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08/10/2012

Outline

Concrete (swimming pool) Tanks
Guidance on the design of in-situ concrete water retaining structures

Scope Structural Design
• Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design

SPATA Training
4 Oct 2012

Materials Specification AOB

Charles Goodchild
CEng., MCIOB, MIStructE Principal Structural Engineer The Concrete Centre

Outline
Scope Structural Design
• Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design

Scope
Concrete swimming pool tanks
These would normally be constructed from shuttered in-situ reinforced concrete to BS 8007. They can be formed with or without a screed / render and normally have a ceramic tile finish. Waterproofing additives can be used to reduce the risk of leakage. The tank structure should be thoroughly tested for water tightness, through a full depth tank test before finishes are applied. Any faults should be remedied after allowing the pool tank to dry out thoroughly, and before tiling or lining work is undertaken. Any repair is more effective from the wet side.

Materials Specification AOB
www.sportengland.org/facilities.../design _and.../idoc.ashx?...

Scope

Scope

www.londonswi mmi ngpools.com/por tfoli o.ht ml#id_228

http://davidhallamltd.co.uk/pools/c ommer cial-pools

www.por tr aitpools.com/wp-content/br ochur e/

www.londonswi mmi ngpools.com/por tfoli o.ht ml#id_37

SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 - Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks

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M & E consultant Interior designer Swimming pool specialist Outline Scope Structural Design • Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design Materials Specification AOB Eurocodes What’s new in water retaining structures)? • Withdrawal of BS 8110.. AHU spec.ashx?. http://www. BS 8007 etc • Eurocodes • New information: • • • • • CIRIA C660 Revision to BS 8102 S Alexander. moving floors Changing facilities Spectator facilities Other amenities Design: Architect Structural engineer. penetrations..Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 2 . TSE Aug 08? ICE project 0706 on reinforcement to control cracking (report Feb 2010) Eurocodes • Debate BS 8007 SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 ..08/10/2012 Scope www.com/ Scope Planning: Location Type Shape Dimensions Diving? Sub Aqua? Features Roof structure Hydraulic design criteria.. plantroom..org/facilities..sportengland. . Plant ducts./design _and. TSE Dec 06 B Hughes./idoc.londonswi mmi ngpools. Services lighting. pipes filters/pumps and water treatment.

ashx?.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 3 .3? BS EN 1992-3 (cont) Eurocodes Eurocodes Edge details www.ht ml#id_38 SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 . Structures 13 Eurocodes BS EN 1992-3 (cont) Eurocodes Typical water-retaining structure Utility structures ..com/por tfoli o.. Struct./design _and.org/facilities.2mm or 0.05 to 0..londonswi mmi ngpools./idoc.. www.sportengland.08/10/2012 Eurocodes Eurocode 2: relationships – BS EN 1997 GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN BS EN 1990 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN BS EN 1998 SEISMIC DESIGN Eurocodes BS EN 1992-3 BS EN 1991 ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES BS 8500 Spe cifying Concrete BS EN 206 Concrete BS EN 13670 Execution of Structures BS EN 10138 Prestressing Steels BS EN 10080 Reinforcing Steels BS 4449 Reinforcing Steels BS EN 13369 Pre-cast Concrete BS EN 1992 DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES Pic of eurocodes incl pt 3 NSCS DMRB? NBS? Rail? CESWI? Part 1-1: General Rules for Structures Part 1-2: Structural Fire Design BS EN 1994 Design of Comp. BS EN 1992 Part 2: Bridges BS EN 1992 Part 3: Liquid Ret..all about minimising material and maintenance cost “A degree of leakage may be acceptable” discuss tightness class with clients … crack width? 0..

./idoc../design _and.ashx?. Outline Scope Structural Design • Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design Option 1: • Monolithic design for whole of tank and pool surrounds when constructed from in-situ water retaining concrete to BS 8007/ BS EN 1992 Part 3 gives a highly stable structure Option 2: • Gunite sprayed reinforced concrete • Reinforced concrete block work with waterproof renders /coatings An Integral transfer channel is the most common option Fixtures and fittings need to be integrated into the tank design Waterproofing • Inherent within well constructed in-situ reinforced concrete pools meeting BS 8007/ BS EN 1992 Part 3 • Can be augmented by waterproof liner and/or render Finishes Option 1 • Fully ceramic tiles on render backing is the preferred finish Option 2 • Specialist finish renders and paint finishes have been used where long term durability is not so important Materials Specification AOB Structural design: loads cases Tank empty (Tank in ground) Structural design .Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 4 .08/10/2012 Eurocodes Concrete pool construction Structural www.ULS now often FEA (via grillage).20 • gF for Normal level ? gF = 1.ULS Tank full (Tank in or above ground) Design for Ultimate Limit State EQU – Equilibrium Limit State STR & GEO – Structural and Geotechnical Limit States • Partial factor for water actions: • gQ for ‘silos and tanks’ BS EN 1991-4 Maximum design liquid level during operations gQ = 1. Horizontal moments in a 8 x 6 x 4 m deep tank Courtesy HAC SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 .sportengland. .ULS Analysis Was plate theory Manifested by graphs or tables Structural design ..35? • Structural design • As per ‘normal’ elements • 3D nature of design Actions for ULS Soil loads Ground water loads Compaction loads Analysis Slab Equilibrium Flexure Walls Flexure Slab Flexure Tension Soil structure interaction Walls Flexure Tension Shear Water loads • Normal level • Accidental level Actions for SLS As above plus: • Early age thermal • Autogenous As above plus: • Drying • Differential temperature Structural design ...org/facilities.

It will also prove relevant to designers of other underground structures.20 (BS EN 1997) (NA to BS EN 1991-4) Structural design . Combination 1 and 2 Design for Ultimate Limit State GEO – in the ground • Combinations 1 and 2 • gF for ground water o Normal gF = 1.Example Characteristic actions on basement wall and adjacent slabs: LC1 water at ground level Structural design below ground For empty Tanks in the ground see– Concrete Basements This guide covers the design and construction of reinforced concrete basements and is in accordance with the Eurocodes.ULS Tanks in the ground: BS EN 1997.08/10/2012 Structural design .35 o Most unfavourable gF = 1. not exceeding 10 metres.ULS Shear: VRdc is affected by tension Structural design .ULS Design for tension: Not only tensile forces from restraint but also tension from loading Water Retaining : N-M where tension exists Axial tension due to water pressure on Wall B Axial tension due to water pressure on Wall A gFrwh Section/Elevation Plan Section at corner Not forgetting tension in base slabs!! Structural design .e. The aim of the guide is to assist designers of concrete basements of modest depth. It brings together in one publication the salient features for the design and construction of such water-resisting structures.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 5 . Combination 1 Combination 2 The guide has been written for generalist structural engineers who have a basic understanding of soil mechanics. SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 . i.

CIRIA C660 alludes to 45% RH for internal conditions and 85% for external conditions. TR 59[62] concludes that the tensile strength of concrete subjected to sustained tensile stress reduces with time to 60–70% of its instantaneous value.0 for thickness h < 300 mm and 0.6 to 0.SLS Restraint factors > e ctu Table 1 – Values of restraint factor R for a particular pour BS EN 1992-3 Annex L configuration Pour configuration Thin wall cast on to massive concrete base usually 0.min = kc k Act (fct. These figures are based on HA BD 28/87[60] based on monthly air temperatures for exposed bridges. area of concrete in the tension zone just prior to onset of cracking.2 ofbase creep 0.65 when R is calculated using CIRIA C660 1.0 when R is calculated using BS EN 1992-3 coefficient of thermal expansion (See CIRIA C660 for values). It is simply a necessary amount presumed by models to control cracking.3 to 0. The recommended values from CIRIA C660 for T 2 are 20°C for concrete cast in the summer and 10°C for concrete cast in winter. Act is determined from section properties but generally for basement slabs and walls is most often based on full thickness of the section.8 should be applied to fct.0 for pure tension. R3 R 2. tensile strain capacity may be obtained from Eurocode 2 or CIRIA C660 for both short term and long term values CIRIA C660 Cl 3. i. rigid restraint 0. T 2 depends on the ambient temperature during concreting. See Table A6 for typical values difference between the peak temperature of concrete during hydr ation and ambient temperature °C (See CIRIA C660).eff /fyk) where kc = = BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.9) or CIRIA C660 or Table A10).8 at base 0. See Section A5.eff in the formula for crack inducing strain due to end restraint. but not necessarily a sufficient amount to limit actual crack widths.1) Long term load strength Stress due to early thermal & shrinkage & seasonal Stress due to early thermal & drying shrinkage A coefficient to account for stress distribution.SLS Design for Serviceability Limit State ≡ Control of cracking Materials Specification AOB Structural design .4 at included 0. long-term drop in temperature after concreting. °C. 500 MPa k = = = Act fct.SLS SLS Design vs time Short term load strength Structural design .SLS 2. for instance in infill bays. = = = = = = = T2 = e cd = = e ctu allowance for creep 0. 28 days (which considered to be a reasonable approximation) See Table A5 for typical values.6 For edge restraint from Figure L1 of BS EN 1992-3 for short.4 0. cement content and mem ber size (see BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp.65 for h > 800 mm (interpolation allowed for thicknesses between 300 mm and 800 mm).eff == Stress due to early thermal – allowing for creep fyk [1] = = CIRIA C660 Recent research[61] would suggest that a factor of 0. Figure L1 may be used with CIRIA C660 methods providing an adjustment for creep is made (See Figure A2 and note). Test for restraint cracking A section will crack if: Structural design .0 is most often used .2 at top 0. For base-wall restraint they may be calculated in accordance with CIRIA C660. Minimum reinforcement As.and long-term therm al and longterm drying situations. fctm mean tensile strength when cracking may be first expected to occur: § for early thermal effects 3 days § for long-term effects. CS TR 67 Provision of minimum reinforcement does not guarantee any specific crack width.5 Massive pour cast onto blinding e r = Rax e free = K[([acT1 +e ca)] R1 + ([acT2 R2)] + e cd R3] where K ac T1 e ca R 1. 1.2 at top Beware: effects Massive pour cast onto existing concrete Suspended slabs Infill bays. A coefficient to account for self-equilibrating stresses 1. Basements are likely to follow soil temperatures so T 2 = 12°C may be considered appropriate at depth. Typical values are noted in Table A7 Autogenous shrinkage strain – value for early age (3 days: see Table A9) restraint factors.SLS 1.1 to 0.1 to 0.2 to 0.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 6 . When cracking first occurs the cause is usually early thermal effects and the whole section is likely to be in tension.0 Structural design . drying shrinkage strain. where the restraint is truly rigid 1. This factor accounts for long-term loading.1 to 0. For end restraint. in-situ strengths compared with laboratory strengths and the fact that the concrete will crack at its weakest point. dependent on ambient RH.e. (3. This figure might be overly pessimistic for piled slabs.08/10/2012 Outline Scope Structural Design • Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design Structural design . characteristic yield strength of the reinforcement.2 R 0. SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 .8 to 1.

.1) 4. .e cm ) . from restraint) 0. SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 .5h. .8) Structural design . Assumed H16 @ 100 bs The total load transferred may be obtained by integration as T = 180 kN. As/Ac.5 e ctu 4.max ectu e sm .max = Maximum crack spacing = 3.SLS 3. . .max ecr = sr.3 Structural design .46 MPa leading to a strain es = 37.eff Ac.max (e sm .8 (CIRIA C660 suggests 1. over the debonding length either side of the crack = (e cs .eff [1 + (1/ae r)] /Es Wall 6 m high.3 ´ 10–-6 This should be added to ecr calculated previously to give the modified crack width wk.2 e cr =(e cs .g. Structural design .eff = = = = = = = nominal cover.eff for each face is based on { 0.1 sr.eff) where c k1 k2 f rp.SLS e cr = Crack-inducing strain = .0 for tension (e. .eff) (1 + ae rp. wk = sr.eff /rp. cnom 0. 2.SLS 3.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 7 .SLS 4.SLS Water Retaining : adding in tension CIRIA C660 Cl 3. Total area of designed reinf’t 6 ´ 2010 x 2 = 24120 mm2 Tension in pool wall Pressure CIRIA C660 Cl 3.notes BS EN 1992-3 Cl 7.14) 1. Crack width calculations Crack width.5 for bending (e 1 + e 2)/2e 1 for combinations of bending and tension diameter of the bar in mm. Crack widths and watertightness Tightness Classes BS EN 1992-3 Cl 7.2a Early age crack-inducing strain ecr = K[acT1 +eca] R1 – 0. Crack widths and watertightness Tightness Classes .2d Flexural (and applied tension) crack-inducing strain ecr = (esm – ecm) = [ss – kt (fct.2b Long term crack-inducing strain ecr = K[([ acT1 +eca )] R1 + ([ acT2 R2)] + ecd R3] – 0.08/10/2012 Structural design .max ecr where BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7. . .4c + 0. .6 (ss )/Es BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7. . .2c End restraint crack-inducing strain ecr = 0.2 BS EN 1992-3 Exp (M. . . Plan (or section) εs Strain ε ε ε Strain in reinforcement εsm εc Sr.3 Lined pools? Tiled pools (most?) Above ground? Special? Structural design . .9) Corresponding stress ss = 7.5 e ctu 4. wk = sr.5ae kckfct.e cm) ecm ≈ ectu /2 Structural design . .e cm εcm ε= 0 e cr = Crack-inducing strain Strain in concrete = Mean strain in steel – mean strain in concrete.5(c + 0.5f).2 4. .eff] /Es ecr ³ 0. .SLS 4. .425 (k1k2f /rp. (h – x)/3} where h = thickness of section and x = depth to neutral axis. .e cm ) Consider a crack in a section: Debonding length S0 S0 4.

avoid high strength concretes sequential pours Construction construct at low temperatures.55 CC 300 CEM I. prestress? Materials Specification AOB Selection of materials Concrete: • Superstructure & Benign soils: RC30/37? Cement IIB-V (CEM I + 21%-35% fly ash) or IIIA (CEM I + 36% .08/10/2012 Structural design . supervision issues. IIB-V. IVB-V B) Selection of materials Admixtures Porosity may be important but it’s the cracks that matter – not (usually) concrete! Concrete Society Working Group on Water Proofing admixtures: • no conclusive evidence to support their use (.from a material scientist’s point of view). IIB-S. IIB-V. workmanship. risk & possible remedials and upheavals and contractual issues vs vs Admixtures: warranties. avoid movement joints. IIIA.65% ggbs). PVC.55 CC 325 CEM I. black steel Water-swellable water stops Cementitious crystalline water stops Miscellaneous post-construction techniques • (Re) injectable water bars • Rebate and sealant Selection of materials Waterbar Photo cr edits Water mans SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 . use GRP or steel formwork.) RC30/37: requirements : C30/37 S3 WCR 0. • from data there is some evidence to suggest that they may reduce drying shrinkage (less permeability)and therefore reduce onset of cracking and reduce crack widths £££ Traditional: Engineering. cf C35A?: requirements: C28/35 (equiv) -. IIA. supervision & possible remedials and upheavals ££££ ? Whatever the tank should still be designed properly! Cost and risk: • Aggressive soils: Advise producer of DC Class. For DC-2: FND-2? (C25/30)? More aggressive soils: Cement IIIB (CEM I + 66% 80% ggbs) or IIVB-V (CEM I + 36%-55% fly ash) Selection of materials Water stops • • • • Preformed strips – rubber.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 8 . aggregates with low a c..WCR 0.SLS Crack control without direct calculation don’t do it! Outline Scope Structural Design • Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design Deflection control As ‘normal’ design Minimising the risk of cracking Materials use cement replacements. Detailing use small bars at close centres.

08/10/2012 Selection of materials Hydrophilics Selection of materials Resin injection Photo cr edit Max Fr ank Photo cr edit Water mans Selection of materials Selection of materials Proprietary cementitious multi-coat renders. toppings and coatings Proprietary cementitious multi-coat renders.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 9 . remedials & maintenance SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 . toppings and coatings Outline Scope Structural Design • Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design Specification Specification: • BS EN 13670 • NSCS / NBS Joints • Construction joints • Water stops Miscellaneous • • • • • • Kickers Formwork ties Membranes & coatings Admixtures & additives Service penetrations Drainage Materials Specification AOB Inspection.

NSCS Inspections Waterstop s Ties Specification Additives Kickers Inspections Ties Contractors’ choice of materials Guidance Performance Spec Joints Waterstops Specification Table 1: AREAS AND DIMENSIONS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION.08/10/2012 Specification Materials National Structural Concrete Specification. Construction Water – resisting walls Water – resisting slabs Slabs with major restraint at both ends Slabs with major restraint at one end only Slabs with little restraint in any direction Walls Maximum Area (m ) 2 Specification Testing: No longer in BS EN 1992-3 Suggest putting the testing to BS 8007 in project specification Maximum Dimension (m ) 5 10 13 20 30 10 25 100 100 250 500 40 “Unless otherwise agreed” and designed NSCS Max pour sizes SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 .Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 10 .

.0 0. MPa Loading Early age Curing thermal ff ctm ctm Restraint stage 3.0 2.5 0. • Nominal cover from EC2 & BS8500 • SLS still dominates • Min area of steel > 0.0 1.08/10/2012 Outline Scope Structural Design • Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design AOB BS8007 vs EC2 • No 0.5 3.8fctm AOB BS 8007 3. XC3/4? .2 The reinforcement provided to control cracking arising from direct tension in the immature concrete may be regarded as forming the whole or a part of the reinforcement required to to control cracking arising from direct and flexural tension in the mature concrete AOB Restraint and loading : cracks don’t usually coincide Surface cracks caused by flexure Through cracks caused by loading Far side Near side Through cracks caused by restraint SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 .7 bond factor in EC2 (however detailing rules .Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 11 .5 4. .0 STRENGTH or STRESS.5 1. days 0. 35 mm? • Ground: determine Exposure class. Suggest put in specification • Different crack width formulae Materials Specification AOB AOB Restraint and loading To determine whether a section cracks Add e and Rax efree due to restraint and loading To determine crack widths Treat ecr due to restraint and loading separately AOB Cracking vs time 4. .2. XC2?. .35% • Avoid joints • %age of fly ash (35%) and ggbs (50%) no longer specifically restricted • Testing: nowhere.5 2. ) • Rebar cover and exposure: • Pool water not ‘severe’ .0 0 5 10 15 actfctm sct fctm 20 25 30 35 40 TIME.

Provision of minimum reinforcement does not guarantee any specific crack width.2.2.. . fctm mean tensile strength when cracking may be first expected to occur: § for early thermal effects 3 days § for long-term effects. Expert independent advice should be sought before considering these forms of pool construction.3 mm for flexural cracks but 0. .. in-situ strengths compared with laboratory strengths and the fact that the concrete will crack at its weakest point. . . AOB Crack widths and watertightness –recommendations for basements (TCC) Construction typea and water table Expected performance of structure Structure itself is not considered watertight Structure is almost watertight AOB Crack width requirement Tight wk mm -ness FlexRestraint Class ural / axial Crack widths and watertightness Tightness Classes .. Act is determined from section properties but generally for basement slabs and walls is most often based on full thickness of the section.3 mm for flexural cracks but 0.30 0.3 mm for RC structure Design to Tightness class 1 of BS EN 1992-3.30 b 0.2. .8 a ct = factor for sustained loading.05 mm for cracks that pass through the section 0 1 0. but not necessarily a sufficient amount to limit actual crack widths. .ashx?. . 1..eff in the formula for crack inducing strain due to end restraint.2 mm for cracks that pass through the section Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 1992-3.notes Possible revision to C660 BS EN 1992-3 Cl 7.30b 0.eff == fyk [1] = = fyk [1] = = CIRIA C660 Recent research[61] would suggest that a factor of 0. CIRIA C660 Recent research[61] would suggest that a factor of 0.0 for pure tension. See Table 9. These are supported on a concrete slab .3 mm for RC structures 1c 0c 0.eff /fyk) kc = = 2 BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.1) where Minimum reinforcement As. 28 days (which considered to be a reasonable approximation) See Table A5 for typical values.30e (0. Generally 0. Other concrete pool construction forms include sprayed concrete (gunite) and concrete blockwork formwork filled with reinforced concrete.3) 0.3 mm for RC structure. A coefficient to account for self-equilibrating stresses 1.30e 0.25°C/hour (6°C/day) Prefabricated sectional stainless steel tank structures . as an alternative to water retaining concrete should generally be avoided. Max fill/empty rate 0.Pool surrounds should be designed to the same standard as the pool tank.05 to 0.2 × section thickness}) and variations in strain should < than 150 × 10–6. 500 MPa A coefficient to account for stress distribution. The risk of damage due to thermal shock when the pool is emptied or filled with water and heated is a critical issue. . area of concrete in the tension zone just prior to onset of cracking.2. TR 59[62] concludes that the tensile strength of concrete subjected to sustained tensile stress reduces with time to 60–70% of its instantaneous value.65 for h > 800 mm (interpolation allowed for thicknesses between 300 mm and 800 mm).30 B – lowd water table conditions.20 or 0. Generally 0. in-situ strengths compared with laboratory strengths and the fact that the concrete will crack at its weakest point. . . these must have an effective proprietary water bar system suitable for their application.eff == fct.03m/hour (0.min = k kc k Act (a ct fct. AOB Possible revision to C660 Possible revisions to allowable crack widths wk1 NB Dwk = Dwk = diurnal change in crack width = possible new limits tied to allowable time for cracks to heal under full head AOB Concrete pool tanks (cont) Pre-cast concrete panels … and permanent shuttering . A coefficient to account for self-equilibrating stresses 1. 0.eff in the formula for crack inducing strain due to end restraint.If joints are unavoidable.30 0.0 for thickness h < 300 mm and 0.8 should be applied to fct. .1) A coefficient to account for stress distribution. This factor accounts for long-term loading.0 for thickness h < 300 mm and 0./idoc. an emergent market.eff /fyk) kc = = BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7. .05 to 0.3 wk. and . A welded reinforced plastic liner may also be used for the walls and/or floor of the tank. www.org/facilities. ./design _and.65 for h > 800 mm (interpolation allowed for thicknesses between 300 mm and 800 mm). 0. These forms are primarily associated with private and hotel pools. where AOB Possible revision to C660 Minimum reinforcement As. Act is determined from section properties but generally for basement slabs and walls is most often based on full thickness of the section. 28 days (which considered to be a reasonable approximation) See Table A5 for typical values.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 12 . fctm mean tensile strength when cracking may be first expected to occur: § for early thermal effects 3 days § for long-term effects. .20 (wrt hd/h) B – variable fluctuating water table Structure is almost watertight Design to Tightness class 1 of BS EN 1992-3.. but not necessarily a sufficient amount to limit actual crack widths.min = kc k Act (fct. Design to Tightness Class 1 may be helpful for construction type C 0 (1)c 0. It is simply a necessary amount presumed by models to control cracking.2 mm to 0.20 0. Generally 0. underside of slab Structure is watertight under normal C (cavity) Structure itself is not considered watertight Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 1992-3. When cracking first occurs the cause is usually early thermal effects and the whole section is likely to be in tension.30 (0. This factor accounts for long-term loading.08/10/2012 AOB 2.Structural movement joints should be avoided where possible. . characteristic yield strength of the reinforcement. When cracking first occurs the cause is usually early thermal effects and the whole section is likely to be in tension. k = factor for stess relief. It is simply a necessary amount presumed by models to control cracking. . 1. TR 59[62] concludes that the tensile strength of concrete subjected to sustained tensile stress reduces with time to 60–70% of its instantaneous value..20) Key b Where the section is not fully cracked) the neutral axis depth at SLS should be at least xmin (where xmin > max {50 mm or 0.max wk. See Table 9. Some risk permanently below under exceptio nal conditions. Generally 0. .1 A (membrane) B – high permanently high water table Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 1992-3. area of concrete in the tension zone just prior to onset of cracking.. 500 MPa k = = = k = = = Act Act fct. Generally 0. Is. SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 . The use of tanking membranes in the pool surrounds.75m/day) Max heating rate 0.8 should be applied to fct. See Table 9. See Table 9. See Table 9.2. . . This must be taken into account. . characteristic yield strength of the reinforcement.0 for pure tension. .sportengland. However if tanking is unavoidable great care must be taken .75 Provision of minimum reinforcement does not guarantee any specific crack width.

maintenance of pool water quality. Good workmanship is key and proponents’ efforts in this regard are to be applauded . So where these products are used.. e ctu). GU17 9AB The Concrete Centre is part of the Mineral Products Association. B and C construction is clearly fatuous./idoc.org/facilities./idoc. economic Robustness www. the lack of appropriate design information and the relinquishing of responsibility should cause specifiers and designers some thought. ac . . 4 Meadows Business Park. It is Type B.com S 01276 606800 F 01276 606701 W www.org . All recycled concrete is already being used. e ca.g. .com/swimming_pool_constr uction. • Tank construction: Normally used as benchmark • Other associated costs: Dependant on the under-croft and basements plant room configurations and the contractors allowances for prelims. Camberley. (Usually. e cd.com 4 M eadows Business Park. it is the cracks that cause leakage and concern in Type B structures .. the disruption caused by making good.. The publicity is all very well but we engineers realise that besides joints. where the potential benefits lie.. Aug 2012) that it can satisfy Types A..concretecentre. Type C relies on the cavity. ‘Waterproof concrete’ I note the recent space given to ‘waterproof concrete’. SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 . GU17 9AB 5th September 2012 Concrete (swimming pool) Tanks Guidance on the design of in-situ concrete water retaining structures Dear Sir. increased cement content for angular aggregate.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 13 ...ashx?. See sustainableconcrete. Camberley.sportengland..not the concrete between. Concrete Industry Sustainable Construction Strategy. Yours sincerely Charles Goodchild Principal Structural Engineer The Concrete Centre T 01276 606829 M 07870 179755 E cgoodchild@concretecentre./design _and. html To The Editor of Concrete. these documents may be used to give the appropriate amounts of reinforcement required to restrict crack widths so that in time water ingress stops. Concrete. . 26% of all aggregate is recycled. May be OK for concretes on large projects but: provenance. whilst also ensuring durability and lifecycle qualities: • Recyclable content • BRE green guide rating • Environmental profile. wave action and chemicals Utilized Service life Maintenance Construction • Long construction period for building the concrete shell • Wet trade of finishes require an extensive period for application and curing • Lack of a long term warranty.org/facilities. the cost to our clients. CIRIA C660 and the Eurocodes give us sound principles on which to base our assessment of the likelihood of cracking. • Robust . Unfortunately the effects that waterproofing admixtures have on these properties is largely unknown – despite the best efforts of a recent Concrete Society Working Party to find out./design _and. BS EN 1996 Outline Scope Structural Design • Eurocodes • ULS design • SLS design Materials Specification AOB www.as are the usual warranties to seal any cracks that occur.08/10/2012 AOB Sustainability: environmental Materials – should be selected with regard to their environmental sustainability. Assuming cracks occur.sportengland.uk 92% of concrete surveyed is responsibly sourced. structurally integral protection.. AOB Masonry design has changed too! . T1.ashx?.. To suggest (Success with waterproof concrete. Type A relies on a barrier or membranes and while admittedly a better outer wall will reduce water ingress. • Durable • Stable construction • Workmanship is critical to waterproofing and long term life of the pool Proven long service life. Blackwater.minimal risk of damage from vandalism or pool hall activities. Examples c 100 years Minimal long term maintenance of pool tank structure. structural designers often ignore effects or are reliant on warranties for the design. Re-grouting of ceramic tiles may be required c 20 year intervals. . 45% improvement in energy consuptyion in cement manufacture since 1990 AOB Sustainability: social. the trade association for the aggregates... Life of finishes will depend upon quality of materials. However. Cracking and crack-width calculations are based on fundamental properties of concrete (e. Blackwater.londonswi mmi ngpools. the latent defects period will be 6/12 years and the patent defects period will be12 months) • Long overall construction program Quality control • Resolution of severe defects and leakage can be complex requiring potential drainage of pool and resulting in extended closure • Dimensional control dependant on quality of workmanship on site Costs www.

5a e kckfct. . . . .7. .3 Revision to C660 Structural design .eff [1 + (1/a e r)] /Es 9.eff] /Es e cr ³ 0.9) Basement (Tank) slab options (300 mm thick) NBG Excluding effects of tension 250 mm wall options Excluding effects of tension End restraint rules Edge restraint rules SPATA Training 4 Oct 2012 .7.2 e cr = K[([a cT1 +e ca)] R1 + ([a cT2 R2)] + e cd R3] – 0.eff) (1 + a e rp.5 e ctu 9. . . .1) e cr = 0. .SLS Crack widths and watertightness Tightness Classes .2 Revision to C660 e cr = K[a cT1 +e ca] R1 – 0. . .7. .eff /rp.4 End restraint crack-inducing strain BS EN 1992-3 Exp (M. .08/10/2012 Structural design .2 Early age crack-inducing strain CIRIA C660 Cl 3.7.5 e ctu 9.notes BS EN 1992-3 Cl 7. .5 Flexural (and applied tension) crack-inducing strain e cr = (e sm – e cm) = [s s – kt (fct.6 (s s)/Es BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.Eurocode 2 Part 3 Tanks 14 .3 Long term crack-inducing strain CIRIA C660 Cl 3. 9.SLS e cr = Crack-inducing strain = .