling was developed for

the consumer to signal their own telephone-call's destination telephone number instead of talking to a telephone operator. AT&Ts Compatibility Bulletin No. 105 described the product as " a method for pushbutton signaling from customer stations using the voice transmission path ." In order to prevent consumer telephones from interfering with the MF-based routing and switching between telephone switching centers, DTMF's frequencies differ from all of the pre-existing MF signaling protocols between switching centers: MF/R1, R2, CCS4, CCS5, and others that were later replaced by SS7 digital signaling. DTMF, as used in push-button telephone tone dialing, was known throughout the Bell System by the trademark Touch-Tone. This term was first used by AT&T in commerce on July 5, 1960 and then was introduced to the public on November 18, 1963, when the first push-button telephone was made available to the public. It was AT&T's registered trademark from September 4, 1962 to March 13, 1984, and is standardized by ITU-TRecommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other vendors of compatible telephone equipment called the Touch-Tone feature Tone dialing or DTMF, or used their own registered trade names such as the Digitone of Northern Electric (now known as Nortel Networks). The DTMF system uses eight different frequency signals transmitted in pairs to represent 16 different numbers, symbols and letters - as detailed below. As a method of in-band signaling, DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. Until better out-of-band signaling equipment was developed in the 1990s, fast, unacknowledged, and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere.
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#, *, A, B, C, and D

The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers, and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. This led to the addition of the number sign (#, sometimes called "octothorpe," "pound" or "diamond" in this context "hash", "square" or "gate" in the UK) and asterisk or "star" (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A, B, C and D. In the end, the lettered keys were dropped from most phones, and it was many years before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States of America and Canada to suppress caller ID. Public payphones that accept credit cards use these additional codes to send the information from the magnetic strip. The United States Armed Forces also used the letters, relabeled, in their now-defunct AUTOVON telephone system. Here they were used before dialing the phone in order to give some calls priority, cutting in over existing calls if need be. The idea was to allow important traffic to get through every time. The levels of priority available were Flash Override (A), Flash (B), Immediate (C), and Priority (D), with Flash Override being the highest priority. Pressing one of these keys gave one's call priority, overriding other conversations on the network. Pressing C, Immediate, before dialing would make the switch first look for any free lines, and if all lines were in use, it would disconnect any non-priority calls, and then any priority calls. Flash Override will kick every other call off the trunks between the origin and destination. Consequently, it was limited to the White House Communications Agency. Precedence dialing is still done on the military phone networks, but using number combinations (Example: Entering 93 before a number is a priority call) rather than the separate tones and the Government Emergency Telecommunications Service has superseded AUTOVON for any civilian priority telephone company access. Present-day uses of the A, B, C and D keys on telephone networks are few, and exclusive to network control. For example, the A key is used on some networks to cycle through different carriers at will (thereby listening in on calls). Their use is probably prohibited by most carriers. The A, B, C and D tones are used in radio phone patch and repeater operations to allow, among other uses, control of the repeater while connected to an active phone line.

The *, #, A, B, C and D keys are still widely used worldwide by amateur radio operators for repeater control, remote-base operations and some telephone communications systems. DTMF tones are also used by some cable television networks and radio networks to signal the local cable company/network station to insert a local advertisement or station identification. These tones were often heard during a station ID preceding a local ad insert. Previously, terrestrial television stations also used DTMF tones to shut off and turn on remote transmitters. DTMF signaling tones can also be heard at the start or end of some VHS (Video Home System) cassette tapes. Information on the master version of the video tape is encoded in the DTMF tone. The encoded tone provides information to automatic duplication machines, such as format, duration and volume levels, in order to replicate the original video as closely as possible. DTMF tones are sometimes used in caller ID systems to transfer the caller ID information, but in the United States only Bell 202modulated FSK signaling is used to transfer the data.

Keypad

1209 Hz on 697 Hz to make the 1 tone

The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 44 matrix, with each row representing a low frequency, and each column representing a high frequency. Pressing a single key (such as '1' ) will send a sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies (697 and 1209 hertz (Hz)). The original keypads had levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multi-frequency. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed.

1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz

697 Hz 1

770 Hz 4

852 Hz 7

941 Hz *

Special tone frequencies


National telephone systems define additional tones to indicate the status of lines, equipment, or the result of calls with special tones. Such tones are standardized in each country and may consist of single or multiple frequencies. Most European countries use a single precise frequency of 425 Hz, where the United States uses a dual frequency system. Event Low frequency High frequency

Busy signal (US)

480 Hz

620 Hz

Ringback tone (US) 440 Hz

480 Hz

Dial tone (US)

350 Hz

440 Hz

The

tone

frequencies,

as

defined

by

the Precise

Tone

Plan,

are

selected

such

that harmonics and intermodulation products will not cause an unreliable signal. No frequency is a multiple of another, the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies, and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. The frequencies were initially designed with aratio of 21/19, which is slightly less than a whole tone. The frequencies may not vary more than 1.8% from their nominal frequency, or the switching center will ignore the signal. The high frequencies may be the same volume as or louder than the low frequencies when sent across the line. The loudness difference between the high and low

frequencies can be as large as 3 decibels (dB) and is referred to as "twist." The duration of the tone should be at least 70 ms, although in some countries and applications DTMF receivers must be able to reliably detect DTMF tones as short as 45ms. European Tones: Event Low frequency High frequency

Busy signal (UK)

400 Hz

----

Busy signal (Most of Europe)

425 Hz

----

Ringback tone (UK & Ireland)

400 Hz

450 Hz

Ringback tone (Most of Europe) 425 Hz

----

Dial tone (UK)

350 Hz

440 Hz

Dial tone (Most of Europe)

425 Hz

----

As with other multi-frequency receivers, DTMF was originally decoded by tuned filter banks. Late in the 20th century most were replaced with digital signal processors. Although DTMF can be decoded using any frequency domain transform (such as the popularFast Fourier transform), the Goertzel algorithm is a common algorithm to consider due to its high performance for DTMF.

Signalling System No. 7


Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) is a set of telephony signaling protocols which are used to set up most of the world's public switched telephone network telephone calls. The main purpose is to set up and tear down telephone calls. Other uses include number translation,local number portability, prepaid billing mechanisms, short message service (SMS), and a variety of other mass market services. It is usually referenced as Signalling System No. 7 or Signalling System #7, or simply abbreviated to SS7. In North America it is often referred to as CCSS7, an abbreviation forCommon Channel Signalling System 7. In some European countries, specifically theUnited Kingdom, it is sometimes called C7 (CCITT number 7) and is also known asnumber 7 and CCIS7 (Common Channel Interoffice Signaling 7). In Germany it is often called as N7 (Signalisierungssystem Nummer 7). There is only one international SS7 protocol defined by ITU-T in its Q.700-series recommendations. There are however, many national variants of the SS7 protocols. Most national variants are based on two widely deployed national variants as standardized by ANSI andETSI, which are in turn based on the international protocol defined by ITU-T. Each national variant has its own unique characteristics. Some national variants with rather striking characteristics are the Chinese and Japanese (TTC) national variants. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has also defined level 2, 3, and 4 protocols that are compatible with SS7: Message Transfer Part (MTP) level 2 (M2UA and M2PA) Message Transfer Part (MTP) level 3 (M3UA) Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) (SUA)
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but use a Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) transport mechanism. This suite of protocols is called SIGTRAN.

History
Common Channel Signaling protocols have been developed by major telephone companies and the ITU-T since 1975; the first international Common Channel Signaling protocol was defined by the ITU-T as Signalling System No. 6 (SS6) in 1977. Signalling System No. 7 was defined as an international standard by ITU-T in its 1980 (Yellow Book) Q.7XX-series recommendations. SS7 was designed to replace SS6, which had a restricted 28-bit signal unit that was both limited in function and not amenable to digital systems. SS7 has substantially replaced SS6, Signalling System No. 5 (SS5), R1 and R2, with the exception that R1 and R2variants are still used in numerous nations. SS5 and earlier systems used in-band signaling, in which the call-setup information was sent by playing special multi-frequency tones into the telephone lines, known as bearer channels in the parlance of the telecom
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industry. This led to security problems with blue boxes. SS6 and SS7 implement out-of-band signaling protocols, carried in a separate signaling channel, explicitly keep the end-user's audio paththe so-called speech path separate from the signaling phase to eliminate the possibility that end users may introduce tones that would be mistaken for those used for signaling. SS6 and SS7 are referred to as so-

called CommonChannel Interoffice Signalling Systems (CCIS) or Common Channel Signaling (CCS) due to their hard separation of signaling and bearer channels. This required a separate channel dedicated solely to signaling, but the greater speed of signaling decreased the holding time of the bearer channels, and the number of available channels was rapidly increasing anyway at the time SS7 was implemented. The common channel signaling paradigm was translated to IP via the SIGTRAN protocols as defined by the IETF. While running on a transport based upon IP, the SIGTRAN protocols are not an SS7 variant, but simply transport existing national and international variants of SS7.

Functionality
The term signaling, when used in telephony, refers to the exchange of control information associated with the setup and release of a telephone call on a telecommunications circuit. An example of this control information is the digits dialed by the caller, the caller's billing number, and other call-related information. When the signaling is performed on the same circuit that will ultimately carry the conversation of the call, it is termed channel associated signaling (CAS). This is the case for earlier analogue trunks, MF and R2 digital trunks, and DSS1/DASS PBX trunks. In contrast, SS7 signaling is termed Common Channel Signaling (CCS) in that the path and facility used by the signaling is separate and distinct from the telecommunications channels that will ultimately carry the telephone conversation. With CCS, it becomes possible to exchange signaling without first seizing a facility, leading to significant savings and performance increases in both signaling and facility usage. Because of the mechanisms used by signaling methods prior to SS7 (battery reversal, multi-frequency digit outpulsing, A- and B-bit signaling), these older methods could not communicate much signaling information. Usually only the dialed digits were signaled, and only during call setup. For charged calls, dialed digits and charge number digits were outpulsed. SS7, being a high-speed and high-performance packet-based communications protocol, can communicate significant amounts of information when setting up a call, during the call, and at the end of the call. This permits rich call-related services to be developed. Some of the first such services were call management related, call forwarding (busy and no answer), voice mail, call waiting, conference calling, calling name and number display, call screening, malicious caller identification, busy callback. The earliest deployed upper layer protocols in the SS7 signaling suite were dedicated to the setup, maintenance, and release of telephone calls. The Telephone User Part (TUP) was adopted in Europe and the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) User Part (ISUP) adapted for public switched telephone network (PSTN) calls was adopted in

North America. ISUP was later used in Europe when the European networks upgraded to the ISDN. (North America never accomplished full upgrade to the ISDN and the predominant telephone service is still the older POTS). Due to its richness and the need for an out-of-band channel for its operation, SS7 signaling is mostly used for signaling between telephone equipment (CPE). Because SS7 signaling does not require seizure of a channel for a conversation prior to the exchange of control information, non-facility associated signalling (NFAS) became possible. NFAS is signaling that is not directly associated with the path that a conversation will traverse and may concern other information located at a centralized database such as service subscription, feature activation, and service logic. This makes possible a set of network-based services that do not rely upon the call being routed to a particular subscription switch at which service logic would be executed, but permits service logic to be distributed throughout the telephone network and executed more expediently at originating switches far in advance of call routing. It also permits the subscriber increased mobility due to the decoupling of service logic from the subscription switch. Another characteristic of ISUP made possible by SS7 with NFAS is the exchange of signaling information during the middle of a call. Also possible with SS7 is Non-Call-Associated Signaling, which is signaling that is not directly related to the establishment of a telephone call. An example of this is the exchange of the registration information used between a mobile telephone and a home location register (HLR) database: a database that tracks the location of the mobile. Other examples include Intelligent Network andlocal number portability databases.
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switches and

not

for

signaling

between local

exchanges and customer-premises

Signaling modes
As well as providing for signaling with these various degrees of association with call set up and the facilities used to carry calls, SS7 is designed to operate in two modes: associated mode and quasi-associated mode. When operating in the associated mode, SS7 signaling progresses from switch to
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switch through

the PSTN following the same path as the associated facilities that carry the telephone call. This mode is more economical for small networks. The associated mode of signaling is not the predominant choice of modes in North America. When operating in the quasi-associated mode, SS7 signaling progresses from the originating switch to the terminating switch, following a path through a separate SS7 signaling network composed of signal transfer points. This mode is more economical for large networks with lightly loaded signaling links. The quasi-associated mode of signaling is the predominant choice of modes in North America.
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Physical network
SS7 separates signalling from the voice circuits. An SS7 network must be made up of SS7-capable equipment from end to end in order to provide its full functionality. The network can be made up of several link types (A, B, C, D, E, and F) and three signaling nodes -Service switching point (SSPs), signal transfer point (STPs), and service control point (SCPs). Each node is identified on the network by a number, a signalling point code. Extended services are provided by a database interface at the SCP level using the SS7 network. The links between nodes are full-duplex 56, 64, 1,536, or 1,984 kbit/s graded communications channels. In Europe they are usually one (64 kbit/s) or all (1,984 kbit/s) timeslots (DS0s) within an E1 facility; in North America one (56 or 64 kbit/s) or all (1,536 kbit/s) timeslots (DS0As or DS0s) within a T1 facility. One or more signaling links can be connected to the same two endpoints that together form a signaling link set. Signaling links are added to link sets to increase the signaling capacity of the link set. In Europe, SS7 links normally are directly connected between switching exchanges using F-links. This direct connection is calledassociated signaling. In North America, SS7 links are normally indirectly connected between switching exchanges using an intervening network of STPs. This indirect connection is called quasi-associated signaling. Quasi-associated signaling reduces the number of SS7 links necessary to interconnect all switching exchanges and SCPs in an SS7 signaling network. SS7 links at higher signaling capacity (1.536 and 1.984 Mbit/s, simply referred to as the 1.5 Mbit/s and 2.0 Mbit/s rates) are called high speed links (HSL) in contrast to the low speed (56 and 64 kbit/s) links. High speed links are specified in ITU-T Recommendation Q.703 for the 1.5 Mbit/s and 2.0 Mbit/s rates, and ANSI Standard T1.111.3 for the 1.536 Mbit/s rate. There are differences between the specifications for the 1.5 Mbit/s rate. High speed links utilize the entire bandwidth of a T1 (1.536 Mbit/s) or E1 (1.984 Mbit/s) transmission facility for the transport of SS7 signaling messages. SIGTRAN provides signaling using SCTP associations over the Internet Protocol. M2PA, M2UA,M3UA and SUA.
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The protocols for SIGTRAN are

SS7 protocol suite


The SS7 protocol stack borrows partially from the OSI Model of a packetized digital protocol stack. OSI layers 1 to 3 are provided by the Message Transfer Part (MTP) and theSignalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) of the SS7 protocol (together referred to as the Network Service Part (NSP)); for circuit related signaling, such as the Telephone User Part (TUP) or the ISDN User Part (ISUP), the User Part provides layer 7. Currently there are no protocol components that provide OSI layers 4 through 6.
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The Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) is

the primary SCCP User in the Core Network, using SCCP in connectionless mode. SCCP in connection oriented mode provides the transport layer for air interface protocols such as BSSAP and RANAP. TCAP provides transaction

capabilities to its Users (TC-Users), such as the Mobile Application Part, the Intelligent Network Application Part and the CAMEL Application Part. The Message Transfer Part (MTP) covers a portion of the functions of the OSI network layer including: network interface, information transfer, message handling and routing to the higher levels. Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is at functional Level 4. Together with MTP Level 3 it is called the Network Service Part (NSP). SCCP completes the functions of the OSI network layer: end-to-end addressing and routing, connectionless messages (UDTs), and management services for users of the Network Service Part (NSP).
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Telephone User Part (TUP) is a

link-by-link signaling system used to connect calls. ISDN User Part (ISUP) is the key user part, providing a circuitbased protocol to establish, maintain, and end the connections for calls. Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) is used to create database queries and invoke advanced network functionality, or links to Intelligent Network Application Part (INAP) for intelligent networks, or Mobile Application Part (MAP) for mobile services.

Metering pulse
In telecommunications signalling, metering pulses are signals sent by telephone exchanges to metering boxes and payphones aimed at informing the latter of the cost of ongoing telephone calls. The properties of these signals differ between countries, but they typically have a frequency of 50Hz, 12 kHz or 16 kHz, and a duration of several tens or hundreds of milliseconds. 50Hz pulses are applied to the telephone circuit as common-mode signals, with respect to ground, as applying them differentially would allow the talking parties to hear 50Hz buzz tones. These pulses are applied at relatively high voltage to distinguish them from 50Hz powermains-induced signals. 12- and 16 kHz metering pulses are applied differentially across the telephone circuit, as these frequencies cannot be heard by listeners with conventional telephone instruments. Each pulse represents a certain incremental cost. Therefore, during more expensive calls the exchange will generate more metering pulses per minute than during cheaper calls.

Ground start
In telephony, a ground start or GST is a method of signaling from a terminal or subscriber local loop to a telephone exchange, in which method a cable pair is temporarily grounded to request dial tone. Most middle 20th-century American payphones used "coin first" ground start lines, with the starting ground passing through the coin itself.

Ground start trunk


Local telephone companies typically provide two types of dial tone switched trunks -- ground start and loop start. PBXs work best on ground start trunks because those trunks can give them an on hook signal allowing for timely clearing. Many will work -- albeit intermittently -- on both types.

Normal single line phones and key systems typically work on loop start lines. The issue with loop start lines is that the PBX and central office can seize the line simultaneously; since neither gets the response it is expecting, the call is not initiated. The resulting condition is called glare or also known as Call collision. In an idle circuit, the central office supplies -48V (nominally) on the Ring side and open on the Tip. A ground start PBX initiates an outgoing trunk seizure on an idle circuit by connecting of the Ring lead to ground (maximum local resistance of 550 ohms). The central office senses this condition and grounds the Tip lead. When the PBX senses this, it goes off hook, then removes the ground on Ring. The central office sends dial tone and the rest of the call proceeds normally. In ground start signaling, the central office initiates a call by grounding Tip and putting the ringing signal on the line. The PBX has 100ms to sense this condition. The PBX goes off hook; if it had been trying to seize the line by grounding Ring, it releases Ring from ground and the call proceeds normally. At the end of either an incoming or outgoing call, the PBX initiates disconnect by going on hook, or the central office initiates disconnect by opening Tip. When the other end detects the loss of loop current, it also goes on hook and the call is clears normally. A PBX user must be careful to order the correct type of trunk line from the local phone company and correctly install the telephone system at the PBX end -- so that they match. Line equipment in most 20th-century central office switches had to be specially rewired to create a ground start DDCO line. Crossbar switch did it with a paper sleeve on the Vertical Off Normal contact, 5ESS switch by translation, and DMS-100 by a slide switch on the line card, all according to what the customer ordered.

Reference: (www.wikipedia.org)

UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP SYSTEM LAGUNA College of Engineering and Tech-Voc ECE Department

Communication System Analysis & Design


Assignment # 1 SIGNALING

SERRANO, John Paulo G. BS-ECE E5Q

July 1,2013

Engr. Lovelyn C. Garcia


INSTRUCTOR