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The Concepts of Added Mass and Inertia Forces and Their Use

in Structural Dynamics

v. Jacobsen and E.A. Hansen, Danish Hydraulic Inst.

Copyright 1990, Offshore Technology Conference

This paper was presented at the 22nd Annual OTC in Houston, Texas, May 7-10, 1990.

This paper was selected for presentation by the OTC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper,

as presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessaril.y reflect

any position of the Offshore Technology Conference or its officers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. The

abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper is presented.

ABSTRACT

A discussion on the concepts of added mass

and inertia forces is provided combined with

illustrative examples. The paper relates to

submerged circular cylinders - single or in

groups - only, and from an assessment of meas-

ured forces and analytical developments it is

advocated that the added mass values determined

from potential flow theory are adequate also

for real flows. A procedure for determining the

added mass coefficients for single cylinders

and groups of cylinders has been developed, and

results are given for 4 different configura-

tions.

INTRODUCTION

Researchers and engineers specializing in

hydrodynamics may be exposed to extensive

treatments of the subjects on added mass and

inertia forces, and they have the opportunity

of familiarizing themselves with the underlying

physics. This detailed insight and comprehen-

sion is not easily transferred to the majority

of application oriented engineers, and one is

often from basic courses left with the impres-

sion that the added mass and inertia forces are

phenomena that basically are related to two

coefficients that are interrelated by the

simple expression C = C +' 1, and that the

only problem is to ~ s t a b f i s h a set of appli-

cable values for one of these coefficients,

e.g. from laboratory experiments.

This paper attempts to bridge part of the

gap between the two groups of professionals by

addressing briefly the fundamentals on this

References and illustrations at end of paper.

419

subject and by reviewing well known experimen-

tal results from a perspective with emphasis on

general physics. Results of recent analytical/

numerical developments are also presented and

it is shown that the above simple relation does

in fact not apply universally, as it is influ-

enced by the geometric boundary conditions. It

is argued that the experimentally derived C

M

-values presented in the literature do not pro-

vide the basis for an accurate assessment of

the added mass applied in determining natural

frequencies for the onset of structural vibra-

tions.

SOME FUNDAMENTALS OF ADDED MASS AND

INERTIA FORCES

By using the integrated load concept and

the added mass or inertia coefficients the ac-

tual physics can be easily overlooked: In rea-

lity the added mass term reflects the inte-

grated effect of the hydrodynamic pressures

which are exerted on a body accelerating in a

fluid, whereas the inertia force is the inte-

grated pressures acting on a body exposed to an

accelerating fluid. And these two forces are

not identical. In fact the latter force is two

times larger than the former for the free cyl-

inder case.

This difference in forces is due to the

pressure gradient which is applied to accel-

erate the fluid. The presence of this pressure

gradient means that even a body of water accel-

erating with the fluid is exposed to a force,

namely the pressure field integrated over the

"surface" of this body. As the equation of mo-

tion reads:

p a z -ap/ax ........................ (1)

ADDED MASS AND INERTIA FORCES

C

M

'" 1 + C

a

(7)

OTC 6314

A similar increase in CM-values has been

found for riser bundles, see e. g Sarpkaya,

Multipipe Riser

Free Cylinder

INERTIA COEFFICIENTS FROM EXPERIMENTS

The extensive and well documented experi-

ments by Sarpkaya, Refs. /1/ and /2/ are the

best known for cylinders exposed to oscillatory

flow. The resulting variation of the inertia

coefficients as function of KC-number (Ref.

/2/) are reproduced in Fig. 1. The decrease in

inertia coefficient with increasing KC-number

is evident, with a pronounced local minimum for

KC-numbers close to 10. For typical design wave

conditions and for tubulars of jacket type

structures KC-values in the range from 30 and

upwards are likely and C

M

-values close to 1.4

are found to apply. Hereby an apparent added

mass coefficient of 0.4 appears, i.e. a reduc-

tion of 60 per cent compared to the theoretical

value of 1. It should be noted that it is not

unusual to see these lower values of C and C

being used within the offshore induJ'b.y

load and response analyses.

superimposed on the wave flow. It is then evi-

dent that the direct use of the relation in Eq.

(7) will lead to different values of the added

mass for different flow conditions, when the

experimentally determined cM-values are intro-

duced. For the free cylinder the dynamic mass

will then be smaller for large KC-numbers lead-

ing to apparently higher natural frequencies.

A critical review of some of the experimen-

tally derived values is given next, including a

discussion of typical time traces of hydrodyna-

mic loads for three cases.

On-bottom Pipeline

Tests and results are discussed for a free

cylinder, a pipeline, and a group of risers.

In general, the focus has been on the de-

rived values of the inertia coefficient and its

variation with certain parameters, e.g. Keu-

legan-Carpenter number, wave to current ratio,

pipe roughness, etc., and less interest has

been devoted to the reasons for these varia-

tions, and to the question when to apply these

values.

For pipelines on the seabed Sarpkaya and

Rajabi, Ref. /3/, Verley et al., Ref. /4/ and

Bryndum et al., Ref. /5/ have presented data

from different test programmes. The agreement

between the resulting force coefficients is

good, cf. Ref. /5/. Fig. 2 shows the results

from Ref. /5/. Here the C -value for large KC

-numbers is close to or exceeding 5, thus

indicating a C -value of 4 or even higher, i.e.

an increase 100 per cent compared to

the theoretical value of 2.29 (C

M

- 3.29).

420

11 2

Ca'4PD a . (3)

11 2 11 2

'4PD a + C

a

4PD (a - x) (5)

'r

F

a

For convenience Eq. (5) is quite often re-

written as:

F

T

C

M

- C

a

it (6)

and the second term is treated like a physical

mass being added to the structural mass in dy-

namic analyses.

A major concern arises here, because exten-

sive and well documented experiments and field

tests have resulted in inertia coefficients

that vary with the flow conditions, e.g. with

the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For single cyl-

inders the C -values are found to decrease from

the value when the Keulegan-Carpenter num-

ber increases and also when a steady current is

since the Froude-Krylov term is unchanged and

the added mass force depends on the relative

acceleration.

From Eq. (4) the following relation ap-

pears:

11 2

4PD a . (2)

Due to its simplicity this relation is well

known and often applied within the engineering

community. Also for the assessment of the natu-

ral frequencies of dynamic susceptible cylin-

drical structures. The added mass can for cer-

tain structures constitute a significant part

of the total mass, and accurate assessment of

this part then becomes important.

When the virtual water body is replaced by

a rigid walled cylinder in the accelerating

water an additional force is created due to the

local influence of the cylinder on the flow:

this is the so-called added mass term, which is

also created by a cylinder accelerating in a

still fluid. This force is expressed as:

The inertia load on a fixed cylinder is

thus made up of two contributions, one from the

overall pressure variation in the fluid, the

Froude-Krylov term, and one arising from the

local effects the cylinder (rigid body) imposes

on the accelerating fluid:

F

T

+ C

a

C

M

. (4)

If the cylinder is itself moving (acceler-

ating) in the accelerating water, the total

force becomes:

This force is often referred to as the

Froude-Krylov force.

this force the mass of the water body

times the acceleration, a, for a constant

gradient. For a circular cylindrical body we

thus have:

2

arc 6314 V. JACOBSEN, E.A. HANSEN 3

Ref. /6/, and Ottesen Hansen et al., Ref. /7/.

For a configuration of pipes as shown in Fig. 3

the inertia coefficient attains values between

4 and 6 for KC-numbers exceeding 50. As these

values are based on the volume displaced by the

pipes, a substantial increase in the added mass

is implied, an increase that will be associated

with a significant decrease in the natural fre-

quencies, thus making the riser bundle more

vulnerable to dynamic excitation.

Discussion of cM-values from

Why do these variations in the values of

the inertia coefficients appear? Why are they

not a complete and true reflection of the ac-

celeration dependent inertia force, and why

should they not be used in connection with Eq.

(7) to provide estimates of the added mass for

dynamic calculations? These questions will be

addressed next.

From an extensive joint industry project,

Ref. /8/ , the recorded force on a mul tipipe

riser having a geometry similar to the one of

Fig. 3, is reproduced in Fig. 4. Also the force

calculated based on the C and C -values de-

rived from the traditionaf analysrs is shown.

It is evident that the calculated force exceeds

the measured one when the acceleration is close

to its maximum. The use of a C -value of 3.5,

as found from the analysis, not give an

accurate estimate of the recorded load in the

inertia dominated part of the force trace,

where a cM-value close to 2 would give a better

fit.

The data reduction analysis used for the

riser bundle is identical to the analysis most

commonly applied for cylinders: achievement of

the best overall fit of the Morison force ex-

pression to the measured force trace by adjust-

ment of the two force coefficients, C and C

This approach is based on

stream kinematics. The attempt of correlating

these to the forces created by the highly com-

plex local flow field at the l3-pipe riser

leads to the rather inappropriate C -values.

Inappropriate in the sense that neither

provide adequate estimates of the inertia force

nor of the added mass coefficients when found

from Eq. (7).

The extensive research into pipeline stabi-

lity carried out in the eighties demonstrated

that the traditional Morison based force calcu-

lation methods were inadequate in providing

accurate predictions of the temporal force

variations. Descriptions of the pipeline-water

interaction are provided by Jacobsen et al.,

Ref. /9/, Verley et al., Ref. /4/, and Lambra-

kos et al., Ref. /10/. For details the reader

421

is referred to these papers, only a brief sum-

mary will be given here for illustrat:i;'I7.e pur-

poses.

In one half wave period the flow aro

1

'nd the

pipeline creates a wake. Due to the .',c.verse

pressure gradient in the fluid this wake is

being swept over the pipe prior to reversal of

the free stream flow field in the subsequent

half wave. The wake reversal is associated with

large velocities in the vicinity of the pipe-

line, and these large velocities lead to large

pressures, which integrate into large forces.

This wake reversal effect has been most evi-

dently observed in the lift force variation:

Large peak forces appearing ahead of the maxi-

mum free stream velocity; but it also affects

the horizontal or in-line force: A local peak

appears in the recorded force time series, cf.

Fig. Sa. This increase in hydrodynamic force is

thus related to a near pipe velocity, and it

should consequently be treated like a drag

term. Traditional analyses cannot do this, as

it is based on the Morison formula using the

undisturbed free stream kinematics: At the

time of wake reversal and associated load

peaks, the free stream velocity is very small,

whereas the acceleration is close to its maxi-

mum. A true drag force contribution is there-

fore through the analysis procedure being re-

lated to the acceleration, and as a result of

this it appears as an increased inertia coef-

ficient. In reality there is nothing in the

physics that dictates a change in the inertia

coefficient from the theoretical value. From

the force time series in Fig. Sa it is in fact

seen that the large value of C

M

(4.3) overesti-

mates the measured force right at the maximum

acceleration.

An alternative analysis of the recorded

forces has been made using the velocity re-

corded just above the pipeline instead of the

free stream velocity, cf. Ref. /9/. The velo-

city at the top of the pipe gives a reasonable

reflection of the near pipe velocity field in-

cluding the wake reversal, as demonstrated by

the detailed velocity measurements reported in

Ref. /4/. The result of the alternative analy-

sis was a significantly increased accuracy in

force prediction, see Fig. 5b. The force co-

efficients also changed in values with inertia

coefficients being less than 3.29 in contrast

to the results of the traditional analysis. It

is noteworthy that the use of cM-values smaller

than 3.29 yields calculated forces that are

smaller than those recorded at maximum accel-

eration. In combination with the opposite find-

ing from using large cM-values it would indi-

cate that the theoretical value of 3.29 would

be the better choice, and this has in fact pro-

vided very good estimates of the recorded force

traces.

Free Cylinder

For the free cylinder case, the flow field

near the cylinder is more complex due to the

interaction of the shear layers and vortices

4 ADDED MASS AND INERTIA FORCES OTC 6314 -. .

generated from the two opposite sides. The vor- As proposed by Lundgren et al. it will be

kites may be fully or partly shed during one

half wave period and reversed during the next.

more feasible and correct to analyse hydrodyna-

For relatively low KC-numbers very strong vor-

mic forces based on a theoretical value of the

inertia (added mass) coefficient, and then fo-

tices are generated and only partly shed. At

the phase angles with zero free stream velo-

cus on an improved description of the flow in

proximity of the cylindrical structures. Lam-

cities and maximum accelerations these strong

brakes et al., Ref. /12/, very recently advo-

attached vortices will affect the local press-

cated for the improved near field flow approach

ure field due to their large (rotational) velo-

cities. These effects are integrated into the

with specific reference to shielding/bLockage

effects in large conductor arrays.

total load and related to the acceleration,

hence they appear as inertia coefficient values

different from the theoretical one of 2. The

THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENTS

extremely small C -values reported in the lit-

% erature is associa ed with a complicated trans-

Theexamples discussed in the previous sec-

verse vortex street and thus reflect the re-

tion all pointed towards the general use of

suits of a highly complicated velocity field at

theoretically determined values of CM and Ca.

the cylinder rather than actual changes in in-

ertia/added mass force. The dramatic drop in For more than a century, analytical means

C -values disappears if the transverse vortex

v

for obtaining the added mass for an accelerat-

s reet is not formed.

ing cylinder have been available: Extensive

treatments of the problem and its solution can

Generation of vortices, formation of wakes be found in numerous textbooks on hydrodyna-

and their reversal, and the inability of stand-

mics, e.g. Lamb, Ref. /13/. Efficient numerical

ard procedures to properly account the associ- methods have also been presented, e.g. by von

ated local flow field lead to small inertia Miiller,Ref. /14/ and Asp Hansenr Ref. /15/.

coefficients at larger KC-numbers.

The traditional numerical methods are based

Fig. 6 shows the measured and calculated on the inviscid flow theory, i.e. separation

force on a free cylinder (based on Ref. /1/).

does not occur. By combining the flow field

It is seen that the low value of 1.3 for CM

equations for a vorticity flow (Navier-Stokes)

actually leads to a significant underprediction and for the flow associated with an impulsively

of the measured force at the phase angles close acceleration of a cylinder, Asp Hansen, Ref.

to maximum acceleration. Using a CM-value of /15/, very recently showed that the added mass

2.0 would give a better and quite accurate es- of a cylinder accelerating under separated flow

timate of the recorded force here. Of course

conditions is also determined by the potential

the fit to the measured force would then be

flow theory. This finding supports the conclu-

less accurate at later phase angles, but this

sion arrived at above based on experiments,

change would hardly be noticeable, and the max-

and, more importantly, this finding provides

imum force would only be insignificantly af-

fected.

the basis for obtaining accurate estimates of

the added mass for any cylinder configuration

for use in the assessment of natural frequen-

From the three examples it would thus ap-

cies.

pear that the variations in inertia coeffici-

ents as reported in the literature are in rea-

In Ref. /15/ Asp Hansen also presented a

lity reflections of the inability of state-of

numerical method for calculating the added mass

-practice engineering methods (i.e. the Morison

and inertia force coefficients for cylinders:

equation and undisturbed free stream kinema-

single - near a seabed -

tics) in describing accurately and correctly

or in bundleslarrays.

In this model the Laplace equation is solved

the hydrodynamic forces arising as a conse-

based on the summation of a uniform flow field,

quence of the extremely complex pressures in- dipoles and pairs of dipoles. These key ele-

duced by the combination of global and local

ments are introduced because: 1) The flow

flow fields as affected by vortices and wakes.

around an accelerating cylinder can be de-

The resulting values of CM (and CD) may well be

scribed by placing a dipole in the centre of

used to obtain reasonable estimates of hydrody-

the cylinder, 2) The accelerating water flow

namic loads but they do not have any merits

around a fixed cylinder can be described by

with respect to estimating added mass and asso- superimposing the dipole and uniform flow

ciated dynamics. For such purposes the theore-

field, and 3) Corrections due to disturbances

tical values of Ca should be applied.

of dipoles placed outside a cylinder can be

counteracted by placing a dipole inside the

To substantiate this conclusion reference

cylinder, thus iteratively fulfilling the

is given to Lundgren et al., Ref. /11/, who

stream line requirement on the cylinder sur-

reported the results of the following tests

face.

with a circular cylinder: constant, unidirec-

tional acceleration, small amplitude oscilla-

T.he analytical/numerical developments have

tions, and small amplitude oscillations super-

been used to determine added mass coefficients

imposed on a large scale sinusoidal motion. In

for a number of configurations.

the latter case the small amplitude oscilla-

tions were imposed at various phase angles of

Four illustrative examples are discussed in

the main sinusoidal flow. All of these experi-

the following:

ment.sresulted in identical values of the added

mass coefficient, i.e. Ca = 1.

.

a pi pel i ne near a seabed (CM # 1 + Ca!) induced on cylinder No. 2. Note that this force

is in the opposite direction of the force on

added mass of two independent, closely cylinder No. 1 (hence the negative value in the

spaced cylinders matrix) .

added mass and natural frequencies of cyl- When both cylinders are accelerated syn-

inders in a 3 by 3 array chronously in the x-direction the total force

on each corresponds to an added mass coeffi-

added mass for a riser bundle with 12 pe- cient of 1.03 + 0.23 = 1.26. And for motion in

ripheral pipes the y-direction the value becomes 1.03 - 0.23 =

0.8.

Example 1 - Pipeline at a Seabed

--------------------------------

The natural frequencies for synchronous

Fig. 7 shows the pipeline and the asymme- vibrations in the two directions are thus quite

tric seabed (e.g. caused by scouring process). different because the added mass values are

The potential flow theory model yields the fol- different, the value in the x-direction being

lowing results: more than 50 per cent larger than the value in

the y-direction.

Accelerating water (x-direction):

c = 2.56 C

Mx My

= - 0. 03 Finally, it is noted that the inertia force

coefficient for fluid acceleration in the x-di-

Accelerating cylinder (x-direction): rection equals 2.26 and in the y-direction 1.8

c = 1.06 C = 0.001 for each cylinder.

ax

ay

Accelerating cylinder (y-direction): Fig. 8 shows relative force magnitudes for

c = 0.52 C = 1. 05

ax

various combinations of cylinder accelerations.

ay

The directions of accelerations and associ-

ated forces are shown in Fig. 7.

Example 3 -A3by3Arra~

This thus illustrates that the relation

---- --------------------

c

JI

=C + 1 is not generally correct since

= ~.06 # C - 1 = 1.56. It also illus-

As demonstrated by Example No. 2 the vibra-

9

tion of one cylinder creates a pressure field

t%tes that acce eration in one direction may that induces forces on neighboring cylinders.

produce a force perpendicular to this direc- In order to determine the individual added mass

tion: The inertia or added mass coefficient is coefficients and natural frequencies of a sys-

a vector (or matrix) rather than a scalar, and tern consisting of several cylinders, like the

it is influenced by geometric boundary condi- array shown in Figs. 9 and 10, the eigenvalues

tions. of a matrix system need to be determined. For

the present system the theory described in Ref.

Exam~le 2 - Two Closely Spaced Cylinders

/15/ has been used to determine the added mass

---- ----------------- --.--- --------

coefficients for movements restricted to the

For the configuration shown in Fig. 8 with x-direction. The result is given in the 9 by 9

two cylinders having a gap of half a diameter, matrix in Table 1.

the added mass coefficient is a 4 by 4 matrix

with the following values: As for the dual cylinder case the values in

this matrix indicate the following: C . . is

1.03 0.23 0. 00 0. 00 the equivalent added mass coefficient (~o%~ in

0.23 1.03 0. 00 0. 00 x-direction) for cylinder j when cylinder i

0.00 0.00 1. 03 - 0. 23 accelerates in the x-direction. C is thus

0.00 0.00 -0.23 1.03 the added mass coefficient for cyl%&;r 1 when

it accelerates alone (= 1.08) and Cal is the

This is to be interpreted as follows: If f force equivalent for cylinder 4 when C$ lnder 1

cylinder 1 accelerates in the x-direction the accelerates (= 0.024). As can be seen the ef-

added mass coefficient for cylinder 1 is C feet decreases for the cylinders further away

= 1.03 and the pressure field set up in atfiz

from the one being accelerated.

fluid exerts a force on cylinder No. 2, corre-

sponding to a C -value of 0.23, =i.e. * magni-

Assuming identical structural stiffnesses

tude of this porce is 0.23 q ~pD q al .

for the nine cylinders and assuming that their

This force acts in the same direction as f~e structural mass is zero, the relative natural

force on cylinder No. 1, i.e. in the opposite

frequencies for the nine eigenmodes have been

direction of the acceleration of cylinder No.

determined from the equation of motion to be:

1. In other words, an acceleration of cylinder

1 in the positive x-direction creates a total

(0.74, 0.79, 0.86, 0.97, 0.98, 0.99, 1.12,

for~e on the dual pipe system equal to 1.26 q ~

1.22, 1.33)

PD q a in the negative x-direction.

as compared to the value of 1 for a single free

When cylinder 1 is accelerated in the y-di-

cylinder. The natural frequencies thus vary

rection a force corresponding to a C -value of

with i30 per cent around the single cylinder

1.03 is exerted on this cyl i nder, awhereas a

force corresponding to a Ca-value of 0.23 is

---

6 ADDED MASS ANO INERTIA FORCES oTC 6314

value depending on the eigenmode being excited. example of a single cylinder: if the hydrody-

(For realistic values of the Sf21VXlXW?tl mass, namic load from water inside the cylinder is

the range of natural frequencies decreases to included, the same result is obtained here.

typically * 10 per cent around the value for

the single cylinder, a variation that may still Note, however, that the concept of added

be significant for dynamic response evalua- mass may be misleading if it is considered a

tions). physical mass of water instead of the inte-

Figs. 9 and 10 show the eigenmodes corre-

gratea effect of a pressure field set up by the

accelerating bodly: If a cylinder, say of dia-

sponclingto the lowest and highest natural fre- meter 0.5 D is placed in the centre of the

quency, respectively. The vectors indicate the ring formeapby the 12 outer cylinders, the

direction anclrelative motion amplitude of each force on these remains equal to 2.45 12 pAa

cylinder. The lowest eigenmode has the central when the system is accelerated, although the

row moving in opposite direction of the upper volume of entrapped water has been reduced from

and lower rows. For the highest eigenmode the 0.67 A to 0.42 A . The force on the outer ring

central. vertical row of cylinders moves away of 12 cylinders ~s caused by the pressures in

from the front row and against the rear row. the water inside [and outside) the ring antiis

If all 9 cylinders are bound to vibrate syn- not related to a physical water mass.

chronously the adcledmass coefficient is found

from the numerical calculations to equal 1.008,

or for all practical purposes 1. IWACT ON NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF OFFSHORE

STRUCTURES

Example 4 - l.lultipi~eRiser Bundle

------------------- --------------

Certain structural elements like risers and

This example is included to illustrate the conductors and also some deepwater platforms

effect of increasing the closeness of several are prone to respond dynamically to time vary-

cylinders on the total added mass force. The ing loads, e.g. from waves and vortex shedding.

12-pipe configuration shown in Fig. 11 is con- When interference effects are small or negli-

sidered for different diameters of the cyl- gible, i.e. when spacings between cylinders are

inders. large, the added mass coefficient value should

be taken equal to 1 for all cylinders. Design

For small values of the cylinder, diameter

D,

procedures using CM-values of the order of 1.4

compared to the pitch diameter, D , the to procluceC -values of 0.4 will lead to esti-

added mass is 1.0 for all peripheral pi~es, as mated highe~ natural frequencies, with in-

they act as individual cylinders. Nhen increas- creases in the order of 5-10 per cent depending

ing D the interference effect increases and on how large a fraction the addecimass is of

different C -values appear for the cylintiers the total dynamic mass. For structures where

(only 3 dif~exent values for symmetry reasons). buoyancy tanks form a substantial part of the

This is shown in Fig. 12, where also the value structure, this difference in frequency esti.-

for the total bundle is given. The C -value for mates may increase significantly because the

cylinder No. 2 is equal to the Ca-va~ue for the aclcledmass is large compared to the structural

total bundle. mass for such elements. The dynamic mass of a

neutrally buoyant tank will be 40 per cent

As D/D approaches 0.26, where contact be- larger when C = 1 is usea insteaclof C = 0.4.

tween all fwelve cylinders is established, the For closely aspaced structural eleme%s the

total C -value approaches 2.45, corresponding added mass (and thereby the natural frequen-

to a fo$ce of 2.45 - 12 q pAa or 1.97 PA a,

Y

ties) depends on the actual geometry and on the

where A is the cross-sectional area of one c 1- vibration moties,e.g. whether elements act in-

inder, anc7A is the cross-sectional area for a dividually or in unison. The numerical model,

cylinder wit% diameter D . Ref. /15/, can for these cases be applied to

P

obtain the values of the Ca-matrix.

The entrapped mass of water is 0.67 PA . Of

the added mass force 0.67 PA a can be sa~d to

be used to accelerate the entrapped water, SUNNARY AND CONCLUSION

leaving 1.3 PA a. Based on the total cross-sec-

tional area (~1.47 A ) the added mass coeffi- Data for a variety of structures have been

cient then equals 0.8Lf,i.e. close to 1. reviewed. Supported by basic hydrodynamic con-

sitierations ancl the results of analytical/nu-

For a similar case with a large number of merical developments it has been concluded that

very small diameter cylinders forming a closed acldedmass coefficients can be accurately ae-

circle, the aaded mass coefficient basea on the termined basea on potential flow theory. C

pitch diameter becomes equal to 2. Of this -values so determined are generally applicabl$

value half is due to the pressure outside the also in separated flows. For single cylinders

large cylinder (the sane as for a single cyl- C thus equals 1 (C

inder with diameter D ). The second half is due aaflat seabed Ca= P.;92;c;:3Y9):ipe1 ines n

to the pressure in de water entrappea inside

the ring formed by the small cylinders. Note For multipipe configurations calculation

that for this system the inertia coefficient examples have been given based on a numerical

also equals 2. model of general valitiity for 2-dimensional

flows.

This apparently surprising result that C =

CM, i s not in contradiction with the classigal

.

.- .J. .-X

V. iJ.+iLUDD13N , b .A. HANW3!X

7

For offshore structure elements where prox-

/3/ Sarpkaya, T. and Rajabi, F.: Hydrody-

imity effects are negligible for added mass

namic Drag on Bottom-Mounted Smooth and

considerations, natural frequencies are most

Rough Cylinders in Periodic Flow. Pro-

adequately assessed when using a C -value of 1.

Misleading results are obtaineda if inertia

ceedings of the Eleventh Annual Offshore

Technology Conference, Houston, Texas,

force coefficients from traditional analysis of

OTC 3761, pp. 219-226, May 1980.

experiments are used in association with the

common relation C = 1 + Ca to provide C esti-

M a

/4/ Verley, R.L.P, Lambrakos, K.F. and Reed,

mates. K. : Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces

When proximity effects are important, i.e.

on Seabed Pipelines. Proceedings of 19th

Annual Offshore Technology Conference,

spacings between cylinders become comparable to

Houston, Paper OTC 5503, Houston, May

their diameters, a numerical model can effi-

1987.

ciently determine the added mass coefficient

matrix.

/5/ Bryndum, M.B., Jacobsen, V. and Tsahalis,

D.T. :

ftHydrodynaic Forces on Pipelines:

Finally, a word of caution should be raised

Model Tests. Seventh Offshore Mechanics

against the concept of the added mass force

and Arctic Engineering Conference, Hou-

being interpreted as a real physical mass. This

ston, Feb. 1988.

approach may serve to illustrate the hydrodyna-

mic loads induced on an accelerating body, but

/6/ Sarpkaya, 1.: Wave Loading in the Drag/

if the physics are overlooked, i.e. that the

Inertia Regime with Particular Reference

added mass force is the load resulting from the

to Groups of Cylinders in Mechanics of

integrated effect of the pressure field set up

wave-induced forces on cylinders, T.L.

in the fluid, quite erroneous results can be

obtained, as illustrated by the multipipe

Shaw (Ed.) Pitman, 1979.

riser.

/7/ Hansen, N.-E., Jacobsen, V., and Lund-

grent H.: Hydrodynamic Forces on Compo-

site Risers and Individual Cylinders.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Paper OTC 3541, pp. 1607-1621, Houston,

May 1979.

The authors wish to thank Danish Hydraulic

Institute (DHI) for permission to publish the

/8/ Danish Hydraulic Institute:

paper.

Extended

The views presented are those of the

Production Riser Model Tests. Joint In-

authors and do not necessarily comply with

dustry Project, Report, 1980.

DHIs.

/9/ Jacobsen, V., 13ryndum,M.B. and Fredstie,

J.: Determination of Flow Kinematics

NOTATION

Close to Marine Pipelines and their Use

in Stability Calculations. Proceedings

A : Cross-sectional area of cylinder

a: acceleration

of the 16th Annual Offshore Technology

c:

Conference, Houston, Paper OTC 4833, Hou-

added mass coefficient

Ca : drag force coefficient

ston, May 1984.

CD ;

~M

inertia coefficient

/10/ bmbrakos, K.F., Chao, J.C., Beckman, H.

: diameter

and Brannon, H.R. x

*,W&e Model of Hydro-

D : pitch diameter

@ : Froude-Krylov force

dynanic Forces on Pipelines. OCean En-

~k :

gineering, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 1~7-136,

added mass force

1987.

F; : total force

P

: pressure

/11/ Lundgren, H., Sand, S.E., Brink-Kjax, O.,

P

: density of water

and Jacobsen, V.: Improved Physical

U* :

non-dimensional eigenfrequency

Basis of Wave Forces. Proc. Spec. Conf.

Civ. Engrg. in the Oceans IV, ASCE, Vol.

1, pp. 1-16, San Francisco, 1979.

REFERENCES

/12/ Lambrakos, K.F., Steele, K.M., and Finn,

/1/ Sarpkaya, T.: In-line and Transverse

L.D.: Wake and Shielding Effects on

Forces on Smooth and Sand Roughened Cir-

Hydrodynamic Loading. Proc. EsP Forum

cular Cylinders in Oscillatory Plow at

Workshop on Wave Kinematics and Loading,

High Reynolds Numbers. Technical Report

No.

Paris, October 1989.

NPS-69SL76062 , Naval Postgraduate

School, Monterey, CA, June 1976.

/13/ Lamb, H.: Hydrodynamics. Dover publi-

/2/ Sarpkaya, T.:

cations, New York.

Oscillating Flow About

Smooth and Rough Cylinders. Proc. Sixth

/14/ Miiller, W. von: Systeme von Doppel

Int. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic En-

gineering S~posium, Vol. II, Houston,

-quellen in der ebenen Str6mung. Zeit-

February 1987.

schrift f. angw. Math und Mech., 9, Heft

3, 1929.

---

---- ---- -.. . ..-...43 . -.

/ 15/ Hansen, E.A. : Added Mass and Inertia Shaped Seabed. Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. on

Coefficients of Gzoups of Cylinders And Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineer-

of a Cylinder Placed Near an Arbitrarily ing, Houston, February 1990.

Table 1 Added Mass Coefficient Matrix for 3 by 3 Cyl-

inder Array. Movements in x-Direction.

1.08 -0.22 -0.05 0.24 -0.04 -0.04 0.07 0.01 -0.01

-0.22 1.11 -0.22 -0.04 0.24 -0.04 0.01 0.05 0.01

-0.05 -0.22 1.08 -0.04 -0.04 0.24 -0.01 0.01 0.07

0.24 -0.04 -0.04 1.11 -0.23 -0.07 0.24 -0.04 -0.04

-0.04 0.24 -0.04 -0.23 1.15 -0.23 -0.04 0.24 -0.04

-0.04 -0.04 0.24 -0.07 -0.23 1.11 -0.04 -0.04 0.24

0.07 0.01 -0.01 0.24 -0.04 -0.04 1.08 -0.22 -0.05

0.01 0.05 0.01 -0.04 0.24 -0.04 -0.22 1.11 -0.22

-0.01 0.01 0.07 -0.04 -0.04 0.24 -0.05 -0.22 1.08

2.s

2.4

c m

2.2

2.9

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

.8

.s

K

.4

, , , t , i

vfnm- 04 m r matim a CJ mluma

. . . N Zwnlnr.

?ig. 1 Inertia Coefficients, Free Cylinder, Ref. /2/

t

1

1

I

i

1

f

1

1

1

I

1

1 [

1

1

7 CM o-

0 0

6

0

0

0

0

5

~o

0

4

L

0

. :d80

2

1

KC

0

t 1 ! 1 t [ I 1 ! [ I I 1 I 1 I

0 20 Lo 60 ao mo 120 If$o 160

Fig. 2 Tnerti,aCoefficients, Pipeline, Ref. /3/

---

4iiti

6. 0

5. 0

4. 0

3. 0

2. 0

1. 5

1. 0

0. 9

0. 8

I I I I i

&*L;.$::;*>GX

+

CM

*.A

A.- h

\

O,)OC . 0.3256

q=

CD

.%*A

Cx

woc 4.3950

q.$.

.DP 0.0740

.9A 12 ,1,, tub,,

q

*e

u;

A Re/ Kc=1250 ~ - - - - w

q

q Re/ KC= 700

\

>0

~, 2 ,V,ly

P

k+

7

A @A b q

A.A*+ q

Ae4 WA

#cD ,,,,,,,4

.*LL*

* ~ qA9 M+ K

! I I c

10 15 20 30 40 50 70 90 100 150 200

Pig. 3 Inertia Coef?icientsr Riser Bundle, XeC. ,/6/

F

IN-LINE

F

M EAS

F

- CALC

0

0

00

Fig. 4 Force Traces for Riser Bundle, KC ~ 20

(Based on Pitch Diameter)r Ref. /8/

427

.

IN-LINE

F

MEAS

--

F

CALC

0

/

4

.

\

aMAX \

\

-.

u

* +

.,::.:.::.::,:!,:.,.. , , _a

=

IN-LINE FMW=

-- %ALC

(

/

7 .

aMAX

L

&:,, ,,, ,,, ,,,,. ,;,:.:,, ,, ,,,, ,,,,,,,,

b

N-1-l NE

FM-

/

/1

x

.--

c~ 2s)

v

o

Fig. 5 Force Traces for Pipeline, KC W 40, Ref. /9/. a) Tradj.tiqml Fig. 6 Force Traces for Free Cylinder, KC % 20,

Analysis, b) Analysis Based on Near Pipe Velocity Ref. /1/

Z-nA

F. ~pD2(2,56, -0,03)a

7MJ. 7 Added Mass and InertLa Forces, Near Bed Pipeline

cxE!-

D12

CMi)o-

1111

D12 D12

Fig. 9 9-Cylinder Array, Motims in x-direction, Lowest

Eigenfrequency u = 0.74

Fig. 8 Added Mass Forces, Dual Cylinder

(

.

E)

1

0

71

p

81

0

3

012

0

CV2

0

19

D/2 Df2

Fig. 10 9-Cylinder Array, Hotmns in x-direction, Highest

Eigenfrequency U = 1.33

429

I I

I I 1

2

I

Fx /-$p Da

I

I

I

~lj

AA

/1

12. f +5

D19C 1 T

I

,,, L,

1 II

[

Fig. 11 Muitipipe Riser Configuration

---H

01

I I 1 I I I

J

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Fig. 12 Added Mass Coefficient as Function

of DID

P

430

D/Dp

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