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CONTENTS 8.0 Prominent scientists f — Block Elements Lanthanoids and actinoids 8.5 Introduction, electronic configuration 8.6 Oxidation states, chemical activity 8.7 Lanthanoid contraction and its consequences 8.8 Actinoids: Introduction, electronic configuration 8.9 Oxidation states 8.10 Comparison with lanthanoids 305 8.0 PROMINENT SCIENTISTS Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald started his experimental research in 1875. He turned to the field of electrochemistry and discovered the law of dilution, called Ostwald's dilution law. He invented viscometer now called Ostwald viscometer, used for measuring viscosity of solutions. In 1894 Ostwald turned his attention to catalytic reactions and gave the first modern definition of catalyst. In 1900 he devised a method to manufacture nitric acid by oxidizing ammonia. The process was named after him and is of great industrial importance even today. In 1909 he was awarded the Nobel prize in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reactions. Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April, 1912 — 25 Feb, 1999) An American chemist discovered and isolated ten transuranic elements! These are Plutonium, Americium, Curium, Berkelium, Californium, Einsteinium, Fermium, Mendelevium, Nobelium and Seaborgium. He and his co-:workers identified more than hundred isotopes of different elements! He and McMillon shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1951 for notable research in the field of transuranic elements. In year 1997 the element Z = 106 was named Seaborgium in the honour of Seaborg. This was for the first time that the element was named in honour of a living person! 8.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION The d-block elements are the elements in which the last electron enters the d orbital of the penultimate shell i.e. (n-1) d orbital where n is the outer most shell. E.g. 21Sc has electronic configuration Is 2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 42 3d1. The outer most shell is n = 4 and electrons are added in (n-1) d i.e. 3d orbitals. In these elements (n-1) d orbital is

d-Block Elements 8.1 Introduction, electronic configuration 8.2 8.3 8.4 Occurrences, general characteristics of transition elements Trends in properties of first row transition metals, oxidation states Preparation, properties and structure of K2Cr20 7 and KMn04

Hg and Uub are to be excluded from transition series as they have completely filled (n-1) d orbital. . According to this definition the elements Zn. i. Cd. Transition elements are defined as those elements which have partly or incompletely filled (n-1) d orbital in their elementary state or in any of their common oxidation states. The d block elements are also called transition elements because their properties are intermediate between the properties of highly electropositive s-block elements and highly electronegative p-block elements.being progressively filled up with electrons.e. the configuration is (n-1) d i° in their elementary states as well as in the form of ions.