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Electro-Mechanical Works – Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station

Sponsor: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Govt. of India

Lead Organization: Alternate Hydro Energy Center Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

May 2011

ITEMS SECTION-I GUIDELINES FOR OPERATION HYDROPOWER STATION 1.0 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Civil & Hydraulic Structure Power House Switchyard Other systems Guidelines for Operation of Power Plant Water Operation Operation of Power Station Guidelines for Preparing Operation Manual Guidelines for Plant Reports and Records Guidelines for Safety Manual Guidelines for Disaster Management OF SMALL PAGE NO 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 11 13 14 15


GUIDELINES FOR MAINTENANCE OF SMALL HYDROPOWER STATIONS 1.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Introduction Type of Maintenance Reactive (Run to Failure) Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Requirement of Effective Maintenance Guidelines for Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station Preventive Maintenance Auxiliaries of Hydro Turbine &

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Preventive Maintenance of Hydro Generator Preventive Maintenance of Power Transformers

ITEMS 4.4 4.5 Preventive Maintenance of Hydro-mechanical Equipment Procedures for Typical Maintenance Activities

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GENERAL GUIDELINES 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Guidelines for Taking over O&M of SHP Guidelines for Manpower, Selection and Training Essential T&P, Instruments ETC Fire Protection & Fire Fighting Safety Aspect of Running SHP Guidelines for Documentation

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2 (i) • • • • • • • • • • Civil & Hydraulic Structure Lake/pond/river/canal as main water source Dam/Diversion weir/Diversion barrage Head regulator Power channel/tunnel Desilting arrangements Fore Bay Bye pass/Spillway Trash racks Intake Gates with Hoist Siphon intake Surge Tanks/Spilling pipes Penstocks Tail Race Power House Mechanical Main inlet valve (Butterfly/Spherical valve) Bye pass valve Inlet bend and branching pipes Drain valve Pressure reducing valve for cooling water system Cooling water system Turbine and its auxiliaries Draft tube Draft tube gates Governor.1 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. 2009  1 .SECTION – I GUIDELINES FOR OPERATION OF SMALL HYDRO POWER STATION 1. associated OPU and guide apparatus AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. turbine & generator installed and power evacuation arrangement and will generally consists of following :1.0 INTRODUCTION Operation of Hydropower plant involves understanding of operation of hydraulic features and equipments. All features may not be included in every plant and will depend on type of plant water source.

emergency lighting Station earthing.C.G.C. batteries & battery charger TG start up panel Synchronizing panel Generator transformer Station transformer Unit auxiliary transformer (if applicable) Relay and control panel for transformers and feeders Switchyard Switchyard structure Bus bar system VCBs/SF6 circuit breakers Isolators CTs PTs LA Line side Isolator Surge counters Outgoing lines Other Systems Lighting system.4 • • • • • Electrical Hydro generator and auxiliaries AVR & Excitation system Generator protection/relay and control panel A. 2009  2 .3 • • • • • • • • • • 1. control supply. lightening protection Communication system Fire fighting and hydrant system Safety tagging & safety interlocks AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.• Station auxiliaries such as:- (i) EOT cranes/hoists (ii) Station compressor (iii) Drainage & Dewatering system (iv) D. auxiliary supply D. Set (ii) • • • • • • • • • • • 1.

1 Communication system AC Power DC Power Fire fighting system Cooling water system Drainage & dewatering system H. if any Permission from ALDC(Area Load Dispatch Centre) Proper working of o o o o o o o o o • • 2.S. compressed air system (where ever provided) Protection system B.0 GUIDELINES FOR OPERATION OF POWER PLANT A. It is generally reflected in kWH / cumec.P. & H.2. 2009  3 .bye pass gates. Guidelines for operation of power plant shall have two elements:Water operation Operation of Power Plant Water Operation Just like operation of Turbine Generator set or a transformer. lubrication system(where ever provided) L. The staff responsible for the operation should be well conversant with technical details and importance of following:• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Intake gates . Water operation means operation of following systems of the hydro plant in such a manner that efficiency of plant is maximum. draft tube gates & fore bay Inlet valves Turbine Generator Generator Transformer Switchyard Synchronizing with grid Shut down of machine Emergency shutdown of machine Importance of log sheets Shut down procedure and clearance Water restriction. efficient water operation forms an important part of hydro power plant be it large storage plant or small run of river plant. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.P.

4 Power Channel/Duct/Canal The operation of open channel/duct is critical to water operation and efficiency of plant.1. through bye pass. In lean season diversion barrage gates/diversion weir gates are checked for leakage. therefore.1 Catchment Area The area gives the runoff into the lake/pond/river during rainy season.1. especially during lean season. be very vigilant during this period.2. It takes care of small variation in generation and acts as desilting basin in some cases . the following checks are to be made before starting of machine :2. 2. Depending upon the length. is always recorded to calculate water wasted during over flow. 2009  4 .2. essential to generate continuously to its full capacity during monsoon season. Run off rate cubic m/mm should be known to operator to adjust generation accordingly. In such plant it is essential to check that there is no leakage from the gates or stop log gates.1. head on head regulator. Actual over flow. time required discharge to reach fore bay and to the machine. All operation staff must. corrective measures are taken as soon as possible so that there may not be any generation loss on this account. The time taken by water to reach the turbine will depend on many factors and only experience will make the operator perfect. In case of diversion type plants it is essential to keep the gates during flood conditions open to avoid flooding and lower them only when rain is low or over. As a brief description to bring out some details of operating a SHP. 2. . 2. he should pass on his observation to higher authorities to ensure corrective measures in the interest of having more generation. It is therefore. Check List for Starting of Machine (After long shut down) Mechanical AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.2 Intake • • • • • Check bye pass gates are not mechanically locked and all valves are in okay position Check position of intake gate Check position of stop log gates* Check filling line valve of penstock Check supply to gates is O. If operator notes that the leakage is more.2 Operation of Power Station The operation of power station requires that its staff is trained and well versed with all necessary technical as well as basic trouble shooting knowledge. condition of lining.2 Lake/Storage/Pond The operation of lake based plant means keeping the level such that during rainy season the over flow chances are minimum. It serves the purpose of connecting penstocks with gates and acts as tank.2. The operation of fore bay is important during picking up load and at the time of tripping of machines. Failure of a machine during monsoon can cause a substantial generation loss.K.5 Fore bay Fore bay is a essential part of any water conductor system with open channel.1.1 2. 2.3 Run of River Type Plants Availability of water is more important factor in operation of hydro power plants.1. 2.

T. drain valve is closed Position of strainer valves ensure water flowing in cooling pipes Gland seal valve open Air seal valve closed Top cover drain system okay (b) Check levels: Pressure accumulator and oil sump of OPU system Turbine Guide bearing Lower Guide bearing Upper Guide bearing Thrust bearing (c) Check pressures: Penstock pressure Spiral casing after opening of MIV OPU Stator cooling water pressure Thrust bearing . 2009  5 . LGB Sealing water pressure Air pressure for brakes (d) Check working of systems Top cover drain Oil leakage unit Oil cooling unit Oil pressure unit Brakes AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.UGB.Power Station (i) • • • • (ii) Inlet valve:AC power for pump operation HP compressed air Locking pin position Level and pressure in OPU Others:(a) Check valves: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Check spiral drain valve is closed Check D.

if applicable AVR condition* DC supply for field flashing Oil levels in bearings IR values* Jack position* H. lubrication system Check earth link for bus duct* Check list for Transformers Cooling water system Firefighting system Transformer cooling oil pump position Buccholz relay Oil level in conservator Colour of silica gel IR of winding and core* BDV of oil* Check list for Switchyard AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. System Grid Power DG Set power Event logger Disturbance logger Check list of Generator Brake system Cooling water for bearings Generator fire fighting.P.3 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Position of CO2 batteries(if provided) Guide vane lock (on or off) Check jacking/de-jacking of m/c Check flow relays Check emergency slide valve reset Check working of ventilation system Electrical Check list general D.• • • • • • 2. 2009  6 .2.C.

2. 2009  7 .4 (i) • • • • (ii) • • • • • (iii) • • • • • • • • • (iv) • • • • Compressed air in case ABCBs are used SF6 gas pressure in case of SF6 breaker Earthing switch position Isolator position – close Breaker position – off Line isolator position Operations Intake Gate Opening Check intake gate supply Check hoisting system Give raising command Check gate position in raised condition Inlet Valve Opening Put oil pumps on ‘auto’ mode Open bye pass valve manually or Give opening command to bypass auto valve Check water pressure on spiral side Give opening command to inlet valve on equalized pressure Turbine Operation Put oil pumps on auto mode to maintain required pressure in pressure accumulator Check availability of Nitrogen cylinder and check pressure of the same Check air pressure for maintaining proper oil level in pressure accumulator (if provided) Open cooling water for bearings Open shaft seal water Put brake on auto mode Unlock guide vane lock Fix GV opening limit Put machine on auto mode Generator Operation Select AVR Auto/Manual mode as required Keep fire fighting system operative(where provided) Switch on D.• • • • • • 2.C.C. supply from battery cuts off AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. supply for excitation flashing At 30% of generator voltage D.

¾ Check all batteries are physically in good condition. ¾ Physical check of all sub distribution boards installed in P. ¾ Check with test push button that all fault indication lamps are OK. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Take minimum prescribed load immediately • • • • • • • • (b) Checks after synchronizing and taking load Unit control board supply is changed to Unit Aux. ¾ Check all inlet exhaust fans are working. All parameters in control room are matching and correct. equipment and control panels etc. Transformers. if not on auto Start machine on Auto or Manual mode as required Synchronization (a) Synchronization • • • • Check grid voltage & frequency Check generator voltage & frequency Reduce or increase generator voltage & frequency to match with line voltage & frequency. At equal grid & generator voltage and frequency. Needle on 12O Clock position and lamps in dark position indicate that voltages and frequencies of grid and generator respectively are matching. Now generator is synchronized with grid. Put synchroscope in ON position needle will start moving and lamps will start glowing.S.5 (i) Checks at the Time of Shift Change Over (Machine Running on Load) General ¾ Check Lighting.2. NOTE: For short shut down certain checks with * are not required 2. General check up of machine and other unit auxiliaries at all floors. Change excitation from Manual to Auto mode Transformer “Motor for Cooling Water Supply” started.• • (v) At 90% speed switch on generator excitation. close generator breaker. ¾ Check all indication lamps are glowing. ventilation and air conditioning ¾ Check Water levels in Fore bay & Tail Race Channel ¾ Check Availability of discharge ¾ Check Communication Systems ¾ Check Instructions and status of various equipment and work permit/ shut downs/ break downs/ shut down ¾ Check General cleanliness of the area. 2009  8 .

¾ Check G. AVR & Excitation System ¾ Watch running and vibration of machine and ensure nothing is abnormal. 2009  9 . indicators etc. governor panel and AVR & excitation panel are in OK condition. Servomotor stroke & R.B. Ensure that these are within limit. oil and air flow indicators ¾ Check physical appearance of various systems such as man holes. generator barrel. sound. ¾ Check for any sparking from the brush of slip ring. (ii) Turbine and Governor ¾ Check Temperature of following Thrust bearing Upper guide bearing Lower guide bearing Cooling water flow and pressure of all bearings at inlet & outlet Sealing water flow and pressure Top cover drainage system Stator cooling water flow and pressure. ¾ Check that all instruments and indicators mounted on unit control board. ¾ Check for any abnormality. if applicable for SEE only ¾ Check temperatures of winding & core. neutral cubicle (iv) Control room AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. chattering in bus duct. there is vibration or abnormal sound in OPU pumps ¾ Check grease in the container of centralized grease lubrication system ¾ Check working of following OPU pump 1 & 2 OLU pump Drainage pump & Dewatering pumps Governor compressor General purpose compress Cooling water strainers ¾ Check running and vibration of machine and ensure nothing is abnormal ¾ Check water.¾ Check battery chargers are in normal working conditions.V. valves. if stator air coolers are provided Grease pump ¾ Check following in normal working condition ¾ Check oil level in housings of all bearings ¾ Check if. angle is normal (iii) Generator.

¾ Check all facias & relays are reset. ¾ Check all cells of battery bank are healthy. ¾ Check both batteries are on float. ¾ Check all instruments mounted on panels are in working order. ¾ Carry out following checks for healthy condition of Mulsifyre System(wherever applicable): (viii) Compressor Power Switchyard ¾ Have general look at switchyard including bus bars. Ensure that there is no sparking anywhere and everything is in order. ¾ Check movement of all pointers & reset them. This would ensure that batteries are connected with load. ¾ Check batteries are in healthy conditon ¾ Check D. ¾ Check that both chargers are functioning correctly. ¾ Have general look on instruments and relays mounted on board. (v) L. Also check annunciations are OK. ¾ Check all indicating lamps are glowing. Their sp. ¾ Check position of circuit breakers for outgoing lines.¾ Check that all parameters indicated on various panel are matching. room ¾ Check all indication lamps are glowing.T. jumpers etc. (vii) Main Transformer ¾ See that oil level in conservator is OK & there is no leakage from anywhere. Battery Charger & Battery sets ¾ Check D. ¾ Check that oil pressure and water pressure are normal. voltage is correct. ¾ Check silica gel colour is normal. supply is healthy by making momentarily float off.C. ¾ See that oil and water flow indicators are normal. ¾ Check rear of all panels and mounting on this side for OK condition.C. ¾ Check emergency lighting system is OK. (vi) DC Distribution Board. ¾ Check grid voltage & frequency. ¾ Check various switches are in correct position. ¾ Check that oil temperature and winding temperature are normal. gravity and cell voltage is correct (in morning shift only). 2009  10 . ¾ Check whether supply to various distribution boards are OK. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. ¾ Check all the switches on DC board are in correct position.

Oiling and greasing of all equipment as per instructions. bye pass gates. isolators & line isolator and cast a look on all CTs.G. Draft tube gates and other appurtenant works Any other work as assigned.3 Guide Lines For Preparing Operation Manual Every plant shall have an operation manual for guidance of operating staff. ¾ Check position of all breakers. Replacement of lamps. Inspections of fore bay. PTs. Topping up of oil in bearings. OPU sump. (ix) Routine maintenance to be carried out during each shift Cleaning of all panels. set in service Problems during plant operation Planned plant outage procedure Water conductor system outage AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. if provided. wave traps and coupling capacitor and ensure that everything is in order. LAs. 2009  11 . ¾ Check SF6 gas pressure in case of SF6 breaker. Surge counters.¾ Check compressed air system in case of ABCB is OK. Generally it should include following subjects: • • • • General information about the project Salient features of the Project Equipment data Plant operation procedure Normal Start (a) Prestart checks (b) Starting procedure ƒ ƒ • • Auto Manual Synchronizing and taking load Normal shut down Emergency shut down Dead bus synchronizing Taking D. fuses etc. intake gates. Cleaning of trash racks. instruments and equipment installed in power station. 2. Inspections and observations carried out during each shift shall be logged in daily in control room log book.

Taking main transformer out for maintenance Taking turbine generator set out of work Plant outage for maintenance of machine Outage request form Plant outage instructions Procedure for operation personal for giving planned plant outage.

Essential Drawings (Enclosure) Plant layout Hydraulic layout Main single diagram Single line diagrams for LT supply, DC system, Greasing system and CO2 system (where ever provided) Plan of different floors Transverse section thru unit Longitudinal section thru centre line of unit List of panels List of circuit Schematic diagrams

Operation of Auxiliaries and other system installed in P.S. Turbine Governor Oil Pressure Unit Cooling water system Drainage & Dewatering system AVR & excitation system Generator neutral grounding system Jacking and braking system Air conditioning and ventilation system LT AC system Greasing system Oil leakage unit DG set Compressed air system for governor(if provided) Station compressors Station illumination & emergency lighting Station D.C. control system Generator fire extinguishing system

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 2009 


EOT cranes Intake gates, bye pass gates, D.T. Gates MIV

Safety & Fire fighting General fire fighting Display of safety charts Electrical safety First Aid

Duties of staff posted for operation of plant in each shift (Designation wise) Engineer-in-charge of Shift Technician (control room) Turbine operator Attendants/Oilers Intake Gate/Bye pass gate operator

• •

Trouble shooting of various equipments installed in the plant Planned plant outage - Short time shut down - Long time shut down - Planned shut down for preventive maintenance - Emergency shut down


Guidelines for Plant Reports and Records A vast amount of information is generated by the power station on every aspect of generation. Most of this data is generally compiled on daily basis at the Power Station level and at HQ level for generation of Management Information Reports. Generally following reports, logs, reading sheets are required to be prepared at different levels of management structure: Typical Plant Data Sheets:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) Hourly panel meter readings room Station event log book Station trouble/fault log book Energy meter readings Daily generation report Hydraulic data sheet Daily rainfall, lake level Monthly generation & aux. consumption report Control Control room Control room Control room Control room Control room Control room Plant Manager

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 2009 


(x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) (xv) (xvi) (xvii) (xix) 2.5

Monthly water utilization & runoff report Tripping report Special event report (eg. landslide, fire etc.) Accident report (involving human being, animals) Quarterly safety & fire drill, training imparted at plant Instruction register Communication register History register Visitors book

Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager

(xviii) Plant register Guidelines for Safety Manual

(i) Every power plant shall have safety manual, copies of which shall be given to every employee. The safety manual shall contain: • • • Safety policy of the organization Safety during work Outage procedure with safety tags.

(ii) The management shall conduct safety training for operation and maintenance staff on regular basis. (iii) The safety equipment such as helmet, goggles, hand gloves, insulated T&P for electrical works, earthing chains etc. shall be kept at the location where these can easily be accessed. (iv) The arrangement to supervise safety tags shall be made at each P.S. The list of tags for every equipment outage must be finalized and given in safety manual. (v) Guidelines for safety in working are to be given in detail in safety manual. (vi) Fundamentals on Safety : Prevention of accidents requires whole-hearted co-operation of all members of the organization. A capable, mentally alert and trained employee will avoid accidents. However an unsafe person is a liability. He is danger to himself, his fellow workers and to the equipment and organization. • Unsafe acts which may cause accidents: • Operations of equipment without authority on warning. Operating or working without proper instructions. Making safety devices in operative. Using defective equipment or its improper use. Working nearby dangerous or live electrical equipment which could conveniently be de-energized.

Unsafe conditions which may cause accidents: Ungrounded equipment.

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 2009 


S.- Defective or non standard material or equipment or T & P. To apprise authorities on all safety related issues. 2. the unit/station needs to be emergency tripped through the emergency push button. The fire extinguishing system needs to be automatically cut in and in case of failure of auto system. the system should be manually started. Isolate remaining plant and keep them in safe condition. Attend to all emergency maintenance jobs on top priority. protection of environment protection of installation and restoration of generation. Hence. Action Plan For effective control and management of disaster an action plan and organization shall be prepared by Power Station In-Charge along with responsibilities apart from training of personnel for handling of such situations. To organize safe shut down of Power Plant. This shall consist of following factors: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. accidents are the results of unsafe conditions or unsafe acts or combination of both.6 Guidelines for Disaster Management Disaster management is aimed at ensuring safety of people. To organize all support services like fire fighting system etc. To record accident details. so that rest of the plant remains healthy. 2009  15 . Ensure immediate shut down of affected or likely to be affected portion of P. Improper illumination. In case of fire. (i) A task force consisting of O&M personnel of different discipline needs to be constituted who will identify the following: • • • • • • • • • (ii) • • • • • • • • (iii) Source of disaster and steps to contain the same. Non-standard design or construction. Arrangement of ambulance and emergency first aid. The units should be restarted as soon as the cause for disaster has been cleared off.. To arrange for evacuation of man material from affected area. The disaster management plan for generating stations shall take care of the following: Information to management on urgent basis Emergency power supply system shall be made operational. Back start procedure must be prepared and needs to be reviewed from time to time. if felt necessary depending on location of fire. Fire tenders need to be summoned immediately. The earmarked hospital need to be informed of such emergency.

• • • • (iv) Responsibility of employees about first information. Responsibility of EMM for “All Clear” signal after disaster has been cleared off Essential Staff In plants immediately affected or likely to be affected efforts will be made to shut down and make other units safe. landslides and wind storms which may affect outdoor installations. existing staff should be trained for these eventualities. to control traffic leaving P. transformer. It is responsibility of EMM to identify such staff and form task force to carry out above activities. Responsibilities of various teams constituted to deal with specific emergency requirement.S. (v) Disaster Possibility in Hydro Power Stations • • Disaster due to natural calamities such as floods. otherwise all operating staff should have proper training for first aid ) Persons responsible for emergency lighting Persons responsible for transport Persons working as runners. In case separate staff for carrying out such activities is not available. liaison with police. Responsibility of Emergency Management Manager (EMM) for declaration of emergency (EMM to be nominated by Plant In-Charge). Failure of underground structures due to inadequate support or geological reasons. Areas prone to disaster on account of fire are cable galleries. Call for emergency vehicles. earthquake. in case communication fails Persons manning plant entrance. The following staff will also help them: • • • • • • Attendants First aiders (if available. a) Failure of top cover studs. oil containers.S.H. to turn away visitors and non-essential vehicles. Following occurrence may cause flooding of P. during floods. • • • Over speeding of turbines. generators / motors and records etc. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. d) Failure of diversion dam gates opening during floods and entry of water from upstream side in Dam Toe power station. b) Failure of Draft tube inspection window or nearby liner plates. The plant supervisors and operators will carry out this work without exposing them to any risk. ambulance. switchyard and switchgears. Fire tenders. 2009  16 . c) Entry of water from downstream side windows of P.

e) Failure of drainage dewatering system. training for the staff at regular interval especially before rainy season. Power Station In-Charge should arrange drills. 2009  17 . AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. gate seal failure and inadvertent opening of gates during maintenance. Power station staff should remain always alert for such emergent eventualities.

erection.0 INTRODUCTION Experience of running hydropower station reveals that even after detailed project planning/quality control measures taken at various stages from inception to commissioning several unforeseen problems do take place during the operation and maintenance resulting in forced outages/low generation and load shedding etc. Its main purpose is to minimize break down and excessive deterioration. planned to ensure the following objective: 1. commissioning.3 Predictive Maintenance This sort of maintenance ensures ability to judge when a part of equipment is going to fail and replace the same before it does. Eradication /non-repetition of operational problems by timely analysis of the cause of faults/problems and replacement of short term solutions by long lasting and permanent ones. cleaning. repair of any equipment or component based on time and set parameters. Maintenance exercise at predetermined time interval is therefore. wherever required. The main reasons which can be attributed to these undesired phenomenon/events(during operation). 2. Maximum availability of equipment with least number of shut downs by ensuring that the rate of deterioration of any component does not exceed the life expectancy of the equipment at any stage. there are many monitoring AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 2.0 TYPE OF MAINTENANCE 2. It is designed to improve equipment life and avoid any unplanned maintenance activities.1 Reactive (Run to Failure) This is sometimes called crisis maintenance or hysterical maintenance. Preventive maintenance covers inspection. 2.manufacturing. replacement. In hydro power station. are that the hydro power station equipments are custom built in construction and tailor made at each discipline viz. This has been dominant form of maintenance for long time and its costs are relatively high because of unplanned downtime. operation and maintenance etc. The equipment cannot be fully assembled or tested at Manufacturer’s Shop.2 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is planned maintenance of plant & equipment. lubrication. 2. It includes painting. Predictive maintenance can be used in conjunction with preventive maintenance practices. 2009  18 . damaged machinery and overtime expenditure. design . Periodic /planned shut downs should be arranged to avoid long term forced outages. Run to failure should be a very small part in a modern maintenance program. adjusting and minor component replacement to extend the life of equipment and facility. causing misery to the consumers and undesired set back to the overall economy. 3. Usually it requires some form of testing and analysis which helps predict an eminent failure. Quality and reliable operation of equipment on long term basis through identified periodic inspection /checking of components and subsequent replacement /rectification of parts.SECTION – II GUIDELINES FOR MAINTENANCE OF SMALL HYDRO POWER STATIONS 1. Planned maintenance is preferred over this type so as to reduce downtime of machine and avoid uncalled for outages.

document to establish a record of installed clearances.0 REQUIREMENT OF EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE In addition to planning maintenance and allotting suitable time interval on the basis of water supply availability. 2. The analysis of data can predict the future. Knowledge of safety aspect. Planning and arrangement of spares. 2009  19 . otherwise it may become difficult to adhere to the schedules. History registers of various machines duly recorded with all the abnormalities observed on the machine and details of action taken to provide a guide line for future maintenance exercise must be maintained at the power station. These include vibration monitoring. temperature. IR values of generators. It recognizes that design and operation of each equipment differs and therefore. efficiency in power generation output. system loading. In this system diagnostic tools and measurements are used to assess when a component is near failure and should be replaced. Logging of the performance characteristics of the power plant on daily basis recording all the abnormalities and misbehaviors (if any) of the total plant observed during its operation from one maintenance exercise to another. which can be used to predict problems and possible failures. 2. These may be required to compare with the clearances/ settings/characteristics achieved during present All of these datas can be captured and tracked and analysed through computer system. possibility of failure also differs from equipment to equipment. Maintenance engineers should have in their possession all the erection and commissioning reports. parameters. Documents of the previous maintenance exercise carried out on the machines.5 Reliability Centered Maintenance (Rcm) This sort of maintenance is defined as “a process used to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical asset in its operating context”. alignment results. In this approach basic thrust is to eliminate more costly unscheduled maintenance and to minimize preventive maintenance. It is an ongoing process which determines the mix of reactive. T&P and testing equipment in advance so that time is not lost in arrangement of the same after taking shut down. In this system unimportant maintenance activities are left to reactive maintenance approach. leakages of oil and water. consumables. fire fighting and first aid is also necessary. oil analysis.4 Proactive Maintenance Most recent innovation in maintenance is called proactive and it utilizes a technique called “root cause failure analysis”. 3. iii) iv) v) vi) vii) AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. preventive and proactive maintenance practices to provide reliability at the minimum cost. These may be required at the time of diagnosis of the operational problems as well as defined maintenance purpose. Training of skilled staff: Maintenance personnel should have adequate knowledge of the equipment to be handled. apart from general knowledge of the entire plant. It recognises that all equipments in facility are not of equal importance for generation as well as plant safety. i) ii) Man power planning and arrangement is most essential as without experienced / skilled staff any maintenance program may fail. In this type of maintenance primary cause of failure is diagnosed and corrected. following items also require close watch. test characteristics of all the power plant equipment.

Oil Leakage Unit: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.1 1. spiral casing manhole. i) ii) 4. 2009  20 .Check guide vane link breakage 6. cooling water tapping and MIV.1. 3. Check cooling water system and oil coolers Guide Apparatus: . expansion joint. Water Seal and Air Seal: Check the position of water leakage of the water seals and see that there is no excessive splashing and water level do not rise in top cover Note water pressure of water sealing /under sealing. seats etc. Following inspection checks are recommended in this type of maintenance: • • • • • • • 4. Daily checks Weekly checks Monthly checks Quarterly checks Half yearly checks Annual inspection and maintenance Capital Maintenance Preventive Maintenance of Hydro Turbine & Auxiliaries Daily Checks Foundation gallery parts. i) ii) iii) iv) v) 5.viii) Availability of proper and adequate T&P for maintenance work is to be ensured. Vacuum Breaking Valve / Air Admission Valve (where ever provided) : Check the working of vacuum breaking valve and see that there is no abnormality in the springs. Checks for any oil leakage from the bearing housing and check that oil is flowing above the bearing pads. Turbine Guide Bearing: Check oil level(stand still machine /running machine) Note the temperature of bearing and check that the temperature of oil and guide bearing pads are within limit Note the maximum and minimum temperature and compare with readings of the previous day. 4. MIV and expansion joints : Checks for any leakage in draft tube manholes.1 4.Check any leakage from GV servomotor and its piping .0 GUIDELINES FOR MAINTENANCE OF SMALL HYDROPOWER STATIONS In most of small hydro plants preventive maintenance approach is preferred over other approaches. 2.

6. Check for over heating of motor. do the crackle test for detecting presence of water. Cleaning of throttle filters in the governor mechanical cabinet (if provided). Centralized Grease Lubrication System : Check for any leakage from grease pipes. Weekly Maintenance Checks Greasing of guide vanes and servomotor with centralized grease lubrication system and manually. Note the timing of OPU pumps running and compare with previous day running hour. should be reported. Check any oil leakage from the joints Note the pressure difference of opening and closing side of runner.i) ii) 7. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Any leakage from the water piping Working and water pressure of the ejector. i) ii) iii) iv) 8. Check any oil leakage from oil piping and its valves. Vibration/ noise in the pump motor. i) ii) iii) 10. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 4. Check any leakage from pipe line joints Check for satisfactory running on ‘Auto’. if defective. Check the oil level in pressure accumulator and oil sump.2 1. Check grease container is filled with grease Oil Header: (For Kaplan) Check from Perspex sheet manhole any splashing of oil from top and bottom bush. 4. i) ii) iii) Grease in grease container shall be checked. 2. Any increase in leakages in the system can be watched. Oil Pressure System : Check if there is any abnormal sound in the running of the motor and pump unit of OPU. unions and nipples.oil level recorders as also oil film in tail race. Check for any leakage Working of end pressure relay and solenoid valves. 5. Top Cover Drain System : Main supply ‘ON’ for DPM. Cleaning of governor compressor air filters and checking of oil levels. 2009  21 .1. Check any oil leakage runner hub(Kaplan). 3. Checking physically oil of OPU of the running machine. Take remedial measures. Check oil level of all the bearings Check wobbling of shaft at coupling flange and at oil header servo tube. i) ii) 9. after taking sample through the sampling cock.

Check the runner sealing for hermetic tightness. Check the runner blade seals by pressurizing the system. and analyze cause of change in the performance characteristics. draft tube. Check the bushes of guide vanes and change the worn out bushes of guide vanes journals (if possible). The damage due to cavitation and wear to be rectified Check painting of spiral casing. 2009  22 .4 Annual Inspection and Maintenance of Hydro Turbine After successful running of plant for about one year. deflectors and their servo-mechanism (Pelton ) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. needles. Replace damaged shear pins. for rectification are taken.1. penstock. 4. runner chamber (Kaplan) and other under water parts for wear. No oil leakage is to be allowed (Kaplan only). control equipment and measuring instruments etc. if necessary. tear etc. if any. few weeks are required to be allotted to inspect rotating parts. Check guide vane bedding in fully closed position Change grease in the regulating ring. But while carrying out these checks more attention is paid and short shutdowns. to be ensured that hydraulic profile of blades is not disturbed.7. Change seals if necessary. guide vanes. It is. Check water jets. Check cup sealing of guide vane journals and replace. Following checks and inspections should be carried out during annual maintenance: 1. Runner: i) Check the condition of the surfaces of the runner hub. Water Path Parts: i) ii) iii) 2. Check condition of water path system. cone. 4. however. Check cooling system for any leakage etc. Check condition of stay vanes. blades and buckets. Guide Apparatus : i) Check the presence of rubber sealing cords and the tightness of the rubber sealing between the adjacent guide vanes in fully dosed position of guide apparatus (where ever provided). leakages of water in the runner hub is not to be permitted (Kaplan only). Modify / repair / replace (wherever required) the worn out parts in order to prevent forced outages of machine at later date.1. The damage due to cavitations & wear to be rectified by welding and grinding. if required.3 Monthly Maintenance Checks All the checks covered in weekly maintenance as above are carried out monthly also. ii) iii) 3.

Clean the tank. Check satisfactory working on Auto as well as manual. Check the pipeline joints and valve for leakage. 8. Swift return of the valve in its original position after emergency operation should also be checked. Oil Cooling Unit: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Emergency Slide Valve: i) ii) Check the functioning of emergency slide valve and the condition of inner surfaces. attend wherever necessary. OPU : i) ii) iii) iv) v) 9. 2009  23 . Inspect the servomotor and change the seals. replace damaged one. Check setting of the pressure relays for proper sequence of operation of pumps. In case found Guide Bearing : Shaft Gland Seal and Air Seal: Check pipe lines and piping joints for leakage. Provide proper lubrication to the bearings of pump motor. Thorough cleaning of housing is necessary.viii) 4. Check the condition of rubbing surfaces of guide bearing. Adjust the clearances by moving the segments with the help of adjusting bolts. 7. damaged change the same. 10. Oil Header(Kaplan only) i) ii) iii) Measure clearances of upper and lower bushes. Clean oil sump. i) ii) iii) iv) 5. Check all the RTDs and TSDs. if these are worn out. Check the condition of rubbing surface of sealing rings. if required. Clean the oil bath. Oil Leakage Unit: i) ii) iii) 11. if found increased get the bushes replaced. if any. i) ii) 6. Check filter and repair. Attend wherever fault is located. Check and attend leakage from any valve or flanged joints etc. Centralized Grease Lubrication System: i) ii) Check satisfactory working of CGLS system. attend the same. Clean the surface and polish it with the help of chalk powder. Check the rubber cord fixed below the oil guide to check any oil dipping on the exciter winding. refill with centrifuged oil.

measurement of clearances.1. filling of oil sump with filtered oil. Following checks are to be exercised during capital maintenance of a hydro set: 1. Guide Vanes Bush Housing : Dismantling. This exercise becomes very essential in cases where performance level has been observed to have gone down in 5 years operation. Turbine Bearing: i) Dismantling. Replace seals.5 FIVE yearly Maintenance of Hydro Turbine After every five years it is necessary to inspect the machine more critically for abnormalities like fatigue defects for excessive wear and tear of some parts or any change in original parameters / clearances etc. if found necessary. if found disturbed. cleaning. replace with new ones. inspection. cleaning and inspecting for wear and tear. After capital maintenance the units are subjected to all periodic maintenance exercises outlined above before it reach the next cycle of capital maintenance. 4. Check the temperature sensing device. if necessary. Guide vanes : i) ii) iii) Guide vanes are reconditioned and proper bedding in closed position is ensured.i) ii) 12. i) ii) iii) iv) Check all the oil and water pipe lines for leakage and attend if necessary.6 Capital Maintenance of Hydro Turbine Overhauling or capital maintenance of hydro set is usually recommended after about 10 years of operation services. if found damaged replace the same. setting of clearances. ii) 2. Check auto rod setting. inspection. 4. if necessary. if necessary. Then the unit recommissioned as per originally established commissioning practice of the power station. Reassembling and replacing the seals with new ones. Gland Seals and Isolating Air Inflated Seals: Dismantling. replacing with new ones. The whole unit is to be stripped off during capital maintenance and all the defective/worn out parts/components repaired /replaced with new ones. polishing of guide pads. Guide Vane Servomotor: Dismantling for inspection and cleaning.1. Check satisfactory working of all cooling unit. if necessary. Governor Mechanical Cabinet(if applicable): 4. reassembly. 2009  24 . Check alignment of feedback wire rope pulleys. centering of shaft. Attend leakage of oil through pipe line joints and valves. Replacing of worn out rubber flaps or carbon segments. Check filter and throttle. Repair of guide vane journals to remove ovality Alignment of complete guide vane with all journals AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 5. cleaning and reassembly. 3. set the same.

Penstock filling line valve. Runner i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) 9. In case of Kaplan runner. Attend oil pipeline flanges and valves for leakages. Replace gaskets and other parts. i) Under Water Parts ii) iii) 8. Replace blade seals during assembly of Kaplan runner also. loose links. vi) 7. 2009  25 . Cleaning OPU sump and pressure accumulator and refill with filtered oil. Replace bushes.) Oil Cooling Unit i) ii) AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Check electrical circuit. Cleaning and painting of penstock. if found worn out. In case the runner is found to be irreparable arrange to replace the same with new one. draft tube cone. Check setting of pressure switches installed for Auto operation for OPU pumps. compensating ring and draft tube. Check pipe lines and valves. if necessary. Overhaul cooling pumps Attend all the valves and pipe line for leakage b. overhaul the ejector and drainage pumps. draft tube drain valve should also be checked and repaired. Dewatering of draft tube Fabrication of platform in the draft tube for inspection of runner chamber/static labyrinths. Clean main and pilot slide valves. After weld repair heat treatment and dynamic balancing is must before installation. Governor: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Cleaning and checking OPU pumps. Tightening of all the connections should be done. Inspect condition of welded seams of penstock. spiral casing and draft tube liner. hydraulic test is also necessary. rectify defects by welding and grinding. Inspect blades/ buckets of the runner and make up profile by welding and grinding. bearings etc. Set Auto rod as per designs Alpha Beta setting may also be checked in case of Kaplan turbine. if found damaged due to erosion and cavitations. If it is a Kaplan Runner test the same after applying full governor pressure for leakage of oil before dismantling of blades in maintenance bay.6. Also attend pump motors.) Drainage pump motor set for top cover drain i) ii) Inspect top cover drain system. Turbine Auxiliaries a. runner chamber. spiral casing. spiral drain valve. Attend Governor Mechanical cabinet(if provided) for leakages.

These problems are discussed in detailed in the following paragraphs. 2009  26 . Replace worn out valves and gaskets etc. all the valves are attended for any leakage etc. FIG-1 ERODED BUCKETS OF PELTON RUNNER AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. reassembled with new gaskets. failure of turbine bearings.) Centralized Grease lubrication System i) ii) iii) iv) Overhaul greasing pump. Checking all the pipe lines and valves for leakages. e. cracking and cavitation and due to pressure pulsation in draft tube. Replace damaged pipes.c. Major Maintenance Problems of Hydro Turbines Some of the major problems encountered in the hydro turbines are damage in runner chambers.) Oil Leakage Unit i) ii) iii) 4.) Clean Water System: Clean water pipes are dismantled. Clean tank and check that float is properly working. runners due to erosion. d.6 Check the oil leakage unit and overhaul the pumps. instability of operation at partial gate opening. leakage of water through guide vane seals and turbine gland seals. Check all the nylon pipes connected with the guide vane bushes.1. cleaned. Check whole greasing lines. Check that all the guide vanes are receiving grease properly.

2009  27 .FIG-2 ERODED NIDDLE AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.

FIG-3 ERODED KAPLAN RUNNER BLADE FIG-4 ERODED FRANCIS RUNNER Eroded Francis Runner FIG-5 ERODED FRANCIS RUNNER AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 2009  28 .

At surface power stations with open channels. Erosion due to silt The problem of erosion of turbine runners. 2. The rivers in the northern region of India carry enormous silt loads especially during monsoon periods so much so that the power stations had to be closed down to prevent serious damage to the turbines part and water conductor system. The remedy appears to lie in effective desilting arrangements and manufacturing of turbine parts with harder and erosion resistant material like stainless steel of popper grade and also design of runner for such conditions. labyrinth seals. Cavitation & Cracking of Runner AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. following measures of desilting are taken: i) ii) ii) iv) Silt extruders have been provided near under sluice gates of the barrage. 2009  29 . About half a kilometer downstream of the head regulator. be paid to effective desilting arrangement in such power station. The wear due silt occurs so fast that the unit has to be taken out for reconditioning every few years in some stations. guide vanes. inlet valve. Fore bay is also used as desilting basin with flushing conduits in some power stations where quantity of silt is less. Greater attention should. shaft seals and draft tube cone. guide vanes and other under water parts has assumed serious proportions especially in some of the run-of-river schemes. therefore. a silt ejector has been constructed in the bed of the power channel In some projects desilting basin is constructed.FIG-6 RUNNER CAVITATION A. Heavy damages have been observed on the runner. Runner 1.

from the weld should not be allowed to get too hot to be touched with bare hand.The problem of cracking of runner and Pelton buckets in few power stations has been reported. The unit should not be run below certain load to avoid cavitation prone zones. As a result of draft tube pulsation and surges at no load or part gate opening excessive noise.Provision of a bypass arrangement for releasing the pressure built up below the top cover.Provision of fins or flow splitter in draft tube to break the vortex flow. To locate crack etc. 3. ensuring proper submergence. Precaution in welding of runners in situ i) ii) iii) iv) Surface should be prepared by chipping or grinding. 2009  30 . use of cavitation resistant material and adoption of optimize runner profile based on model tests. At design stage itself. iv) v) vi) AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Avoid any localized excessive heating. . improper design or unusual operating conditions. Operate the machines as per guide lines given by manufacturers. In rare cases. To minimize cavitation following steps are necessary: i) ii) iii) Periodically (annually) inspect the runner and other turbine parts and take remedial measures. Cavitation is inherent even in the best designed turbines and cavitation damage occurs under unfavorable operating conditions. The parent material about 70 to 75 mm. Plenty of time should be allowed for the welded area to cool down since forced cooling may cause distortion due to locked in stresses. die penetration test must be carried out. This can be due to following reasons: i) ii) iii) Faulty design and fabrication Poor metallurgy Metal fatigue The cavitation phenomenon occurs due to the vaporization of flowing fluid in a zone of excessive low pressure. Preheating of the blade to about 60 °C is necessary. cavitation can be effectively be controlled. limits of metal removal have been specified beyond which cavitation becomes harmful and requires repair.Air admission through air admission / vacuum breaking valve installed at top cover. areas on the crown on the throat ring and the tip of the blades and the upper portion of the draft tube liner are affected by the action of cavitation. To minimize pulsation of draft tube following measures must be taken: . It is achieved by welding for a short time in any one particular area and then moving to a diametrically opposite area to continue with the work. Normally the discharge side surface of buckets or blades. . vibrations and cavitation is experienced. Hot peening (hitting with mallet) is also must for relieving locked stresses. there may be pitting on the pressure side surfaces of the buckets or blades due to a unusual amount of over hung of the guide vanes.

Mal-functioning of instrument like RTDs. Rubber flap . These are: • • • • Starvation of oil in the bath. oil level and flow relays etc. Bath type with cooling water tubes embedded in the pads. Small diameter cooling pipes embedded in bearing pads have a tendency to clog especially at the time of high silt contents resulting in water starvation. Two separate oil sumps are located in the top cover in diametrically opposite locations. Damage of cooling tubes To avoid failure of bearing due to cooling water tube clogging a new design of turbine guide bearing has been developed by M/s BHEL Hardwar. should be done. After welding all the welded areas should be properly ground to match with the desired profile. These sumps. The ferrobestos lined bearing have given considerable trouble at one of the power station and these had to be replaced by rubber lined pads. Complaints of excessive oil splashing have been received about the rotating bath type bearing. Grease lubricated bearing. Gland Seals Normally two types of shaft gland seals are in use in different power stations: i) ii) Carbon or ferrobestos segment. Bath type with circular cooling tubes. through pipe lines are connected to the oil bath of the bearing. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.vii) viii) ix) A close check should be made at least two to three times per day during the repair of runner to runner chamber clearances. A number of cases of turbine guide bearing failures have come to notice. Inadequate cooling water due to clogging of pipe. The oil is circulated between sumps and the bath Top cover being stationed just above the draft tube. it will be desirable to take out the runner and repair the same as per advice of manufacturer and also to get heat treatment done. Static as well dynamic balancing of the rotating parts also becomes necessary before re-commissioning to prevent problem of cracking of blades and excessive vibrations in machines. Die penetration tests should once again be carried out to ensure crack free welding. B. If extensive welding on the runner is required. either ferrobestos or rubber lined pads are used against a welded shaft sleeve. if necessary. Grease lubrication bearings have a tendency to clog when in contact with the water and it is very essential to use grease with the right type of properties. Turbine Guide Bearing A number of turbine guide bearing designs are in use. C. Rectification. 2009  31 . separate cooling water arrangement for bearing oil is not required. The bearing temperatures with this arrangement never go beyond 40°C to 42 °C. These may be classified as follows: • • • • Plain water cooled bearing. TSDs. In the case of plain water cooled bearings.

Whenever any part is replaced it should be ensured that match marking after final assembly is done. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Whenever reassembly of the gland seal with existing gland ring or new ring is done it is importance to ensure: • • • • • • • 2. All garter springs are assembled to obtain even tension all around. In very rare case only the damaged segment is replaced. Only precaution during assembly of rubber gland is jointing of the rubber seal in the proper way. All segment to segment and segment to stainless steel mating surfaces are perfect. Alignment of segments in the lower assembly is carefully checked with a hard woodden peg or similar device before fitting retaining pins. D. The overhauling of the stuffing box becomes necessary when it is observed that consumption of cooling water has considerably increased or excessive water in top cover appears to be coming. it should be circular and smooth and properly secured on the shaft. Stuffing box being always in touch with the shaft is subjected to excessive wear and tear. care must be taken to ensure that the axial thickness of the new segments falls within the limit size to ±0. Rubber flap Maintenance of rubber flap type gland seal is comparatively simpler and easier. Rubber seals should be replaced during capital maintenance. The shaft sleeve should also be checked. The quality of rubber used plays a very important role for satisfactory performance of the rubber gland. 2009  32 . It is important that all the parts are match marked before dismantling so that reassembly is correctly done. Guide vane servomotor Normally main source of trouble is rubber cup seals which need to be replaced after a few years. In the event of breakage or damage to a carbon segment it is advisable to replace the whole set of carbon segments.1. Ensure proper bedding of segments with shaft sleeve. All carbon segments and spacers are fitted to place and match marked on assembly.002” of the existing ring to which it is to be fitted. All stainless steel facings are flat and square with the gland sleeve and there are no steps at the facing joints. In general maintenance of the seal is required to be done annually. Governor Different types of governors are in use in different hydro power stations: o Mechanical governor can be classified as follows ƒ Fly ball type All carbon / ferrobestos segments are carefully examined for any chipping or damage. Stainless steel facing and sleeve are completely free from grease. E. Carbon or ferrobestos Segment The seal segments are housed in the stuffing box.

screw/ impeller and body of the pump which would be replaced. During annual overhauling OPU sump and pressure accumulator should be completely emptied and cleaned. thus providing access to the top cover water which may ultimately be delivered to the OPU sump. Wearing out of throttles due to which oil leakage becomes more and readjustment of governor becomes essential. if necessary. Governor employing electro hydraulic amplifier. Filters should also be cleaned. should be cleared. 2009  33 . Periodical check of the OPU sump oil sample for moisture content by carrying out crackle test where problem of water entry is frequent is the only way to keep track of such possibility. Oil header has an oil guide connected with the rotating and servo tube. Some time oil level in sump is found decreased which may be due to system leakages in the system which are required to be attended One more problem which has been faced in different power station is entry of water in the governing oil system. From following two sources the water can enter in the governing oil system. through oil leakage pumps which caters leakage of servo motor oil. Regular centrifuging of oil with the help of De-Laval type oil purifying machine would go a long way in enhancing the life of the oil. Its sump being located well below the level of servo motors in the top cover may not be properly sealed. and after cleaning and reassembly governor parameters and characteristics should be readjusted so that there is no hunting of the governor. The oil samples should be got tested for verification of the desired properties. The servo tube has ports to receive return oil deliver the same to the pipes coming AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.this type of governors are maintenance free and fast response modern day governor First three type governors may require maintenance because of the following reasons: ƒ ƒ Chocking of oil parts and throttles. Governing Oil System The oil sump should be properly cleaned and filled with filtered oil. F. In certain cases oil retained its properties even up to 15 to 20 years of continuous use. ii) To eliminate first possibility the oil leakage unit delivery should be isolated from the OPU sump and connected to a separate tank. G. In case of Kaplan turbine water may enter into the runner hub through rubber seal of blades. But for the second possibility there is no way except replacing blade seals. if excessive water found in the Governor oil. Digital governor. This may be due to some worn out bearing. Oil Header In Kaplan turbine the oil header is required to supply governing oil to the runner servomotor and return oil to the OPU sump. i) From top cover. The OPU pumps require maintenance when they develop excessive noise or vibration. The strainers should be inspected and repaired. In this case governor should be opened and all the throttles etc.ƒ o o o o Accelero tachometric type Governor employing magnetic amplifier.

parts of stator winding in slots (specially at sector joint) binding & spacers between the winding bars/ bandage rings. resistance.12 1. bus bars. bus bars slot wedges etc. Check functioning of RTDs of stator. based on the past experience.09 1. Sl. Monitoring of wobbling of the servo tube with help of dial indicator may provide a guide line and save the bushes from further wearing. No.2.07 1.03 1. At the time of assembly of various parts of header. After cleaning apply Red-gel coat on the overhang. Due to run out of the shaft these bushes press the servo tube which may cause failure of the same. Check looseness of overhang. Blow the winding. quaterly. If it is necessary. with dry & clean compressed air (2 to 3 kg/cm2). Remedial measures to reduce run out of the servo tube must be taken at this stage. In case of excessive wetting of stator winding during conditions such as flooding. Check the fixing of stator active iron( core) with the frame body in all possible places.00 1. While it is appreciated that it is not always possible to rightly follow this schedule due to generator loading constraints. active iron and bandage rings etc. Given in the following table are the recommended daily. tighten the studs of pressing plates. 4. 1. IR & PI value. 2009  34 . Clean the winding with dry & clean compressed air (2 to 3 kg/cm2).11 1. drying of winding by passing current is not allowed Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Record to be maintained -do- Yearly As requirement per External heating arrangement is to be provided till wetness is AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Preventive Maintenance of Hydro Generator (Periodical Maintenance) Preventive maintenance ensures a long trouble free operation of the generator. proper match marking and dowelling is essential so that reassembly may be correctly done.13 Check overhang parts of stator winding. Checking the fixing of winding.C. condition of winding joints with bus bars etc.from OPU sump.04 Description Stator: Temperature record on log sheet for core and winding.02 1.08 1. Check D. Periodicity Hourly Half yearly Half yearly Half yearly Cleaning to be done such that the dust does not collect in side machine. Check pins & fixing of stator with foundations. monthly.05 1. inner periphery of stator core (if possible).06 1. the recommendation given may be taken as a guide line and these may be altered slightly. half yearly & yearly maintenance checks to be conducted on the generator.01 1. This tube is guided by three sets of bushes in the oil tube. hot and cold air Visual inspection of the overhang parts of the stator winding. Remarks 1.10 1.

ROTOR: Check rotor winding and insulation condition of current carrying leads. In case of excessive grooving rectify by grinding. to be removed. This is harmful to the winding. No.06 3.03 2. 3.04 2. Clean rotor from dust by blowing compressed air free from moisture (2 to 3 kg/cm2). 2009  35 . 2.07 2. Use a precision spring balance for adjusting spring tension. brake track. The brush should not be too tight/loose inside the holder.06 2. Check the locking of pole wedges. Clean the brush rocker.08 3.01 2. 2. Check tightening & proper locking of all fasteners.01 3. Oil leakages. The carbon brushes can be used till it is not possible to measure/ adjust spring tension.Sl. Check the condition of inter-polar connections Check the condition of damper winding. resistance and IR value of rotor winding.10 3.00 3.09 Check for absence of oil or its vapors in slip ring area.04 Check IR value of rotor through slip rings before Half yearly & after cleaning slip rings.03 3.00 2. Keep a record Special care be taken to clear carbon dust from ‘V’ shaped insulation pieces fitted between slip rings.09 2. If required carryout additional wedging.02 Check the gaps of spider arms. Brushes. slip rings and Monthly the surrounding areas. Check the pole coils for inter-turn fault. Slip ring & Brush Rocker Check sparking. Measure D.08 2. Ensure use of same & recommended grade of Every shift. if any. New brushes to be used after bedding the brushes. inspection.C.05 Description initially as electrolysis of water may take place.07 3.02 2.05 Check spring tension Quarterly 3. Monthly While replacing While replacing AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Every shift Quarterly 3. Check pitting & Grooving of slip ring Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Keep a record Not required during 600 hrs. Check distance of brush holder from slip ring and keep it as specified in the drawing. Check locking of rim wedges Periodicity Remarks removed Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly In case the wedges are loose contact manufacturer before attempting any rectification.

brush rocker & Half Yearly current carrying lead. Yearly Yearly Yearly During capital This will require partial maintenance dismantling of unit.10 Measures insulation resistance of T.00 4. Once in a shift Analysis of oil from oil bath.01 4. 4. Pad & Oil Hourly by RTD & TSD and record on log sheet.B. In case the original insulating enamel is peeling off remove the balance enamel and apply fresh enamel. plugging of cooling tubes upto 10% can be done depending upon bearing temperature.14 While cleaning avoid using insulating paint removers. wash them with Kerosene and dry with clean cloth.B. Record to be kept. disc after applying lard (animal fat) on the pads & giving rotation to the unit. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.10 3. Check all fasteners of slip rings. Check the condition of mirror surface of T. to be discarded after use. in the oil bath coolers.05 Thrust Bearing Measurement of temperatures of T. Check & record reading of oil level. Stop oil leakages in this area. Clean all inner surfaces of oil bath from dust. Carryout thorough cleaning of slip ring area. Polishing of the surface can be done to remove minor scratches.06 4. should be carried out with respect to T. pads and the verticality of the unit is to be checked thereafter.B. oil bath When centrifuging doesn’t help in improving its quality up to acceptable values. Any Once in every increase in level may be due to leakage of water shift. Check calibration of the TSD’s & RTD’s of thrust bearing.B.Sl. Load sharing on T. Check carbon brushes for absence of pitting and Quarterly severe wear & tear. Unit should be stopped in case of leakage from cooling tube. replace complete set. 3.03 4.09 4.12 3. Inter change polarity of slip rings. Check level of oil from the gauge glass. scrapping.07 4.04 4.B. Half yearly Change of oil in T. in Two Oil bath is to be finally flushed with fresh turbine oil.11 Description Periodicity carbon brushes on one machine. disc. Yearly Yearly Yearly Remarks In case the damage is excessive. 3. No.15 At the time of installation/ during major overhauling 4.02 4. Disc. if required. 3. Once years. Check wobbling at slip rings. 2009  36 .13 3. Check the working surface of thrust bearing pads.B.08 4.

01 5.18 5. check that the pad eccentricity is correct. Yearly Carryout it’s polishing. measure and record Yearly To be readjusted if guide bearing clearances. Check for proper seating of pads Change rubber seals & woolen felts GUIDE BEARINGS Periodicity Yearly Yearly As required Remarks Watch carefully for rise in water level to confirm leakage and attend accordingly.07 5.B.14 4. Yearly Check calibration of TSD’s & RTDs of G.17 4.16 4. 4.04 Description Check the condition of weld seam of oil bath & oil pipe lines for leakages visually.11 4. As per requirement.05 5. Check the centering of the unit vis-à-vis the Yearly as per labyrinth/runner chamber of turbine. Change of oil in Guide Bearing oil bath When centrifuging doesn’t help in improving its quality up to acceptable values Measure insulation resistance of G.B.00 5. required. If oil level is not rising.Sl.09 5. This is normally due to mixing of water leaking from oil coolers. if required ii) Heavy damage on babbit surface of pads – full set is replaced from spares. during reinstallation Yearly Check each pad for: i) Absence of scratch marks. 2009  37 . pads. During capital maintenance As per requirement. oil Hourly by RTD & TSD & record on log sheets Check & note reading of level.03 5.12 Measurement of temperatures of G. Check if excessive foaming is taking place on oil through gauge glass. the oil may need de-foaming.06 5. In case of uneven wear of pad. As required As required 5.13 4.12 4.02 5. Oil sample to be checked. No. requirement Check the friction surface of the bearing journal. Check the condition of welding seems of oil bath Yearly AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.15 4. Wash pads & journal with aviation petrol and Yearly then carryout assembly of the guide bearing. Disc is displaced. Check (in case of problem) the intactness of spherical surface of thrust bolt. pads. Check the condition of insulation of RTD leads. if necessary. Once in every shift Analysis of oil from oil bath Quarterly Record to be kept. Check if any insulating segment over T.B.08 5. Scrapping to be done with respect to the journal.10 5.B. Yearly Prior to removal of pads.11 5. The spares set to be scrapped with respect to it’s respective journal surface by giving rotation to the unit.

05 7.00 7. AIR/OIL COOLERS Check water boxes for clogging by opening them. 2009  38 . water from coolers is to be drained and the coolers kept dry.06 7. 5. if required. Check operation of the level relay and its calibrations. if required.03 6. Check fixing of the generator cover plate Check all fasteners of Upper and lower air baffles.01 7. No. Remarks Oil bath is to be finally flushed with fresh turbine oil. Coolers are to be pressure tested and attended. bearing pads/ stator winding to be taken in view while plugging tubes of the coolers.03 7.07 Clean the brackets of dirt & dust.18 6. Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly These gaps are to be compared with original values during erection and maintained as such. to be discarded after use. Check welding of pad support block with oil bath.13 Description Periodicity & leakages from them and oil pipe lines.15 5. Yearly As required 7. As required Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly This checking may be done frequently if clogging is more. Check looseness of pad and pad support bolts. if required. failure on subsequent commissioning of the unit.Sl. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Check the gasket between oil cooler & oil bath & between air cooler & stator frame.00 6. Check looseness of bolts holding ‘Z’ clamps (in wedge type construction of guide bearings.16 5. if found having leaking tubes. Clean all inner surfaces of oil bath wash them Once in two years with Kerosene and dry with clean cloth. UPPER BRACKET / LOWER BRACKET External inspection & tightening of the lock nuts in the radial jacks. Cleaning can be done more often if possible. Check the value of air gap between air baffles and rotor.01 6. Yearly Check fastening between upper bracket & stator Yearly and foundation plates.17 5.02 7. Normally upto 10% of the cooling tubes of As required Temperature of the coolers can be plugged.04 6. When the shutdown exceeds 10 days. Gaskets to be replaced if required.04 On flooding of the This is to safe guard unit. Change rubber seals and woolen felts. Remove all dirt etc & finally clean with fresh water & dry. In case of clogging clean tubes water boxes with wire/ nylon brush. 5.05 7.02 6.14 5. Check foundation bolts tightening for stator & Yearly lower bracket.

7.07 As required 8.12 Check all fasteners of brakes and brake pipe lines Yearly & gaskets wherever provided. ii) Check time for unit to stop after applying brakes 8. During jacking operation lifting of the rotor is to During jacking be limited to the specified value (7.10 8.01 9.02 Description Check all fasteners for locking / tightness Overhauling of Brake System Record air pressure available at brake panel.11 8. for leakages.08 8.0 mm) Keep the unit on jacks which are mechanically locked if closure of machine is for more than 24 hours After each jacking operation ensure cleaning of pipe with air under pressure as provided in the system.08 8. oil coolers. In case if this time has increased abnormal then look for increased guide vanes clearances. if required. Check thickness of brake pad Periodicity Remarks Yearly Yearly Every shift Record on log sheet Yearly or as Record to be maintained required along with number of braking in the period with Air pressure used for braking. GENERAL External examination of parts of generator which Once in each shift are accessible.02 AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. As required 8. Check leakage through pipelines during braking.Sl. Check no oil leaks from return pipe line during jacking operation Check function of the braking system on manual & auto and the operation of the limit switches of brakes. Open brake cum jack assembly.03 During first Measure: i) Time for unit to come to braking speed from spinning / yearly rated speed after signaling the unit to stop. sealing & control valve etc. External inspection of air coolers. affect the time Clean the affected areas periodically as required Limit switch to be suitably mounted to check the rotor lift.05 Check if excessive brake dust is generated and Yearly find its cause. Clean the inner Yearly surface of dust with Kerosene & reassemble.01 8. 9. 8.09 As required Yearly Record is maintained.06 8. Replace the gasket.00 8. No. 8. Record to be kept. 2009  39 . Once in each shift pipe lines. Presence of oil on brake track or reduction in air pressure etc.04 8. Check the condition of brake track and its Yearly holding with the rotor. In case of any problem brake panel & brakes are to be checked & rectified as required.00 9.

Check the calibration of Electrical measuring instruments i. Blow with compressed air the internal surface of the generator.09 9.08 10.11 9.10 9.06 9. Every shift Monthly Daily Record is to be maintained. OIL PIPE LINE/ EXTERNAL OIL COOLING SYSTEM (If applicable) Check oil pressure at the pump across the filter & point of entry to the bearing. Check temperature of bearings of the Pumpmotor set. Monthly .00 10. 9. is not to exceed the specified limits. 10. Yearly Yearly Yearly Monthly Hourly Keep record in the log AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. after removing the insulation.B. This temp. pump motor set (if provided) Check the temperature of cold & hot water. Check the characteristics of Static Excitation system in both auto & manual mode and sensitivity of various limits. Check the Operation of D.e. Check the working of Fire Extinguishing CO2 system without actually releasing the CO2 gas on manual and on auto operation as per the instructions provided in O&M manual of the Fire Extinguishing System provided by its supplier.08 9. Frequency meter.C. UGB & LGB at predetermined points. meter for Stator output. P.Sl. Completely clean the oil tank & T.13 10. External inspection of current carrying leads PMG.F. Tighten the bolts. No. Check the condition of lighting inside the barrel Check the vibrations at TGB.05 10. Panels etc.09 Check conditions of gland packing of the pump and see that air is not being sucked from here into the system. if required. Check the operation of the electrical contact pressure gauge.04 9.12 9.07 9.05 9. 2009  40 . energy meter etc. oil bath Clean the oil pipe line after disconnecting it Check the operation of the valves of the pipe line.04 10. Terminal Blocks.03 9.06 10.07 10. Bus Bars.02 10. Active/ Reactive Power meter. ammeter. voltmeter. Periodicity Once in each shift Daily Monthly Monthly Monthly Yearly Quarterly Remarks To be cleaned necessary if Yearly Yearly Yearly As specified in its O&M manual. Check wobbling of the shaft at turbine generator flange/ TGB. Check the Sensitivity & Stability of Generator Electrical Protection scheme. Voltmeter & Ammeter in Field winding circuit. In case temp. Check connections of current carrying leads & cables. is excessive check if lubricating grease is filled as required.03 Description Ensure cleanliness of all external accessible parts of the generator & wipe with clean & dry cloth.01 10.

Check pipe line for leakage of oil. bearing clearances High. Once in each shift. monthly and annual checks and maintenance. Mix of C-Dust/ Oil Pr.Leakage of Oil From Housing Plug the leaking tubes Cleaning Check for pipeline. A-Daily Checks Sl. 2009  41 . 6. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. . 3. Commutator brush gear Water leakage Sparking. No. Exciter Cooler tubes Brushes Air Pr. foreign material & sludge. joints leakage. Balancing of rotor. contaminated oil. Check oil sample for acidity. 4. housing Yearly 4. choked oil coolers. required from each bearing should be sent for chemical analysis & record to be kept. unit/ during each shift. Clean holes for oil entry into the T. Temp. 7. Bearing oil Oil level Level gauge Visual 5.2.1 Periodical checks All the above checks and some more checks are again tabulated for daily. scanners R.12 10. Assembly Stator Core Item Core Check Point i)Abnormal noise around stator Method Periodic listening ii)Temperatures Temp. Remarks 10.10 Description Periodicity sheet. moisture Yearly or as Separate oil sample content. Stator winding Guide & thrust bearing Stator coils Bearing pads Winding temp. Scanners Remark & Remedial Measures i)Checking for core looseness especially at frame joints If abnormal add additional paramax paper in core joints ii)Check cooling system 2.11 10.B. 1. No. Temp.Due to Water Leakage Low. formations. Bear. 8.Sl. Air Coolers Slip rings and brushes Brake & Jack D. Gauge Commutation Visual Visual Pr. Gauge Visual Check cooled air & cooling system Abnormal vibrations.T. 10.C.13 Check the air ventilation cock of the oil tank is During start of the open during operation of the unit.Ds. viscosity. weekly.

9. Brushless excitation system AC exciter and Rotating Diodes Abnormal noise around stator Periodic listening Checking looseness for core AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 2009  42 .

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. clean commutator. Brake Track Clean liners & Oil Sludge/ Moisture Trap Visual 1. Assembly Weekly D. pitting Sparking. No. 1. speed & pressure. Dry the same. chattering. Brake Lining Air leakage. Brush Gear. Attend leakages More than 4 to 5 mm per 50 operation Reduce application. insert paramax paper Clean through comp. Air Replace brushes. Field winding DC Exciter Visual/ Filler Gauge Visual Adjust core packing of jack screws. Clean with detergent solution. wear & clearance Commutation Visual ii)Brushes iii)Commutator 2. 2009  43 . Air Filter Visual 2.C.B-Weekly/Monthly Checks (As per recommandations of Manufacturer) Sl. Adjust brush (5 to 8 mm for 1000 R-hour) Rough or high spot on commutator smooth surface. Check air pressure. Change Lining Clean Drain Trap & Clean Brake Track i)Collector ring Accumulation of dirt.Exciter Item Check Point Method Remark & Remedial Measures Smoothen collector surface clean. Monthly Stator core Back of stator core Field coil top Commutator. compare IR value Brushes are not sticking in their boxes. excessive wear Visual 3. risers. Clean Track. 3.

No. if necessary (ii) Core Core Duct Stator winding Contamination Cleanliness & general condition Visual Visual Check tightness of core especially at the top & bottom most packets. grinding or turning to prevent excessive sparking All insulated parts are to be cleaned by dry compressed air 3. 2009  44 . Any local looseness between punchings can be filled up with asbestos or paramax paper glued with epoxy varnish & core bolts retightened. any grooves etc to be removed by oil stone. Assembly Stator Item (i) Frame Check Point Joint bolt tightness & dowel Pins Tightness of core Method Hammering Remark & Remedial Measures Retighten.D. The slip ring is running out.Check the coil joints for any cracks overheating etc If impedance of some coils is very low (say less than 40%) they must be checked for possible inter-turn faults. Field winding Field coil & rotor leads A-General condition of coil.) with loctite – 290 Marketed By M/s Fit Tite Chemicals Ltd.D. Hz supply Visual of by to 50 Insulated parts AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. pole & cleanliness B-Inter turn faults Measure IR values after cleaning Visual Dry out if IR Value is low i-Clean the field coil with compressed air ii. 1. Brush gear and Slip rings Brushes & Slip rings General Conditions & Cleanliness Measure impedance field coils applying 60 100 V AC. After repairs spray the top & bottom three packets (both from I. Clean with Dry compressed air Clean the end windings 2. correct it. & O.C-Annual Inspection & Maintenance Sl.

2009  45 . PMG HP Lubrication Motor HP Hose Assembly Air gap winding General condition & Check IR value of bearing insulation & replace insulation. HP Lubrication. Air coolers Oil vapor seal of top bearing Coolers tubes Vapor seal insulation Tubes IR value Visual and pressure test 8. Oil coolers Coolers tubes Tubes Visual and pressure test 9.Sl. Use cleaning agents as recommended by manufacturer 5. rotor leads. System 10. Examine the condition of guide pads and any slight scouring marks can be attended by water emery paper (GR-400) DC exciter 6. stator winding. if necessary check the condition of the hoses & if necessary replace them. Bearings Guide Clearance Filler Gauge Check guide bearing pad Bearing Pads clearance. No. Thrust & guide bearing Bearing Bearing insulation IR value 7. if damaged Clean inside and outside of air cooler tubes Checks for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than maximum expected working pressure. If pad clearance has to be reset the shaft must be centered first. brush gear. Inspect bearing & Grease. 4. Check IR value of vapor seal insulation and replace. field coils. if damaged and do not improve even after dry out. Clean inside & outside of oil tubes Check for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than maximum expected working pressure. PMG and DC Exciter. Assembly Item Check Point Method Remark & Remedial Measures Core & Accumulation of Visual Cleaning of exciter by Winding dust dry compressed air Note: For cleaning stator ducts. Check air gap Clean the stator & field AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.

cessation of oil dripping through that sight glass is an indication that cleaning is done Tightness of dog clamps Visual inspection 13. Rotor Shaft Slip ring and Dial gauge Tighten all the approachable fasters on rotor assembly including tightening pole and rim keys & lock all of them. Check movement of flap and electrical contacts Clean rod probe Clean the filter element and bowl of filter. Check for run out at slip AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. if necessary Clean water passages. • Combinato ry unit and air supply pipe line • Brake track fixing • Brake limit switch Proper operation cleaning & 15. heater terminal connection Tightening of fasteners Electrical Joints Tightness Tighten joints Tighten joints. remagnetize Readjustment. Shaft run out & centering & rotor level Water flow relays. Rotor assembly Looseness of fasteners Visual 17. flow indicators & flow meters Oil level indicator Braking & Jacking system Remark & Remedial Measures windings. similarly clean the bowl of lubricator also.Sl. 14. remove silt etc. Assembly Item Check Point cleanliness Method 11. Brush gear connection. Check the open circuit voltage and if less than specified voltage. No. 12. RTD terminal. all electrical all electrical 16. if necessary. Electrical Connections Pole to pole connections. 2009  46 .

Current carrying leads Check for proper operation Check for proper operation Plunger & contact mechanism Visual Repair insulation. rotor and exciter Decouple generator shaft and turbine shaft after recording guide bearing clearances air gaps between stator & rotor air gaps of main. D-shackles etc. 22. Rotor rim to be supported by blocks and jacks all around the circumference. Top shaft 20.2 - Capital Maintenance of Hydro Generator Dismantling : Record insulation resistance values of stator. All stator air coolers are to be dismantled and kept for testing and repair. pins and temperature sensors etc. Generator Auxiliaries Cooling water valves Over speed device 21. found damaged if Check that these are in good working condition Clean & replace glands where needed. Proper operation Cleaning of electrical contacts 4. Dismantling other components one by one in proper sequence till rotor is free to be lifted. pilot exciter & PMG etc if mounted on shaft. slings.2. fasteners. Rotor should be taken out very carefully and kept in rotor assembly pit duly bolted with base plate. No. Maintenance of Stator Frame Maintenance of Generator Components : AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Braking & jacking units to be dismantled All cares are to be taken during dismantling to ensure safety of all components. Rotor pole Bracket vibration Damper system Supporting structure Vibration Interconnection between poles Supporting structure for proper tightness Insulation provided on supporting structure Tightness of clamps. Prior arrangement of proper T&P. damaged.Sl. 2009  47 . general condition Balancing equipment Visual Remark & Remedial Measures ring and turbine coupling and readjust if found more than the specified value. is also necessary. Assembly Item vibration Check Point coupling Method 18. special T&P. if necessary Tighten and lock properly if supporting structure found loose. if found 19. Rebalance. By tapping & By shaking Visual Rectify.

Tightness of core especially at the top and bottom most packets.B. Check if there are any grooves. spray paint the rotor pole with insulating red gel paint. bedding is to be done AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. After rectification of all defects and thorough cleaning. tightness of bolts and location pins etc. Measure IR value of winding after thorough cleaning. After assembly dry out if IR is low. Check general condition of coil and pole. Check the coil joints for any cracks due to overheating etc. Keep the rotor covered with asbestos cloth to prevent deposit of dust and fire safety. Paint used should be specified insulating paint. roughness high points use oil stone for rectification Check brush gear connections. pole key rim keys etc. clean with dry compressed air. Any local looseness between punchings can be filled up with paramax paper glued with epoxy varnish & core bolt retightened.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Check all joints. Shaft is to be checked specially at G. Check tightness of all the joints of rotor spider and extension arms Check tightness of rotor rims. Retighten. Check top and bottom rotor fans. journals for any marks roughness etc. if necessary. 50 C/s. Maintenance of Stator core winding - Maintenance of Rotor ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ - Maintenance of brush gears and slip rings ƒ ƒ - Maintenance of Bearing Guide bearings ƒ ƒ Check condition of Housing Check condition of Pads. fire etc are to be taken during maintenance period . Clean core duct with dry compressed air Clean the ends of winding. Remedial measures are to be taken if marks. If impedance of some coil is very low (<4%) they must be checked for possible inter turn faults. 2009  48 . if found damaged replace the same. clean all the insulated parts with dry compressed air. if required. After rectifying all defect and thorough cleaning of the inner bore and overhang portion is done and winding is to be spray painted. Check field coils and rotor leads for inter turn fault. The rotor is to be thoroughly cleaned with dry compressed air. After repair spray top and bottom three packets with loctite-290. Carryout Electronic Core Imperfection Detection test also to ensure healthiness of core. All safety precautions for external damage. roughness is found. Measure impedance of coils by applying 60 to 100 VAC.

if necessary Check the condition of hoses. rebabbit pads with proper grade of white metal. get rebabbiting done Bedding of pads to ensure removal of high points and having desired contact area. Check bearing insulation by measuring IR value. Inspect bearing and grease. expected working pressure If more than 10% tubes are leaking change full set of tubes or change only leaking tubes After repair paint the body of coolers. Replace insulation if found damaged. if found damaged replace the same. Check brake units and clean inside outside of the unit Change seals Thrust Bearing Maintenance of Air Coolers Maintenance of Oil Coolers Maintenance of H.P. Check pressure gauges etc. clean water passages remove silt. pivot points of thrust bearing. Check all RTDs & TSDs and calibration of temperature indicators. Check insulation of pads. if found damaged Check condition of housing. level indicator. if necessary replace Check for any leakages and take remedial measures. Clean inside and outside of cooling tubes Check for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than maximum expected working Replace full set of tubes if more than 10% of total tubes are leaking. Check IR value Check all RTDs & TSDs and calibration of temperature indicators Check condition of pads. Inspect. All defective meters are to be replaced. if found some damage to babbit material. Clean inside and outside of air cooler tubes Check for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than max.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ In case babbit material found damaged or thinned. Check all pressure gauges. 2009  49 . visual flow indicators and flow meter: Braking and jacking system: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Check insulation of vapor seal also and replace. Lube system Maintenance of Flow relays.

Oil temperature indicator reading Take air temperature near the transformer for air cooled transformers. Auxiliary. if necessary General checks Check condition of current carrying leads. ii) Fans operate at set value of temperatures. Preventive Maintenance of Power Transformers The maintenance of transformer is an ongoing process and stress should be on preventive maintenance rather than acting when a fault occurs. tighten dog clamps Check working of brake limit switches.3 Carry out hydraulic test Clean the filters. Periodical maintenance of transformers Sl. iii) Fans/oil pumps are in circuit iv) Check calibration of OTI and WTI. bowl of lubricator Check brake track.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ 4. A schedule of maintenance activities is drawn and tabulated below. Station Transformers and Distribution Transformers also when ticked √ 5 √ 1 A 1. Replace brake lining. check: i) That radiator valves or cooler circuit valves are all open. 2 Hourly Ambient temperature 3 4 2. Station & distribution transformers. No. Winding temperature 3. Check all water & oil valves for their proper working Check general operational healthiness of all auxiliaries Check proper working of over speed device. loading condition. -do- √ √ AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Check for abnormalities If the temperature indicated is in relation to ambient more than envisaged as per temperature and load. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required. This is applicable to Main. if unsatisfactory condition indicated Applicable for UATs. 2009  50 . Record water temperature at the inlet to the cooler for water cooled transformers.

Replace ‘O’ ring or washer suitably. If oil leakage found. Check by opening the end covers of the cooler. top up oil. complete checking is done. 2 Load (amperes) Voltage Transformer/ Shunt reactor humming and general vibration. Ensure proper change over. Check that fans / oil pumps are running as required. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Top up oil. 5. if unsatisfactory condition indicated 1 4. Top up if found low. 2. 6. Tighten gasket joint at the leak point.Sl. if needed. check sealing gasket between diverter switch and transformer/ reactor tank. Check connections. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required. Change over from one - If leakages are observed. Check oil and water flow indicators. Replace. 1. Replace gasket. Examine transformer/ shunt reactor for leaks. 1. 4 Reduce load. No. Tighten any looseness in external parts. 3. Weekly Leakage of water into cooler Operating 7. If low. Relief vent diaphragm Check for any crack - 6. 2009  51 . If abnormal sound still persists. Check opening of valves if restricted flow observed. Plug the tube leaking. If found defective correct them. Fans/ oil pump running Oil & cooling water flow. tighten evenly the gasket joints. Oil level in bushings 4. C. Check oil level from oil gauge glass - 2. If broken. Correct tap position in line with voltage. Pipe work accessories leakage Check oil level from the oil gauge of the bushings in which oil remains separate from the tank oil. and Check for oil leaks for 5. if cracked / broken. Applicable for UATs. Examine bushing for any oil leakage. ensure from other protections provided that there is no fault inside the transformer / reactor. Station Transformers and Distribution Transformers also when ticked √ 5 √ B. Oil level in diverter switch Check oil level from the gauge glass. Daily Oil level in transformer / shunt reactor Check figures 3 against rated - Check for any abnormality in sound. if it exceeds the specified limits.

E.condensation heaters are working. Monthly Dehydrating breather i) Check colour silica gel of - ii) Check oil level in the oil cup and contamination of oil visually. if required to maintain oil level. 2009  52 . change by spare charge. If cracks observed. Operation of fans In mixed cooling in ONAN/ ONAF. Ensure air passages are free. 3. if unsatisfactory condition indicated 1 3. Quarterly Bushings Clean dirt deposits. operate the fans manually to check their running. 4 Applicable for UATs. If more than half of silica gel has turned pink. 1. pump and the cooler Operation of Check anti. if temperature of oil has been less than the fan control setting temperatures. Station Transformers and Distribution Transformers also when ticked √ 5 Set them working right if not D. No. Visual inspection for cracks and dirt deposits. 2. 1. Replace oil if contaminated. Maximum pointer Record the maximum oil of OTI and WTI and winding temperature readings reached during the month. The old charge may be reactivated for use again.Sl. 2 3 sequence of oil cooler to the other. cracked bushing should be rectified / replaced. iii) Check that air passages are free. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. anticondensation heater in marshalling box and OLTC motor drive panel. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required. Add oil. Check whether the readings are within permissible limits. Reset maximum pointer of OTI and WTI. Ensure smooth running of fans.

Tighten them if found loose. 2009  53 . Lubricate all bearing and coupling points suitably. Applicable for UATs. Oil in bushings values are low.If Compare with previous values. No. Insulation Measure IR value resistance between windings and to earth. control pumps External earth Check all external connections connections for discoloration or hot joints. 8. 2. Marshalling box Check wiring and that terminals are tight. In case of faulty operation. F. Set limit switches in position. Tighten them if loose. - 3. Check BDV and .Sl. 4 Lubricate bearings. Check operation of alarm / trip contacts of each protection by actual initiation and also check display and annunciation on the panel. 1. - Replace all the worn out and burnt contacts. manual and control. - 5. Clean fans and adjust controls. Check step by step mechanism operation. If the values are low. filter oil or AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Oil in transformer Check for dielectric strength and moisture content Oil in diverter Check for dielectric switch strength and moisture content. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required. - 9. The comparison should be done with those values where transformer/ reactor is connected externally to the line and bus ducts. measure IR values after isolating it. if unsatisfactory condition indicated 1 2. Take suitable action to restore quality of oil -do- 7. Tighten terminals if found loose. Replace worn out contacts. Clean / replace brake shoe lining. If oil is present check leakage in the oil bag by applying air pressure. Check that wiring is intact and all terminals are tight. Station Transformers and Distribution Transformers also when ticked √ 5 4. check contacts and wiring circuits. 6. Oil bag sealing arrangement where provided. 2 3 Cooler fan bearing Check contacts. end position limit switches and brakes. Half Yearly Alarm. OLTC Examine contacts. trip and protection circuits Check presence of oil outside the oil bag in the conservator.

1. No. Dry out. 5. Check balancing of fans. Touch up / re-paint. 3. Make the smooth. - - Replenish. with previous Applicable for UATs. 6. if required. tank walls for shunt reactors. ii) Check the movement of floats for rise and fall. If oil level indication is not correct check the float. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required. - Buchholz contacts should operate when oil level comes below Buchholz relay level. 4 replace with fresh oil. Adjust if found reading incorrectly. Fan motors Check IR value of motor winding. iv) Check the operation of alarm and trip contacts by air injection. ii) Check oil in the pockets. movement - - Tighten clamps if loose. 2009  54 . Check contacts if abnormality found. between WTI and OTI by feeding current to the WTI pocket heating element. ii) DGA(dissolved gas analysis) of oil. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. if required. G. noise and vibration of fans. Replace glass if cracked. Oil and winding i) Calibrate and also temperature check difference indicators.Compare values. Tanks and -Check painting and - Filter to restore quality or replace if the values have reached discarding limit. indicator ii) Clean the oil gauge glass. - To be sealed to avoid ingress of moisture. 2. if unsatisfactory condition indicated 1 2 3 moisture content of oil. Station Transformers and Distribution Transformers also when ticked √ 5 3. Magnetic oil level i) Check oil level in gauge and conservator by dip prismatic level stick method. Yearly Oil in transformer/ i) Complete testing of shunt reactor oil. iii) Check tightness of mercury switches. if found low. v) Clean cable entry terminal box. . Buchhloz Relay Mechanical inspection i) Close valve between Buchholz and conservator and lower oil level.Sl. Vibration level of Measure vibration level. 4.

Sl. ii) Check resistance measurement at each tap. Examine compound for cracks. Clean or replace. - Retighten. if required. 8. Take suitable action. if required. Gasket joints Earth resistance OLTC 3 surface finish. if necessary. Measure power factor/ capacitance measurement. Off circuit switch 15. 12. Station Transformers and Distribution Transformers also when ticked √ 5 10. 11. 9. Check the tightness of bolts. i) Examine for cracks and dirt deposits. If resistance is high. Bushing top connectors and arcing horns Air bag sealing arrangement where provided. if leaking. Applicable for UATs. ii) Clean arcing horns and check gap. - Dry out bushing if values are abnormal and replace oil. ii) Measure IR value of each stack of LAs iii) Measurement of leakage current tap i) Move from minimum to maximum tap position & return to minimum position. No. if unsatisfactory condition indicated 1 2 accessories 7. - - Compare resistance values with previous results. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required. Tighten the bolts evenly to avoid uneven pressure.Draw out diverter. if required. Adjust arcing horn gap Clean. Replace gaskets. Lightning arrestors 14. Electrical tests Carry out - Compare with previous AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Replace compound. . - 16. Cable boxes. replace. . tap switch contacts to be attended to. Condenser bushing Check for sealing arrangement for filling holes. -Mechanical inspection of all accessories. clean & tighten contacts. 13. 4 Replace any component found damaged. if provided i) Check contact joints. In case IR value is poor. i) Check healthiness of air bag. 2009  55 . Check earthing resistance i) Diverter switch servicing ii) Check the contacts of diverter switch for burning or pitting marks.Recondition/ replace. if earth resistance is high.

Sl. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required. Let there be a continuous entry of dry air into the tank while the cleaning activity is on so that there is a minimum contact of the transformer core and windings with the atmospheric air. 5 yearly for UATs and SSTs and Distribution Transformers & 7-10 yearly for other Transformer/ Shunt Reactors Transformer core i) and windings - Wash by hosing down with clean dry oil. Drain oil from the tank while letting the dry air to go inside. minimum and normal taps for transformers with OLTC ii) Magnetizing current at 415 volts. Clean oil coolers. Similarly drain oil from cooling circuit and radiators and fill dry clean oil. if unsatisfactory condition indicated 1 2 17. Check for leaky tubes. 2009  56 . replace the total tube nest. i) 4 values. tests measurement Note: (a) As there is continuous deterioration of oil and insulation in a transformer. Incase of abnormality investigate causes. H. it is preferable that the core and windings and the inside surfaces of tank be thoroughly cleaned for any deposits etc. See following points a & b. Clean core and winding by hosing down clean dry oil through the inspection cover. Close all valves connecting the cooler circuit/ radiators to the tank. If more than 10% tubes leaking. 1. at regular intervals. No. Applicable for UATs. This can be done while the transformer is in position. 20 Yearly Life assessment DP and Furan content See following point c. Oil coolers 3 Resistance measurement at all taps for transformers with off circuit tap switch and at maximum. iv) Turn ratio. Station Transformers and Distribution Transformers also when ticked √ 5 Flush cooler tubes Repair leaky tubes. Remove dirty oil from the tank and wipe off this oil from the tank bottom. iii) IR values after isolating the transformer. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. I 1.

(c) Under the normal operating condition transformer has a useful life of about 25-30 years. Tighten core yoke bolts. It is proposed to carry out this study after a period of 20 years of service. core-clamping screws etc. As these are comparatively new studies. Tighten all nuts and bolts whether metallic or made of insulating material on mechanical and electrical joints. after carrying out the necessary work for which the transformer was opened. if any.4.1 • • • • • • • • ƒ Preventive Maintenance of Hydromechanical Arrangement Maintenance of Intake Gates Equipment and Hoisting The maintenance work shall include Cleaning up Adjustment Lubrication with recommended lubricants & methods Replacement of Defective parts Repair of damaged parts Recoating of damaged coat on ropes Recording details of all work carried out with date & time.4 4. the data are still being built and one should go by the re-commendation of the Test Laboratory. thorough washing due to sludge formation or for thorough inspection to locate a fault as a result of DGA or some other tests.(b) Whenever transformer windings are to be taken out due to any reason such as to repair a damage. do the following also: (i) (ii) (iii) Tighten all coil clamping screws to remove looseness from the windings. 2009  57 . for any future planning it may be worth while to know well in advance the remnant life of the transformer in service. This may vary considerably depending upon the overloads it has carried and the temperature at which it has worked during its span of operation. After knowing the remnant life of a transformer. Degree of Polymerization New transformer Nearing end of life 800-950 150-200 Furan content ppm (mg/kg) Negligible 10 4. the action can be planned in conjunction with life assessment studies on generating unit. Therefore. However the following figures may serve as guidelines. Painting of gates and hoisting arrangement Daily inspection should be carried out by gate operator to ensure: Inspection and checks AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. This can be done by assessing extent of degradation of cellulosic paper through furan content in transformer oil or / and degree of polymerization (DP) of paper.

taking proper shut down.Immediately put-off main switch. 2009  58 . red flags etc. All safety precautions must be taken e. Checking general condition of gates and gate grooves wheels etc. Periodic inspection (half yearly or annual) Dismantle and check all components for any damage.g. Before taking up work on gates. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. when any work is being done on gates.• • • • ƒ • • • • Proper oiling and greasing wherever required Tightening of loosened parts tightening contacts in electrical system Checking of ropes and hoisting arrangement. stop log gates (duly inspected and repaired) must be lowered in the groove meant for the same and plug all leakages through these. Lubrication of gate parts : • Servogem EPI (IOC) or (equivalent of other brand) • • • Rope drum shaft for all hoisting unit (once a month) Plumber blocks for all hoisting units fitted with bush bearing (once in two months) Coupling for transmission shaft (once in two months) Plumber blocks for manual operation (once in three months) ƒ Servogem – 3 (IOC) or equivalent of other brand Spherical roller bearings for gate wheels (once in 2 months) Compound – D (Bharat camax) or equivalent of other brand Lifting ropes (once in six months) Servocoat 120 T (IOC) or (equivalent of other brand) Gears & Pinions for all hoisting units (once in 2 months) (Meshing faces only) Gears & Pinions for manual operation (once in 3 months) Gears & Pinions for all travel mechanism (once in 2 months) Gears & Pinions for position indicators (once in two months) • Servosystem (320 IOC) or equivalent of other brand WOM reducer for all hoisting units (once in two months) General Problems in electrical circuit and checks • • • No supply at control panel in spite of turning on main switch – check fuses. Rectify damages or replace worn out irreparable components. if provided. installing safety tags. Incoming supply healthy but volt meter not showing – check fuses of voltmeter circuit Motor is running even after pressing stop push button .

2009  59 . . bushings. check control transformer • Gate is creeping down & restoration has failed indicating lamp is glowing but alarm not ringing -Check position of toggle switch (it should be in reset position) • Indication lamps are not glowing. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct.Check contacts of motor control contactor & push button contacts. seals. Valve seats. power source and hydraulic links are the main primary maintenance concern. This valve is used each time the unit is shut down. operating links. if found fused.2 Maintenance of Main Inlet Valves The turbine may have either a butterfly or spherical valve. if damaged replace these..Reset O/L relay before starting again • O/L relay tripped -Check control fuse -If fuse OK. the disc and lattice profile is contoured in the flow direction to provide a smooth hydraulic flow and balance forces on the valve. 4. bearings.4. Butterfly valves • • • • • • Butterfly valves generally consists of a disc or lattice mounted on a shaft that rotates in cylindrical body Usually. The disc is oriented parallel to the flow to minimize any restriction when opened and at right angle to the flow to provide full closure Valve seals are on the circumference or in contact portion of the valve body These seals can be replaced or adjusted without removing the disc from the valve. if damaged Other seals may be replaced as and when heavy leakage is observed Overhaul operating system annually Replace gaskets in flanged connection during annual overhaul Spherical valves Spherical valves have a body shaped like hollow sphere with flanges or other connection for mounting in a piping system. Valves have flanged connections and spool pieces to facilitate dismantling. -Check by pressing lamp test push button replace bulbs. Sometime welded connection are preferred to save cost Maintenance procedure Check operating system daily and ensure it is working smoothly Check for any leakage through joints daily Replace main seals in annual maintenance. The valve function should be verified periodically through test or normal frequent operation.

the downstream seal is working seal. look for backlash Cleaning of valve body. Annual inspection and overhauling of mechanical seal after dewatering penstock is must. Checking the operation of bypass valve Checking for cracks. The upstream maintenance seals have positive mechanical locking to prevent accidental opening. To close the valve. has a cylindrical hole through its centre at right angles to support shafts located on each side of valve. Checking all the MIV System connections & Union for tightness Checking all the MIV servo linkage during operation. pitting and cavitation etc. Checking and attending the setting of Limit Switches & Operation of the same Checking and attending leakages of distributing valve Checking the correct working of the pressure gauges.The rotor. shaped like ball. Annual overhauling of the valve rotor and other parts are also taken up as required. Spherical valve has tendency to close for positions less than 50% opening which facilitates emergency closing. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Daily checks of operating system and remedial measure are must. Lubricate the parts if necessary. Following Checks are also essential during annual maintenance Checking and attending leakages from Valve & dismantling joint. 2009  60 . Cleaning the contacts and rollers. the upstream maintenance seal allows replacement or maintenance of the working seal without dewatering the penstock. The upstream seal is maintenance seal or emergency seal. the valve rotor is turned to 90o from the axis of rotor opening. Checking and attending for leakages in the piping. seal & solenoid valve Checking the actuating solenoids for operation of valve. Annual inspection and over hauling of operating seal is also essential. of MIV and Servomotor Inspection of Rubber Seals Checking trunions & bushes. bolts & nuts etc. When valve is closed under full pressure. In open position with rotor opening parallel to the flow direction. Checking and attending oil leakages from Servomotor Checking the operation of operating valves. the valve offers an unrestricted flow with minimum disturbance to the flow path. Checking servomotor piston and its collars & its gland packing AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Checking gland packing and lubrication Checking foundation bolts and nuts of valves & servomotor. Annual overhauling of operating mechanism to ensure smooth working throughout year is also done. Mostly valves have both upstream and downstream seal. Moveable seals reduce valve leakage when the valve is closed. Cleaning the bolts and nuts etc.

these gates and hoist remains available for maintenance. equalizing pressure across the gates is done with bypass line valve located within gate. Trial assembly of Turbine runner for checking clearance between runner & runner chamber (Kaplan) or static labyrinths & rotating labyrinths (Francis). During annual maintenance of the unit. carry out centering and setting. runner shaft and top cover and lower the complete assembly in pit. • • • • • • • • AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Check rotor level. Also check free movement of guide vanes. Oil header (Kaplan) etc. these gates are required to be lowered so that dewatering of draft tube is possible. Lubrication of operating mechanism. Couple Turbine and Generator shaft properly as per procedure with help of torque spanners.5 4. For withdrawal of gate. Check top and bottom clearances of all guide vanes and set. Checking unit alignment and taking corrective action by providing shims or scrapping.4. After setting above clearances take out runner & shaft assy. These should always remain in perfect condition for use during emergencies of power station.1 Procedures for Typical Maintenance Activities Reassembly of Vertical Hydro Unit Sequence and Checks • • • • Lower all guide vanes. to service bay. As such maintenance and overhaul of these gates are taken up before starting annual maintenance of machine. PMG.5. verticality of shaft and centering of shaft. Lower all the guide apparatus components in the pit and carry out installation & setting. The main problem with sealing is due to collection of debris at bottom seal area. Lower rotor with brake track in pit. correction of inclination of shaft to be done at this stage itself (Alignment of generator). its electrical system and coating all ropes meant for lifting are of main concern for maintenance. two or three bulk head gates are needed to close off the draft tube. Assemble runner. 2009  61 . Carry out fitting & setting of Thrust bearing and guide bearings. Again check clearances between runner and runner chamber. Couple Exciter shaft and assemble exciters. MAINTENANCE OF DRAFT TUBE GATES One. Ensure elongation of shaft bolts as per procedure. set elevation. centering and tighten with foundation. 4. These are usually cable suspended gravity gates and designed for balanced pressure closure.• • • 4. These are usually dropped to close or lifted to open through hoisting arrangement having rope drums. When machines are running.3 Checking hole of the servomotor cylinder Checking the pins and bushes of servomotor & its air valve Checking the opening & closing times of the MIV. Lower bottom bracket with brake.

its centre should match with the centre of runner. if any. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. rectify defects. The top of stand will have half portion of sphere having hardened surface will be fixed so as to create pivot point.2 Fig 1: Checking Labyrinth Concentration 4.3 • • • Balancing of Runner For balancing of runner a device as shown in Fig. It has to rest on the centre point of half sphere mounted on balancing device. Check vibrations of machine at no load. Balancing of the machine by adding calculated weight on rotor spider and at proper angle is done. 1) • 4. Will be required.• • Carry out load sharing of thrust pads. This is checked with a special device mounted on the shaft (Fig. 2009  62 . 2. part load and full load. At the lower end of upper cylinder of runner bore an arrangement to fix hardened steel plate.5.5. After completing assembly of machine and rotating the machine at no load check balancing of rotor as per procedure. Checking Concentricity of Labyrinth Seals The upper and lower labyrinth rings must be concentric with the shaft to within 10% of the gap on one side of the labyrinth seals.

The weight of this imbalance is placed where the maximum weight was placed. The weight is to be placed on the bottom cylinder at such a place on lighter side that runner comes to the equilibrium position. The magnitude of imbalance is half of the maximum and minimum weight needed for this. - AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. 2009  63 . For checking horizontality a precision level is placed at six places on the top surface of upper cylinder. The runner will be up on lighter side and will have maximum height at one point from the base plate over which balancing device is placed perfectly in vertical position. The centre of gravity of runner should be well below the centre of gravity sphere (out of which half sphere is imagined to be carved out).Fig 2: Balancing of Runner [Goncharov] • • Runner is placed on the device in such a manner that it should swing freely Steps of balancing Place runner on the device – check free swing of runner. For achieving this position the weight may have to be moved either to left or to right to have correct magnitude of weight and as well as its position. This process is repeated by placing weights at six to eight positions on the circumference of the runner.

5. Clearance between runner and runner chamber is the guiding factor. Hydraulic Testing of Kaplan Runner in Service Bay 4. For hydraulic testing an arrangement of oil sump. Tightness of flanged joints and blade seals is checked.5. 2009  64 .4 • • Checking Concentricity of Kaplan Runner Concentricity of Kaplan runner is checked in service bay after assembly of runner blades and their operating mechanism but before hydraulic testing.4. pump motor with valve and high pressure system is done to feed compressed oil at high pressure to top of piston for checking down ward movement. • Fig 3: Checking concentricity of runner blades • • • • • Measure clearances between the piano wire and the outer edge of runner all around the circumference. As shown in the figure a rotating boom having jerk free motion will have a piano wire with dash pot. For this a special device. This device can be mounted on the shaft after checking horizontality of the top of runner hub and verticality of the shaft. 3 will be required. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Ensure it should be within limits all around.5 Runner is assembled in service bay. schematic of which is shown in fig.

First centering of turbine shaft is checked since its flange and centre line form reference bases for centering of the generator rotor The generator is then provisionally centered relative to turbine shaft.5. Then final alignment of generator and turbine is done. (m) 3.00 5.00 0. half load & full load position and held for 8 hrs for each position.15 9. shaft Calculate maximum throw and direction AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. During test runner blades are set to their normal. I. The procedure for rotor centering is as follows.Fig 4: Hydraulic Testing of Kaplan Runner in Service Bay [Goncharov] • • • • • Another pump motor with sump is connected to supply high pressure oil to the bottom side of piston for upward movement. Then perpendicularity of rubbing surfaces of thrust bearing and shaft flange face to the generator shaft centre line is checked.2 0.10 7.3 0. Maximum permissible limits are as follows: 4.20 Oil leakage per day (liter) Centering and Alignment of Vertical Hydro Generator Alignment of rotor during installation is ensuring rubbing surface of thrust bearings and the shaft mirror disc face are perpendicular to rotor shaft axis. The hub is filled with oil through a plug in the bottom and then pressured to three times of the normal pressure. No oil should leak through fixed joints of runner.18 0. The runner should remain under the test pressure for 24 hours.6 • • Runner dia. 2009  65 . Procedure for alignment of unit Set elevation of thrust bearing Carry out rotational check of gen.

01 mm axis Non parallelity of mating surfaces of both flanges at shaft dia. Again check by rotation method and repeat till throw is within limit Check throw and its direction at TGB Minimize throw by providing shim between coupling flange Check throw at LGB. Setting Elevation of Thrust Bearing ¾ Elevation of upper bracket should be such that the runner is at desired level ¾ Allowance for deflection of upper bracket due to weight of rotating parts and initial thrust should be taken into account. Coupling of Shafts Before coupling of generator shaft and turbine it is to be checked that following requirements are met: Sl.03 mm thickness III. 0.II. Coupling • • • Force of tightening of all bolts should be identical Elongation of bolts. shaft axis with turbine shaft 0. This is necessary to establish unit axis. by providing shims under flexible support AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. Check verticality of shaft with respect to duly leveled thrust bearing at correct elevation. Minimize throw by scrapping insulated surface of mirror disc. required to ensure proper tightening Soundness of flange connection is checked by filller gauge of 0. Allowable in mm Shift of Gen.025 Up to 1000 mm 0. coupling flange and TGB. 2009  66 .030 Up to 1500 mm Type of Deviation Deviation B. Couple generator shaft with turbine shaft Again check elevation & level of thrust bearing Carry out rotational checks Find out run out at LGB & coupling flange If throw is still more again carry out scrapping of insulated surface of mirror discs.020 Up to 600 mm 0. ensure these are within limit. A. No. ¾ Mount thrust bearing on upper bracket ¾ Check perpendicularity of thrust collar with shaft ¾ Set elevation of bearing. 2. 1.

LGB. may be changed asper the machine under consideration) IV. Shimming or Scrapping Amount of Scrapping or Shim Thickness (Fig 7 & 8) ‘t’ = AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. It is possible to rotate machine manually. 2009  67 . Flange & TGB to find out run out (Fig 5) ¾ Throw and its direction is calculated by resultant method (Table 1 & Fig 6) V.B.Fig 5: Position of Dial Indicators (heights shown in the fig. For lubrication of thrust pads in such case is ensured by using Molybdenum-di-Sulfide Grease (Molysulf Grease) ¾ Mount dial Gauges at UGB. ¾ In other machine mechanical arrangement is made and rotation is done with the help of EOT crane. Rotational Checks ¾ Arrangement to turn rotor by 360o in steps of 45o smoothly ¾ In machines having high pressure lubrication of TH.

Precision stick micrometer is used to measure a1. throw at coupling flange for correcting gen. Length = distance between insulated surface or mirror disc and coupling flange Diameter = Dia of thrust bearing mirror disc.a. If the deviation is less than 0. d1 and a2. shaft Eff. c1. 2009  68 . c2. For correcting turbine shaft (i) (ii) (iii) VI. Max throw at TGB Eff. b.01 mm/ m of shaft length. Length = Between Flange and TGB (Dial Gauge Locations) Diameter = Dia. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. d2. shaft (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) t = amount of scrapping Max. of coupling flange Checking Verticality of Shaft (Fig 9) Shimming or scrapping to be done at coupling shaft joint Four piano wires with dash posts are placed as shown in the figure. The whole procedure of calculation of deviation is given with the figure its self. b2. b1. For correcting gen. them verticality is taken to be normal otherwise corrective measure has to be taken.

5 – 40 – 40 – 30 –9 + 15½ +6 +5 0 – 45.Table – 1 RESULTANT METHOD OF ALIGNMENT (ACTUAL EXAMPLE OF UNIT-I OF A POWER STATION) (VECTORIAL RESULTANT – AT FIG. Further calculations and correction is based on these. Unit-II side readings are fine because (i) closing error is negligible (ii) curve plotted along X-Y axis is nearer to sine curve (iii) these are confirmed in subsequent rotation also. 6) Position of Dial Gauge 00 450 900 1350 1800 2250 2700 3150 3600 Note: Upstream Side Dial Gauge LGB Flange TGB c e g c-a Unit-II Side Dial Gauge LGB Flange TGB d f h d-b f-b No.5 – 85 – 86 – 65 – 23 + 26½ + 17 + 15 0 0 + 3½ + 6½ +7 +7 +7 +3 +1 0 Dial Gauge was not fixed 0 +1 +3 + 13 + 28 + 41 + 30 + 18 –6 0 +1 + 30 + 31 + 71 + 80 + 76 + 51 –1 0 Dial Gauge was not fixed 0 +1 –½ + 6½ + 21 + 34 + 23 + 15 –7 0 +1 + 26½ + 24½ + 64 + 73 + 69 + 48 –2 No. of Point at Shaft 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 The readings of upstream side dial gauges are not acceptable as closing error is more. 2009  72 . AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydro Power Station/Oct. of Point at Shaft 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (a) (b) UGB a c-a g-a UGB b h-b 0 +½ 0 0 0 +1 –½ 0 –1 0 Dial Gauge was not fixed 0 – 32 – 40 – 40 – 30 –8 + 15 +6 +4 0 – 46 – 85 – 86 – 65 – 22 + 26 + 17 + 14 0 Dial Gauge was not fixed 0 – 31.

Fig 6: Resultant Method of Throw Calculation Fig 7: Calculation of Shims between Flanges AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   73 .

Fig 8: Illustrative Example of Scrapping AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   74 .

The load is equalized after the generator shaft wobble has been eliminated or after the turbine and generator shaft has been connected and the unit has been aligned. The position of locking device of each support screw is then marked with the vertical lines on it and on the thrust bearing housing or on the support stand. The load distribution is adjusted in this manner by first checking that all supporting screws are tightened equally. Over loading of any pad may cause destruction of babbit material and failure of thrust bearing. Uniform distribution of load is achieved by tightening supporting screws against the elastic plates beneath the shoes carrying rotor weight.5.Fig 9: checking Verticality of Generator Shaft 4. This is done by striking the spanner with sledge hammer.7 Load Sharing of the Thrust Bearing There must be uniform distribution of load between all thrust pads. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   75 .

8 • • • Dynamic Balancing of Low Speed Hydro Generator A sensitive dial gauge (0. The position of all pads are measured after each round with a slide caliper and distances between the lines on the locking devices and on thrust bearing housing are recorded. Another round of tightening the screws is then performed with lighter sledge hammer. The process is carried out on all shoes with the same force. Adjustment is considered completed if the distance between the lines has not changed in one round. which is firm and rigid. Make two marks on rotor ‘A’ & ‘B’ at Oo and 180o respectively Second run Put a calibration weight (Wc) at Oo and run up to full speed and note the dial gauge reading (the calibration weight must be sufficient to produce and appreciable difference in the reading compared to the first run reading). 11.5. Third run Remove weight from Oo position and put at 180o position and run up to full speed. Note reading of dial gauge. The load can be adjusted by using a dial indicator also as shown in Fig 10. The support screws must be locked after completion of this activity 4. will be required to fix dial gauge.Fig 10: Load Sharing of Thrust Pad [Goncharov] A sledge hammer of approximately 8 kg weight is then used to strike hard once or twice at the end of 600 to 700 mm long spanner placed on the head of supporting screw considered. A suitable bracket. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   76 . This tightening process is repeated several times until distances between the lines are increased equally by hammer blows on all supporting screws.002 mm) is fixed as shown in Fig. Four runs of machine at full speed will be required to find out magnitude of weight and position of correction First run Run to rated speed and note total deflection of the pointer on dial (the reading is proportional to the unbalance force).

Correct position of wire inside spiral casing is checked with inside micrometer. ƒ Whether this angle is to be measured in the direction of rotation or opposite to the direction of rotation is done by trial. For fourth run calculated weight at calculated angle is fixed and machine run at full speed if dial gauge reading is almost zero. This is done by Fourth run.5. Extend OA to ‘C’ such that OA = AC With centre ‘O’ and radius equal to second run reading to the earlier scale draw an arc. Bearing housings are centered with respect to longitudinal axis of generator by an end gauge which is inserted into the bores of bearing shell • AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   77 . With centre ‘C’ and radius equal to third run reading to same scale draw an arc to cut earlier arc at point ‘B’. The position which gives minimum vibration is the required position. 4. the weight and direction is correct otherwise the weight is required to be put in the opposite direction. Join AB.9 • Alignment Horizontal Generating Set Adjustment of Turbine Shaft The centre line of turbine bearing with respect to longitudinal axis of generator is checked by stretching a horizontal wire through spiral casing and along bearing centre line. Balance weight ‘W’ = The angle of the placement point of this weight with reference to 0o position and is given by angle OAB.ƒ ƒ ƒ Draw to some scale a line ‘OA’ to represent reading of first run.

and should be uniform.6 mm. The axial gaps in labyrinth seals should also be measured and these should be within 0. For this shims are provided beneath foundation frame. The lateral clearance between the shaft and the lower shell are checked at a depth 10 to 12 mm below the plane in which bearing is split.• Ensure clearances of guide vanes at both ends are uniform and are between 0. This clearance should be 5 to 6 mm (or as designed) A straight edge is pressed against the turbine or generator shaft along generator axis in four diametrically opposite positions. These should be within permissible limit.06 mm per m length of shaft. All the clearances and gaps are measured again after turning the rotating parts through 180o and 360o. The thicknesses of flattened wire thus indicate the clearance on top of the shaft which should be 0. If difference is more investigate reasons and take remedial measure. Alignment consists • • • • • • • • • • • • Preliminary alignment of generator shaft (i) Removal of misalignment of turbine shaft and generator shafts (Fig 12) (ii) Making generator shaft horizontal (iii) Making centerlines of generator and turbine shaft coincide (iv) Alignment is carried out relative to half couplings of turbine and generator shafts (v) Wobbling at half coupling should not be more than 0. The radial clearance between runner and the cover plates should not exceed 2. When distributor is closed there should be no clearance in guide vanes. Length of this wire is placed across the shaft in two sections beneath the shell which is then tightened well. 1 mm thick lead wire of 30 to 50 mm length is used to measure clearance between turbine shaft and the upper bearing shell.1 mm / m of shaft length.3 mm. it indicates that the shaft is resting on both bearings. Clearance.2% of shaft dia.0 mm. If there is no clearance. Arithmetic mean of two measurements should be taken. The permissible inclination in transverse direction is 0.5 to 0. These are measured by pushing the rotating parts to extreme positions. These should be half of clearance between shaft and upper bearing shell. The gaps in labyrinth seals should be within 0.2 mm Procedure for preliminary alignment: • The turbine and generator shafts are forced to their outer most position after the generator is assembled and clearance between half couplings is measured. The adjusted shaft of turbine will be reference base for alignment of generator shaft. This should also be checked with level.2 to 0. Filler gauge is used to check these. Measure clearance with filler gauge between shaft and the lower guide bearing shell to ensure correct position of rotating parts of turbine. The horizontal position of shaft is checked by placing a level successively on both bearing journals. the two should not differ more than one division. The permissible inclination in shaft is 0. • AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   78 . Then turn the level by 180o and place in the same position as before and check level.5 to 3.6 mm.04 to 0. These can be adjusted by tightening bolts.2 to 0. if any is checked and equalized.

then in horizontal plane. 270o & 360o The position of half coupling should be same of initial position and after rotation by 360o For radial displacement of half couplings is measured by mounting a dial indicator on a bracket fixed at turbine half coupling (Fig 12) Fig 13: Horizontal Shaft Generator Bearing Arrangement • Determine alignment and inclination of generator axis first in vertical. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   79 .• • • • By measuring clearances between faces of half coupling at four points. 180o. Record measurement in following table. alignment of shafts at joint is checked. The position of generator is first checked in vertical plane than in horizontal Misalignment is corrected by placing shims under foundation frame After this foundation bolts are tightened and locked Fig 12: Showing Misalignment of Turbine Shaft and Generator Shaft of Horizontal Unit Procedure for final alignment • • • • Check positions of half coupling Measure clearances between half couplings in the initial position and after turning through 90o.

Compute displacements of generator rotor. Computing eccentricity of generator shaft with respect to turbine shaft (measurement ‘a’) and its direction and computing inclination and its direction (measurement ‘b’) is done as explained below: (Fig 14) (i) Displacement of generator shaft axis due to eccentricity relative to turbine shaft: Horizontal plane Vertical plane hx = (a2-a4) / 2 hy = (a1-a3) / 2 • AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   80 . rpm Up to 500 Up to 750 Up to 1500 • Permissible skewness and eccentricity. mm 0. 270o & 360o End clearance ‘b’ is measured at four points in order to eliminate the effects of axial displacement of the rotor. Check position of stator All measurements of clearances and displacement should be recorded viewing from generator side. Magnitude ‘a’ are measured in one position and after turning rotating parts by 90o.b1 Bottom a3. mm 00 900 Top a1.15 0. the alignment is taken as adequate otherwise repeat alignment procedure and compute more accurately. after alignment radial and end clearances at diametrically opposite points are within limit as shown in table. The mean clearance is then calculated for each position of generator rotor (Fig 12) The measurements are satisfactory if both [(a1 + a3)-(a2+a4)] and [(b1 + b3)-(b2+b4)] are within 0.Site of measurements Clearance b between half-coupling ends. 180o. Rotational speed of generating set. for ensuring correct position Move generator rotor in correct position and check axis.b4 • • • • • • + + + + + + + + Distances a to generatrices of halfcouplings.02 mm. mm Positions of rotating parts of generating set 1800 2700 3600 Mean 00 900 1800 2700 3600 Clearance + + + + + – – – + + + + + – – + – – + + + + – + – – – + + + + – – – + – Note: The “plus” sign indicates that measurements were carried out at this point. All measurements are repeated till satisfactory results are achieved.08 • • • If.b3 Right a2.10 0.b2 Left a4. Permissible deviations in alignment of horizontal hydro generating unit are given in following table.

of coupling ‘Dc’. (a) Front bearing in horizontal plane kx1 = (b2-b4) l1/Dc kx2 = (b2-b4) l2/Dc (b) Front bearing in vertical plane Ky1 = (b1-b3) l1/Dc ky2 = (b1-b3) l2/Dc Correct position of the generator rotor can be obtained by moving its bearings by following distances: (a) Front bearing – horizontal plane Ax1 = (a2-a4) / 2 + (b2-b4) l1/ Dc Ax2 = (a2-a4) / 2 + (b2-b4) l1/ Dc (b) Front bearing – vertical plane Ay1 = (a1-a3) / 2 + (b1-b3) l1/ Dc At2 = (a1-a3) / 2 + (b1-b3) l2/ Dc • • • • The rotor must be moved up and to the right if the computed displacement is positive The rotor must be moved down and to left if the computed displacement is negative The air gaps of generator are checked after completing alignment.Fig 14: Displacements of Generator Bearings • The displacement of bearings due to inclination of shaft is given by difference between end clearances. These should be equal all around the circumference The turbine and generator half coupling are connected after completing alignment of generator shaft AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   81 . They depend on the location of bearings and dia.

SELECTION AND TRAINING • • AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   82 . cracks on wall. Relay test report and relay setting duly signed by manager/ resident engineer. DC station battery. Man power required for the operating and maintenance of SHP shall be based on following factors: Type of plant such as ROR. The number of shifts/ hours the plant is going to work e. Such material shall be taken out of building and stored in closed out door yard. control metering and relay panels. Following are the guide lines: 1. it shall be noted and corrected.SECTION-III GENERAL GUIDE LINES 1. All the spares of the E&M equipment shall be listed and their condition checked for use during replacement. All the tools and instruments ordered for the plant shall be listed and their condition checked.5 1.0 GUIDELINES FOR TAKING OVER O&M OF SHP The O&M of the plant shall be taken over from agency executing the project after due diligence and checking following conditions. if possible. tailrace. battery charger Cable schedule and termination drawing. If any defect is found. drinking water supply etc. Supplier’s manuals including erection and troubleshooting manual. A report shall be prepared and both handing over and taking over party shall sign it. transformers and breakers. a remotely located plant will need additional staff for the support services such as transport. A plant with 3 shift working will need more staff than a single shift. All commissioning reports duly signed. 1. draft tube.6 GUIDELINE FOR MANPOWER.2 1. observations are noted. turbine. generator.1 • All plant and equipment drawings with as executed status.g. Leakages. dam based or canal based.3 1.0 2. These shall include gate. lake. HT and LT switchgear. channel. panels. maintenance of residences. breakers. However all civil structures under water shall be inspected on draining.4 1. turbine. The manpower for the ROR plant is more because of the spread of hydraulic structures. auxiliaries. one shift or three shift. pipe line. diversion weir. panel wiring drawing. AVR and governor spares. generator transformers. All civil building and structures such as water carrier system. auxiliaries. This shall include generator. main and auxiliary transformer and switchyard equipments. Location of the plant. the water channel and its equipment. etc shall be monitored during load test and observations and defects noted. fore bay.1 Operating condition of E&M equipment shall be monitored for 72 hrs continuous running for full load condition and results. Documents: Following documents shall be insisted upon: • • • • • 2. All the area of the plant shall be cleaned and all rooms checked for unwanted material stored in it. valve. and operation of main gates shall be noted. This shall include turbine.

The experience of the persons shall be in hydro generating plant.This may increase the strength of the remotely located ROR plant. unsafe operation etc. transformer and switchgear. safety and fire fighting. He should be experienced engineer familiar with all equipment testing to take decision in case of any fault on electrical equipment such as generator. spanners hammers etc. if available. (ii) Special T&P AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   83 . PLC panels cabling work etc. Ordinary T&P includes different type & sizes of screw drivers. Plant in charge having basic degree/ diploma in electrical with experience in civil and mechanical works is most suitable. maintenance. Other method is to employ local labor.2 Selection Man power required for operation and maintenance shall be selected before commercial operation of the plant. ESSENTIAL T&P.3 The operation staff shall be given training by Sr.0 On completion of training the trainee shall be assessed for his skills and capability on actual work in the plant where they will be working. instruments For effective maintenance it is necessary to list out all required ordinary T&P as also assess quantity and arrange the same otherwise it may become difficult even for a skilled and capable technicians to carry out the require maintenance job. However the manpower can be kept minimum by employing a multidisciplinary force such as an engineer with experience in civil and electromechanical work or technician with driving experience etc. The training shall be in the area of SHP operation. loss of generation. The guiding factor is safety of equipment and manpower. On placing them on operation duty they shall be periodically assessed for their performance in actual operation such as start of units etc. Training of Operation Staff • • • • • 2. For the technician an ITI certificate with hands on experience in electro-mechanical work such as DG plant. • The operation staff shall be selected well in advance preferably during the precommissioning and commissioning of the plant. during requirement of additional work such as rainy season where inspection of water channel is needed or during annual maintenance work. INSTRUMENTS ETC (i) Ordinary tools. A training period of three month is necessary for small hydropower plant. pliers. etc may be awarded on annual basis to keep work force low. Contractual work such as civil maintenance. 2. Testing engineer is most important for any generating plant. hydraulic equipment. cannot be ruled out. An experience on large electrical substation with DG set may be accepted. welding and fabrication. if these persons are given proper on job training. This being a specialized job it may be difficult to get such persons and to hold them as such can be engaged by group of plants or among the IPPs in the area. electrical panel. DG plant of a cogeneration plant. They should be given proper training otherwise possibility of mishandling of plant. It will benefit the plant. Experienced personal and also on simulator. electrical installation. • • 3.

4. rotating device and slings for alignment. pole turning device.0 Dry chemical type foam type (chemical foam) CO2 cylinders Fire hydrants Sand and water buckets SAFETY ASPECT OF RUNNING SHP It is said that 90% of accidents are avoidable. shaft extension pieces and so on. goggles. These are not required for day to day maintenance. General Safety Precautions in SHP • • (i) All voltage level.0 FIRE PROTECTION & FIRE FIGHTING It is necessary to install necessary hydrant points. as such these should be properly stored and secured. Asbestos cloth must be used to cover electrical parts during such maintenance activities. safety competition etc. For example. Throwing match sticks and other burning stuff may sometime create fire in the power station. Additional fire extinguishers must be kept during maintenance especially when activities like. even low shall be considered dangerous even though the voltage may not be high to cause shock. Safety measures are therefore. if required. Out of these 20% are due to faulty conditions and 20% due to faulty behavior and 60% due to both. safety talks. Some of the methods to improve safety consciousness are given below: • • • Prompt investigations. All electrical circuit to be treated live and no work should be carried out without proper shut down and ensuring that it is De-energized (ii) Isolated from all sources AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   84 . must be carried out on these devices in time. Accidents cause human suffering and loss of production to the organization. In power stations normally following types of fire extinguishers are used: o o o o 5. gloves safety belts etc. films. pin pointing cause of accident and remedial measures Use of personal protective equipment such as helmet. He must periodically check working of hydrant points. shaft lifting device.Such type of T&P is required during assembly or dismantling of machines. welding. essential. Success of safety measures depends on safety mindedness of the management supervisions and workers. Timely recoupment of consumed items must be ensured by shift in charge. Necessary maintenance. fire extinguishers at different locations of the power station as per recommendations of district fire officer. Arousing safety consciousness through the use of posters. rotor lifting device and endless slings. journal. brazing etc. Slings should be stored duly coated with preservatives as recommended by the manufactures. are going on. Shift in charge should also ensure timely refilling of fire extinguishers installed in the powerhouse. Periodic drill of use of different types of fire extinguishers is must so that staff on duty in the power plant could operate these in case of emergencies. First aid boxes as per recommendation of Factory Rules must be kept in the PS and these should be inspected periodically by station in charge. Smoking inside power station should be prohibited.


Effectively connected with ground

Fundamental on Safety Prevention of accidents requires whole hearted cooperation of all members of organization. A capable, mentally alert employee will avoid accident. Unsafe acts which may cause accidents are as follows: Operation of equipment without authority or warning. Operating without proper instructions Making safety device inactive Working nearby dangerous or live electrical equipment which could conveniently be deenergized Using defective T&P or equipment or its improper use. Unsafe conditions which may cause accidents are as follows: Ungrounded equipment Defective material or equipment Improper illumination Non standard design and construction Accidents are, therefore, results of unsafe acts or unsafe conditions or combination of both. Safety Precautions and Practices in Operating and Maintenance • No unsafe operation will ever be permitted. Feedback regarding unsafe operation/ condition should be taken into consideration with proper spirit and review should be made to avoid accidents. Interlocks should not be by-passed unless it is very essential. Written permissions should be obtained from the superintendent/ in charge of the station. Extra precaution should be taken by all the parties during such cases. Equipment are designed for certain operating conditions, it should be operated within prescribed operations limits. Overstressing of the equipment should be for minimum possible time with minimum percentage of overloading. This will avoid damage to the equipment. Operation and Maintenance staff should be familiar with the station layout and operations limits of different equipment such as breakers, transformers, isolators CTs, PTs, etc. A person should be allowed to operate or take over the equipment only after he has acquired adequate knowledge of the equipment. Operation should be carried out as per Operations Instructions. This will help in carrying out operations safely and maintaining uniformity. In case of any modifications/ change in the layout operating instructions should be reviewed. Booklets/ manufacturer’s instructions for different equipment should be available and should be referred to before taking out equipment for maintenance. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to interpret correctly and explain safety rules and regulations to all the persons concerned and ensures that they thoroughly understand the same. Breach of safety rules should be suitably dealt with. Only authorized persons shall be allowed to carry out operation and maintenance. Supervisor shall guard against the use of defective safety appliances, tools, and materials.

• •

• • •

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station  


In case of any emergency, in which quick action is necessary, in order to safeguard personals or property, only authorized persons will take necessary action. Under no circumstances attempt shall be made to carryout operations which are not safe. All persons must use the standard protective equipment intended for the job. All protective equipment should be periodically tested. Metal ladders should not be used in switchyard. Adequate number of first aid and firefighting equipment shall be maintained. First aid and artificial respiration chart shall be exhibited. Every person shall be familiar with the same. Every person shall be familiar and should know how to operate firefighting equipment, so that fire can be extinguished promptly thus minimizing damage. In the event of the fire on electrical installation, the affected part shall be immediately switched off and isolated from all the sources. Use HRC fuses only with proper capacity. While opening isolator confirm that it is not carrying load current. Similarly isolator should not be closed on load. Underrated circuit breakers should not be used to clear the fault. No breaker should be operated beyond stipulated operating duty. While working on the breaker, its operating mechanism should be de-energized such as discharging spring, releasing air pressure etc. Transformer should be discharged and grounded from all sides (windings). Neutral grounding of the transformer should not be treated as grounding. Current transformer secondary should never to be left open circuited. After cutting out capacitor bank, it should be allowed to discharge through discharge PT for about 10 minutes. The bank should be grounded with hot stick before commencing the work. ASKAREL compound used in capacitor bank as a dielectric is very toxic and harmful. Hence, should be handled with great care. Apparatus, frame work and other non-current carrying metal parts associated with power system are to be effectively grounded. Lighting arresters shall be grounded independently. Isolating switches provided for Generators and synchronous condensers and other rotating machines should never be opened when connected to any voltage source even when the machine is carrying no load. The areas should be cordoned off indicating location of work on the particular equipment. Use of safety tags must be ensured while allowing shut down for maintenance on some part/ equipment. GUIDELINES FOR DOCUMENTATION Documentation Documentation at all levels of work done is necessity for any references and analysis of data/information in future as and when required.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • 6.0

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station  


Roll of operation staff is very important in registering all valid information operating parameters such as temperature, vibrations, pressure, generation voltage and current etc. in the operation log books and shift registers. Every event should clearly mention frequency, voltage, MVAR, MW, MWH at the instant with other necessary data e.g. alarms, annunciations temperatures, fore bay levels/reservoir levels, inflows etc. as may be necessary from case to case. Any tripping event should be clearly noted with relevant details, such as relay operation details, disturbance recorders and event logger print outs. Restoration activities after every tripping should be reported with details of preventive action taken or to be taken based on certain conditions. This information should be presented in prescribed format, should be checked on daily basis by Engineer concerned, who will check and authenticate the same for future use. For maintenance also similar registers are maintained giving details of maintenance activities at different frequencies such as daily, monthly, annual etc. or break down maintenance. Results of test and measurements carried out during maintenance should be tabulated in standard formats and this should include the commissioning and acceptable values are applicable for proper comparison and planning remedial action. The log books and log sheets normally maintained in SHPs are given in annexed table:Operating Condition Record Sheets Type 1. a. Description of Log Log Books Control Room Shift Log Book Purpose/used for Very important station record of events. Helps during event analysis by others. Record of events, with date, time and proper sequence in case some operation is carried out. Recording of instructions given or taken from. Left side of the page to be used to record specific equipment operated and right side to record events such as tripping, synchronizing, taking over shift with signature, switchyard operations etc. All turbine and its Aux. operation and events, same as 1.a above. Gives station equipment load condition. Helps in assessing during event analysis. Hourly readings of all panel meters, transformer auxiliaries, generator and transformer temperature, and general condition of equipment. Ambient temp. KWH meter, import–export meter. Aux. consumption meter-8 hourly ie.once in each shift Hourly readings of bearing temperature, aux. in service, pumps running, cooling water pressure, compressor air pr, etc. turbine water head/pressure and other quantities as per manufacturer. Equipment defects noticed by operator and action taken by maintenance dept. Location/authority

Control Room Shift Charge Engineer

b. 2. a.

Turbine Room Shift Log Book Log Sheets Control Room Meter Reading

Turbine operator

Control room / assistant shift engineer / shift engineer. Control room / shift charge engineer. Turbine operator


Control room energy meter log sheet. Turbine sheet room log




Action taken to be recorded Defect cum by maintenance engineer. Equipment Record Books Defect log book – Record of electrical equipment defects noticed Control room/ Shift charge/
AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station  


Station occurrence record. and any other operation related information. pumps etc. Keeps monthly total of unit generation. water operation/ shift charge rate. Giving all operations. aux. For sending daily short summary to main Control room Resident manager office of important events in plant. Over loading of units etc. forced and emergency outages. wind and evaporation operations. dept. Equipment under their scope. For mainly Hydro power plant. Daily report (duplicate) book 6. outages. Record of equipment defects on Hydraulic Turbine room/ shift charge/ equipment noticed during shift needing assistant shift engineer. Gives details of instructions to be followed by Resident engineer/ shift in shift staff during any disaster.cell voltage and specific gravity . DC battery. rainfall. 9. Defect log book – Hydraulic Monthly Generation record register. attention of maintenance dept. medical officer. Guidelines for emergency operation. Use of tools. plant load factor. availability factor etc. cranes. leakage. operation. Station manual operation 10. maximum equipment temperatures during month. 8. water utilized. and Resident engineer manager tagging procedure. First Aid instructions. all mechanical installation operating procedure and drawings. engineer. outages. Relay setting register. relay action etc. Manual giving all step by step operation Resident engineer. black start procedure. lake condition. shut down hours.Type Description of Log electrical b. Resident manager of daily/ monthly water discharge for engineer/ generation. 4. operation/ Record of all relay equipment relay setting Manager giving normal condition and during outage of Resident engineer transformer or line.. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   88 . record of all instructions for revision. Head works losses for storage dams. meteorological and engineer. running hours. station interlocking drawings Safety procedure for giving outages. It further gives charge details of how to act and tackle the disaster. Station water consumption report. Control room shift charge consumption. the data is important in studying plant performance over years. Record of all tripping. separately. tripping of lines etc. lake discharge and other hydraulic data. loss of time. keeps records Control room. starting and stopping of units. 5. manager operation. Equipment under his scope. compressor. generation. of tripping. Station manual safety 11. Disaster management instruction Purpose/used for Location/authority during shift needing attention of maintenance assistant shift engineer.. equipment data and equipment operating parameter. instructions giving use Safety officer if appointed of fire protections and fighting equipment. atmospheric data. engineer. lake contents etc. Monthly (duplicate) 7. Shall give engineer/ rainfall. water utilized. at lake and at power house. This is an extremely important register shall be available for reference at all times. manager procedure for outages etc. and cause Shift charge engineer.

Some sample formats of log book and reports are also enclosed to provide a guide line to create formats for the power station under considerations: (NAME OF POWER STATION) DAILY GENERATION/ TRANSMISSION REPORT FOR GENERATION (MU) Unit Daily No. (MU) =_______. Cumecs Cumecs MAX RESERVOIR MIN MIN INTAKE MAX TRW LEVEL. M SILT. (MU)=_______ LINE-II LINE-III Yearly cum1. Yearly cum1. Total TRANSMISSION (MU) LINE-I EXPORT IMPORT STATION DATA AUX. Hz MINIMUM TOTAL. Cumecs SPILLAGE. (MU)=__________ R/ Hours OUTAGES HOURS (Hr: Min) Available Deemed Hr: Min Hr: Min Gen (MU) Planned Forced Misc. Monthly Cum1. M WEATHER OUTAGE DETAILS UNIT/ LINE OUTAGE TYPE PO/FOR/MISC COMMUNICATION STATUS: PLCC/P&T / LDST/WIRELESS TRIPPING/ RESTORED TOTAL OUTAGE TIME AT Hr: Min OUTAGE Hr : Min TIME Hr: Min OK/AS PER REMAKRS Energy REASONS Loss MU (If Any) TRIPPING DETAILS NIL / AS PER TRIPPING REPORT REASONS FOR LESS GENERATION / REMAKRS: [SHIFT INCHARGE] AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   89 . INFLOW WATER UTILIZED. M RESERVOIR LEVEL. KV FREQ. M LEVEL. (PPM) LEVEL. (MU)=_________ MW MVAR BUS/VOLT. Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 ……. CONSUMPTION AVERAGE LOAD MW MAXIMUM Monthly cum1.


(NAME OF POWER STATION) DAILY TRIPPING REPORT FOR REPORT NO. (STATION)/TRIP/ Sl No Name of Line/ Unit Time Hr : Min Details of tripping Replay operated along with Alarm and Flags Power Station Grid Station end end Remarks COPY OF EVENT LOGGER/ DISTURBANCE RECORDER PRINTOUT ENCLOSED – YES/NO Specify reason if not attached_____________________ [Shift In charge] Name/ Designation AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   91 .

6. 3. 2. 28. 26. 30. 22. 14. 17. 20. 11. 29. 25. 8. 7. 12. 24. 31. 18. 4. 15. 27. 16. 5. 23. 10. 21. 9. Total UNIT-1 MU UNIT-2 MU UNIT-3 MU ……… TOTAL MU DEEMED GENERATION (MU) INCHARGE [OPERATIONS] NAME / DESIGNATION AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   92 . 13.(NAME OF POWER STATION) GENERATION REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF _______________ DATE 1. 19.

Outage due to tripping caused by abnormal operating parameters like high temp. less availability of water etc. / oil level etc. Any outage planned in advance because of abnormal operating parameters i.e.(NAME OF POWER STATION) M/C AVAILABILITY REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF Unit GENERATION TOTAL RUNNING PLANNED FORCED MISCELLANEOUS OUTAGE DUE TO (MU) TIME TIME OUTAGE OUTAGE HIGH LESS TRANSMISSION (Hrs: (Hrs: Min) DUE TO PPM AVAIL. etc. CONSTRAINTS Min) (Hrs: Min) BREAK (Hrs:Min) OF ETC. closure of units due to high ppm. stopping/ closure of units for inspection / investigation /rectification of abnormal operating parameters/ behavior condition. line problems. periodical/ routine maintenance/ checking. backing down due to grid constraints/ requirements. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   93 . Outages due to reasons beyond control of generating stations or for which generating stations are not responsible like tripping of units due to failure of grid. DOWN WATER OF M/S (Hrs: Min) B C D E F G H I AVAILABILITY % IN HRS AVAILABILITY (D+G+H+I) (J/C)*100 A 1 J K 2 3 PLANNED OUTAGE : FORCED OUTAGE MISCELLANEOUS OUTAGE : : Outage planned in advance for annual maintenance. should come under forced outage and not in planned outage. high temp. inspection. oil level failure of shaft seal etc. outage for less than 15 minutes due to tripping and resynchronization should also come under miscellaneous outage.


No. & Date Comments / Remarks (if any) INCHARGE [OPERATIONS] NAME / DESIGNATION AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   95 . Name of Units/ Line Type of Tripping Tripping Report No.MONTHLY TRIPPING REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF ____________________ Sl.


m. s. DESCRIPTION OF PROTECTION NO. q. n. OF OCCURRENCE AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ E&M Works – Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station   97 . l. h. r. p. u. v. t. o. k.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS TRIPPINGS POWER STATION A B C D E F G H I J LEGEND K L M N O P Q R S T U V W CLARIFICATION FROM THE STATION LEGEND a. i. c. e. j. w. g. f. d. b.