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IntroductionofElectricMachineDesign: Electrical materials used in the construction of all commercial machines may be broadly classified into three groups,

, (i)Conducting (ii)Insulating (iii)Magneticmaterial. Thedesign of electrical machines and equipments mainly depends on the quality of these materials. Lowgrade materialsresultinbulkyandcostlyequipmentgenerally.

Conductingmaterials: Conducting materials used, are copper' and aluminium. Insulating materials used are cotton, silk, wood, paper rubber mica, asbestos, polythene, pvc, bakelite etc. These materials are classed according to their temperature withstanding capability. Magnetic materials used as silicon steel and nickel iron alloys. The following grades of siliconsteelaremainlyusedinvariouselectricalmachines: E11,E12,E21,E31,E41,E42,E43,E310,E320,E330 In the above E represent electrical grade silicon steel. The first figure indicates the percentage of silicon in the steel. 1.Lowpercentage. 2.Averagepercentage. 3.Aboveaveragepercentage. 4.Highpercentage. Thesecondfigureindicatesthespecificlossesinthesteelat50Hz 1.Normal. 2.Average. 3.Low. Inthethirdfigure0meansthatthesteeliscoldrolledgrainoriented.

ComparisonbetweenCopperandAluminium:
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Characteristics Copper Aluminium(intermsofsomany timesthatofcopper) 1.624 0.304 0.571 2.333

Resistivity(ohm/mm2/ 0.017241 m)at200C Specificweight (kg/mm2/km) Thermalconductivity (W/m3/0C) Specificheat(J/kg/0C) 8.89 350 389

Properties/CharacteristicsofConductingMaterials:
Sr. Conducting Resistivity Temp.Coeff.of Density 1900to No. material (ohmm) resistanceinat0C200 kg/m3 2300Melting at Cx104 point0C

200Cx108 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Silver Copper (Annealed) Copper (Harddrawn) Aluminium (Annealed) Aluminium (Harddrawn) Tungsten Brass Nickel Tin Lead Carbonsteel (upto0.4% carbon) Carbonsteel (highcarbon) Siliconsteel (3.5%Si) Manganin Constantan Nichrome Iron(Cast) Carbon 1.6 1.7241 1.777 2.8 2.8264 5.50 7.0 10.5 11.5 21 10to14 40 39.3 39.3 40.3 40.3 50 15to20 40 46 41 40to50 10500 8890 8890 2703 2703 2703 18800 8400to 8700 8850 7300 11400 960 1083 1083 660 660 3300 1450 232 327 1350

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

15to45 50to60 48 52 100 75to98 400to1200

2to40 0.5 0.25to0.5 4.4 ()12to()60

7800 7700 8400 8900 8150 7800

102 1538 1530 3450

InsulatingMaterials: Insulatingmaterialsareusedinelectricalmachinestoprovideinsulation of currentcarrying parts. Itmustprovide a "galvanic separation" from the machine componentsatvaryingpotentials.Thefundamentalrequirementofagood insulatingmaterialis: (i)Highdielectricstrength, (ii)Highinsulatingresistance, (iii)Lowdielectricloss, (iv)Goodmechanicalstrength, (v)Goodthermalconductivity, (vi)Highdegreeofthermalstability, (vii)Goodmachinabilitytomassproduction. Besides,theseitmustbeeasilyavailableandeconomicallyviable. ElectricMachineDesign(Continued): MagneticCircuit: Thelawformagneticcircuitsis MMF=FluxxReluctance. Totalmmfforthecompletemagneticcircuitisgivenby

F=(B1/1)l1+(B1/1)l1+........ wherel1,l2etc.aremagneticfluxpathlengthsinthevariouspartsofthemagneticcircuit.

Transformers: Thetransformerconsistsofthefollowingelements: (i)Magneticcircuitconsistingoflimbs(core),yokesandclampingstructures, (ii)Electriccircuitconsistingoflowvoltagewinding,highvoltagewindingandtertiarywinding, (iii)Dielectriccircuitconsistingofinsulationindifferentforms, (iv) Tankand accessories such as oil, cooling devices,conservators,breathers, terminalinsulators and leademf equationisgivenby E1=4.44fT1BAivolts, whereAiisthecrosssectionalareaofthecoreinsqm. Theoutputequationisgivenas Q=2.22fBmKwAiAwvoltamperes whereKwisthespacefactorofthewindow,Awisthenetwindowareaandisthecurrentdensity. All the conducting parts and the magnetic parts of the transformer must be well insulated from each other. The insulation between core and LV winding is provided by an insulating cylinder of paper bakelite or pressboard. Similar insulation is used between LV and HV winding. The end insulation is provided to insulate the windings from theyokes. Partitions of press board are provided between HV windings of differentlegs,properinsulation is providedbetweenthecoils,turnsandlayersofthewinding.

DesignandConstructionalFeaturesofaTransformer (A)Design: 1.Specification: Ratingaccordingtostandardloadingtype,framesize,temperaturerise,efficiency.

2.Performance: Transient behavior, system considerations, no load characteristics, short circuit characteristics, mechanical forces,optimization.

3.Manufacture: Materialprocurement,handlingandprocesses,skillandtalent,transportationtosite.

(B)Constructionalfeatures: 1.Cores: Material, core and yoke, laminations, insulation, clamping, flux density, window, space optimization, core loss, weight.

2.Windings: Type, current density, conductors, turns, layers, strands, tappings, insulation, transposition, resistance, l2R loss, leakagereactance,mechanicalforces,thrustblock,shielding,insulationgradient,weight.

3.Frame: Size,stiffness,fixing,tank,heatexchanger,conservator,bushings,relays,weight.

InsulationThickness:
Rated Highestvoltageof KVA thetransformer LVandHV 3.3and6.6KV Upto 100 kVA 100to 500 kVA 500to 1000 kVA Upto 6500 kVA 500to 1000 kVA Upto 500 kVA 5.0 3 20 25 55 11kV 3.5 2.5 10 12 5.0 2.5 13 35to50 13 35 3 Thicknessof insulation cylinderinmm Between phases 2 Thicknessof oilductinmm LVandHV 6 Between phases 8 22 Insulationfrom yoketothe windinginmm

22to31

11 3 2 8

31to52

6.0 500to 1000 kVA

20

25

70

ANDCONSTRUCTIONALFEATURESOFAROTATINGMACHINE (A)Design: 1.Specification: Ratingaccordingtostandard,loadingtype,framesize,startingmethod,temperaturerise,efficiency.

2.Performance: Starting torque, transient behavior, system considerations, no load characteristics, short circuit characteristics, forcesundershortcircuit,losses,optimization.

3.Manufacture: Materialprocurement,handlingandprocesses,skillandtalent,transportationtosite.

(B)Constructionalfeatures: 1.Cores: Material,statorandrotorstampings,clampings,insulation,fluxdensity,coreloss,weight.

2.Slotsandteeth: Suitablecombination,size,spacefactor,fluxdensity,insulation,coreloss,mechanicalforces.

3.Windings: Type, current density conductors, turns, layers strands, insulation, transposition, resistance, I2 R loss, leakage reactance,connections,temperaturerise,cooling,sliprings,commutator,weight

4.Frame: Size,rigidity,fixing,enclosuretype,vibration,weight.

5.Shaft: Size,stiffness,deflection,speed.

6.Bearings: Type,loss,cooling,lubrication.

DCMACHINE: Theoutputequationis EIa=n(p)((IaZ)/a)=n(p)(IzZ) where,Iz = Ia / a = current per conductorisflux perpole,pisnumberofpoles,nisspeedinrps,Zistotalnumber ofconductorandaisthenumberofparallelpaths. Also,D2L=(1/Co)P/n whereCoisoutputcoefficient,DisdiameterandListhelengthofmachine.

SpecificLoading:
Machinerating,kW MaximumgapfluxdensityBg, 10 50 100 500 1000 5000 1.05 0.65 0.80 0.85 0.95 1.00

(Wb/m2)

SpecificElectricLoading:
Machinerating,kW Ampereconductorspermeterac 10 50 100 500 1000 50000 17500 25000 28000 36500 41000 50000

RelationbetweenLengthandDiameterofArmature: L=0.7(D/p) Polepitchislimitedasperthefollowingtable:


No.ofpoles tcm 2 25to50 4 30to40 6 40to45 morethan6 45to55

Slotdesign: KnowingthevalueofcurrentthroughtheconductorIa,itscrosssectionalareaaccanbecalculatedas ac=Ic/ whereiscurrentdensityinthearmaturewinding. Theinsulationisprovidedasperthefollowingpractice.

(a)Roundconductors:
Diameterup to(mm) 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 Totalinsulation thickness(mm) 0.20 0.30 0.35 0.40

(b)RectangularConductors:
Widthupto (mm) 1 4 4andabove Totalthickness (mm) 0.3 0.4 0.6

ElectricMachineDesign(Continued): Slotinsulation: Theslotisalsoprovidedwithsuitableinsulation.Atypicalslotinsulationisgivenbelow:

Widthwiseinsulation (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Conductorswrappedwithmicapaper Coilwrappedwithglasstape Coilvarnish Slotlinear Clearance Widthwiseinsulation (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Conductorswrappedwithmicapaper Coilwrappedwithglasstope Coilvarnish Slotlinear Layerseparator Wedge Clearance mm

mm 2.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2

2x2=4.0 2x0.2=0.4 2x0.2=0.4 3x0.2=0.6 1x2.0=2.0 1x5.0=5.0 1.6

MainPole: Axiallength: Theaxial length is 10 to 15 mm shorter than the core length of the armature. Width. The width canbecalculated fromtherelation, Width=CrosssectionalareaofpoleWidth/Axiallengthofthepole.

Height: Theheightiscalculatedfromtherelationheight =[(1.1to1.25)((IaZ)/(2p))]/(1000((dck)))

Commutator: Thediameter of the commutator is taken as (0.65 to0.70)Dformediumandlargemachinesand(0.75 to 0.80)D forsmallmachines. Standardsizeofcommutatorbrushesisgivenbelow:
Machine Smallsizemachine Mediumsizemachine Largesizemachine Width(mm) 15 22 30 Height(mm) 30 37 43 Thickness(mm) 6,8,15 9,12.5,15,18 12.5,15,18,22,25

INDUCTIONMOTOR: kVAinput=Q=(11k.Bavx803)D2Lns=CoD2Lns.

MainDimensions:
Designcriteria Goodpowerfactor LengthtoPolepitchratio, 1to1.25

Bestpowerfactor Minimumcost Goodefficiency Goodoveralldesign

=18L 1.5to2 1.5 1.0

Peripheralspeed: For normal design of motors a limiting value of peripheral speed as 30 m/s is used. However, standard constructionshavespeedsupto60m/sandinveryspecialcasesupto75m/s.

ElectricMachineDesign(Continued): Ventilatingducts: Theradialventilatingductsof8to10mmareprovidedaftereachstackof10cmcorelength.

Statorwindings: Turnsperphase, Ts=Es/(4.44fmkm) currentdensityof3to5A/mm2isgenerallyused. Fordiametersupto3mmroundSWGconductorsareusedwithproperinsulation.Forlargermachinesbar orstrip conductorsareused.

Statorslots: For smallermachines up to 20 kW, 600 V and diameter less than 40cm, semiclosed slotsare used.Forhigher ratings, open type slots with insulation wedge are used. Use of semiclosed slots gives low air gap contraction factor, low value of magnetizing current low tooth pulsation losses and quieter operation as compared to open slots. ForSs=numberofstatorslots Slotpitch,yss=Gapsurface/Totalnumberostatorslots=D/Ss Totalnumberofstatorconductors=3x2xTs=6Ts Henceconductorsperstatorslot=Zss=6Ts/Ss

Rotordesign: Airgaplengthdependson: (i)Powerfactor, (ii)Overloadcapacity, (iii)Unbalancedmagneticpull, (iv)Pulsationloss, (v)Noise.

Forsmallmotors,anyoneofthefollowingrelationisusedforairgaplength:' lg=(0.2+2(DL))mm

lg=(0.125+0.35D+L+0.015Va)mm lg=(0.2+D)mm where, D=innerdiameterofstatorinmeters L=lengthofstatorinmeters Va=peripheralspeed,m/s.

Airgapfor4PoleInductionMotors:
D(cm) Lg(mm) 15 0.35 20 0.50 25 0.60 30 0.70 45 1.31 55 1.8 65 2.5 80 4.0

SquirrelCageRotorDesign: Rulesfornumberofrotorslots: ThenumberofrotorslotsSrincomparisonwithnumberofstatorslotsSa,isgivenby (i)Sr=(1.15to1.30)Ss (ii)ToavoidSynchronousCusps SsSr!=p2por5p (iii)Toavoidmagneticlockingin3phasemotor, SsSr!=3p (iv)Toavoidnoiseandvibrations, SsSr!=1,2,(p1)or(p2). Rotorbarcurrentfor3phasemachineisgivenby Ib=0.85((6IbTs)/Sr) whereIs,isstatorcurrent.

Skewing: In order to eliminate the effect of any harmonic, the rotor bars are. skewed in such a way that the bars lie under alternatepolesofthesamepolarity. Toeliminatenthharmonic,theangleofskewwillbe

Q=720/(nxp)degreesmechanical. Inpracticetherotorisskewedthroughonestatorslotpitch.

Areaofendrings: Theareaofendring, ar=(SrIb)/(pc)mm2

Slip: Thevalueoffullloadslipsisdeterminedbyrotorcopperloss.Sometypicalvaluesaregivenbelow:
Output (kW) Slip 5.00 0.75 3.75 7.5 18.750 37.50 75.00 150.00

4.2

4.0

3.70

3.50

3.20

3.00

Designofwoundrotor: No.ofturnsperphaseonrotor, Tr=ks/kr.Er/Es.Ts where, ks=windingfactorforstator, kr=windingfactorforrotor, Es=voltageperphaseappliedtostator, Er=voltageperphaseinducedinrotoratstandstill, Ts=numberofturnsperphaseonstator. Minimumtoothwidth=Fluxperpole/(Max.allowablefluxdensityxSlotsperpolexNetironlength) Rotorcoredepth=m/2BcrxL2