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Air Jet Texturising – A Versatile Process  of Texturising 

By: M. Y. Gudiyawar Neha Hinge 

     

Therefore. Air-jet textured yarn are used for automotive products. handle. handle. Loop frequency. but this is an impossible task to achieve. The air-textured yarns resemble spun yarns in their appearance and physical characteristics. air-jet texturising process is a purely mechanical method that uses a cold air-stream to produce bulked yarns of low extensibility. loop stabilityand physical bulk are the important characteristics of air jet textured yarns. it is ideal to combine the desired properties of both natural and synthetic fibres. lighter fabrics with equal       . Most of the texturising methods involve simple mechanical distortion during heat treatment of the thermoplastic yarns. The feed yarns need not be restricted to the synthetic filament yarns. so that twist is unnecessary. natural texture and appearance. The airtextured yarns resemble spun yarns in their appearance and physical characteristics. furnishing fabric. in order to impart into them the warmth. The air-jet texturising process is by far the most versatile of all the yarn texturising methods in that it can blend filaments together during processing. natural texture and appearance are desirable properties of textile yarns. Schematic diagram of air jet texturising process False twist texturising. Texturising is a technique by which closely packed parallel arrangements of continuous filaments are changed into more open. Warmth. loop dimensions.com     Air Jet Texturising – A Versatile Process of Texturising By: M. voluminous structures. while maintaining the desirable properties of synthetic fibres. Gudiyawar Neha Hinge Air-jet texturising process is a purely mechanical method that uses a cold air-stream to produce bulked yarns of low extensibility.www. The air-jet texturising process is by far the most versatile of all the yarn texturising methods in that it can blend filaments together during processing. Air textured yarn is very bulky with permanent crimps and loops Interlacing of filaments in the jet can cause the loops to be locked into the yarn. air-jet texturising and stuffer box crimping are some of the major methods of texturising. This greater versatility offers the texturiser far greater scope than other types of texture yarns.fibre2fashion. sewing threads and in bonded fabrics as scrims or interlinings. The feed yarns need not be restricted to the synthetic filament yarns. When producing synthetic filament yarns. Y. Flat continuous filament yarns do not possess these desired characteristics. the primary objective of conversion process such as texturising is to imitate the features of natural fibres. However.

Air-Jet Texturising Process The process involves the overfeed principle whereby the multifilament supply yarn. The effect yarn gives the desired bulk to the textured yarn.2 or both faster than it does through the delivery rollers W2.fibre2fashion. the yarn passes through the feed rollers W1. shoelaces. are used to apply tension to the textured yarn in order to stabilise the loops formed during the process. Heaters can be optionally used in the stabilising and take-up zones to impart further desired properties to thermoplastic filament yarns. These textured yarns are the least expensive and are preferred where normal bulk is required. operating conditions such as dry or wet. but also to collect the used water and some of the spin finish washed away from the filaments during the process. not only to reduce the noise created by the air-jet. Overfeed through the jet has a direct influence upon the bulk and linear density. and tarpaulins. and formed into textured yarn by the effect of the air-stream provided by a compressed air supply. is fed into the nozzle at a greater rate than it is taken away as shown in Figure. from a creel. blown out from the texturising end. The textured yarn is then wound up by means of a high speed take-up unit.2. The zone between these two sets of rollers being termed the stabilising zone. they are carried along through the nozzle. Types of air jet texturising Single and parallel yarn texturising In this system. Core and effect air-jet texturising In this method.www. Texturising nozzles are usually enclosed in a chamber. a single end or more than one end are fed to the nozzle with the same overfeed by a single feed roller. W1.com     or better covering power for shirting and blouse fabric. The zone between the feed rollers and the nozzle is termed the feed zone and the zone between the nozzle and the delivery rollers the delivery zone. A single supply yarn. running at slightly higher speeds than the delivery rollers W2. Another set of take-up rollers. Since two different yarns are being fed into the air-jet       . stabilizing tension and temperature.1 and W1. air pressure. The main processing variables in airtexturising are overfeed. two or more yarns of the same or different types. W3. production speed. When the overfed filaments enter the nozzle. and also used for tie fabric. The supply yarn is normally wetted just before it is fed in to the texturising nozzle by passing it through a water bath or through a wetting unit. To achieve the desired degree of overfeed.1 and W1. two or more yarns are fed at different overfeed levels and the effect end forms most of the loops and entangles with the core end. ww. can be textured at different speeds by the use of separate feed rollers.

g. one or more air inlets e. the result of varying overfeed when processing under core and effect conditions is more complex. Many studies have confirmed that the process of air-jet texturising causes no significant changes in the properties of individual filaments. (i) Converging-diverging (deLaval) types of nozzle (Axial) i. Structure and Properties of Air-jet Textured Yarns The structure of air-textured yarn is characterized by bulk. Yarns produced by the air-jet texturising are totally different structures in that they much more closely simulate spun yarn structures.e. The air-jet texturising process has seen many variations in nozzle design. The changes in yarn properties are due to the formation of bulked structure. All texturising nozzles can be categorized into two groups according to their structures viz. (ii) Cylindrical nozzles (Radial) i. a Convergingdiverging nozzle is situated at the yarn exit end of the nozzle assembly e. During weaving and knitting and while in use in fabric form.com     at the same time. tensile properties. dimensional stability and appearance.www. the form of airtextured yarns can be made to remain virtually unchanged at loads corresponding to       . The number of loops opening out and the extent of irreversible straightening of the loops under loading decide the structural integrity of these yarns and properties of yarns. DuPont's Taslan Type 14 nozzle. Heberlein's Hemajet.g. Some of the loops that are formed by the locking of the filaments can be pulled out by applying tension to the yarn. stability of loops. size of loops and core diameters influence the bulkiness. Whereas the bulkiness of the stretch yarns decreases with the degree of the tension imposed on them. Normally core yarn overfeed is lower than that of the effect yarn. Air-texturising nozzle The choice of jets is determined by the material to be processed and by the end use and characteristics of the yarn to be produced.fibre2fashion. the pulling out of loops adversely affects the processing and properties of the fabrics'. The air-textured yarn structural characteristics such as loop frequency. The stability of the loops of airtextured yarns is therefore of prime importance to both processors and ultimate users.e.

Air-jet textured yarns again more closely resemble conventionally spun yarns in that the yarn surface is covered with fixed resilient loops and these serve the same purpose as the protruding hairs in spun yarns by forming an insulating layer of entrapped still air between neighbouring garments. what may be considered good quality for one end use may not be acceptable quality for another end use.fibre2fashion.       . which in turn may be dependent on the level of intermixing of the yarn. Sengupta A K. Several attempts have been made by researchers to quantify air-textured yarn structures. Image analysis is also used to evaluate the physical bulk of yarn by using projected image of yarn to obtain core and total projected area of air textured yarn. and pulled it through to be imaged by using a moveable stage and toggle device. type & frequency of loops on the yarn surface. the main aspects of interest in air-textured yarns are its bulk (yarn diameter) and instability. Smaller loops and higher loops frequency lead to higher physical bulk. may be dependent on the integrity of the core structure. journal.c The DuPont is improved by using a micro projector and mounted the yarn by clamp and weight. From the viewpoint of end use. Most instability tests involve application of known tension to the textured yarn. and expressing the instability in terms of percent extension.X 100 Density of textured yarn package gms/c. In this method.758762(1989). The bulk of air-textured is most commonly measured using modified DuPont method. a package is wound under a fixed tension for a defined time period and the physical bulk is calculated using the formula. there is a complication that. Kothari V K. while the instability.c Physical Bulk % = --------------------------------------------------. 2. The bulk may be considered a characteristic of the number.S9. Packing density values are used in an effort to define the voluminosity or the bulk of air textured yarns. Physical Bulk The physical bulk of air textured yarns could be related to the size and frequency of loops in air-jet textured yarns.www. measuring the extension of the yarn. However. References 1. "Characterization of the structural integrity of air jet textured yarns" Textile Res.com     those normally imposed in fabric production and during wear. Harle jWS & L Hollick and 0 K Wilson "yarn texturing technology" woodhead publishing Co. Instability Instability refers to the retention of loops under the application of load. fiber-to-fiber frictional relationship and the extent of removal of the surface finish. higher the bulk. Density of parent yarn package gms/c. Higher bulk and lower instability values have been used as indicators of the quality of air textured yarns.. Lower the packing density. This is due to the lockedin entangled loop structure attributed to air jet textured yarns. 2001. and Alagirusamy R.

Sengupta A K. Acar M and Wray G. Textile Res journal.www. 10. Dani Nand Oxenham W. "Structure and economic aspects of air textured yarns". 247-249(1986). The Mechanism of the Air-jet Texturising: The role of Wetting. 9.6. journal ofthe Text.76(2). Acar M. journal of the Text. Sengupta A K. "Role of water in Air jet texturising. Acar M. No. 6. Acar M. 20th International synthetic fiber symposium in Dornbirn. 7. Kothari V K. Piller B. Textile Res journal. journal. Lesykova E.com     3.317-323(1989). "Characterization of the structural integrity of air jet textured yarns" Textile Res. Vol. Textile Resjournal. and Alagirusamy R. Vol. 19-27.116125(2009). Originally Published in The Textile Review.       . Bilgin 5.77.59. "Influence of interfilaments friction on structure and properties of air jet textured yarns. 495-502(1991). Part V: The Effect of wetting the yarns".Rengasamy R 5 and Goswami B C. September 23-25. Rengasamy R 5. No. "An analysis of the air jet yarn texturing process Part-I: A 8riefhistory of developments in the process". 61 (9).1. 8. January. "An analysis of the air jet yarn texturising process.Sengupta A K. journal of the textile institute. Turton R K. (1986).R. Versteeg H K. 2012. Part I: Polyester filament Feeder yarns with different frictional Characteristics. Wray G R.758762(1989). (1981). 4. Institute. Kothari V K. 77. Kothari V K. 5.77 (4).fibre2fashion. Turton R K and Wray G R. No. spin finish and friction in Forming and Fixing Loops. 359370(1986). "An analysis of the air jet yarn texturing process Part IV: Fluid for acting on the filaments and the effects of filament cross sectional area and shape. Institute.59.