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Integration of Distributed Solar Generation

2012 Game Changer Series
Robert Woods SCE Director of Electric System Planning Tom Salas SCE Solar Photovoltaic Program Manager of Construction Roger Salas SCE Distribution Engineering Supervisor

© Copyright 2011, Southern California Edison

Who is Southern California Edison?
Serves a population of about 14 million people in a 50,000-square-mile service area within central, coastal and Southern California Nearly 5 million electric meters 5,000 MW of generating capacity from interests in nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil-fueled power plants Award-winning energy efficiency & DR customer programs Industry leader in renewable energy, electric transportation, Smart Grid and smart metering

© Copyright 2011, Southern California Edison

© Copyright 2011, Southern California Edison

Southern California Edison .Electrical System • Grid impacts – Distribution level – Transmission Level Solar PV Generation (Transmission) Solar PV Generation (Distribution) LOAD DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION 120 Volts 240 Volts 480 Volts 4160 Volts 12000 Volts 16000Volts 34500 Volts TRANSMISSION SUBSTATION TRANSMISSION 500/220 KV 500/115 KV 500/220 KV 220/115 KV 220/66 KV 115/12 KV 115/16KV 115/34.5 kV 66/12 KV 66/16 KV 66/34.5 KV GENERATION 4 © Copyright 2011.

Southern California Edison .Background The distribution systems were not originally designed for generation injection  One way for power from substation to load System operations did not take into account distributed generation Planning standards were not updated to account distributed generation New technology operating characteristics are not very well known and additional research is required to fully its affects to the distribution system and customers 5 © Copyright 2011.

Models have not properly being developed or validated  Short Circuit Duty Models  Voltage Characteristics Models such NREL. Southern California Edison . WECC and Sandia NL to:  Help develop/validate computer models  As to assist engineering and operations  Assist with testing large inverters similar to those being connected to the distribution system 6 © Copyright 2011.

generating 70+ MW.  SCE will continue to share lessons learned with the State and energy industry. CPUC approved a Petition For Modification to reduce the SPVP to 125 MW based on:  $300M of rate payers savings based on recent IPP bids  Main SPVP goals have been met dealing with market transformation. Southern California Edison . In March of 2012. (25%-ground-mount)  CPUC also approved 250MW to be installed by Independent Power Producers Presently has 22 rooftop sites and 1 ground mount site in service.What is Solar Photovoltaic Program (SPVP)? Approved by the California Public Utility Commission(CPUC) in June largest rooftop solar program. 7 © Copyright 2011.

General things for the first time.Project Challenges . Leasing Issues Permitting Environmental Health & Safety Concerns Site Security Labor Issues ISO Forecasting and Scheduling CPUC Oversight & Reporting Requirements - WDAT INTERCONNECTION  Large number of WDAT application submitted to Transmission Distribution Business Unit (TDBU) at the same time  Modified technical data of requests as knowledge increased. causing rework by TDBU in studies and results 8 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

best areas were located in the Inland Empire  Approx. Southern California Edison . 45 miles east of downtown Los Angeles 9 © Copyright 2011.Building Selection Process Size: 200K Sq ft/MW as minimum  Loading to be 4lb/sq.  Loading of 800K lbs/MW Design code: ASCE Year 2007 Roof condition: Want buildings <5yrs old to minimize future re-roofing situations Located in higher solar irradiance areas with existing distribution load  For SCE territory. ft.

Prefer 85 mph.Building Selection Process Lower wind zone areas. Southern California Edison . maximum zone of 120 mph  Higher wind zones greatly increased ballast and roof loading Leasing Issues Initial lease cost was $20k/MW/yr Owners expected more Lease cost raised to $30K/MW/yr Owners looking for SCE indemnification responsibility Insurance  SCE is self insured 10 © Copyright 2011.

Engineering/ Design Issues Equipment Selection Modules Initial 3 pilot projects used thin film technology     Least cost Module cost has decreased since pilots More wattage per rooftop Higher efficiency Balance of 20 projects have used crystalline technology Inverters 600v (500kw)used in all projects Investigating using 1000v inverters for 2 ground mount projects Switchgear Used All Phase 12kv units (pilots used 480v units) Combiner Boxes and Master Fused Boxes Vendor selected was flexible with SCE wants 11 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

Southern California Edison . IEEE. requirements. 12 © Copyright 2011. California Fire Code for solar installations on roofs Needed design firms to work with module vendors to maximize wattage for roof area Needed to understand equipment vendor parameters to generate constructible packages.Engineering/Design Issues Design Firms Design contracted with two firms Needed to understand which industry standards applied  UL. Needed open communication with discussions regarding SCE engineering requirements .NEC.

Construction Challenges Needed to understand the safety hazards of rooftop work and develop expectations for SCE and the General Contractors (GC) Needed to learn which GCs could do this work safely. economically and efficiently Needed to work with the IBEW 47 under the Project Labor Agreement (PLA) and train linemen on solar installation work Needed to learn the concerns of TDBU Distribution with respect to the interconnection process Needed to work with GCs on efficient installation methods regarding working with roof surfaces and wire management issues 13 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

35% greater than 2MWAC 10MW DC/ 8MWAC Interconnection costs ranges from $100k-500K 14 © Copyright 2011.SPVP View SPVP Projects connected directly to Distribution 12kV grid. No electrical benefit to building owner or tenant Projects are often greater than 1-2 MW concept.Interconnection Process. Southern California Edison .

Interconnection Process-SPVP View WDAT process is cumbersome application . Southern California Edison .delays   Delays in execution of agreements  Change in initial requested parameters  Change in technology leading to increased generation requests  Change in number of inverters or manufacturer 15 © Copyright 2011.

Southern California Edison .Complete UOG SPVP Projects 16 © Copyright 2011.

Complete UOG SPVP Projects SPVP 042 – Porterville 6. Southern California Edison .428 Modules 33 acres 10 Inverters 17 © Copyright 2011.77 MWdc .29.

FERC Jurisdiction    Required for projects that sell power to any other then SCE May be used for projects which sell power to SCE SPVP 18 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .CPUC Jurisdiction Type of Generation Projects Non-Export Export options Net Energy Metering Feed In tariff Others Whole Sale Distribution Access Tariff (WDAT).Interconnection Tariffs Used In California Tariff Rule 21 .

Southern California Edison .Distribution System 2009 2010 2011 2012 CA Tariff 3 80 281 43 FERC Tariff 36 101 52 36 Running Total 39 220 553 632 19 © Copyright 2011.

California Interconnection Tariff ( CPUC Rule 21) Projects studied in a sequence as they apply and each project is studied individually to determine impacts and cost responsibilities  This can lead to issues as developers cancel their projects and restudies are triggered Projects are responsible for the distribution upgrades that the project triggers Recent proposed changes to this Tariff which will change the study process 20 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

FERC Interconnection Tariff ( SCE WDAT) Projects can be studies under various methods Cluster Study Process  Study as group and share the cost of the upgrades  Phase I and Phase II studies  Longer of the study process Independent Study Process  Evaluated for Independence on both Transmission and Distribution  Study on a serial manner  Projects are responsible for the upgrades it triggers Fast Track Process  Simplest of studies  Designed for simplest of the projects connecting to highly loaded circuits  Evaluation consists of 10 screens  Supplemental review is further used if one of the screens fails 21 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

Southern California Edison .CA Tariff and FERC Tariff Interaction These are two separate tariffs with their own processes  Can be difficult to manage and study projects which are in two track (tariffs) but yet affect the same distribution system Can be difficult to determine distribution cost upgrades  Distribution cost certainty is difficult to achieve Timelines associated with the study process in one tariff may create problems for projects interconnecting in the other tariff  Especially if projects are proposing to interconnect to the same circuit/substation 22 © Copyright 2011.

Southern California Edison .Typical Distribution Upgrades Areas with low penetration  Switching devices  Line extensions Areas average penetration  Cable/Conductor upgrades  Protection devices  Voltage regulating devices Areas with high penetration  New distribution circuits Areas with very high penetration  Substation transformer upgrades Areas with extreme penetration  Sub transmission/transmission upgrades 23 © Copyright 2011.

weak distribution circuits Coordination with inverter protection to avoid breaker reclosing into hot line Fault current effects on breaker ratings Ground fault detection at the inverters No known issues with subtransmission and transmission protection No major issues More analysis needed Steps need to be taken 24 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison . Directional over-current relay capabilities for reverse current flow  Problems occur on long.Protection Overall circuit protection coordination  Problems arise on project by project basis  Integrate more sophisticated protection schemes to the traditional distribution protection systems.

Example Protection System Distribution Upgrade Power Flow Power Flow Substation Low MT settings Weak electrical system Power Flow Long Circuit Small wire – high impedace 25 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

size of conductor/cable. Southern California Edison . Voltage Regulating Devices. etc  Inverter system can help if properly designed/operated o IEEE prevents active voltage regulation o Need to have generating facility operate on schedule power factor Generation ability support load Lack of standard communications protocol Remote switching capability No major issues More analysis needed Steps need to be taken 26 © Copyright 2011.Distribution Engineering Voltage regulation  Steady state overvoltage issues o Depends on location of projects. Load on the feeder.

0 100 0. Southern California Edison MW (Measured at the Generating Facility) 400 2. Peak Load Solar Generation at peak~ 15% AMPS (Measured at the substation) 300 1.5 Time (Days) 27 © Copyright 2011.Generation output vs.5 200 1.0 .

Typical Need For Additional Voltage Regulation High Voltage Substation Power Power Flow Flow Long Circuit VR Small wire – high impedace Power Flow Load on the circuit low Power reverses in the circuit Power Flow 28 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

Southern California Edison .Operations Issues Switching impacts resulting from large generation Temporary over-voltage when islanded with little load Fault ride-through and system level impacts No major issues More analysis needed Steps need to be taken 29 © Copyright 2011.

Southern California Edison .Temporary Overvoltage Voltage phase-ground (both sides of the switch) Impacts to:  customers  Operations 30 © Copyright 2011.

Southern California Edison .Temporary Overvoltage Voltage Across the Switch Impacts to:  customers  Operations 31 © Copyright 2011.

Questions 32 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .

Southern California Edison .Backup Slides 33 © Copyright 2011.

SPVP Status 34 © Copyright 2011. Southern California Edison .