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FILIPINO VALUES: ITS UNIVERSALITY WITH HUMAN DIGNITY No.

4 Reporter
By: Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr.

I.

Introduction

Human values are not only necessary but are also indispensable factors in the study of management and administration. Organizations success is dependent on the organizational culture it adopted and practice for time. The type of culture, in order to be successful, is also a function of the values of all its stakeholders. The trend now, which is generally recognized, is to analyze and consider the common values of the workers, managers and all members of the organization instead of adopting foreign values to form into an organizational culture and is adopted by or may be imposed upon every member of the organization. Filipino values are associated with the basic concept of man and the recognition of human dignity. These are, in fact, aligned with the universally accepted human values especially among civilized and democratic nations. Studies of indigenous core Filipino values which are determined through our language and local dialects are currently continuing in order for us to understand the Filipino psyche, the Filipino type of leadership, the Filipinos that are to be led and the type Filipino clientele. The use of Filipino values in Philippine management and administration is therefore very important especially in Philippine setting to ensure (1) absence of conflict between local and foreign values, (2) development of a particular Filipino organizational behavior and (3) unity of values and organizational culture fitting among Filipino leaders and stakeholder. II. Man and Values

Values defined the very purpose and the direction of the life of man. They are good, important, necessary and desirable in life. As part of mans existence, they also provide significance to what an organization is. When values are chosen, men in societies and organizations will tend to live a purposeful, meaningful and satisfying life. Values can be learned and acquired through actual practice. Knowing the objectivity of values is very important since it requires a person to act on it and failure to respond to the call of the values, it is not actually the values that are destroyed but it is the man himself. Quality of life is obtain because of our values and they are part of our life being the one that impels to act, basis for our commitments and the grounds and standards for our manners, behavior and even expression, the norms and the principles of our lives and the criteria in appreciating beauty and other aesthetic considerations and other economic utilities. Through values, it generate and ought-to-be and an ought-to-do which are the basis for our responsibilities, obligations, beliefs and attitudes without being similar with those concepts.

Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr.

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An author, Martin Buber, provides that man is always in dialogue with the world. The inner being of man has a component of a being of response and ability, and it is freedom which is the precondition of mans response to another, whether such is another human being, a thing, a particular event or in his belief of God. Buber further reiterates that the opposite of constraint is actually a communion meaning for man to be free is to be a person able to respond to the call of communion. Values are therefore experienced in a particular dialogic relationship of man as a being and as a person. Animals on the other hand are compelled by their biological need with the force of a natural physical law to satisfy their animalistic necessities but with values it calls for a free response from man. Hence, the experience of values is actually the experience of man. The notion that values are created may not be true but it is discovered by man himself in his participation with the world. There are three diverse acts of man that makes him a unique person and these are (1) the act of reflection or our being a thinking man, (2) of the acts of ideation or abstraction, as our coming in as an essence from our being part of existence, and (3) the act of loving. Of the three, the last is the most important character of man as a person for man is really capable of loving. To love and even to hate are the basic acts of men of which all its other are coming from them. A person is one through what she loves and hates. Loving and hating are actually actions of the heart directed towards certain values and they are geared towards certain hierarchy of values. Hatred is not the opposite of love but it is Apathy and in the hierarchy of values, love direct us towards higher values while hatred to lower values. In the hierarchy of values, the sensory values refer generally to what is pleasant and unpleasant, of technical and luxury values. Next to that are the vital values of what are noble and vulgar and these are what we called the values of civilization. The spiritual values of justice and injustice, of truth and falsehood and our appreciation of beauty and ugliness are the next to sensory and vital values. The highest are the values of what are holy and unholy. The spiritual and the holy values are values that refer to our being man and spirit. The above enumerated order or ranking of values are subjectively appreciated based on mans concrete realization of the different kinds of values. Like hatred, it is a confusion of the heart for it wrongly changes the ranking of values. According to Scheles, what is good (positive) and evil (negative) cannot be found in the ranking of values but rather in their realization. An action is good if it chooses higher positive value rather than a lower or a negative value. In like manner, an action is evil if it prefers a lower or negative value instead of a higher or positive one. Logically, without action and man who act on it there is actually no moral good or evil will happen. Hence, moral values are actually personal values for they came from man himself. If what is good is actually a realization of higher values, what is spiritual and holy refer to our person. And if evil is the realization of lower values, the sensory and the vital values can be likened to animals. Therefore, good values enhance our being a person while evil degenerate our humanity. At the end, the moral act of doing good and evil is based on man and not on any moral authority. Through a model person, values derives an ought to do and wit hout a man to be emulated or modeled upon there will be no standards, norms, responsibility or obligations. In moral values,

Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr.

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nothing can make a man good but the intuition of those exemplified by a model person whose love invites other to follow. Model persons are the way of value transformation of man in our society today. III. What Do You Mean By Values?

APPROACH/ VIEWS

DEFINITION OF VALUES
Plato's formulation of the absolute values of Truth, Goodness and Beauty. They are conceived as having independent existence of their own and are used as ideal norms for value judgment at the

Idea-Normative Approach

relative level of human existence. Attainment of a state of eternal bliss by the realization of identity of the individual self with the Universal Self of this absolute reality is the highest and ultimate object of human striving. Based on a metaphysical belief system which accepts the reality of

Theistic View

a divine cosmic order and faith in the authority of a creator God who is also the upholder of all values. Development of a new ethics of man based on interconnectedness

Humanist Thought

of humankind, love and respect for life, the joy of sharing and caring, and the faith in man to shape his own identity. It views values as a distinct component of the total human personality, which guide or affect attitude and behavior of the

Empirical-Purposive Approach

individuals and social groups. In Schwartz's view, values are "responses to 3 universal requirements with which all individuals and societies must cope: needs of individual biological organisms, requisites of coordinated social interaction and requirements for smooth functioning and survival of groups. 3 Levels: Individual, Sociological and Ecological. Individual refers to the level where the human being, taken as an independent entity and it refers to survival values, character, virtues. Aesthetic appreciation, human rights, salvation, self-realization. The second level refers to values at the collective level of human society which

Level of Aggregation

includes the family, social institutions, sense of social responsibility, values of humanity and human interconnectedness, etc. Third level refers to the inclusion of human being as part of the total ecological system, a sense of identification with future generations and the inter-dependency of man and nature and include expressive terms like respect for and harmony with nature, sustainability, conservation, etc.

Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr.

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IV.

Filipino Values: What are those Values?

Core Value

Surface Values NEGATIVE MEANING (WITH POSITIVE MEANING COLONIAL MENTALITY & SUPERIORITY COMPLEX) Fixation/ SelfBlame/ ought to Dangal be Ashamed/ Shame Pakitang Tao/ Gaya-Gaya/ Hawa- Hawa

Pakikipagkapwa

Pakiramdam

Loob

Unity or oneness of a person with Hiya other people and denying Shared inner perception driven by a Amor sense of Propio awareness and sensitivity. Inner Being. NonGulong Ng separation of Palad/ the Mind and Kapalaran the Heart.

Sensitivity to Self Esteem Personal Affront

Pride/ Fiesta Grande/ Karangalan

Pagpahalaga Sa Close Family Pamilya/Familial Ties

Irresponsibility and Pananampalataya Dependence/ Pagsasabukas Adversarial/ Pakikitungo/ Confrontational/ Kagandahang Pakikisama sa Loob/ Pakikiisa/ Kabuktutan/ Introjection/ Damayan or 'Bata' System/ Smooth Empathy or 'Lakad' System/ Pakikisama Interpersonal Participation on Pakikialam or Relationship/ Another's meddling/ Companionship Experience/ Euphemism or Malasakit or Salitang Pagsympathy for iwas/ Use of go someone or between or Wheel of Fortune Submissiveness to one's responsibility and personal independence/ Psychological Justification for their failure to take up human responisbility and accountability in times of crises and hardships

Bayanihan

Sublimation/Hel ping One Another/ Bahala Na Kawanggawa/Pa gtutulungan/Pak ikipagkapwa tao

Binding covenant of commitment to help or to care for another/ Psychological defense to cope up with adversities and failures

Paniniwala Sa Diyos/ To leave one's life in the care of God/ Determinism

Pananampalataya Sa Diyos

Utang Na Loob

Indebtedness to Compensation/ Patrons/ Sense of Inner Debt of Gratitude Pakiusap/ debt Nepotism/ Kapangyarihan

V.

Conceptual Framework

COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEX


Filipino Value Type If Lacking/Absent

Surface Value

HIYA

AMOR PROPIO

KAPALARAN PAKIKISAMA

BAHALA NA

UTANG NA LOOB

BAD

PANINIWALA SA DIYOS

PAGPAHALAGA SA PAMILYA

PAKIRAMDAM

LOOB

BAYANIHAN

WORSE

Core Values

KAPWA
COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEX
Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr.

WORST

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VI.

Universality of Filipino Values

PROPOSED LIST

FREEDOM

HELPFULNESS ACCOMPLISHMENT

HONESTY

SELF-RESPECT

BROADCREATIVITY EQUALITY INTELLIGENCE RESPONSIBILITY SOCIAL ORDER WEALTH COMPETENCE JUSTICE SECURITY SPRITUALITY MINDEDNESS

No.

8
Dignity/ Prestige/ Honor/ Individuality

6
Profit/ Maximizati on/ Money/ Property

5
High Productivity/ Organizational Efficiency/ Ability/ Skill/ Industry Leadership

Personal Value Employee Questionnai Liberalism/ Achievement/ Welfare/ re (PVQ) Autonomy Success Social Welfare (England, 1967) Rokeach Value Freedom/ Survey (RVS) Independent (Rokeach, 1973) Schwartz Freedom/ Values Independent/ Survey (SVS) Choosing Own (Schwartz, Goals 1994)

Tolerance

Creativity

Equality

Rational

Organizational Stability

Security

Religion

Helpful/ Salvation

A sense of accomplishment

Honest

Self Respect/ Social Broad-minded Imaginative Equality Recognition Self Respect/ Social A varied Recognotion/ life/ Broad-minded Preserving Creativity/ My Public Curious Image Status Creativity

Logical/ Intellectual/ Wisdom

Responsible

A World at Peace

Capable

Family Security/ Inner National Harmony Security

Helpful

Successful/ Meaning in life

Honest

Equality

Intelligent/ Wisdom

Responsible

Social Order/ A World at Peace

Wealth

Capable

Family A Spiritual Social Security/ Life/ Inner Justice National Harmony/ Security Devout

Personal Value Scale Academic Independence (PVS) (Scott, Achievement 1965) List of Values Sense of (LOV) Autonomy Accomplishment/ (Kahle, Self fulfillment 1988) Life Values Inventory Concern for (LVI) (Crace Independence Achievement Others & Brown, 1995) Comparative Emphasis Scale (CES) Helping Achievement (Revlin & Meglino, 1987) Value Sensitive Design (VES) (Friedman, 2006) Human Welfare/ Universal Usability

Honesty

Intellectualism

Religiousness

Self-respect/ Being Well Respect

Security

Creativity

Objective Analysis

Responsibility

Financial Prosperity

Sprituality

Honesty

Fairness

Autonomy

Informed Consent

Identity

Freedom from Bias

Accountability

Ownership and Property

Bernthal

Freedom

The Good Life Self-Realization

Human Dignity

Order

Allocation of Resources/ Production Profits and Justice Security Distribution of Goods and Services Fairness -

McDonald and Ganz Bird and Waters Jurkiewicz & Giacalone

Autonomy

Consideration

Moral Integrity/ Openness Honesty in Communication Integrity

Benevolence/ Humanism

BroadCreativity/ Social mindedness/ Experiment Equality Adaptability ation Fair Special Treatment/ Consideration Fair Competition Receptivity -

Logic

Orderliness Economy

Corporate Respect for Social Law Responsibility Responsibility -

Organizational Responsibility -

Respect

Justice

VII.

Can Filipino Values an effective means of managing people in an organization?

Like any universal values, Filipino values can be integrated in managing and administering an organization. However, theres a need to stop condemning Filipino traditional values as sources of our weakness and compare is as an inferior one than western values. Second, is to understand that our organizations services are for the Filipinos in a Philippine setting and with Filipino workers or stakeholders. Lastly, is the willingness of all to accept Filipino values to be integrated into the organizational structure and to replace Western values which are successful in western settings.
Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. 5 of 6 pages.

The structural channels that can be utilized to integrate this Filipino values are through trainings, reorientation of the top management to become models, the use of modern technology in promoting our indigenous values and to improve the recruitment process, compensation schemes, develop a monitoring system and to impose certain discipline to ensure the incorporation of Filipino values into the organization. VIII. Recommendations

The following are recommended in an organization: a. b. Conduct of Team Building and Improve Communication Protocol by employing consultation, Persuasion, Consensus,

through motivations and to lead by example.

Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr.

6 of 6 pages.