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What does an ad expected to do?

Inform ( unaware to aware)
Emphasize and help identify unfullled need Describe attributes, benets and uses of the product

Advertising Planning
Situation Analysis/ Market Advertising Objectives/ Mission

Persuade ( awareness to intent)

Create feelings of interest, familiarity & liking Create/ strengthen positive associations/ attitudes Weaken negative associations
Message strategy/ Creative Brief Advertising Concept Development Creative Execution and Production Media Objectives (Reach, Freq., GRPs, Budget) Media Strategy & Mix Media buying and operations

Sale/ Retain loyal customers (Intention to Purchase)


Measuring Effectiveness

Situation analysis
The Framework
Marketing Objective and Strategy Product/ Brand Description Market Assessment Size, Growth, Trends Competitive Evaluation SoM, SoV, Messages Consumer/ audience understanding

Understanding Audience/ Buyers

Dening TA (Market)
Where the sales/ usage would come from customers or non-customers? (E-O-N) Awareness and Image Analysis among TA (familiarity- favorability studies)

Advertising Objectives
Sales oriented objectives Communication Eects objective
Cognitive response (Awareness, Knowledge) Aective Response (Liking, Preference, Desire) Behavioral Response (Inquiry, Purchase Action)

WHO ORS Program Objectives 2004/ 05

Increase awareness of WHO-ORS from 78% in 2003 to 85% Increase knowledge of correct preparation message campaign from 41% in 2003 to 55%. Increase the use of WHO-ORS during the last episode of diarrhea to 60% from the existing base year gure of 50%. Increase of ORS sales in urban areas of the target states by 8% (base year 2003) Increase of WHO ORS sales in urban areas of the target states by 14% (base year 2003)

DAGMAR (Dened Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results) - Colley

Awareness, Comprehension, conviction/ purchase intention, Action

Target Audience is very crucial to dene

Advertising Eectiveness Measures

Consumer Response Stage
Exposure Awareness

Understanding Buying Behviour

Understanding buyer behavior/ buying system
Purchase mode Choices Needs & Motives Inuences

Representative Statement
I know brand is advertisied I know that the product or brand exists

Measures of effectiveness
Circulation, Reach Recall Unaided/ Spontaneous Recall Aided recall Recognition Advertising Recall Attitudes Brand Image Inquiries Preferences Intention to buy Trial Sales Market Share Sales/ Share growth


the Product or Brand is relevant to me

Desire Action

I would like to buy the product/ brand I have bought the product/ brand

Buying System
Purchase Mode
Frequent vs. Infrequent Habit/ routine Experiment/ try out/ novelty seeking Search/ seek information/ advice Bargain hunt Impulse/ on-the-spot

Needs & Motives

Rational/ emotional/ Sensual Problem to solve/ Prevention of problem Opportunity Reward/ Gift Self-expression/ Display Ritual Self-indulgence

Advertising Message Strategy

High vs. Low involvement Current brand set/ Other product types Brand Loyalty

Family Friends/ neighbors/ colleagues Shops/ Retailers Fashion Advertising Editorial

Research in Advertising
Provide information base to take decisions related to advertising campaign
Direction to advertising campaign

The Advertising Campaign Stages

Familiarize Strategy Development

Is essentially an aid to minimize failure risks Its role is dierent in dierent stages of an advertising campaign

Campaign Evaluation

Review The Planning Cycle Evaluate



Optimize Advertising Recommendation


Creative Brief

Research inputs - advertising planning cycle


Advertising Research Domain

1. Strategy Development Research: for directions on what needs to be said 2. Creative Development Research: for directions on how it will be said 3. Message evaluation research: for understanding are we saying what we want to say 4. Tracking Research: for understanding eectiveness of our campaign in real life


Hypothesize Tracking Research Message Evaluation Research Creative Development Research Strategy Development Research Synthesize




Strategy Development Research

Determines What I want to say to the consumer? Aims to answer questions such as
Where we are Why are we here Where could we be

Strategy Development Research

Strategy Development Research

Information Areas
Brand Familiarity & Favourability
Understanding of brand, its history and its position in the market Consumers perception about our brand vis--vis competition

Strategy Development Research - Sources of Information

Company marketing intelligence Previous researches with company and agency Syndicated market and consumer information Trade and association studies Census data Primary research data qualitative and quantitative

Needs & Motives:

What drives the category in the market

Prole of the users Buying roles and inuences

Purchase and Consumption Process

Level of his involvement in the purchase Cycle and pattern of his purchase

Strategy Development Research -


Denition of clear and measurable communication objectives Pre-emption of desired consumer response of the communication

Case: Nerolac Paints

Paint Market 2002-03

Asian Paints - the market leader generated a high visibility through its advertising A market with Asian Paints on one side and others including Nerolac on the other
50 40 30 20 10 0 98-99

Paint market a snapshot

Market Shares
Media Spends 02-03 Snowce m 2% Others 3% Asian Paints 49%

GNP 18% J&N 1% ICI 16%

Berger Paints 11%

99-00 GNP



02-03 ICI



Category leader dominates Market Share and SOV

Source: TNS Mode Research

The competitive strengths

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Paint Consumption Home Segment

Level 1
Satisfaction Derived from Level 2 triggers Level 1
Lasts for 12 - 20 weeks

Asian paints is the clear leader Nerolac has all the characteristics of a challenger However, it was not reected in the market shares
TOMA Nerolac Spont Awareness Asian Paints Commu Awareness Berger

Interactive & long decision making process

Buyer home owner/customer


Painter reinforces the brand choice & applicator

Concern: Will the painter cheat me?

Where was the problem?

Level 2
AP 80 80

Lasts for 3 - 5 years

Mean score on leadership Mean score on dynamism

40 40

As compared to Asian Paints Nerolac lacked on parameters of leadership and dynamism

A subject of self indulgence, Concern: Will the new look add to my status? Self expression & social status

Consumption self/ socializing

Complex, long drawn and high involvement consumption

Source: Mind & Mood

Source: TNS Mode Research

Consumer Buying Behaviour

Consumer do not dierentiate between paint brands Buying Process: involved, time consuming Consumer Beliefs:
Six month renovation mood Clear metro and non metro divide Any known brand will do as long as it is the shade of my liking

Decision making on paint types, shades and brands

Decision made by CWE after evaluating various alternatives with painters and dealers Dictated by budgetary constraints

Dominated by wives and children, though a family decision

painting is important for looks of the house premium brands add prestige and lasts longer leader brand is more trustworthy painter & contractors cheat need trusted painter and dealer application process more important than the brand

Decided by CWE. Based on perceptions, peer recommendations and shop visits

Painting cycle: 3-5 years Shop visits for rate negotiations and decision on colour code Trust and leadership important for end consumers
Source: Mind & Mood Source: Mind & Mood

CWE was needed to be convinced more for the brand preference

Nerolacs objective for 03-04

To attain a growth of 20% in 2003-04 over 2002-03
Expected industry growth 8-10%

Strategic directions for Nerolac

Take a leadership stance in communication
Exploit the leadership position of industrial segment

To establish leaders in Industrial paints segment

Improve scores on TOMA Bring the brand in purchase consideration set of end-consumers Inuence the CWE and give him the conviction that choosing Nerolac is the right decision Build empathy amongst intermediate consumers

A difficult task to be achieved with a fraction of media spends as compared to the category leader

Creative Development Research

It determines How should I say it? Aims to answer question
How can we get there?

Creative Development Research

Creative Development Research -

Information Area
Understanding of customers culture Vocabulary consumers use when talking about your category

Creative Development Research -

Sources of info
Primary research with adcepts, scripts or scratch lms Discussions extended creativity groups, brain storming sessions Secondary research Observations

Projective Techniques
Personification of a brand Reveal important product dimensions, look at a product from a new perspective Eg:
Imagine the product as a person/ a friend/ a hero Lux was imagined as a filmstar

Picture Projection
Express things that are dicult to articulate verbally, reveal deep consumer desires, needs and beliefs, nd symbols and analogies for products and brands

Eg: Choose a picture that symbolizes.

What do I wish from the category/product? : For smooth skin, a woman could choose satin cloth as a symbol

Projective User Important information about product/brand image.

Possible competitive advantages of product

Collages: See the product/brand in a symbolic/emotional

context. Identify new relevant product dimensions. Generate new product ideas. Evaluate concepts, get input to develop advertising

Eg: Characterize the typical user of the product or brand and speculates about his/her reasons to use the product

Eg: Create the world of a product or the world of a brand.

like If your child was healthy, what would his world look

Future Scenario Identify unmet/not yet satisfactorily met consumer

needs. Generate ideas for product improvement

Specialty Shops Generate ideas for new products. Identify unmet

consumer needs

Eg: 10 years from now, how would you wash your clothes?

Eg: Imagine a shop which oers a wide variety of products but only of
one product class

Creative Team Get input for copy development. Generate new
concept ideas. Evaluate/improve already developed concepts

Tell a story Advantages/disadvantages of a product Eg: Invent a story about a person using a product,
describing the usage circumstances, experiences etc. A story about two competitive products that meet each other

Eg: Competitive teams (potential consumers) create an ad for a

product /brand

Role Play Give descriptors for a product in consumer
language, identify key benets

Best Experience Express consumer desires, describe product

superiority and emotional benets in consumer language

Eg: A salesman tries to convince a customer about

the product or two friends recommend a product to the other

Eg: Imagine the best possible experience with a product and your
feelings towards it

Biggest Frustration Reveal the consumers fears and emotional

components of dissatisfaction

Analogies Shows deep consumer beliefs and ultimate needs.

Input for concepts and ad development

Eg: Describe your worst possible experience with a product

Eg: Look for analogies for the working mechanism of a product or for a
certain ingredient. Find analogies to describe the positive results after using a product (fresh as..)

Creative Development Research -

Sentence Completion Spontaneous reactions and tom benet

Eg: If I would have plenty of money

Drinking orange juice makes me feel like .. I buy Head & Shoulders because...

Judgment on how the ad strategy could be communicated as creative ideas and enhancement of these ideas further Most persuasive and unique promise

Nerolac: Creative Challenges

The creative challenge for 2003-04
To provide Nerolac with an aura of leadership To change consumer mindset
In paints I can choose between Nerolac and Asian

Case: Nerolac Paints

To change trade mindset

Nerolac is the only challenge to Asian Paints

Nerolac Creative Decisions

Use a celebrity to create high TOMA Celebrity who can give stature of a leader to the brand Celebrity should not dominate the brand and yet command a high respect from end- consumers as well as intermediary consumers Leverage the leadership in industrial paint segment

Celebrity Selection
Following celebrities were considered for the task
Amitabh Bachchan Shah Rukh Khan Sachin Tendulkar Priety Zinta Aishwarya Rai Aamir Khan Rahul Dravid

The consideration was based on the popularity of celebrities at that point in time

Celebrity Selection
A litmus and a spider was conducted to check suitability of the celebrities for the brand Each celebrity was checked on various parameters including leadership aura Amitabh Bachchan was found to be best suited for the task

AB seen as a true leader

Internal study using litmus
No politician today seen as true leaders Among celebrities the unanimous choice of a true leader was AB

Outlook study - May 2003

Who would you want as PM of India? Amitabh Bachchan 90%

AB personality traits
Heritage, Indian Family oriented

Amitabh Bachchan & Nerolac Finding a personality t

Sophisticated Smart conversationalist Confident, Intelligent Mature, Knowledgeable Friend, philosopher, guide Role model for youth Enduring Larger than life
Source- Cogito Consulting study Published secondary data

Nerolac brand personality

Indian, Traditional Family oriented

Personality Fit
AB Nerolac
Young Cool Fun Relaxed Technology savvy Reputed

Sophisticated Confident Young, Cool Fun, Relaxed Technology savvy Reputed

Source- Drshti VIP Findings

Mature Indian Knowledgeable Traditional Friend, philosopher, Family oriented guide Role model for youth Sophisticated Smart conversationalist Confident Enduring Intelligent Larger than life

Personality t - AB and Nerolac

No major disconnect between Nerolac & AB AB could be portrayed in one of the following context
Indian, Traditional, Family oriented Sophisticated, Condent, Intelligent

Using Amitabh Bachchan

Working with Amitabh Bachchan was not easy
He is has a larger than life aura He could have easily dominated the brand Dicult to create a brand association with him as he was overexposed - working in movies, TV shows and was endorsing too many brands

AB has a high aura and a larger than life persona

whereas the personality of Nerolac is not that strongly established in the minds of the consumers

Thus Nerolac can absorb some of ABs qualities

however reverse may not be accepted by the people

They studied his movies and the advertisements he endorsed


How he reinvented himself

From angry young man taking on the institution

AB in films 2002
Three films released Only Kaante did a little better on box office!
Kaante: Played the tough, canny leader

To an institution himself

Hum kisi se kam nahin: Played a comical character Aankhen: Played a negative character

The transformed AB
AB of 70s Using him in this avatar is irrelevant today as there would be major disconnect in consumers mind Not successful in this avatar in last decade AB of 2003 Has immense relevance today Seen as a person with stature and commands respect in large part of India Cuts across segments

Brands endorsed by Amitabh Bachchan

Maruti Versa Pulse Polio ICICI Parker Pepsi BPL Mirinda

Interface research May 03

Dipstick ndings
Brand BPL Pepsi Parker ICICI Versa Spont. Recall 27 27 23 22 18

AB & other endorsed brand t

Heritage, Indian Family oriented Pulse polio Sophisticated Smart conversationalist Confident, Intelligent Mature, Knowledgeable Friend, philosopher, guide Role model for youth Enduring Larger than life Mirinda - Fun
- Young - Frivolous Unsuccessful

Versa ICICI Pepsi



Parker Celebrity- huge fan following But there is another side to him He is human like any of us - Can be fooled/ not always wise - Can loose composure - Has his weaker moments Pepsi Celebrity with huge fan following People willing to do anything for him But he can be humbled - by child who sees him as an ordinary man He has his weaknesses

Versa Frivolous style of conversation, Competing with his son

BPL Indian Confident/ great self belief/ pride But not arrogance Inspiring, motivator Deep thinker ICICI Friend, philosopher, guide Advisor, expert Pulse Polio Friend, philosopher, Advisor Warm and caring Firm and angry when necessary Responsible Indian social citizen

Inference 1
BPL has highest recall, despite being o air for many years
Gained the rst mover advantage Using him in a relevant persona has also led to high memorability

5 broad personality traits of AB have been portrayed in the various ads -

Entertainer Comical role Completely mass Lacks sophistication/ class

Pepsi Entertainer Traditional, Indian Can turn negative into a positive

Inference 2
Irrelevant brand personality will lead to brand losing out on ABs aura Mirinda has no recall
Personality of AB was not relevant Postman who runs away with a woman

Parker Celebrity- huge fan following But there is another side to him He is human like any of us - Can be fooled/ not always Fits well with low wise involvement/ impulse - Can loose composure - Has his weaker moments products. Pepsi involvement serious Celebrity with huge fan products. following People willing to do anything for him But he can be humbled - by child who sees him as an ordinary man He has his weaknesses

No personality sync. Did Versa not work well for Versa, Frivolous style of conversation, went against ABs Competing with his son acceptability boundaries.

Pulse Polio Friend, philosopher, Advisor Warm and caring Firm and angry when necessary Responsible Indian social citizen BPL Indian Confident/ great self Option 2 belief/ pride But not arrogance Authority, Inspiring, Leader motivator Deep thinker ICICI Friend, philosopher, guide Advisor, expert

No sync with high

Personality options 5 broad personality for Nerolac traits of AB have been

portrayed in the various ads -

Versa failure
Failure could be due to a poor product But failure could have been minimized by capturing ABs aura through relevant personality
Need to get perfect personality to have our brand stand out in the clutter Need to ensure that we do not convert the greatest opportunity into a mishap

No personality sync. Did not Mirinda work well for Mirinda went Entertainer against ABs acceptability Comical role boundaries. Completely mass
Lacks sophistication/ class

Option 1 Entertainer Traditional, Indian Traditional, Indian Can turn negative into a Patriarch positive


KBC Promos Helpful advisor to ordinary citizens Witty/ fun -playfully teases people

Nerolac Theme Commercial

Nerolac Theme Commercial


Advertising Message Strategy

How product benet would solve consumer problem/ satisfy the need

Source factors
Message Sources: Celebrity, employee, common man, spokes characters, experts (testimonials/endorsement/ acting) 3 key attributes of source (Herbert Kelman)
Perceived knowledge, skills, experience, trustworthiness of the source Message adoption by process of internalization Likely to inhibit counterargument Two dimensions: Expertise (knowledge, skills, experience) and Trustworthy (honest, ethical, believable)

Source Structure/Format
Appeal: form of underlying content. attract the attention and inuence feelings towards the product/ service/ cause Execution style: way the content/ appeal is presented.

Articulated in Creative Brief Alternatively called communication strategy, creative strategy or copy strategy

Source factors
3 dimensions: Similarity, Familiarity, Likeability Persuasion through a process of identication Receiver seeks a kind of relationship with the source and adopts the similar beliefs, attitudes, preferences, etc. Familiarity/ Likeability : Celebrity endorsers Celebrity selection

Informational/ Rational
Feature News Competitive Advantage Popularity Favorable price

Overshadowing the product, overexposure, Target audiences receptivity, Risk to advertiser Matching of celebrity personality, product image and characteristics of target audience becomes important Meaning moves in 3 stages in endorsement process: from context, objects, persons to celebrity (through culture), meaning moves from celebrity to product by endorsement and it moves from product to consumer by purchase/ consuption

Emotional Other

Personal State ( Fear, Love, Happiness, Pleasure, Pride, Grief, etc.) Social-based (Recognition, Status, Respect, Rejection, Approval) Reminder Teaser


Likeability: Decorative models. May attract attention to ad but not always to the product/ brand Ability to administer reward/ punishment to the audience 3 dimensions : perceived control, perceived concern, perceived scrutiny More seen in personal communications


ELM: Elaboration Likelihood Model


Rossiter-Percy Grid
Informational Motive Low Involvement
Detergent Proprietary Medicine

Peripheral Route
Motivation to Process Information Yes Ability to Process Information Yes High Elaboration/ Logical Arguments/ Reasons No Surrounding Cue Present No No No Attitude Change

Transformational Motive
Chocolate Beer/Beverages Cigarettes

Central Route


Problem-solution Format

Drama/Humour format
Jewelry Motorbike Fashion Clothing

High Involvement

Cars Financial Services Durables

Enduring Attitude Change

Temporary Attitude Change

Comparative/ Refutational


FCB Planning Model

Thinking Habit Formation Strategy
Products: Food, Household Items Low Involvement Model: Do-Learn-Feel Media: electronic, repetitive Creative: Problem solution, Exaggeration, Reminder , Demonstration


Feeling Self-satisfaction
Products: Cigarettes, Liquor, Chocolates Model: Do-Feel-Learn Media: electronic, POS Outdoor Creative: Drama, Humour, Celebrity, Attention,

Informative Strategy
High Involvement Products: Car, House, nancial products Model: Learn-Feel-Do Media: Long Copy formats, reective/ interactive Vehicles Creative: Specic Information, Demonstration, Comparative

Aective Strategy
Products: Jewelry, Fashion, cosmetics Model: Feel-Learn-Do Media: Large Space, Image Creative: Executional Impact, Sexy