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A laboratory is a place where varied types of scientific research and experiments are performed. A laboratory is used for observation and testing. The laboratory is found in schools, colleges, health centers, hospitals, research centers, investigation centers etc. This can be just a single room or a complete building equipped with all facilities to perform experiments. The laboratories are designed in such a way that depending on the subject of research, varied tasks can be performed like scientific experimentation or research, manufacturing of drugs and chemicals, collection of data and samples etc. The science subject as a whole is a vast subject consisting of various fields of studies, though the main categories are physics, biology, chemistry and medical where there is the maximum need for a laboratory and laboratory equipments. Its a common fact that the basic requirement in a laboratory is the laboratory apparatus and equipment. No experiments can be performed or no studies can be done in a laboratory without using these apparatus. The lab apparatuses are used during the experimentation process to collect data, to hold samples, to heat or mix solutions, to measure, and various other such tasks. Depending on the subject and the experiment, the laboratory apparatus can be classified as physics laboratory, biology laboratory, chemistry laboratory, medical lab apparatus etc. There are a large number of apparatus which are used in every laboratory for each categories. When we talk about these apparatus, we

imply lab tools, equipments and support systems that help the user, be it the researcher or the scholar to perform different experiments. There are certain laboratory apparatus, designed specific to subjects. However, there are certain common lab apparatus which are invariably required in every type of experiments in a laboratory like a microscope, balance, beaker, flask, petri dish, safety equipments, tripod stands, test tube, etc. Besides these, a laboratory also consists of filtration equipments, cooling apparatus, lab consumables, mixing equipment, heating equipments and so on.

COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS and their Uses Beakers are useful as a reaction container or to hold liquid or solid samples. They are also used to catch liquids from titrations and filtrates from filtering operations. Bunsen Burners are sources of heat. Burets are for addition of a precise volume of liquid. The volume of liquid added can be determined to the nearest 0.01 mL with practice. Clay Triangles are placed on a ring attached to a ring stand as a support for a funnel, crucible, or evaporating dish. Droppers are for addition of liquids drop by drop. Erlenmeyer Flasks are useful to contain reactions or to hold liquid samples. They are also useful to catch filtrates. Glass Funnels are for funneling liquids from one container to another or for filtering when equipped with filter paper. Graduated Cylinders are for measurement of an amount of liquid. The volume of liquid can be estimated to the nearest 0.1 mL with practice. Hot Plates can also be used as sources of heat when an open flame is not desirable. Pipets are used to dispense small quantities of liquids. Ring stand with Rings are for holding pieces of glassware in place.

Test Tubes are for holding small samples or for containing ll-scale reactions. Test tube holders are for holding test tubes when tubes should not be touched Tongs are similar in function to forceps but are useful for larger items. Volumetric Flasks are used to measure precise volumes of liquid or to make precise dilutions. Wash bottles are used for dispensing small quantities of distilled water.

Watch glasses are for holding small samples or for covering beakers or evaporating dishes. Wire Gauze on a ring supports beakers to be heated by Bunsen burners. Balances are used to determine the mass of a reagent or object. Spectrophotometers are used to measure the absorbance or transmittance of a liquid sample. Fume Hoods are used to ventilate noxious or harmful gases.