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Chapter 1

UG Cable Jointing
Introduction Paper insulated cables are the primitive under ground cables that are used in the telecommunications network. These cables are available upto 1800 pairs. Later on due to various factors like escalation into the cost of lead and more incidence of faults due to paper insulation, these cables are replaced by polythene insulated jelly filled cables. They are popularly known as PIJF cables which consists of twisted pairs of polythene insulated copper conductors. The PIJF cables are available upto 3600 pairs. Number of Pairs The cables shall be in sizes 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200 and 3600 pairs. Conductors Each conductor shall be insulated with polyethylene of insulating grade. Different gauges of conductors 0.32mm, 0.40mm, 0.50mm, 0.63mm, and 0.90 mm are used in the cables. Insulation Each conductor shall be insulated with solid medium density polythene of density 0.926 to 0.94 to a thickness. The insulation should be uniform, smooth and free from all defects. The insulation will have following colour for identifying pairs /conductors under normal lighting conditions. ADVANTAGES OF POLYTHENE INSULATED JELLY CABLES. Counting of pairs is easy and human mistakes are avoided. Jointing is easy and require no chamber or additional place. Failure of joints is less. Entry of moisture / water is prevented by Jelly in the core. Cables can be directly terminated on MDF / Cabinet / Pillar and DPs, thus avoiding additional joints decreasing the cost and time. Handling of cable is easy not delicate like paper insulated cables. Life of cable is more.

JOINTING LOCAL TELECOM CABLES Objective of the Lesson : The necessity of a joint in telecom underground cable and choosing of correct technique from the techniques available and adopting for better construction methods for jointing of conductors and joint closures for various types of cables available. Different types of Jointing Techniques for U/G telephone cables, using different types of connecting techniques for jointing conductors and joint closures. One of the oldest form of cable existing in our networks are lead sheath dry core (LSDC) paper insulated cable. As discussed its use has been discarded due to various reasons. These are being replaced by PIJF cables and OF cables in the networks. Necessity of joints : The joint of a underground telecom cable arises due to a. b. Limited lengths available for different sizes of cables in new cables. Occurrence of Damages to the working cables , resulting in a joint or two.

THIS IS CALLED STRAIGHT JOINT c. An operation on a New cable or Existing working cable is made for diverting part of cable pairs to another direction / area.

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THIS IS CALLED BRANCH JOINT

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d.

To transfer the existing cable pairs of one area (old pillar ) another area (new pillar ) in the same exchange system

in

an

exchange

system

e.

To transfer the existing cable pairs from existing exchange in the area to another new exchange called area transfer.

Old exchange

AREA to be transferred

New exchange
THIS IS CALLED TEE JOINTING OR PARALLEL JOINT The jointing of the Local cables are described as detailed below :a. b. c. d. Jointing of LSDC cables Thermo shrink joint technique. Jointing with ALSS technique. Jointing Jelly filled cables with TSF kits.

PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED FOR JOINTS Very often a large size of cable is required to be jonted with another same size or more than one cable of smaller sizes of cables. While proceeding for jointing following precautions are to be taken particularly in case of Bbrach joints and Tee joints. The jointing of conductors should be done as per jointing schme ensuring that the smaller branch cabe is jointed to inner layer or main cable. In case there is any spare cable pairs left, these should be bunched together and stumped in the joint, which can be utilized infutre (with recording ) Dressing of main sleeve should be done in such a way that the man sleeve flushes on all sides as far as possible. In case of plumping of LSDC should be done properly at Branching point to fill any gaps or pin holes while dressing. Suitable size of Kits should be used depending on the specifications.

ARRANGEMENTS TO BE MADE BEFORE THE START OF JOINTING Cable jointing pit suitable size be dug so as to accommodate the cable splicer along with his assitants and tools and facilitage easy jointing. Guarding of work against public to avoid danger to vehicles , pedestrians and cable jointing personnel. Beware of existing cables and particularly existing joints at that place. Beware of underground Power cables at the place of joint. Protection against weather and water toavoid low insulation in joint. Pre arranging Joint tools and Joint materials.

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JOINTING TECHNIQUES Any jointing technique consists of the following operations. (a) conductor jointing. (b) Protecting the joint against moisture entry and / or making the joint air tight. (c) Protecting the joint against corrosion and mechanical damage. CONDUCTOR JOINTING Using UV Connector

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One conductor from one direction and another conductor from another direction to be jointed are inserted into the UY connector without removing the insulation of the wires. The contact will be made by the plate after cutting through the insulation. This technique is used for Polythene insulated jelly filled cables. JOINT PROTECTION AGAINST MOISTURE ENTRY In addition to the conventional system of closing with lead sleeve, different ways such as mechanical closure, Epoxy resin filled joints, XAGA closure etc. are used in different countries. PROTECTING THE JOINT AGAINST MECHANICAL DAMAGE AND CORROSION ; During splicing process the protective layers of the cable e.g. ply - jacket, Hessian tapes, steel armours etc. are removed. Hence after incorporating moisture barrier system in new joint, it must have some protection against mechanical and corrosive damages. The following are some of the processes adopted to achieve it by putting the joint in :(1) (2) (3) Cast iron or mild steel box and filling it with molten bitumen. Brick chamber and filling it with molten bitumen. Brick chamber and filling it with sand or soil. (joint must have anticorrosive jacket)

The above methods are used particularly in protecting the joints of paper insulated cables. The following additional precautions are to be followed at places of joints in underground telecom cables. (1) (2) (3) Putting joint indicator to indicate the actual location of the joint. Putting the joint in Manhole, hand hole and joint chamber. Placing RCC or stone slab over the joint.

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BSNL Chapter 2

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REHABILITATION OF EXTERNAL PLANT AND LAYING OF 5 PR CABLE


SCOPE: This alternative arrangement of 5 pair PIJF cable and 5 pair internal D.P in due course will replace the existing practice of taking the subs loop through the drop wire to subs premises to make the distribution system pole less and drop wire less, eliminating the hung drop wires around subscribers premises, street and colonies. This will help in maintaining single digit fault rate. GENERAL The 5 pair PIJF cable in a particular area/building is used when demand is up to 5 telephones in that area/building. If the demand in the particular area/building is more than five, 0.5 mm jelly filled cable of higher pair capacity should be used. The D.P. should be mounted on the external wall of the building or at convenient place where internal DPs can be fixed properly & telecom officers can approach easily. The wall should be thick and strong, and should be approachable for easy inspection and maintenance. As far as possible, D.P. should be installed under the shed. INSTALLATION PROCEDURE OF D.P. BOX: 1 0.5 mm D.P box shall be used for termination of 0.5 mm drop wire and 0.5 mm (5 pairs PIJF) underground cable. 2 The PIJF cable can be taken from the ground to the D.P. box through a PVC pipe of 32 mm dia. at a height of 2.5 m from the ground. 3 PVC pipe shall be fixed to the wall by means of suitable G.I. clamps. Three clamps are required to fix the PVC pipe on the wall i.e. first clamp at 20 cms below the D.P., second 20 cm above the ground and the third clamp at the centre of the first & second clamps. LAYING OF 5 PAIR CABLE: At a convenient point in the main distribution cable, joint can be made for 5 pair PIJF underground cable which can be taken to the various areas/buildings for terminating in the D.P. Length of the 5 pair PIJF cable should in no case exceed beyond 100 m from point of joint to D.P. box. While making this 5 pair PIJF cable from the point of joint to the D.P. box, the depth of cable should be maintained at 60 cm in earth area/non concrete area, while in case of concrete in courtyard of premises it should be taken at a depth of 10 cm below the concrete surface. Five pair PIJF underground cable should be laid from distribution cable to D.P. box without any joint. The depth of the trench should be minimum 60 cm below the ground surface along the road. As far as possible the distance between two joints should be maintained in such a manner that it should not be more than 100m. LINE JACK UNIT The required number of line jack units should be installed at subs premises. For subscriber loop, required number of drop wires (Same as LJU) are laid from DP box to line Jack unit. Now the drop wires are laid from DP box to each LJU. It shall be ensured that there is no joint in the drop wire between D.P. & LJU/rosette. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME : This is the interface stage between the external plant and exchange equipment. General Facilities provided by M.D.F. are : A point of termination of internal and external cables. A suitable location for mountings fuses, heat coils and protective devices. A convenient place to isolate any circuit to test the condition of both internal equipment and outdoor network A means for interchanging the external cable pairs used for circuits if necessary. A means for cross-connecting the external circuits to the appropriate internal circuit. lines

PROTECTIVE DEVICES: Telecommunication apparatus connected to transmission (overhead or underground) must be protected against damage from electrical hazards such as : Effects of lightning Direct strikes Electrostatic induction Rise in ground potentials (by lightning strikes from thunder clouds).

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G. D. Tubes

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Gas Discharge Tubes are recommended by the Power Telecommunication Coordination Committee (P.T.C.C.) for fitting on Telecommunication lines in the Department as protection against induced voltages in the event of an earth fault on the paralleling power lines. Installation The tubes are to be connected between line wires and earth. The connection from the line wires to the tube electrodes may be made with weather proof leads of 15 to 20 Amp. current carrying capacity. DDF (digital distribution frame) DDF is the distribution equipment used between digital multiplexers, between digital multiplexer and exchange equipment or non voice service equipment, carrying out such functions as cables connection, cable patching and test of loops that transmitting digital signals. The Digital Distributing Frame (DDF) is a 120 and 75-ohm frame system that serves as an equal level crossconnect point for signals conforming to the following signal formats: 2.048 Mb/s 8.448 Mb/s 34.368 Mb/s) 139.264 Mb/s 155.52 Mb/s The modules allow test access to all equipment terminated at the frame and provide flexible cross-connects between Network Elements (NEs). The DDF system consists of individual DDF modules mounted in a panel. Features Incorporates world wide standard applications. connectors, thus making the DDF system compatible with most

The DDF system is compatible with E1, E2, E3, E4 and STM-1 signal rates. The connectors are equipped with a locking mechanism for the patch cords (in cross-connect arrangements). The front and rear cross-connect arrangements allow easy access for patching around faulty equipment. The DDF system has ground-isolated modules, thus no separate grounding required. Test cords are equipped with easy-to-use, push-on connectors. Patch cords are equipped with locking connectors. Standard connectors are available from a variety of sources for any coaxial cable type. The DDF can be configured to use different connectors ..

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BSNL Chapter 3 C-DOT MAX, AN-RAX and RSU Maintenance

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CDOT DSS as MAX is used as main automatic exchange for urban applications. C-DOT MAX-L and C-DOT MAXXL comes under MAX category. C-DOT MAX-L can support 16 BM s and C-DOT MAX-XL 32 BMs. Each BM can support 2K terminations. C-DOT MAX may have remote BMs connected to it C-DOT DSS as RAX is used as rural automatic exchange and can support 2000 line connectivity. C-DOT SBM comes under this category. But nowadays all existing SBMs are converted as RBMs. C-DOT AN-RAX (256 P) It is a subscriber line concentrator used for connecting rural subscribers of remote places. AN RAX may be connected to a RSU or directly to the local exchange. C-DOT DSS MAX: It contains four basic modules: 1) Base Module. 2) Central Module 3) Administrative Module 4) Input Output Module BASE MODULE (BM) One BM may be made of 3 racks but not necessary all BMs will have 3 racks. Rack 1 is mandatory and 2and 3 are optional ones as per the requirement of the site. Rack 2 is called as LM1 and Rack 3 as LM2( Line Module). In each rack there are 6 frames and they are numbered as 1 to 6 from top to bottom. And in each frame there are 26 card slots numbered as 1 to 26 from left to right. BM is made up of three units TU, BPU and TSU. The rack having BPU and TSU is numbered as 1 .The rack on the left side of it as 2 and the rack on right side as 3.Rack 2 and 3 will have only TUs Subscriber lines and trunks are terminated in the Terminal Unit. Special service circuits like announcements and testing circuit are also available here. There is a time switch unit for time switching the calls and tones, MF/DTMF circuits are available here. Base processor unit is responsible for call processing functions and working as a heart or brain of the system.

TU TU TU TU TU TU

TU TU TU TU BPU TSU

TU TU TU TU TU TU

Rack2

Rack 1

Rack 3

16 termination cards, 2 PSUs and 2 sets of control cards each set having 3 cards are available in each Terminal unit. Each termination card supports 8 terminations. The termination card for subscriber is LCC or CCM. These circuits are allotted to the subscribers. These circuits are referred as TENs and written in the form P-Q-R-S-T where P represents the BM number Q represents the rack number R represents the frame number

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S represents the slot number T represents the circuit number.

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The control cards are TIC, SPC and TUI. TIC is having a micro controller. Sometimes it is necessary to give a reset to the controller during maintenance activities. For that the small reset button available in the card is to be pressed. Such reset buttons will be available in all micro controller cards. The lines can be tested for both exchange side and outside test. For that purpose one TTC card is available in slot number 24 of TU number 4. The announcement card is also placed in TU but its position can be varied. There are 2 power supply units to provide various supplies and ringing current. But the frame can work even with single PSU on. In MBM exchange, some BMs are dedicated for subscriber lines and some for trunks. So these BMs are referred as LINE BMs and TRUNK BMs. The trunk BM will be made up of only one rack as it does not support concentration. In this BM, DTU will be available to support digital trunks. One DTU can support 4 digital trunks each of 30 trunks. CENTRAL MODULE (CM) Responsible for space switching of inter BM calls. To switch the messages there are four CMSs. There are six frames in CM-XL rack. It houses the following units in the card frames Bus Termination Units (BTU) Space Switch Units (SSU) Space Switch Controller Unit (SSCU) Administrative Processor Unit (APU)

ADMINISTRATIVE MODULE (AM) Responsible for all functions those are provided centrally. These are connected to the administrative processes. INPUT OUTPUT MODULE (IOP) This module contains two IOPs. Operator terminals and printers are connected to IOP. It is used for man machine communication. IOPs are connected to both the APs. Maximum of 8 terminals can be connected to one IOP. ALARM DISPLAY PANEL (ADP) BRBRAITT/AUG08/TECHNOLOGY AWARENESS COURSE FOR NON-EXECUTIVES 7 of 13

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ADP is connected with AM. Alarms are indicated through lamps and sound. Faulty trunk group numbers and total number of faulty trunks and lines is also indicated through this panel. Severity of alarm is indicated by the colour of the lamp:

CRITICAL URGENT NON URGENT

Red Orange Green

Whenever a new alarm is raised lamp will glow and buzzer will sound. To acknowledge the alarm press the ACK button. Then the buzzer sound will stop but the lamp will continue to glow till the fault is cleared. OUTPUT OUTSIDE DIALOGUE (OOD) This is one terminal connected to SL-3 of IOP. This terminal cannot be used for giving commands. System will be sending information regarding alarms and reports. There will be cyclic alarm display. REMOTE SWITCH UNIT (RSU) RSU is a remote unit. Instead of extending individual cable pairs from large telephone exchanges to all the subscribers who are geographically away from the exchange the BM which is accommodating the subscriber lines may be shifted near to the subscribers and this BM is connected with the main exchange by E1 links (PCM). Because these BMs are remotely located, it is called Remote BM (RBM). And it is connected with CM through maximum of 16 PCMs. RBM is nothing but a local BM with only one card different. In case of total PCM link failure between RSU and main exchange, the RBM will function in stand alone mode. All intra BM calls will be possible in stand alone mode. Metering will also take place and will be sent to main exchange when the link is restored. Only even number BMs can be made as RBMs. RBMs area code may be different from main exchange area code. RBMs can have separate exchange codes also. When RBM is in RBMSA mode, emergency numbers like police, ambulance are terminated in the numbers of RBM. C-DOT AN-RAX C-DOT AN-RAX is basically a subscriber line concentrator. It may be connected to a C-DOT RSU or directly to LE. AN-RAX supports V5.2 protocol. This does not support any switching or call processing activities. Also AN-RAX will not handle the charging, billing. AN-RAX provides space for subscriber line termination. Advantages of Deploying AN: Saving of copper. Remotely located subscribers also enjoy the facilities of new technology switches Access and services are de-centralised. Services are managed at LE. Both AN and Le are vendor independent. Billing and CDR generated at local exchange thus avoiding misuse.

AN-RAX supports BORSCHT (Battery feed, Over voltage protection, Ringing, Supervision, Codec, Hybrid and Testing). All call processing, charging, billing and switching are performed at local exchange. AN-RAX provides concentration through V5.2 protocol. HARDWARE ARCHITECHTURE of AN-RAX AN-RAX has a two frame implementation. The top frame is called SLAVE frame and the bottom MASTER frame. The cards are Terminal interfaces - Subscriber line card(LCC/CCM) Controller cards AN-RAX controller card (ARC), AN-RAX interface card (ARI), Signaling processor card (SPC) Service cards- RAX terminal tester card (RTC)

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Power supply unit(PSU-I) Ordinary subscriber lines are connected to LCC. The LCC performs BORSCHT.

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STD PCOs and CCB lines are connected to CCM cards. Out of the 8 boards only 7th and 8th port can support CCM features. The ARC functions as the main controller of the AN RAX. This occupies slot 12 and 15 of master frame (copy 0 and copy 1). This card supports two even links through which AN-RAX is connected with the main exchange. ARI cards are in slave frame. These are also 2 in number (copy 0 and copy 1). The signaling information related to termination are collected by SPC. SPC passes this information to ARC for further action. Total 4 cards 2 in each frame. For testing the lines RTC card is used. This is used to conduct tests. Power supply unit derives various power supplies and ringing current. There is one dumb terminal connected to ARC card. The screen of this monitor is divided into three sections. SECTION A SECTION B SECTION C Alarm Display Panel. Area for execution of user commands. Status line.

By pressing # key followed by enter the panel is toggled between master and slave frame. C-DOT AN-RAX

C-DOT AN RAX subscribers are created at main exchange. They are allotted one L3 address and not a TEN . The L3 address to card port translation is given in the table below. For any subscriber management commands at AN end the L3 address is to be used. When any subscriber port is faulty the L3 address is to be translated into port address and then appropriate card is to be attended. MAPPING OF L3 ADDRESSES TO AN-RAX HARDWARE SLOTS The mapping of L3 addresses as defined at LE and AN to the actual hardware port of line cards is shown in the table below. It is being assumed that the `start L3 address' is 101 and all 248 possible subscribers are present.

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BSNL S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Card Slot 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-17 1-18 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-22 1-23 1-24 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 12-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 L3 Addresses 101-108 108-116 117-124 125-132 133-140 141-148 149-156 157-164 165-172 173-180 181-188 189-196 197-204 205-212 213-220 221-228 229-236 237-244 245-252 253-260 261-268 269-276 277-284 285-292 293-300 301-308 309-316 317-324 325-332 323-340 341-348 349-356

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BSNL CHAPTER 4

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PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING SUBSCRIBER COMPLAINTS IN C-DOT


1. Telephone Dead Case-I Problem concerns a particular subscriber i. Perform both exchange side tests and outside plant open loop test on the terminal using ii. If the outside plant open loop tests fail, the fault lies in the outside plant. Most likely there will be disconnection in the telephone line. Capacitance test will fail with '00' uf as measured value in this case. iii. If the exchange side tests fail, then the concerned line card is to be replaced. TST-TRM Case-II Quite a few number of telephones reported dead i. In this case confirm from the external plant records whether the subscribers belong to the same distribution cable. ii. In such a situation, the fault can be due to a problem in cable plant itself which is to be corrected. Otherwise each line has to be treated separately as in Case-I. 2. Telephone Held-Up (No Dial Tone) i. In case subscriber complains of the telephone being held-up, then the likelihood is that speech battery is present but some ground fault is there. ii. To ensure this, check the status of the subscriber on BM. If the status indicates INS-LLO for the line, then confirm the fault by conducting outside plant open loop tests on the subscriber. iii. If the outside plant test passes then perform exchange side tests and confirm that there is no fault at the exchange side. If there is fault at the exchange side, the concerned line card should be replaced. DISPL-LSCNT-OOS, DISPL-TRM-ALL, DISPL-TRM-STATUS 3. Permanent Ring i. Check the status of the terminal. ii. Perform exchange side tests on the concerned subscriber. If the exchange side tests fail, the line card is to be replaced. iii. Perform closed loop tests on the line. If closed loop tests fail, most likely the fault will be in telephone instrument which has to be replaced. iv. Perform outside plant open loop test on the subscriber and confirm that there is no fault at outside plant. v. Make check on other lines in the same TU. 4. Permanent Dial Tone i. Check the status of the terminal. ii. Perform closed loop tests on the line. If closed loop tests indicate fault in the telephone instrument, then telephone has to be replaced. iii. Perform exchange side tests and confirm that there is no fault at the exchange side. If there is fault at the exchange side, then the concerned line card should be replaced. iv. If the subscriber has changed his instrument recently, check whether he is now using the DTMF phone. Check the data for proper instrument type and modify the instrument type if necessary. 5. Speech Quality Poor i. Presence of foreign potential and low insulation may be the causes of poor speech quality. ii. Perform outside plant open loop tests on the subscriber. If the tests indicate fault in the cabling, it has to be traced and rectified. iii. Conduct exchange side tests also and confirm that there is no fault at the exchange side. If there is fault at the exchange side, then the concerned line card should be replaced.

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iv. Make check on other lines in the same TU.

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6. Feeble Speech i. The likely cause of this complaint is lower values of loop current. This can be confirmed by conducting closed loop tests on the line. ii. Conduct exchange side tests also and confirm that there is no fault at the exchange side. If there is fault at the exchange side, then the concerned line card should be replaced. 7. Call, Being Routed To Wrong Numbers i. In this case most likely the fault will be in the telephone instrument. ii. Perform closed loop tests on the line. If closed loop tests indicate fault in the telephone instrument, then telephone has to be replaced. 8. One Way Speech i. Perform exchange side tests and confirm that there is no fault at the exchange side. If there is fault at the exchange side, then the concerned line card should be replaced. ii. Perform closed loop tests on the line. If closed loop tests indicate fault in the telephone instrument, then telephone has to be replaced. 9. Ringer Cadence not O.K i. If the problem is occurring on all the lines of that TU, replace PSUI which is towards the active copy of TIC. Check that the problem is rectified. ii. If the problem is not occurring on all lines of that TU, then the telephone instrument must be faulty.

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BSNL Practical Exercise:


1. Check whether the protective devices are available for the directory no. --------2. Give a loop on external side of the line ------. 3. Give a loop on internal side of the line -------. 4. Identify the frame 2 of rack2 of BM-3. 5. In BM-4 how many racks are available. 6. How many DTUs are available in the different BMs. 7. Locate the trunk BM. 8. Identify the concentration cables. 9. Identify the test access cables. 10. Perform line side test on the subscriber line. 11. Perform exchange side test on the subs. line. 12. Get detailed report for the line tested. 13. Get the brief report for the line tested. 14. Test the Digital trunk -------------------15. See whether sub ---------- is having access level upto national or not. 16.Check the printer connectivity with IOP. 18.Check the console connectivity with IOP whether the sub ------- is having dtmf 19. what is the meaning of alarm display on the ADP. 20 .How many sub lines are faulty ? 21. Check how the OOD is connected with IOP. 22. How to clear a power alarm in a BM. 23. How to locate the blown fuse in the filter box at the rear side of the rack. 24. Make a self ring test from the telephone no--------25. Test the announcements. 26. Test the tones.

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access.

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