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International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006, 41, 405–416

405

Original article The mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of shark fillets at different brine temperatures
Saheeda Mujaffar & Clement K. Sankat*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Received 1 July 2004; Accepted in revised form 11 May 2005)

Summary

The effect of brine temperature (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) on the osmotic drying behaviour of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) in saturated (100°) brine was investigated. The parameters investigated were weight reduction, water loss, salt gain and water activity. Salt uptake and moisture data were analysed using various mathematical solutions based on Fick’s Law of Diffusion and the effective diffusion coefficients were predicted after considering the process variables. The expressions presented by Azuara et al. (1992), based on the model presented by Crank (1975), were successfully used to predict the equilibrium point and to calculate diffusion coefficients at not only the initial stages of dehydration, but also at different times during the osmotic process.
Diffusion coefficient, Fick’s Law, mass transfer, salting.

Keywords

Introduction

The salting of fish is essentially an osmotic dehydration process. It involves two major mass transfer flows: water flow out of the fish and a simultaneous transfer of salt into the fish. In order to have a comprehensive overview of the salting process and to design an optimum-salting regime, it is first necessary to investigate the mass transfer changes (salt uptake and water removal), which occur during the process, as well as to describe and predict these changes via mathematical modelling. While the literature abounds with information on general salting and drying techniques, as well as numerous works concerning important chemical, nutritional and microbiological aspects, fewer articles have been dedicated to the scientific study of the process and the basic mechanisms involved in the production of dried salted fish. Most of the studies on the salting and drying of fish have involved the splitting of fish followed by dry or
*Correspondent: Fax: +1 868 662 4414; e-mail: clem@uwi.tt doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01086.x
Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund

wet salting and sun drying. Where salting and drying variables are considered, they are done from the perspective of how quickly the process is completed or the overall quality. There are very few reports on the calculation of drying rate constants and diffusion coefficients for the processes of salt uptake and water loss (WL) during the osmotic dehydration of fish. The main body of knowledge that is referenced is based upon the early work of researchers such as Beatty & Fougere (1957); Jason (1958); Burgess et al. (1967); Del Valle & Nickerson (1967a,b,1968); Zugarramurdi & Lupin (1976,1977,1980) for temperate fish and later reviews by Wheaton & Lawson (1985) and Ismail & Wooton (1992). More recent studies include the work of Berhimpon et al. (1991) who investigated the process requirements for the salting of whole, split or filleted (with skin on) Yellowtail fish, Deumier et al. (1997), who described and experimentally checked a system for continuous determination of mass transfers based on the loss of buoyancy during the brining of whole herring, and MedinaVivanco et al. (1998) who investigated the salting

S. 41. D. Hobart Corporation. fish were cleaned. Muller and Henle). Trinidad) in an iced box. Zugarramurdi & Lupin. where they were immediately cut into smaller pieces of the required size (10 · 5 cm). 1977. 2 To mathematically model mass transfer during osmotic dehydration using various transient solutions to Fick’s Law and to calculate the diffusion coefficients for SG and moisture loss for the osmotic process using these models. The solution given by Crank (1975) has been applied to the osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables (Hawkes & Flink. time. These pieces were then carefully placed in reclosable plastic freezer bags and stored overnight at )30 °C in a chest type home freezer. Based on this model (Crank. experimental equilibrium value for WL/SG. (1998) used the regression equation to determine equilibrium salt content (SC) in tilapia. pineapple and beef. Shark is an ideal fish model because it can be filleted to give many small fillets of uniform size. t1/2: Xt ¼ ðKÞt1=2 X1 ð1Þ Sample preparation Shark was obtained from a local supplier. subepidermal flesh was trimmed. Sankat behaviour of filleted Tilapia (without skin). Theoretical considerations amount solute entering/water leaving the sample at equilibrium. The theoretical equilibrium value (X¥ model). X¥. Magee et al. are estimated using the experimental data (Xt) and linear regression: t 1 t ¼ þ : Xt SX1 model X1 model ð3Þ The expression presented by Azuara et al. Upon capture. The specific objectives of this study were: 1 To determine the effect of immersion time and brine temperature on WL and salt gain (SG) in shark slabs during osmotic dehydration. 1983) but has also been used to describe salt uptake of sliced and whole fish (Del Valle & Nickerson. Medina-Vivanco et al. where K ¼ 2(D/pL2)1/2. X¥ experimental. 405–416 Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund . gutted and skinned before being split in half and filleted along the direction of the muscle fibres (Riley. with comparable protein and fat contents (IDC. Shark is underutilized as fresh fish and therefore available and relatively inexpensive. This study was undertaken to investigate and mathematically model the osmotic dehydration of locally available Shark (Carcharhinus leucas. 1975) and Azuara et al. Barat et al. 1981. Medina-Vivanco et al. Rate constants and diffusion coefficients for the initial stages of the process are determined from plots of Xt/X¥ vs. 1998). reports indicate that salted fish produced from shark and other species with white or light-coloured flesh is similar in appearance to the costly imported salted cod. Additionally. and the constant. Xt is the amount solute entering/water leaving the sample at time t. t. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006.. not just only for the initial stages of dehydration:   2 pL2 St X1 model D¼ ð2Þ 1 þ St X1 experimental 4t where S is the constant related to the rate of WL/ SG. (1992) was tested using previously reported data on the osmotic treatment of apple. The following day. fillets were allowed to thaw partially to allow for easy cutting and accurately cut to the desired thickness (1 cm) using a Hobart food slicer (Model 1612E. theoretical equilibrium value for WL/SG. L. 1986). Materials and methods The mathematical models used to describe mass transfer during osmotic dehydration are usually based upon various solutions to Fick’s Law of Diffusion.. The fillets were transported to the Processing Laboratory (University of the West Indies. (2002) investigated the effect of increasing brine concentration in the cod-salting process (using de-boned cod fillets) with a view to increasing process yield.406 Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S.. The solution applies to unsteady one-dimensional transfer between a plane sheet and a well-stirred solution with a constant surface concentration. X¥ model. diffusion coefficient for solute/ water flow. Favetto et al. OH. St Augustine. K. half-thickness of slab. Troy. 1973). 1967b. Mujaffar and C. The layer of dark. infinite or semi-infinite medium. USA). (1992) presented an expression from which the diffusion coefficient can be calculated at different times during the osmotic process. that is. 1978.

At ambient tropical temperatures. 1997). Experimental design The brine solution and the samples were contained in temperature-controlled (±0. Indianapolis. SC and water activity measured. the water-bath was placed Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund in a refrigerated room (1.29 m) set at 20 °C (±1. At the start of the experiment. 41. NC. These samples were separated from the other slabs using a fine nylon mesh. 1988]. 1981. fish samples were immersed completely in the brine. Asheville. A total of 10 L of brine was used for each osmotic run.19 at 15 °C (Gould & Gould. Lazarides et al. It is recognized that temperatures of 40 °C and 50 °C may not be of practical importance to fish osmotic dehydration because of microbial contamination.. 30 (ambient). 1981). At specified time intervals.. Temperatures above 50 °C were not used as this is the temperature reported as the upper limit beyond which cooking of fish flesh occurs (FAO. This improved mass transfer allowed for closer control of the brine (Lazarides et al.1 °C) stainless-steel water-baths with water circulators and digital temperature display (BlueM Constant Temperature Water-bath. American Beverage and Supply Company. 1995).36 · 2. Use of low temperatures (below 20 °C) increases the viscosity of the osmotic medium and prohibits thorough mixing and satisfactory mass transfer of brine (Lazarides et al. samples were removed from the solution and weight. 405–416 . Experimental treatment The experiments were designed to investigate the effect of brine temperature (20. IN. For moisture and salt analysis. Solutions were constantly circulated at a flow rate of 200 mL s)1. 1988). For weight measurement. However there is potential application at these temperatures for other products such as fruits and vegetables. 40 and 50 °C. was used as the osmotic medium. Mujaffar and C. Slabs immersed in a 270 g L)1 salt solution (80% saturation) at 20 °C were shown to reabsorb water after an initial loss while the mass transfer changes at 30– 50 °C were generally similar to those that occurred in slabs in a saturated solution (36% w/v). To facilitate osmotic dehydration at 20 °C.77 · 2. Model WB1110A. moisture content (MC). duplicate samples were removed from the solution and excess moisture blotted off before measurement. Osmotic trials were done at four brine temperatures: 20.Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S. Saturated brine contains 26. Analytical methods and calculations Two important mass transfers occur during the osmotic process: water flow out of the sample into the surrounding medium and solute transfer from International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006.. USA) and brine saturation was maintained by suspending a fine nylon mesh containing solid salt in the solution [United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). K. duplicate samples were quickly rinsed with water to remove any surface salt and excess moisture blotted off using household tissue paper (Favetto et al. 1995). this corresponds to approximately 360 g of salt in 1 L solution (Clucas. 1981). Heng et al.5% salt (w/v) and has a specific gravity of 1. made from food-grade sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolved in distilled water. as a matter of convenience the saturated solution was chosen for osmotic trials as the salt concentration in saturated brine is easier to maintain. Sankat 407 Osmotic medium Saturated brine. Therefore. 30. For water activity determination. the same five samples were used throughout each osmotic trial.. The weight:volume ratio of solution to samples was at least 20:1. Sampling procedure Each osmotic trial consisted of placing the shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) in 100°brine at a fixed temperature for a maximum immersion time of 32 h. USA). 40. to avoid significant dilution of the medium (by the absorbed salt) and subsequent decrease in the (osmotic) driving force during the process (Lazarides & Mavroudis. The specific gravity of the brine was checked using a hydrometer (Woolf Thermo-Hydrometer SPGR.5 °C). 1990. 50 °C) on the salting of shark fillets (10 · 5 · 1 cm) in saturated brine. 1996).. Saturated brine (360 g L)1) was used throughout because preliminary experiments revealed that spoilage occurred when slabs were immersed in a 210 g L)1 salt solution (60% saturation) at all temperatures.

Huntington. 1981). was also expressed on a non-salt dry matter basis (g H2O g DM)1): WL ¼ ðH2 OÞ0 À ðH2 OÞt : DM ð7Þ Quality changes Slabs immersed in 100°brine at 20 and 30 °C had a good colour. the rate of dehydration increases as temperature Salt (NaCl) content of the fillets was determined titrimetrically using silver nitrate solution (FAO. 1980. UK). NJ. Sankat the medium into the sample. whereby slabs became translucent in colour and developed the aroma of cooked fish. Samples were dried for 24 h at 105 °C in a Gallenkamp Size One BS Oven (Loughborough. Favetto et al. odour and texture. in the osmotic treatment of apple chips using a sugar solution.. Sample weight in grams (g) was measured using an Ohaus Galaxy (110) Analytical Balance (Ohaus Scale Corporation. USA) and calculated as the equilibrium relative humidity divided by 100 (Labuza et al. 41. which represents the total amount of moisture lost by the slabs from the beginning of the process up to that sampling interval.408 Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S. Berhimpon et al... 1988). 405–416 Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund . 1981. moisture and SC data were expressed on a non-salt dry matter basis. VA. For example. USA). SC was expressed as the weight of salt in the sample on a non-salt dry weight basis (g NaCl g DM)1): SC ¼ ðNaClÞt : DM ð8Þ Salt gain (SG). While the use of high temperatures can increase the rate of osmotic dehydration. England. New Jersey. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006. To consider the changing solute content during the osmotic process.. Gould & Gould.b. Statistical analysis Data analysis consisted of simple regression analysis using Microsoft Excel 97 to examine the data for good fit. 1991): Non-salt dry matter ¼ Sample weight (g) À Water (g) À Absorbed salt (g) ð4Þ 1981). high temperatures may result in undesirable changes in the food piece. Weight reduction (WR) was calculated as the change from the original fresh weight (FWt ) FW0) and expressed on an initial non-salt dry matter basis (g g DM)1): WR ¼ FWt À FW0 : DM ð5Þ The salt : water ratio (S/W) was calculated as SC divided by the MC of the sample: S=W ¼ SC : MC ð10Þ Water activity (aw) was measured using a water activity meter (Rotronic Hygroskop DT. (1981) added that for an osmotic process. Rotronic Instrument Corp. was also expressed on a non-salt dry matter basis (g NaCl g DM)1): SG ¼ ðNaClÞt À ðNaClÞ0 : DM ð9Þ Del Valle & Nickerson (1967a) noted that expressing moisture and salt data on a non-salt solids basis instead of the total solids basis is preferable as this is the only parameter that remains constant during the process as loss of soluble material is small. 1976. Further regression analysis and anova were carried out by using Genstat Statistical Software (Lawes Agricultural Trust. the non-solute dry matter is a measure of the true dry matter of the sample. Non-salt dry matter was calculated as the sample weight minus the weight of water and the weight of absorbed salt (Del Valle & Nickerson. MC was expressed on a non-salt dry weight basis (g H2O g DM)1): ðH2 OÞt MC ¼ : ð6Þ DM Water loss (WL). A cooking effect was observed at 50 °C. Zugarramurdi & Lupin. Mujaffar and C. which represents the total amount of salt absorbed by the slabs from the beginning of the process up to that sampling interval. Results and discussion Moisture content was determined by an ovendrying method (FAO. Favetto et al. 1967a. K. Increasing the brine temperature to 40 °C resulted in shrinkage and discolouration of slabs. 1996).

this corresponds to 60. Weight reduction Weight reduction in shark slabs was calculated from the weight data using eqn 5. Moisture content and water loss The MC of shark slabs was calculated on a dry matter basis using eqn 6.0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 0 4 8 Time (h) Figure 1 Effect of brine temperature on the weight reduction (WR) of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) immersed in 100°brine. (1982) reported that changes in cod flesh occur when it is heated to 31. 58.Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S.093. 1967. All slabs showed a noticeable increase in WL during the first 4 h of dehydration.. respectively.6 1. It is therefore usually safer to keep fish cool during salting. Sankat 409 increases from 22 to 40 °C (Ponting et al. Mujaffar and C.4 2.06. 41. enzymatic browning and flavour deterioration occur above 49 °C. This value represents the total amount of moisture that has been lost by the slabs from the beginning of the process up to the sampling time. MC values declined rapidly during the first 2 h of dehydration and more gradually after. Values after 4 h of dehydration averaged 2. 1966).. K. This means that the higher the temperature. SEM ¼ 0. All slabs showed a decrease in MC (Fig.76 g H2O g DM)1 (73. at higher temperatures.6 1. At this temperature some of the tissue water become less strongly bound to protein and appears as free fluid. spoilage and protein denaturation become the limiting factors for fish and meat. the higher the reduction in weight for the 24 h of dehydration. the process is.95 g g DM)1 for slabs dehydrated at 20. At about 43 °C. 1) and increasing brine temperature increased the weight loss. WR was significantly affected by immersion time and brine temperature (P £ 0.70 g H2O g DM)1 for slabs dehydrated at 20. Ordinarily. the quicker the salt uptake (Burgess et al. Similarly for fish.5 °C. 40 and 50 °C. 30.54 and 0.0536. respectively. 12 16 Time (h) 20 24 Figure 2 Effect of brine temperature on the moisture content (MC) changes of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) immersed in 100°brine. 0. the more rapid the initial decline in MC. The higher the temperature. All slabs showed an increase in WR (Fig. 2). MC was significantly affected by immersion time and brine temperature (P £ 0. 1967).18. in the tropics. Doe et al.0. When calculated on a fresh weight basis (wb). SEM ¼ 0. 1. 2. which begins at about 45 °C. 40 and 50 °C..4 30°C 40°C 50°C 0. up to a certain limit. at room temperature (Burgess et al.8 1. Water loss in shark slabs calculated from moisture data (eqn 7) was significantly affected by immersion time and brine temperature (P £ 0.87 and 1. Weight loss values after 24 h of dehydration averaged 0.2 0. Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006. However. 30. the fish flesh becomes somewhat more translucent followed by an increase in opacity because of the precipitation of thermally denatured sarcoplasmic proteins. However.9% (wb) moisture. 0. the higher the temperature. 2.4% wb). 57.18.5. 1981).4 0.0 20°C MC (g H2O g DM–1) 2.001).0 1.8 WR (g g DM–1) 0.0 and 55. for convenience.001). Initial moisture values averaged 2.6 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 0. Clucas & Sutcliffe.2 2.001).8 2. 405–416 .36.

International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006. SEM ¼ 0.001) but not by brine temperature. 0.95 and 1. Further increasing the temperature to 50 °C resulted in a decline in salt uptake.61.6 0. This value represents the total amount of salt absorbed by the slabs from the beginning of the process up to the sampling time. 1995.8 WL (g H2O g DM–1) 0.6 0.0 0. respectively.64.. SG values were similar to WL values. Time (h) Figure 4 Effect of brine temperature on the salt content (SC) changes of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) immersed in 100°brine. Salt gain in shark slabs was calculated using the SC data and eqn 9. SC was significantly affected by immersion time (P £ 0. 4. At 20 °C. Salt content and salt gain The SC of shark slabs was calculated on a dry matter basis using eqn 8. Lazarides et al. Lazarides et al.63 and 0.22 g H2O g DM)1 for slabs dehydrated at 20.001) but not by brine temperature.4 20°C 30°C 40°C 0.4 1. while SG values remained stable. Therefore. after which the increase became more gradual. Sankat 1. 0.043. 0. As shown in Fig.2 0.69. probably because of the cooking of the slabs. 0. high rates of WL during the osmotic dehydration of apples seem to prevent the development of proportionally high rates of counter current sucrose diffusion. K.61. 0.80. 1982. Values after 4 h of dehydration averaged 0. after which WL became more gradual until equilibrium was achieved (Fig. When calculated on a wet basis. 40 and 50 °C. Raoult-Wack et al. 40 and 50 °C. As the immersion temperature increased to 50 °C.2 50°C 0.044. WL gradually increased and levelled off. 0.0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Time (h) Figure 3 Effect of brine temperature on the water loss (WL) of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) immersed in 100°brine. 0. this corresponds to a SC of between 17% to 19% salt for all slabs. Islam & Flink. respectively.53 g NaCl g DM)1 for slabs dehydrated at 20.58. 0.8 0. 30. Beyond this time.4 0. 40 and 50 °C. The higher the brine temperature. 30. As the initial SC of the slabs was found to be zero.2 0.0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C SC (g NaCl g DM–1) 1. 41. the greater the WL.71. respectively. respectively. 1989. 1978. all slabs showed a similar rapid increase in SC during the first 2 h of dehydration. with values after 24 h averaging 0. SG values after 4 h of dehydration averaged 0. SEM ¼ 0.53 g NaCl g DM)1 for slabs dehydrated at 20. The effect of brine temperature was more apparent beyond the first 2 h. Lazarides & Mavroudis.89 and 1. An increase in WL rates with increasing temperature without a concomittant rise in solute uptake has been reported by many researchers (Hawkes & Flink. 405–416 Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund . 30. 30. (1995) noted that at increased temperatures. Values after 4 h of dehydration averaged 0. SG was equivalent to SC. SG was also affected by immersion time (P £ 0.410 Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S. They added that whenever it is desirable to achieve higher water removal and lower solids gain. a higher process temperature (within allowable limit) should be used.63 and 0. the slabs showed an increase in WL. 40 and 50 °C..06 g H2O g DM)1 for slabs at 20. 1996). 3). Mujaffar and C.64.

0076. SEM ¼ 0.95 20°C 0. 0.0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Time (h) Figure 5 Effect of brine temperature on the salt/water ratio (S/W) of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) immersed in 100°brine. 0. Doe et al. bacteria do not generally grow in products with an aw of less than about 0. shark fillets can be oven dried after a S/W exceeding 0. and the growth of most moulds is inhibited below 0. MC values were higher than SC values.. (1997) also found that the ratio of water to solids content of apple and potato remained constant or decreased with increasing temperature. Water activity Water activity (aw) reflects the active part of MC or the part.1 50°C 0.2 for very dry foods to 0. 5). K. which can be exchanged between the product and the environment.30 has been attained in the fish flesh. 41.802. This was done by calculating the difference in MC (g H2O g DM)1) between consecutive sampling times (t. 40 and 50 °C. MC data for shark slabs were used to calculate the rate of change in moisture (RateMC). (1982) noted that the aw of fresh fish is above 0. therefore throughout the osmotic trials the S/W (eqn 10) was always less than 1.Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S. It is a measure of the free water in a food. SEM ¼ 0. Rate of change in MC and SC According to Lazarides et al.00.90 30°C 40°C aw 50°C 0. which is available to react chemically or to support the growth of microorganisms during spoilage.75 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Time (h) Figure 6 Effect of brine temperature on the water activity (aw) of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) immersed in 100°brine.4 0. Sankat 411 Salt:water ratio For all osmotic trials.27 and 0.2 20°C 30°C 40°C 0.85 0. 6) from an approximate initial value of 1. t + 1).823 and 0. All slabs showed an increase in S/W.3 S/W ratio (P £ 0. Water activity values of slabs immersed in brines at all temperatures were significantly affected by immersion time 1. but there was no fixed pattern of change with increasing brine temperature (Fig.00.808 for slabs dehydrated at 20. respectively. Lazarides et al.80 0.80 (FAO. 1982). 1981. Mujaffar and C. 405–416 .013.88. 30. Most foods have an aw level in the range of 0. Equilibrium S/Ws for all slabs averaged between 0. Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006.849. 0.00 0. All slabs showed decline in water activity (Fig. the rate of moisture removal is a characteristic of prime importance to every dehydration process as it is indicative of process effectiveness and suggests the productive duration of the process.001).37. According to Riley (1973).99 for moist fresh foods. (1995). but there was no detectable pattern in the change in aw with brine temperature.95 and this can be reduced during salting and drying. Doe et al. and dividing this value by the time interval (h): 0. With the exception of certain halophilic organisms. Values after 4 h of dehydration averaged 0.

the higher the brine temperature. immersion time as shown in Fig. This means that the drying rate of slabs was dependent on the moisture concentration inside the fish muscle. Sankat RateMC ¼ MCt À MCtþ1 : ðt þ 1Þ À t ð11Þ (a) 3.74 and 2. 1. average moisture (M) is given in Fig.5 3. rate changes were negligible regardless of brine temperature and averaged below 0.5 1. 1983. It is generally accepted that mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of fruits is governed by internal diffusion.0 1.0 0 1 Rate vs. respectively.. 41. Mujaffar and C. High rates of WL and solids gain during the initial stages of dehydration followed by drastically lower rates have been attributed (Lazarides et al. K.001) but not by temperature and was highest during the first 4 h of dehydration.10 g H2O g DM)1 h)1. Initial rates of dehydration averaged 0.0 2.5 0. Beyond 2 h of dehydration. Time Results of anova revealed that the rate of change in MC (dM/dt) was significantly affected by immersion time (P £ 0. the period is brief and does not exceed tens of seconds (Magee et al. the plot was linear.00. Where a constant rate of drying does occur.60. respectively.0 Rate (gH2O g DM–1 h–1) 2.56.. 30. 30.3 g H2O g DM)1.67. However.0 1. that is. There are no periods of constant water removal and therefore no constant rate period. The rate of change in SC was significantly affected by immersion time (P £ 0. 7a revealed that rate is highest at the beginning and declines rapidly within the first hour of dehydration.5 1.52 and 0.5 30°C 40°C 50°C 2. 1995) to the large initial osmotic driving force between the sample and the surrounding hypertonic solution. 40 and 50 °C. 7b.5 0.0 1. structural changes such as shrinkage leading to the compaction of the surface layers of the tissue and the decreasing availability of free or loosely bound water leading to the International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006. Generally. 0.5 Rate vs. averaging 0.412 Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S.001). the relationship between rate and MC of shark during the falling rate period is firstly exponential in character. 40 and 50 °C. Lenart.0 2. 1. during the first hour.0 0. Moisture content Rate (gH2O g DM–1 h–1) 20°C 2.0 Moisture content (gH2O g DM–1) Figure 7 Effect of brine temperature on the rate of change in moisture content (dM/dt) during the osmotic dehydration of shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm) immersed in 100°brine.5 2. the higher the drying rate.001) but not by immersion temperature. 1992).0 0. Salt content data for shark slabs was used to calculate the rate of change in salt (RateSC). This was done by calculating the difference in SC (g NaCl g DM)1) between consecutive sampling times. Drying rates were highest for slabs at 50 °C. when the MC falls below a certain critical value. A plot of the rate of change in moisture (dM/dt) in shark slabs vs.61 g NaCl g DM)1 h)1 for slabs dehydrated at 20.83 g H2O g DM)1 h)1 for dehydration at 20. 0. 405–416 Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund . and lowest for slabs at 20 °C. movement under the influence of a concentration gradient. Rates declined with declining MC (P £ 0. The plot of rate of change in moisture (dM/dt) vs. As also shown by Lenart & Lewicki (1987) for the osmotic dehydration of fruit. and dividing this value by the time interval (h): RateSC ¼ SCt À SCtþ1 : ðt þ 1Þ À t ð12Þ 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 2 3 4 Time (h) (b) 3. The rate of change in SC was generally lower than the rate of change in MC. in this case approximately 2.

3657 0. which are related to the rate of WL. The slopes of these plots are given in Table 1. with 1/S being the time taken for half the diffusible material to diffuse in or out.5) 0. an almost twofold increase. this corresponds to 1. increased from 0.66 WL¥ model (g H2O g DM)1) 0.5. the plot of t/WL vs. t based on the straight line equation (eqn 3) was used to generate S-values (intercept) and equilibrium values (slope) that are given in Table 2. Salt diffusion showed a smaller increase from 1.99.83 1. r2 ¼ determination coefficient.4350 0. Moisture diffusion was found to increase with increasing brine temperature from 7. D ¼ (slope)2 (pL2/4). Rate constants and diffusion coefficients Model no.50 1. WLeqm ¼ equilibrium water loss.5649 0.3 Salt gain (SG) S-value (h)1) 1. The S-value is a measure of the rate of the diffusion process.03 1..44 1.8 1. 41.83 to 1. this corresponds to 0.68).6567 D (10)5 cm2 s)1) 0. S-values. Table 2 S-values (calculated from intercept) and theoretical equilibrium values (calculated from slope) obtained using model no.7 0. where L ¼ 1/2 thickness of slab.9955 0.74 2. the data for salt diffusion did not fit very well and the correlation coefficient was very low (r2 ¼ 0.7 kJ mol)1.22 SG¥ model (g NaCl g DM)1) 0.7 0.5254 0. As expected. The higher the temperature of the osmotic treatment. 2 (Azuara et al. Mujaffar and C. Model no. the steeper the slope of the graph and the higher the constant (K).2 h. 1992) for shark slabs at different temperatures Water loss (WL) S-value (h)1) 0.6 h. 1 (Crank.5254 to 0.001).7 0. 405–416 .5. K. estimated using an Arrhenius type equation. (1992). 2: Azuara et al.9926 0.6789 D (10)5 cm2 s)1) 1. for WL at 20 °C.92 1.6789 h)0.35 Salt gain (SG) K (h)0.6561 h)0.05 1.54 2.29 · 10)6 to 2. was calculated to be 31.9949 0.50 to 2. 1975) for shark slabs at different temperatures Water loss (WL) K (h)0. (1992) Based on the approach of using Crank’s solution for a well-stirred solution. Sankat 413 progressively slower moisture removal as the process goes on.729 1. presented by Azuara et al. Increasing the brine temperature from 20 to 50 °C resulted in a small increase in the constant for salt diffusion from 0. while for WL at 50 °C. For example.9917 0.Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S.51 Temperature 20 30 40 50 °C °C °C °C r2 0.96 1.7 Temperature 20 30 40 50 °C °C °C °C Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006. the t1/2 law given in eqn 1 can be applied satisfactorily to the linear section of the data which corresponds to the first 2 h of dehydration (P £ 0. 1: Crank (1975) When the solution given by Crank (1975) for a well-stirred solution is applied to the WL and SG by shark slabs.5) 0. Diffusion coefficients calculated using these rate constants assuming a (thickness)2 relationship between thickness and rate constant are also given in Table 1.51 · 10)5 cm2 s)1.74 1.9970 0.35 · 10)5 cm2 s)1.7 0.3657 to 0. Increasing the brine temperature from 20 to 50 °C resulted in an increase in the constant for moisture diffusion from 0.9688 0.5615 0. The activation energy for moisture diffusion.72 2.66 h)1 as brine temperature was increased from 20 to 50 °C.0 1. t (for first hour of dehydration). All r2-values were >0. Table 1 Constants (K) and diffusion coefficients (D) obtained using water loss (WL) and salt gain (SG) data and model no.9020 Constant ¼ slope of plot WL/WLeqm vs.9993 r2 0.5991 0.

9.5 20°C 30°C 2. 30. Mujaffar and C. then declined rapidly during the first 4 h. 30. 0.001) but not by brine temperature. The advantage of using this approach is therefore the ability to calculate diffusivities for the entire duration of the osmotic treatment and not just the initial stages. 30. K. D-values increased from an initial value of 0.54. after which the decline was more gradual. 40 and 50 °C.0 40°C 50°C D (10–5 cm2 s–1) 1.55.5 0.0– 1.5 3. Diffusivities were significantly affected by immersion time (P £ 0. 40 and 50 °C.25 and 2. 41. respectively. the greatest International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2006. The results were found to compare favourably with the results of model no. For slabs at all temperatures. 1. (1992) modelled data of Favetto et al. 1992).5 30°C 40°C 50°C 2..31 · 10)5 cm2 s)1 for dehydration at 20.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (h) Figure 8 Diffusion coefficients (D) for water loss in shark slabs calculated using model no.13 and 1. which was applicable only to the initial stages of dehydration. 2 (Azuara et al.12.23.24 · 10)5 cm2 s)1 at 20. 1. 40 and 50 °C.0 2.34 and 1. At 30 °C.0 · 10)5 cm2 s)1 in 3 h. there were no marked changes in salt diffusion as brine temperature 3.59 · 10)5 cm2 s)1 at 20.90.23. 1.5 increased from 20 to 40 °C.90. 3.22. 30. 1.5 0. 1992). 2. Brine temperature has a pronounced effect on the osmotic dehydration of small shark slabs (10 · 5 · 1 cm). (1981) for the salting of beef and noted that the diffusion coefficient was not constant for the duration of the diffusion process. these results were found to compare favourably with the results of model no. respectively.0 0.5 1. 8. Dvalues decreased from an initial value of 4. As shown in Fig. Azuara et al.5 · 10)5 cm2 s)1 in 3 h. Conclusions 1. discolouration and cooking. Dehydration at higher temperatures (above 40 °C) resulted in undesirable changes such as shrinkage.5– 1.29 · 10)5 cm2 s)1 for slabs at 20.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (h) Figure 9 Diffusion coefficients (D) for salt gain in shark slabs calculated using model no. Values after 24 h of dehydration were lower and averaged 0.07. respectively. 30. 2 (Azuara et al. respectively. 40 and 50 °C.. Salting can be successfully achieved at 20 and 30 °C. 1. The diffusion coefficients for WL increased as brine temperature increased.23 and 0.414 Osmotic dehydration of shark fillets S. Generally values were highest approximately after 1 h of dehydration. At 85 °C.35 · 10)5 cm2 s)1 at 20. 1. but values increased as the temperature was increased further to 50 °C. water diffusivity values for the first hour of dehydration averaged 0. Salt diffusivity values for the first hour of dehydration averaged 2. 0. 0. 2. Again. 405–416 Ó 2006 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund .95 and 2. Sankat The diffusion coefficients for WL in shark slabs were calculated at different times during the osmotic process according to eqn 2 and are given in Figs 8 and 9. respectively. Average diffusion coefficients for WL for the 24 h of dehydration were 0.0 20°C 2.0 D (10–5 cm2 s–1) 1.0 0. Average diffusion coefficients for SG for the entire process (24 h) were 1.17. 1. 40 and 50 °C. As shown in Fig.

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