Need for inventions in 18th and 19th century England During the 18th and 19th centuries - the

period from 1700 to 1899 - lots of things were invented that made it easier to make things and get work done. One invention led to another, so that there were lots of important changes in a short period of time. These inventions didn't make things a little different, they made them a lot different. Most products people in the industrialized nations use today are turned out swiftly by the process of mass production, by people (and sometimes, robots) working on assembly lines using power-driven machines. People of ancient and medieval times had no such products. They had to spend long, tedious hours of hand labor even on simple objects. The energy, or power, they employed in work came almost wholly from their own and animals' muscles. The Industrial Revolution is the name given the movement in which machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. 1.England's population grew rapidly in the 18th century, providing a labour force for industry 2.England had experienced all of the forerunners of industrialization in the previous century: an agricultural revolution, cottage industry, and an expanded commercial revolution. These developments had built surplus capital and an infrastructure 3.The scientific revolution in England prepared the way for new inventions to be applied to industry 4. A spreading shortage of wood (used for energy, for shipbuilding and construction) stimulated a search for alternatives. 5.. England was rich in supplies of coal for energy and iron for construction. 6. England already had a handcraft textile industry using wool, but with the availability of cotton from overseas markets as an alternative raw material which led to the invention of cotton spinning jennies & later power looms for weaving clothes. 7. England had a long, irregular coastline with many rivers and natural harbours which provided easy transportation by water to many areas. 8.To over come shortage of wood for burning, coal was used as an alternative source, which led to the invention of steam engine & later improved version of the same. 9. to solve the problem of transport, rail roads & steam engines were used. By the end of 19th century England was ahead of other nations in the continent due to its position of an island as well as other countries were involved in wars constantly during that period. England had passed various land act kicking many peasants off of their master's properties (bringing a complete end to serfdom in England) many of whom emigrated to the US. Also, England was the first nation to end the slave trade. With no slaves or serfs and yet the same amount of work to do, new ideas were needed to produce what was once done by blood, sweat, and tears Production did not keep pace with the demand Inventors and their story

Watt, James (1736-1819): [Image]
Watt was born at Greenock, Scotland. His father was a merchant. As a young man Watt received training as a mathematical-instrument maker, and, as such, attempted to establish himself at Glasgow. (Apparently, he wasn't able to set himself up in business because of the troubles which the local unions, or guilds, gave to him; being hired by the university, however, Watt was able to carry on with his trade as an instrument builder.) Due to the nature of his work (and more likely to the nature of Watt, himself) Watt was led into a number of related activities, including being involved in the survey work needed for the building of canals and the deepening of the Scottish rivers such as the Clyde and the Forth. One day, in 1759, being the handy man he was, Watt was called upon to fix a Newcomen steam engine [named after its English inventor, Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729), an engine which had long been used to lift water out of mines.] Well, Watt fixed this engine, alright, and, in the process of striping it down, realized that a

number of practical improvements might be made to it. By 1774, patents having been secured, and in partnership with Matthew Boulton, new and improved steam engines were being turned out at the Soho Engineering Works located at Soho, Birmingham. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - Oct. 18, 1931) was an American inventor who, singly or jointly, held a world record 1,093 patents. In addition, he created the world's first industrial research laboratoryEdison was the seventh and last child--the fourth surviving--of Samuel Edison, Jr., and Nancy Elliot Edison. At an early age he developed hearing problems. His mother then home schooled him.[2] Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker's School of Natural Philosophy and The Cooper Union. Thomas Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey, with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention which first gained him fame was the phonograph in 1877.He loved reading and experimenting and had his own laboratory.The light bulb was the most famous one. After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The first successful test was on October 22, 1879,[23] and lasted 40 hours.His experiments continued and the bulb did really light up the entire world.

Science/technique behind the invention

Separate condenser
A Scottish instrument maker, James Watt, was given the job in 1763 of repairing a model Newcomen engine for the University of Glasgow, and noted how inefficient it was. In 1765, while wandering across Glasgow Green he conceived the idea of a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine. Watt's idea was to separate the condensation system from the cylinder, injecting the cooling water spray in a second cylinder, connected to the main one. When the piston had reached the top of the cylinder, the inlet valve was closed and the valve controlling the passage to the condenser was opened. External atmospheric pressure would then push the piston towards the condenser. Thus the condenser could be kept cold and under less than atmospheric pressure, while the cylinder remained hot.Watt also realised that the new operating cycle might increase engine speed and the power produced; low pressure steam could now be substituted for atmospheric pressure. If the top of the cylinder was closed off, the steam could act upon the piston during the power stroke; the low steam pressure would not be sufficient to move it in normal circumstances, but it could if acting upon a vacuum.This led to the fully developed version of 1775 that actually went into production [1]. Opposition/reaction Offering a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency, the new design replaced Newcomen engines in areas where coal was expensive, and then went on to be used in the place of most natural power sources such as wind and water. Firstly, the responce given to the steam engine was not good. The industries had not started using it as soon as it was improved by james watt. But gradually the invention and its benefits came into news and the industrialists started buying the steam engines for their factoriesThe Watt steam engine was a different story. The people laughed at it and said it was too noisy(it scared horse's) and complicated and they said " it will never replace the horse." Specifically both of these inventions were well received. The light bulb was a boon to mankind and embraced fairly quickly. The entire world started using bulb.thinking of its numerous advantages there was hardly any opposition.Opposition came from those who were displaced and out of work due to the new inventions and many of the Enlightenment Philosophers were against this move for they new that industrialization would lead to urbanization and with it loss of property ownership and therefore freedom (think of today).

Evolution of the inventions Incandescent These are the standard bulbs that most people are familiar with. Incandescent bulbs work by using electricity to heat a tungsten filament in the bulb until it glows. The filament is either in a vacuum or in a mixture of argon/nitrogen gas. Most of the energy consumed by the bulb is given off as heat, causing its Lumens per Watt performance to be low. Because of the filament's high temperature, the tungsten tends to evaporate and collect on the sides of the bulb. The inherent imperfections in the filament causes it to become thinner unevenly. When a bulb is turned on, the sudden surge of energy can cause the thin areas to heat up much faster than the rest of the filament, which in turn causes the filament to break and the bulb to burn out.

Traditional Incandescent Bulbs

Halogen Halogen bulbs are a variation of incandescent bulb technology. These bulbs work by passing electricity through a tungsten filament, which is enclosed in a tube containing halogen gas. This halogen gas causes a chemical reaction to take place which removes the tungsten from the wall of the glass and deposits it back onto the filament. This extends the life of the bulb. In order for the chemical reaction to take place, the filament needs to be hotter than what is needed for incandescent bulbs. The good news is that a hotter filament produces a brilliant white light and is more efficient

(more lumens per watt). The bad news is that a hotter filament means that the tungsten is evaporating that much faster. Therefore a denser, more expensive fill gas (krypton), and a higher pressure, are used to slow down the evaporation.

Various types of halogen bulbs

Fluorescent These bulbs work by passing a current through a tube filled with argon gas and mercury. This produces ultraviolet radiation that bombards the phosphorous coating causing it to emit light (see: “How Fluorescents Work”). Bulb life is very long - 10,000 to 20,000 hours. Fluorescent bulbs are also very efficient, producing very little heat. A common misconception is that all fluorescent lamps are neutral or cool in color appearance and do not have very good color-rendering ability. This is largely due to the fact that historically the "cool white" fluorescent lamp was

the industry standard. It had a very cool color appearance (4200K) and poor CRI rating (62). This is simply no longer the case. Regarding color, a wide variety of fluorescent lamps (T12, T8, T5, etc.), using rare-earth triphosphor technology, offer superior color rendition (as high as 95) and a wide range of color temperature choices (from 2700K to 5000K and higher). Fluorescent bulbs are ideal for lighting large areas where little detail work will be done (e.g. basements, storage lockers, etc.). With the new type bulbs, and style of fixtures coming out, fluorescents can be used in most places around the home. Most fluorescent bulb cannot be used with dimmers.

Fluorescent tube bulbs

Compact Fluorescent (CFL)

PL type bulb (CFL)

Note that fluorescent bulbs need components called ballasts to provide the right amount of voltage. There are primarily two types - magnetic and electronic. Electronic ballasts solve some of the flickering and humming problems associated with magnetic ballast, and are more efficient, but cost more to purchase. Some ballasts need a “starter” to work along with it. Starters are sort of small mechanical timers, needed to cause a stream of electrons to flow across the tube and ionize the mercury vapor (see: “How Fluorescents Work”). . Compact Fluorescent Lamps

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) are a modern type of light bulbs, that work like fluorescent bulbs, but in a much smaller package. Similar to regular fluorescent bulbs, they produce little heat and are very efficient. They are available to fit screw type base fittings and pin type (snap-in). Most CFLs either consist of a number of short glass sticks, or two or three small tubular loops.

Approximate Equivalents to Incandescent Bulbs CFL Incandescent 7–10 Watts 40 Watts 15-18 Watts 60 Watts 20 Watts 75 Watts 20-25 Watts 100 Watts 32 Watts 150 Watts High-Intensity Discharge Lamps High Pressure Sodium (HPS), Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor and Self-Ballasted Mercury Lamps are all high intensity discharge lamps (HID). With the exception of self-ballasted lamps, auxiliary equipment such as ballasts and starters must be provided for proper starting and operation of each type bulb. Compared to fluorescent and incandescent lamps, HID lamps produce a large quantity of light from a relatively small bulb. HID lamps produce light by striking an electrical arc across tungsten electrodes housed inside a specially designed inner glass tube. This tube is filled with both gas and metals. The gas aids in the starting of the lamps. Then, the metals produce the light once they are heated to a point of evaporation.

Mercury Bulb

Standard high-pressure sodium lamps have the highest efficacy of all HID lamps, but they produce a yellowish light. High-pressure sodium lamps that produce a whiter light are now available, but efficiency is somewhat sacrificed. Metal halide lamps are less efficient but produce a whiter, more natural light. Colored metal halide lamps are also available. HID lamps are typically used not only when energy efficiency and/or long life are desired, but also when high levels of light are required over large areas.
Metal Halide Bulb

Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps Low-pressure sodium lamps have the highest efficacy of all commercially available lighting sources. Even though they emit a yellow light, a low-pressure sodium lamp shouldn't be confused with a standard high-pressure sodium lamp. Low-pressure sodium lamps operate much like a fluorescent lamp and require a ballast. There is a brief warm-up period for the lamp to reach full brightness. LED (Light Emitting Diodes)

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are bulbs without a filament, that are low in power consumption and have a long life span. LEDs are just starting to rival conventional lighting, but unfortunately they just don't have the output (lumen) needed to completely replace incandescent, and other type, bulbs just yet. Never the less, technology is advancing everyday, and it will not be long until the LED bulb will be the bulb of choice for most applications in the home and work place.

Light Emitting Diodes

The dawn of the nineteenth century brought about the Industrial Revolution. The steam engine was a major factor in the Industrial Revolution. Steam locomotives and steam paddle boats began to pop up everywhere James Pickard and Matthew Wasborough create an engine with rotary motion by fitting a crank, rod and flywheel to Newcomer's Model 1783 A double acting engine is introduced by Watt Steam pushes on each side of the piston alternately as opposed to just one side

1878 1890 1906

Willans patents the high speed fully enclosed "inverted vertical" engine Charles Pain patents the forced-lubrication-highspeed-enclosed engine Superheating of steam is invented by Dokter Schmidt and used in British Railway locomotives

A Cornish engine is a type of steam engine developed in Cornwall, United Kingdom, for pumping water from a tin mine. It is a form of beam engine that uses steam at a higher pressure than the earlier engines designed by James Watt. The engines were also used as man engines for winching workers and materials into and out of the mine. A Corliss steam engine (or Corliss engine) is a steam engine, fitted with rotary valves and with variable valve timing, invented by and named after the American engineer George Henry Corliss. Corliss engines were typically used as stationary engines to provide mechanical power to line shafting in factories and mills and to drive dynamos to generate electricity. Are they used and where.

Steam engines are still around. And they are in wide use. Most take the form of the steam turbine engine. The steam turbine is responsible for generating about 86% of the electric power used on this planet. That probably is a qualifier for current use. Steam engines, either the piston or turbine type are used on most big ships, and there are still a few steam locomotives about. In the years ranging from 1825 to about 1964, steam engines were used on the railway transportation systems of most of the world. steam trains are the locomotives that have the large wheels. ( google your local railway museum ) mean while, from 1890 to 1920, steam engines where used as steam tractors used for field work. today, most steam trains today, are gone. however, steam engines are used to power electric genorators. By the way, they also expiramented with a steam car too, some sucedded. but had a tendency to blow up in your face. today most steam trains, tractors, and cars. have been replaced by gasoline and diesel engines. They are used in places where there are steep slopes and not enough to lay broad guage tracks. Although the reciprocating steam engine is no

longer in widespread commercial use, various companies are exploring or exploiting the potential of the engine as an alternative to internal combustion engines.

They require no external regulating equipment and have a low manufacturing cost, and work well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting, such as table lamps, some car headlamps and electric flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting.

Most important invention There are many impact to the society on the invention of light bulb.. some that I can think of, a) Work hours are no longer governed by the day. With the help of light, the hours go even beyond the hours people had worked before. b) Light bulbs had enabled people to also communicate. i.e Morse code c) Light bulbs had also enabled people to move and travel safely into the dark areas or at night d) Light houses, with the help of the light, steers ships from danger Wow.. there's more.. but that all. Hence, in short.. longer hours, new opportunities.. it was one of the key driver for the industrial revolutionFor the light bulb, I already thought of: Illuminate a room without dangerous candles Turn the lights on and off quickly It can burn for 40 hours You won't have to replace a lightbulb as often as you replace candles..

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