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Context Analysis

Lina Binladin Claudia Di Loreto Garrett Newman Suyeon Ryu Connor Watt

Key Open Space Public Amenities Industrial Residential Rail Technical services

Sustainable Construction: The all-encompassing realm of construction, including the processes /

Land Use

Demographics and Activity


products / workers of construction and the final outcomes that result, integrated with environmental, social and economic sustainability. The final outcomes of Sustainable Construction are more efficient (in terms of energy, water use, refuse generation), healthier and happier communities that were built in a manner that resulted in less energy consumed and waste produced, and where biodiversity and environmental integrity was protected.

EU Definition of Sustainable Construction: Involves environmental concerns, (e.g. efficient electrical appliances and heating installations), users’ health aspects (e.g. in-door air quality) and issues of convenience (e.g. related to elderly persons’ independence)...It encompasses developing sustainable solutions for residential and non-residential buildings as well as in infrastructure assets. - EU Commission 2007 UK Definition of Sustainable Construction: Actions by the construction industry, that are: designed for minimum waste, lean construction, minimization of energy in construction & use, low pollution, preservation and enhancement of biodiversity, conservation of water resources, respect to people & the local environment, and monitoring and reporting (i.e. use benchmarks). - UK Government






Spain has a strong network of research institutions focused on developing connections between architecture, industry, natural science, design, construction and sustainability. For example, the University of Salamanca contains a department of Building and Agronomy (the study of production using natural products.) Other universities which also focus on connections between construction and sustainability include the University of Cordoba, the university of Oviedo, and the University of Granada. Barcelona also contains numerous organisations that coordinate research in sustainable technology and construction. The International School for Design in Barcelona runs courses on ‘Sustainable Design’. The Polytechnic University of Catalonia and the Autonomous University of Barcelona also house similar departments. The Regional Activity Centre for Cleaner Production helps initiate projects involving clean industry at Catalan and European levels. These research institutions and organisations provide us with a strong knowledge base from which we can draw upon when developing sustainable construction methods and products for use in the construction industry.

Economic Activity
Key Positive* Negative** Mixed***

* Composed of a wide range of age groups and demographic cohorts, including youths, the elderly, working professionals and young families, among others. ** Lack of a wide range of age groups and demographic cohorts.

of decline in number of employees by economic sector 2007-2011
(Source: Idescat) Fig.6 Percentage



of decline in number of businesses by economic sector 2009-2011
Source: Idescat

Fig.7 Percentage

Sustainable Construction
By the year 2030, La Sagrera will be a stronger, more resilient area of Barcelona, being easily adaptable to local, national and global economic fluctuations. This will be achieved through La Sagrera VISION 2030 - a vision based on the elements of Sustainable Construction. By achieving VISION 2030: - La Sagrera will become a hotbed for Sustainable Construction - Jobs will be created; - Work will be generated; - Sustainability and renewability will be integrated into the urban form and space, acting as a showcase to Europe and the world; - Learning of trades and skills will be facilitated; - Production and manufacturing will be encouraged; - Import and Export of knowledge and sustainable technologies - Living and play amenities will be provided, including sustainably constructed housing; - Connections will be strengthened and grown.
Creating new sustainable construction jobs

100(%) 80 60 40 20 0 Industry Construction Service
100(%) 80 60 40 20 0


Industry Construction Trade and Repairs

* The majority of shops and businesses are open and functioning; consumers are actively and confidently making purchases. ** The majority of shops and businesses are closed down and not functioning; consumers cannot be found. *** Mix of both Positive and Negative Economic Activity

Industrial sector employs 8.8% of all workers. Unemployment rate 21.7% in 2012.

Construction rate 6.2% of all economic sectors in Barcelona Biggest hit in construction sector after crisis

Fig.1 map showing the location of institutions involved in sustainable construction in Spain

Fig.7&8 Examples of closed down businesses

Developing sustainable buildings and communities through sustainable construction practices

S. W. O. T.
Public Realm Socio-Demographic
- Significant scales of migration - Lively communities - Variety of public spaces - Pedestrian friendly (N)

Economy & Jobs
- High rate of unemployment - Weak housing market - Diminishing business environment - Significant fall in construction market - Many closed shops and businesses

Sustainability: “Meeting the needs of present generations without

Economy & Jobs Transport
- Well connected to the rest of Spain - 4th largest economy in Eurozone - Availability of infrastructure and business clusters - Formal and informal businesses - A variety of commercial uses and activities

Housing Planning
- Empty warehouses and buildings - Space to increase provision of housing

jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs – in other words, a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come; A vision of progress that integrates immediate and longer-term objectives, local and global action, and regards social, economic and environmental issues as inseparable and interdependent components of human progress.” - European Commission (Environment)

Teaching sustainable construction trades and skills


Abstract Concept

Fig.2 map showing the location of universities and organisations involved in sustainable construction in the World

Economy & Jobs
- Large labor force - Potential for brownfield sites, specifically old industrial factories - Flexible industrial culture

Planning Economy & Jobs
- High debt - Increase in unemployment - Over-reliance on tourism and foreign capital - Planning can be preoccupied with regional or national development rather than local

- Renewable energy sources

Sustainable Construction is fast becoming one of the most important new sectors to emerge around the world. The Holcim Foundation coordinates a sustainable construction research group involving 8 universities around the world, from the USA, India, China, Mexico, South Africa, Morocco, Switzerland and Brazil. It supports development in sustainable housing and infrastructure all over the globe. From Nairobi, Kenya, the UN runs their Environmental Programme, which deals with issues of environmentally policy and practice generally. The UNEP also manages programmes which deal with sustainable construction specifically – the S.U.S.H.I Sustainable Social Housing Initiative and the Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative, both of which support sustainable building projects in developing countries.

Producing sustainable construction products

- Creating jobs for young people

- Shortage in water supply

Words in italics refer to the wider context (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain) as well as the site.

Capturing the essence of our vision and pushing it outward throughout La Sagrera, all the while drawing connections between our vision and Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain and Europe.

Lina Binladin Claudia Di Loreto Garrett Newman Suyeon Ryu Connor Watt


Global Connections
The Natural Retreat

KPMG High Growth Markets: China, India, Russia, Africa, Brazil, Saudi Arabia KPMG ‘Other’ High Growth Markets: Turkey, Mexico - Open air spa - Garden - Sustainable Farm

The Open-Air Spa - Built using sustainable construction - Uses filtered sea water and solar power heating Rationale: The spa will have reduced rates for the residents and locals. It will diversify the activities in the area and act as landmark to multiple types of people. It will be a showcase for the industrial, design and training districts through the use of sustainable materials and natural products. Jobs Created: The Urban Farm - Cacti and organic vegetables will be planted - Filtered rainwater and gray water will be used for irrigation Rationale: The farm will be sustainable and grow natural produce to be packaged in the service district and sold in the market to promote local agriculture for residents. Job Created: - Sustainable farming specialists - Farmers
Precedent: Szechenyi, Budapest Indoor and Outdoor Spa

Sustainable Construction District
The Sustainable Industrial District forms the heart of the new La Sagrera. It has been divided into three interlinking areas, which are detailed below. Sustainable Construction is key to our vision for the site, and the main activities associated with this are located here. Spain’s economic downturn, which hit the construction industry hardest, has left many construction workers unemployed. This, combined with the new focus on Sustainable Construction from the EU, means we can create many new jobs in this sector, while at the same time transforming La Sagrera into an area resilient to further fluctuations in the Global economy. Jobs Created: - Electronic Technicians - Engineers - Construction Workers - Service Sector Workers - Reclamation Workers - Chemical Technicians - Mechanics
Precedent: Sustainable Factory, Armstrong Point, Wigan

La Sagrera



Saudi Arabia

UAE India


This area will serve as a retreat from the rest of the areas in the site. It provides residents, business people and the wider community with a getaway. The Public Garden - It will have low-water consuming trees and plants, such as Bougainvillea and palm trees - Filtered rainwater and gray water will be used for irrigation Rationale: The garden will be both sustainable and visually pleasing. It will serve residents, visitors and the wider Barcelona community.

Phase 1
The Gateway and the Service area will be the first to be built, as the former is the heart of the site (and is already in construction) and the later will be needed to provide necessary amenities.



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The Gateway
- Train Station - Luxury Hotel - Open Spaces - Tourist Center - Retail and Food Services Rationale: This area is both a gateway into Barcelona and La Sagrera. The main entrance to the station opens up onto a large square, which emphasizes the conference center and the spa. Similar to the rest of the site, The Gateway will be built using sustainable techniques. The existing old station will be converted into a modern luxury hotel, which will mainly cater towards business people. Jobs Created: - Maintenance and service staff - Retail, tourism and transport professionals

Spatial Plan
Gateway * Communications District * Natural Retreat * New Sustainable Neighbourhood * Mixed Use Area * Open Air Market *

Job Creation: - Gardeners - Cleaning and maintenance staff

Phase 2
The Sustainable Construction District will be completed, and the first part of the Residential and Design & Learning districts will begin. The communication district will act as a showcase.

Auto. Travel Route Square Design and Learning District * Sustainable Construction District - Heavy * Sustainable Construction District - Light * Sustainable Construction District - Services *

Sustainable Construction District - Services This area compliments the other activities in La Sagrera, including the maintenance / use of electric cars, thereby keeping services local and making them more sustainable. - Dry-Cleaning - Industrial Vehicle Repair - Recycling - Electric Vehicle Maintenance Sustainable Construction District - Light This area is located around the edge of the sub-district, as it is less encroaching than the ‘Heavy Industry’ which sits at the centre of the district. Three industries are located here :

* Use integrates works and advancements generated from the Sustainable Construction District

Phase 3
The Residential area will be completed, within which the sale of flats will bring in valuable funds to complete the rest of the site.

Scale: 1:20,000




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Reclaimed Material Processing: - Deals with the ‘waste’ materials gathered during the redevelopment of the rest of the site - metal, brick, wood etc. - These materials, once processed, can then be used in the construction of the Mixed Residential District and further afield. Solar Energy Systems: - Development and production - Utilized throughout the site. Energy Tracking Systems - Development and production - Used to monitor the energy usage of buildings, and are key to Sustainable Construction.

Phase 4

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Example: High Speed Rail Station, Orange County (CA)
Urban Farm



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Communication District
The Conference Centre and Exposition Complex will be home to permanent and temporary exhibitions dealing with Sustainable Construction, both from La Sagrera and around the world. Rationale: The Conference Centre, as well as being a space for presenting the successes of sustainable construction, will be used for the training and teaching of the skilled workers needed in the industry. The Conference Centre and Exposition Complex will be built and run using sustainable technologies, meaning people are able to learn and experience sustainability simultaneously. Jobs Created: - Tutors - Events Planners - Service Sector Jobs

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Sustainable Construction District - Heavy Three sustainable technologies are produced in this area: Insulative Paint: - Development and production - Contains hollow balls which trap heat, and therefore reduce the need for heating in the home or workplace. ‘Polymer Concrete’: - A sustainable building material that uses a special mix of concrete and other materials that produce an extremely durable, yet recyclable material. - Development and production - Due to its strength, less of the material needs to be used in building projects Water Harvesting Systems: - Uses ‘Grey Water’ - output water from basins or washing machines - or Rain Water, and filters it so that it can be used for flushing toilets or watering plants. - A key technology in our development, as it runs throughout the scheme, from the Spa, to the Residential Area, to watering the plants in the Urban Farm.

The Natural Retreat will be the last district to be built, as it will bring in little revenue. and will avoid forced eviction. Funding for construction could be provided through the 5m2 greenspace requirement explained below.


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Urban Farm

Funding Sources:

The New Sustainable Community
Consists of three areas, as detailed below. Rationale: - Connects the existing neighborhoods - Creates housing - Showcase for the Industrial and Design and Learning districts Jobs Created: - Maintenance and service staff - Market personnel New Sustainable Neighborhood - High density and mixed use - Green buildings - Affordable housing Rationale: This residential neighborhood will not only provide affordable modern housing, but will also be a showcase for projects, technology and design created in the Design and Learning District and the Sustainable Construction District. Mixed-use area made of reclaimed material - Low rise* residential buildings - Restaurants, entertainment and retail Rationale: The defining feature of this district is the utilisation of reclaimed materials as a basis for homebuilding. This absorbs some of the ‘waste’ material that will arise from the redevelopment of other parts of the site, thereby making La Sagrera a zero waste development. We aim to promote a diversity of activity and demographic mix, and build connections with the already established communities in the area. Open-Air Market - Large open space adaptable to host a market
Example: Green project for Milano Santa Monica (Polis Engineering &co.)

A mix of funding sources will finance the development of phases 1-5. This mix includes investment from interested parties in the private sector looking to develop in the site, EU funds connected with sustainability / green policy initiatives, and other European / Global funding sources. Public (or tax) funding is the last funding option to be used. The main funding source that will act in combination with the sources already outlined, is a Tax Incremental Funding (TIF) scheme. The TIF scheme entails the City borrowing capital to fund each phase. The amount of capital the bank(s) loan to the City is based on the future tax revenues generated from each phase (once developed) in question. There is also the possibility of imposing a small tax on all goods (including train tickets) sold out of the new high speed rail station, so as to fund development projects taking place in La Sagrera. In line with the Ley del Suelo (land law), each inhabitant must have 5m2 of green area. Therefore, the housing developers will fund the greenspace of the Natural Retreat.

Key Actors:
Design and Learning District
This District is vital in transforming Barcelona into a centre of Sustainable Construction design and production. Rationale: - Development of new design ideas - A learning site for young industrial designers. - Teaching people the skills they need to migrate in search of employment or to find employment in Spain - A network of both inward and outward skill migration. Jobs Created: - Industrial Designers - Architectural Designers - Tutors
Precedent: Sustainable Construction Research Centre, SusCon, Dartford

This map shows the street layout of the site




This diagram shows the connections between different districs within La Sagrera and other institutions and sites,

La Sagrera Public, Barcelona Public, City and Metro. Region of Barcelona, Private Sector Investors, EU, Other European and Global Investors, Adif, Sustainable Construction Industry and Institutions, 22@.

Precedent: La Boca, Buenos Aires (Self-Build Neighbourhood constructed using reclaimed materials and old boats)

Rationale: This area will be a space to sell natural products (from the urban farm) and local handicrafts to serve local residents and the wider Barcelona community.

Green transport corridor that is human scale and pedestrianised. ECSs are provided.