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Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine Cinética da Salga de Filé de Tilápia Utilizando Pequenos

Volumes de Salmoura
Salted tilapia fillet could provide a very good meat alternative for rural populations in tropical regions, where access to refrigeration is limited. Data on the behaviour of this low-fat meat fish during osmotic dehydration using small volumes of brine are scarce. Therefore, the changes occurring in water activity, moisture content, weight loss and sodium chloride uptake of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets, osmotically dehydrated in small volumes of brine, were studied. The influence of the initial brine concentration (20-26% NaCl w/w), the fillet/brine volume ratios, Vb/Vf, (3/1-5/1), and the temperature (10-20°C) on salting, were analysed. In addition, the equilibrium conditions were determined. Water activities, water contents and the sodium chloride concentrations were around 0.81-0.88, 0.62-0.71 g/g (w.b.) and 17.97-13.21 g/100 g (w.b.), respectively. The initial brine concentration and the fillet/brine volume ratio had a significant (p<0.05) effect on the equilibrium values for the water activity, moisture content and sodium chloride concentration. Temperature significantly (p<0.05) affected the decrease in water activity and moisture content as well as the rate of sodium chloride diffusion.

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Departamento de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Facultad de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Jr. Maynas 179, Tarapoto, Perú

P . J. do A. SOBRAL
Department of Food Engineering. Faculty of Zootechnology and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, CEP 13635-900, Pirassununga, SP , Brasil.

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP , Brazil. E-mail:

A salga de filés de tilápia pode representar uma alternativa muito boa de conservação da carne deste peixe, para populações rurais, com acesso restrito à refirgeração. Dados sobre o comportamento dos filés do tilápia, quando submetidos à desidratação osmótica, em volumes limitados de solução, são escassos. Assim, cinéticas de redução de atividade de água e de umidade, de perda de peso e de ganho de cloreto de sódio no músculo de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), utilizando volumes limitados de salmoura, foram estudadas. Foi avaliada a influência da concentração inicial de salmoura, CSI, (20-26 %, p/p), da razão entre ol volume de salmoura e o volume de filé, Vs/Vf, (3/1-5/1) e da temperatura, T, (10-20°C). Além disso, foram determinadas as condições de equilíbrio para cada ensaio. Nos filés, a atividade de água, umidade e o conteúdo de cloreto de sódio alcançaram valores de equilíbrio nas faixas de 0,81 a 0,88; 0,62 a 0,71 g/g (b.u) e 17,97 a 13,21 g/100 g (b.u.), respectivamente. A concentração inicial de salmoura e a razão de volumes (Vs/Vf) influenciaram significativamente (p<0.05) nos valores de equilíbrio alcançados. A temperatura influiu na velocidade de redução da atividade de água e umidade e na velocidade de difusão do cloreto de sódio, dentro do filé.

Fish; Osmotic dehydration; Kinetics; Salting; Water activity. Pescado; Desidratação osmótica; Cinética; Salga; Atividade de água.

Braz. J. Food Technol., v.9, n.1, p. 9-17, jan./mar. 2006


Recebido / Received: 04/04/2005. Aprovado / Approved: 25/01/2006.

the main physical characteristics of the fish and fillets were evaluated. BERAQUET et al. canning and marinated fish processes. in particular. M. 2. 1991. within 24 h after capture. 0. 2002). w/w) and solution/fish ratio (3/1– 5/1) on the decrease in water activity and weight loss and NaCl gain of tilapia muscle during salting.74-0. The fish weight ranged from 83-110 g and the length from 16-19 cm. ESCRICHE et al. representing a combination of the first two techniques. their respective water activities were not. 2002).D.1-17. 9-17.63 cm thick with a density of 1. 16. Dry salting. and this allowed for the analysis of a wide range of variables.000 t in 1998. The consumption of this species has been steadily increasing in Brazil and the national production reached 35. 1998 and Mohsenin./mar. BERISTAIN et al. Although the initial concentrations of brine (ICB) were very close.. The other two methods are recommended for fatty fish since the brine serves as a barrier to oxygen. but JOSUPEIT. (1990). crude lipids.98%.. 2002). in which the fish fillets are placed in brine. saturated brine. Before each experiment. is highly appreciated due to its low fat content. However. 1996. 1983. (1994) evaluated the effects of four salting methods (15% brine.1. The highest levels of the three nutrients were observed in the fresh mackerel preserved by pickling and in saturated brine. after Taiwan and China. Sodium chloride. Dry salted fish had the lowest values for lysine.. (2002).. The use of small volumes implies significant changes in solution composition during the process. pineapple.L. Salting is also an important step in smoking. No recent data on Brazilian fish production or consumption can be found in the literature. in which fish fillets and salt are piled in alternate layers. Although wet salting may catalyse some oxidation.6%. low cost and high quality conservation of the products (Del VALLE & NICKERSON. 81. BARAT et al. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was used as the osmotic agent at different concentrations (20%. ZORRILLA & RUBIOLO (1991) and MEDINA-VIVANCO et al. the extent of damage is less intense than in dry salting (SMITH et al.) process widely used to concentrate solids in foods initially rich in water. but complimentary data are still needed. 1994). 0. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was bought at the local market in Campinas and stored on ice until used. pickling and dry salting) on lysine.. 2002). has a considerable influence on water activity reduction. the cost of discarding or recycling large volumes of solution is a limiting factor for the industrial application of this approach. 1995). LEITÃO et al. (1983). 2.0-82. 2004 published a study showing that in 2002 Brazil was the third largest exporter of frozen tilapia to the European Union. Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine 1. salting converts fresh fish into shelf-stable products by reducing the water activity. increasing from 32 to 38% of the total Brazilian fish production in two years (MINISTERIO DA AGRICULTURA E ABASTECIMENTO. Braz. the objective was to analyse the influence of temperature (10-20°C). the product is also heavy-salted. 1967. determined according to Medina Vivanco. a dry salting in which the brine formed is not drained.. The process consists of immersing whole products (or slices) in hypertonic solutions.77% and ash. and also showed non-enzymatic browning due to greater exposure to air. Food Technol. 1995. thereby avoiding lipid oxidation. 1994). et al. v. BEIRÃO et al. 1994.MEDINA-VIVANCO.069 g/cm3. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). including CONWAY et al. The fillets were 0. 23% and 26% w/w) and the solutions were prepared by dissolving the desired amount of NaCl in distilled water. 3. but with a considerable higher yield (BARAT et al. thiamine and riboflavin levels in mackerel. Fish oils are very susceptible to atmospheric oxidation and have little protection from such damage in salted-dried fish (MORAIS and SILVEIRA. In this paper. Since the membrane is only partially selective. 1990).065-1. an important fish farmed in various parts of the world.. respectively. Concentration results from the simultaneous outward diffusion of water and solute. NKETSIATABIRI & SEFA-DEDEH. n. respectively. INTRODUCTION Fish salting is a widely used method of preservation because of its relative simplicity.50-0. 1983. The equilibrium values for the different process conditions were also determined. Wet salting. In the case of saturated brine salting. Pickle salting. p. Only a few studies have used small volumes. eviscerated and filleted and the skin and ventral bones removed.9.55-0. cheese and fish salting. There are three main salting methods: 1.. Most experimental studies on osmotic dehydration and salting by immersion in NaCl solutions (wet salting) have used an excess of solution to assure negligible solution composition variation and to make interpretation and modelling easier (RAOULT-WACK. who investigated the osmotic dehydration of apple. where access to refrigeration is limited. crude protein. caused by the water and solute activity gradients across the cell membrane. thereby avoiding the formation of brine. 2005). 2006 10 . In combination with drying. jan. The salting of Tilapia fillet could provide a very good meat alternative for rural populations in tropical regions.. Wet salting is an osmotic dehydration (O. initial brine concentration (20-26%. The proximate composition of the fillets was: moisture content. SURONO et al. mainly because of its low molecular weight and ionisation capacity. The behaviour of this low-fat meat of fish during osmotic dehydration using small volumes of brine was previously studied (MEDINA-VIVANCO et al. Dry salting is mainly used to salt cod. and solute uptake by the food can be calculated from the residual concentration in the solution from the mass balance (MEDINA-VIVANCO et al.. but is not recommended for fatty fish. The fishes were washed. there is always some solute diffusion from the food into the solution (RAOULT-WACK. possibly because of increased lipid oxidation. J..1%. 1986. BERHIMPON et al.

Two samples were also used for the measurement of the sodium chloride content. SG∞.. J.MEDINA-VIVANCO. Simultaneously. were calculated by extrapolating the plotted experimental points as a function of time (t).1 Salting procedure The fillets and brine were equilibrated at the desired temperature (10-20°C). initial concentration of brine (ICB) (20–26% w/w) and brine volume:fillet ratio (R. the salt content at equilibrium and S2 is a constant.b.3 Experimental design Two experimental designs based on the response surface method were used. the flasks were removed from the bath and the brine drained and weighed. et al. Yt = P1 + P2 e(-t/P3 ) + P4 e(-t/P5 ) ICB (% w/w) (-1) 20 ( 0) 23 (+1) 26 (-1) 20 ( 0) 23 (+1) 26 (-1) 20 ( 0) 23 (+1) 26 (1) R (Vb/Vf) (-1) 3/1 (-1) 3/1 (-1) 3/1 ( 0) 4/1 ( 0) 4/1 ( 0) 4/1 (+1) 5/1 (+1) 5/1 (+1) 5/1 where Yt is the dependent variable (moisture content. 2006 11 . Factorial design 32*. v. PEARSON (1976) and BLIGH & DYER (1959).L. The weight loss (WL) was calculated as the difference between the weight of the fillets before and after salting. the equilibrium sodium chloride content (g/100 g. The water activity was determined using an Aqualab CX2T (Decagon. 1995) was used for the statistical analyses of the results and to establish the response surfaces with a significance level > 95%.) was obtained by fitting equation 2 (AZUARA et al.b. The second design (B) was a central composite design involving three factors and two levels (Table 2). depending on their total final weight. weighed (Mt) and then ground and homogenized.. 15 or 20°C).0. respectively. The moisture content was determined according to LANARA (1981). using equation (2) (AZUARA et al. For the experiments done at 20°C. p. which involves direct titration with AgNO3 using K2CrO4 as the indicator. Braz. Two samples were taken from the minced fillets for the water activity determination. P3. M. 2. in order to evaluate the kinetics of the whole process.Decagon Devices Inc. USA) coupled to a water bath at 25°C. Equilibrium was considered to be the point where their values were equal to: ( aw osmotic solution 2. ash and crude lipid contents were obtained using the standard methods recommended by the AOAC (1975).9. 5/1) at 20°C. Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine 2. The fillets and brine were then placed in a shaking water bath for up to 24h. were then dried on absorbent paper. P4 and P5. Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 *(coded) and real values ICB: initial concentrations of brine R: brine volume:fillet ratio = aw liquid in food ) The equilibrium moisture content for all the trials. 4 or 5 times the volume of the fillets).. P2. moisture content. which was used to quantify the combined effects of temperature (T) (10-20°C). although equilibrium was reached at around 13h of process. Subsequently three samples were used for the moisture content determination and another two for the determination of the sodium chloride contents. Eight to twelve flasks were used for each trial in order to guarantee that the brine/fillet ratios were constant at each time. weighed (Mi) and labelled before being placed in 500 ml flasks with the brine at different temperatures (10. jan. concentration (20. Two or three fillets.2 Analytical methods The sodium chloride level was determined by quantification of the Cl.1. including three repetitions at the central point.0 © (StatSoft Inc. and was used to evaluate the effect of the initial concentrations of brine (ICB) (20-26 % w/w) and the brine volume:fillet ratio (R. t is the time and P1. 1992) to the experimental data. are parameters of the equation.ions using the modified method of Mohr (NEVES. 4/1. The first design (A) was a factorial design involving two factors and three levels (Table 1). 1998).. NaCl content). In the second design.) at 10°C and 15°C. 23 and 26% w/w) and volumes (3. 1992) and the software Microcal Origin® 4. Vb/Vf) (3/1-5/1). S t ( SG ¥) SG = 2 1+ S 2 t (2) where SG represents the salt content at time t. The crude protein. w. The fillets were gently blotted to remove surface moisture. The software Statistica 5. At the end of the experiment. In both designs. water activity and sodium chloride content in the fillet. with three readings per sample./mar. USA). as well as the sodium chloride equilibrium concentrations (g/100g. The water activity of the fillets at equilibrium was obtained by comparison with the water activity of the brine over time. n. the dependent variables were weight loss. 9-17. two samples of the drained brine were taken for the water activity determinations. TABLE 1. Vb/Vf) (3/1. 11 experimental runs were used. The water activity was determined using a Decagon CX-2T hygrometer (Aqualab . Food Technol. w.

The influence of ICB and R(Vb/Vf) on the equilibrium values of water activity and moisture content are shown in the response surfaces in Figures 2 and 3. since it establishes the conditions to avoid bacterial growth and to define product stability.94 Temperature.00 0. The values decreased with time. R=1/5 ICB=23% .88 0.L.98 0. from the start of the process to around FIGURE 3. The initial brine concentration had an important influence on the equilibrium values. R=1/3 ICB=26% .9. Central composite design with three replicates at the centre point* Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 *real and (coded) values T: Temperature ICB: initial concentrations of brine R: brine volume:fillet ratio T (oC) 10 (-1) 20 (+1) 10 (-1) 20 (+1) 10 (-1) 20 (+1) 10 (-1) 20 (+1) 15 (0) 15 (0) 15 (0) ICB (% w/w) 20 (-1) 20 (-1) 26 (+1) 26 (+1) 20 (-1) 20 (-1) 26 (+1) 26 (+1) 23 (0) 23 (0) 23 (0) R (Vb/Vf) 3/1 (-1) 3/1 (-1) 3/1 (-1) 3/1 (-1) 5/1 (+1) 5/1 (+1) 5/1 (+1) 5/1 (+1) 4/1 (0) 4/1 (0) 4/1 (0) 200 min and 300 min for aw.84 0. The initial period involved a high mass transfer rate. as well as the brine volume/fillet ratio. which had a pronounced effect. R=1/3 ICB=23% . Effect of ICB and R(Vb\Vf) on the equilibrium water activity of tilapia fillets at 20°C. Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine TABLE 2. 2006 12 . jan. 3.0035). with both variables being statistically significant (p<0. p. et al.96 0.1. R=1/4 ICB=26% . and a second period. 0. Therefore fillet water activity can be used as a reference.86 0. 1.1 First experimental design The decrease in water activity (aw) for ICB and R (Vb/Vf) at 20°C is shown in Figure 1 (the standard deviation for the water activity was 0. in which the mass transfer rates had decreased drastically and the water activity showed a tendency to constant values. 20°C ICB=20% .05). Effect of ICB and R(Vb\Vf) on the equilibrium moisture content of tilapia fillets at 20°C. The equilibrium values for aw and the moisture content decreased as the initial brine concentration and the brine volume/fillet ratio increased. From a practical point of view.90 0. it is convenient to stop the process at the end of the initial period./mar. R=1/5 ICB=26% . due to the low aw reduction observed during the second period (after 300 min of process).92 0.MEDINA-VIVANCO. J. R=1/4 ICB=20% . Braz. but the ICB had a greater effect on the aw values than R (Vb/Vf). R=1/4 ICB=23% . The analysis of the kinetic data (Figure 1) showed that there were two reduction phases. v.. R=1/3 ICB=20% . R=1/5 Water activity FIGURE 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.82 0 200 400 600 800 Time (min) FIGURE 1. 9-17. Kinetics of the water activity decrease in tilapia fillets at 20°C. Food Technol. n. M.

1/4) (CSI. 9-17. 1983. In the first stage. 20%. R=1/5 ICB=23% . According to VOSKRESENSKY (1965). v. followed by a decrease. Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine Figure 4 shows the kinetics of salt uptake by the fillets at 20°C. the weight loss began to decrease when the moisture content reached a constant value. The decrease in driving force with time was reflected in the increase in fillet NaCl concentration and the dilution of the brine by water migration.1/3) (CSI...1/3) FIGURE 6. 20 C ICB=20% . The levels of sodium chloride in the tilapia fillets were similar to those obtained by some authors using large volumes of brine (BERAQUET & BARRERA.9. 25 20 Weight loss (%) 15 10 FIGURE 4. R. Weight loss of the Tilapia fillets as a function of time at 20°C. R. (1992).L. The weight loss (WL) of the fillets increased considerably during the first 200 min at 20°C and reached a maximum around 300-500 min. jan. 20%.1/4) (CSI. 23%. brine volume /fillet ratios used in this work were appropriate for the wet salting process. 26%. R. R=1/3 ICB=26% .1/4) (CSI. R. J. ESCRICHE et al.1/3) (CSI.1/5) (CSI. 1995). BEIRÃO et al. Comparing these results to those obtained for the moisture and sodium chloride (Figure 4) contents of the tilapia fillets. R=1/5 o FIGURE 5. R. The outer layer of the fillet controls the rate Braz. 26%. 1996.MEDINA-VIVANCO. R. R. 20%. 23%.1/5) (CSI.. There was a rapid increase in salt content at the start.1. R. 2006 13 . 23%. R=1/5 ICB=26% . M. 5 0 0 200 400 Time (min) 600 800 (CSI. The high rate of salt intake at the beginning of the process was caused by the large gradient between the osmotic pressure and the salt concentration in the brine and in the fillets. n. Effects of ICB and R(Vb\Vf) on the NaCl content of tilapia fillets at 20°C. R. 18 16 NaCl content (g/100 g. these results can be explained by the existence of three stages in the salting process. R=1/3 ICB=23% . which indicated an initial period of high transfer rate in the first 200 min. The solid lines represent the values generated by the equation of AZUARA et al. R=1/4 ICB=26% . Therefore. NaCl contents of Tilapia fillets as a function of time at 20°C. R=1/3 ICB=20% ./mar. R=1/4 ICB=23% . 26%. et al. The initial brine concentration had an important influence whereas the brine volume /fillet ratio had little effect. before decreasing (Figure 6). The influence of ICB and R (Vb/Vf) on the equilibrium values for salt uptake can be seen in the response surfaces shown in Figure 5. wet basis) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 200 400 Time (min) 600 800 Temperature. R=1/4 ICB=20% . Food Technol. whereas the concentration of sodium chloride continued to increase.1/5) (CSI. p. the fillet is exposed to high osmotic pressures and the active movement of salt into the fillet is accompanied by an even more active movement of water from the fillet into the surrounding brine.

91 12.061 0.084 P3 1. At this stage. BERHIMPON et al.7 183. BERAQUET et al. although it is a smaller one. Food Technol.14 P4 0. the osmotic pressure still exerts an influence.104 0. the latter ceases and no further weight decrease is observed.0 184. As a result.4 65.036 0. TABLE 3. 9-17. produced a very good fit to the salt content experimental data as a function of time at 20°C.5 133..698 0. et al..999 0. Towards the end of this stage.L.652 0.879 0.24 109.838 0. the limits of the high rate period showed a shift towards the right.087 0..812 Moisture content (P1) (g/g. At 10°C.994 0.068 0.066 0. the equilibrium water activities and moisture contents were higher than those reported by others (LEITÃO et al. The equilibrium moisture contents determined by fitting equation 2 and its parameters are summarized in Table 3.24 8. a similar response was obtained in the other trials..41 12.072 0.00 T = 20°C .042 0.844 0. yeasts and strict halophilic microorganisms may find conditions to grow and develop. M. possibly through the formation of sodium chloride-protein complexes that reduce the salt concentration in the cellular fluid. 1983.633 0.95 Water Activity 0. indicating longer process times. R = 1/4 ICB = 20 % aw of fillet a w of brine 0.17 31. 1.813 0. 1996). As a consequence the fish weight increases slightly. w.869 0. v.661 0. p. BERHIMPON et al.669 0. Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine of salt penetration./mar.80 0 200 400 Time ( min ) 600 800 FIGURE 7.996 0. respectively. which is a model developed by AZUARA et al. jan.86 13. the results obtained were good. 1983.873 0.995 aw : water activity ICB: initial concentrations of brine Vb/Vf : brine volume:fillet ratio Braz.9. ICB (% w/w) 20 Vb/Vf 3/1 4/1 5/1 23 3/1 4/1 5/1 26 3/1 4/1 5/1 aw 0. since moulds.829 0.1. Any decrease in the superficial amount of salt is immediately compensated by an additional salt uptake from the brine. Equation 2.991 0. minor quantities of salt move into the fish.b.079 0. 3.45 11. In the second stage. Considering that the maximum concentration used was 26% and that it did not remain constant since only a small volume was used. There is no great difference between the rate of the salt moving rate into the fillet and that of water leaving the fillet. n. BEIRÃO et al. Table 4 and Figure 4 also show the values of the other parameter (S2) and equation 2 the fitted curves. who used different methods of salting (dry salting or pickling). J. 1991.9 126.90 0. additional salt moves from the brine into the fillet because of the disturbed equilibrium in the latter.639 0.00 6.058 0. (1992). and the parameters (P1-5) of equation 2.997 0. 2006 14 ..14 3.7 131.062 0. Water activity of Tilapia fillets and brine as a function of time.2 Second experimental design The decreases in moisture content and water activity under different conditions of ICB.MEDINA-VIVANCO.7 R2 0.097 0.998 0. In the third stage.) 0. a partial redistribution of the salt and water uptakes occurs within the muscle.994 0.685 0.702 0.086 0. Figure 7 illustrates the variations in water activity of the fillets and brine during the process. Figure 6 shows the large effect of the initial brine concentration and the moderate influence of the volume ratio on weight loss.995 0.087 0. Equilibrium water activity and moisture content in thetilapia fillets at 20°C. In general. (1991) reported similar behaviour for yellowtail salting. The salt concentration in the surface layer of the muscle tissue is equal to that of the surrounding brine.099 P5 124. R (Vb/Vf) and temperature are summarized in Figures 8 and 9.107 0. There were no significant differences between these values and those obtained experimentally (Table 4). The final water activities and salt contents of these fillets were adequate to prevent the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms.856 0. considerable weight loss occurs and no major chemical changes occur.092 0. but when developing an industrial process a more detailed microbiological analysis would be recommended.6 175. and the fillets retain the odour and taste of raw fish. At the end of the second stage.85 0.628 P2 0.

ICB (g/100 g) 20 Vb/Vf 3/1 4/1 5/1 23 3/1 4/1 5/1 26 3/1 4/1 5/1 NaCl content NaCl content (g/100 g. which fitted the data very well.999 0.004. RV : 5/1 T : 20 oC. R: 1/5 o 0 200 400 Time (min) 600 800 FIGURE 9. 0. This could probably be attributed to the greater fat content and to the skin in mackerel.L. ICB: 20%. The displacement of the high rates towards the right is also remarkable. RV : 5/1 ICB = 20 % w/w 0.75 T: 20 C. The temperature had an important effect on salting kinetics. et al. and the parameter (S2) of equation 2. (1991) for the salting of yellowtail.1. Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine TABLE 4. w. A statistical analysis confirmed the significant effects (p<0.85 ICB = 26 % w/w T: 10 o C. water activity and salt uptake were. RV : 4/1 T : 10 oC.45 15.05) of the ICB and of the ratio (Vb/Vf) on these values.49 16.) (g/100 g.70 0. w. 0. R: 1/5 T: 20 o C. The kinetics of fillet salt uptake.80 Moisture content (g/g. Figure 11 shows a polynomial relationship between the sodium chloride content and water activity of the fillets. p. R: 1/5 T: 20 o C. Therefore. v.MEDINA-VIVANCO. was poor.73 14.16 15. ICB: 26%.97 13. Similar behaviour was observed for the decrease in Braz.0465 0.968 0.998.05 15. but the temperature had no effect on the equilibrium values. J.9. respectively. RV : 3/1 T : 10 oC. Thus. contrary to that of equation 2. Equilibrium was earlier reached for the trials at 20°C. shown in Figure 10. R: 1/3 0.0527 0.21 17. Kinetics of the moisture content loss in the Tilapia fillets at 10°C and 20°C.b. The quality of the fit of equation 3 to the experimental data obtained at 10°C and 15°C.b.0477 0. ICB: 26%.34 18.21 14.995 0.997 0. (1991) reported similar behaviour during the salting of mackerel and yellowtail. ICB: 26%. the water activity of the fillets was only dependent on the sodium chloride concentration..73 17. RV : 5/1 T : 15 oC. Food Technol.0562 0. RV : 5/1 T : 20 oC. jan. the equilibrium data calculated with equation 2 are presented in Table 5.90 ICB: initial concentrations of brine Vb/Vf : brine volume:fillet ratio ICB = 23 % w/w 0.80 T: 20 o C.0509 R2 moisture content and for salt gain. 1. RV : 3/1 T : 10 oC. but differ from those published by BERAQUET et al.) T: 10 o C.0406 0. These results confirm that the values were independent of temperature. The latter authors reported no differences in the penetration rate during the salting of this fish.003 and 0.71 16. RV : 3/1 T : 20 oC. CSI: 20%. 2006 15 .995 0. ICB: 26%.b. especially during the first hours of the process. The analysis at the central point during salting showed there was little variation in water activity amongst the experiments. w. In this situation the standard deviations for moisture content. ICB: 20%./mar. (1983) for mackerel (Scomber japonicus) salting. These results agree with the data obtained by BERHIMPON et al. RV : 3/1 T : 20 oC. Kinetics of the decrease in the water activity of Tilapia fillets at different temperatures.08 17.58 15.0410 0. 0.999 0.59 18. presenting a coefficient of determination (r2) close to 0.0359 0.992 0.996 0. R: 1/3 T: 10 o C. The salt levels in fish muscle at equilibrium did not depend on the temperature. BERAQUET & BARRERA (1983) and BERHIMPON et al.28 13.0511 0. indicate an increase in the salt levels with time. R: 1/3 T: 10 o C. R: 1/3 0. M.991 0.06 14. R: 1/5 0.65 0 200 400 Time (min) 600 800 FIGURE 8. Sodium chloride penetration showed a similar trend to that of the equilibrium values for water activity and moisture content. n.00 0. ICB: 20%.03 S2 0.) Experimental Equation (3) 12. respectively. carried out from 4 to 25°C.08. NaCl uptake at equilibrium in tilapia fillets at 20°C. 9-17.95 Water Activity T : 10 oC. for the conditions analysed. initial brine concentration and brine volume/fillet ratio.74 16.

784 x 10–4 X2 0 5 10 NaCl in fillet (%. v.03 ICB: 23% ICB: 26 % NaCl content in brine (g/100 g) solid symbol: 20°C.991 – 50.21 14. moisture content and NaCl content at different temperatures. 20 20 26 4.702 0.1. as it is easier to carry out the NaCl determination of the brine than of the fish.685 0.) RV: 3/1.657 0. 20 ICB.869 0. 9-17.b.703 0.90 0.b. Water activity of Tilapia fillets as a function of NaCl content.73 18. CNPq and CAPES for their financial support and fellowships.) 15 20 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To FAPESP .808 0.865 0.877 0. w.95 0. open symbol: 10°C FIGURE 12. T: Temperature. The linear relationship between the NaCl concentration in the fillets and in the brine meant that it is possible to control the process by just quantifying the salt content of the brine.660 0. T: 10oC RV: 3/1.47 16. Food Technol. Braz.85 0. aw: water activitiy 1. w/w 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 ICB: 20% -2 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 0 200 400 Time (min) 600 800 R: 3/1 R: 3/1 Central point FIGURE 10.58 16. et al.642 0.) 0.830 0. NaCl content in Tilapia fillets as a function of the NaCl concentration in the brine. T: 20oC RV: 5/1. ICB: initial concentrations of brine.b.68 15.b. NaCl content in Tilapia fillets as a function of time at 10°C and 20°C. T: 10oC ICB: 20%.00 Water activity of fillet 0.77 17. p.MEDINA-VIVANCO. w. w. Equilibrium values for water activity. This relationship is particularly useful.9.843 0. TABLE 5.25 14. The Initial brine concentration and the volume ratio. CONCLUSIONS The initial brine concentration and the brine/fillet ratio significantly influenced the water activity.) 13.829 0.97 15.812 Moisture content (g/g..09 14.11 13.626 0.845 0.639 0. influenced this correlation. T: 20oC NaCl content (%. T: 10 C o NaCl content in fillet (%. Vb\Vf : brine volume:fillet ratio.b./mar.16 x 10–4 X – 2. w. T: 20oC RV: 3/1.80 aw = 0. but not the temperature. n. w/w RV: 5/1.687 0. The water activity levels of the tilapia fillets indicated that an additional process was required to assure the product a greater shelf life. 2006 16 . T: 10oC RV: 3/1. Kinetic Aspects of Salting Tilapia Fillets Using Small Volumes of Brine 18 16 14 Figure 12 shows the linear relationship between the NaCl concentrations in the fillets and in the brine. the moisture content decrease and the fillet salt uptake. Temperature (°C) 10 ICB (g/100 g) 20 26 15 23 Vb\Vf 3/1 5/1 3/1 5/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 3/1 5/1 3/1 5/1 aw 0. but did not influence the equilibrium values. 26%. An increase in temperature affected the water activity rate. M. moisture content and sodium chloride uptake of the fillets at equilibrium. jan.L.847 0. J. FIGURE 11.653 0.879 0.) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 18 16 R: 5/1 R: 5/1 RV: 5/1.628 NaCl content (g/100 g. w. T: 20oC RV: 5/1.

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