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Experiment No: __

To study uniform flow formulae for open channel using Manning’s formula.

The flow is said to be uniform when the properties of flow remain unchanged with respect to distance. The main characteristics of uniform flow are1. The depth, area of flow, velocity and discharge remain constant at all cross sections of the channel. 2. The energy line, the free water surface and bottom of the channel are parallel to each other. Therefore the slope of the energy line Se, the slope of water surface Sw and the bed slope So are equal. Many uniform flow formulae have been developed to find out the mean velocity of flow for turbulent uniform flow in open channel. These are known as Uniform Flow Formulae. The most widely used formulae are the Chezy’s and Manning’s formulae. For the present experiment Manning’s Formula is to be used. Manning’s Formula: V= Where, n = Manning’s roughness coefficient with dimensions. R = Hydraulic radius S = Bed slope

65 and 30. Details of Apparatus: The apparatus consists of a 6.0 mm diameter. Achieve steady and uniform flow in the flume. 3.30 m width and 0. 2.0 m long tilting flume of 0. Repeat the procedure width different bed slopes and different discharges.45 m depth.65 Observation table: Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Slope of the channel (dy/dx) Depth of flow in channel y (m) Manometer Readings m of water h= h1 h2 (h2-h1) Discharge Q m3/s . Screw jack is fixed on the downstream end of the flume to adjust the slope. Coefficient of discharge of orificemeter. The depth of flow is to be measured with a calibrated scale mounted on a trolley.00 m 3.30 m 2. A differential manometer is used to measure pressure head. Procedure: 1. 4. Cd = 0. Width of tilting flume B = 0. Open the inlet valve of water supply and allow the flow in the flume. Measure the depth of flow with the gauging scale. Set the channel at a suitable positive bed slope (So) and measure it. 5. Length of tilting flume = 6. Discharge is to be measured with the help of orificemeter with Cd = 0.Apparatus: A tilting flume set up. Observations: 1.

Conclusion: 1.Calculation Table: Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Q m3/s A (b x y) m2 P (2y + b) m V (Q/A) m/s R2/3 S1/2 C= n= R2/3S1/2 V Avg value of n Graphs: 1. Value of Chezy’s coefficient increases with increase in discharge. Manning’s coefficient decreases with increase in discharge. 2. Average value of Manning’s constant. . Average value of Chezy’s Constant. 3. Q vs C 2. Q vs n 3. C vs n Results: 1. 2. n = ……. There is inverse relation between C and n. C = …….