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A Way To Success :Implementaton of 4G For Millitary Application.



Smt.S.H.Mansukhani Institute Of Technology

“Using science to turn mystery into mastery” Mobile communications systems revolutionized the way people communicate, joining together communications and mobility. A long way in a remarkably short time has been achieved in the history of wireless. Evolution of wireless access technologies is about to reach its fourth generation (4G). Looking past, wireless access technologies have followed different evolutionary paths aimed at unified target: „performance and efficiency‟ in high mobile environment. The first generation (1G) has fulfilled the basic mobile voice, while the second generation (2G) has introduced capacity and coverage. This is followed by the third generation (3G), which has quest for data at higher speeds to open the gates for truly “mobile broadband” experience, which will be further realized by the fourth generation (4G). The Fourth generation (4G) will provide access to wide range of telecommunication services, including advanced mobile services, supported by mobile and fixed networks, which are increasingly packet based, along with a support for low to high mobility applications and wide range of data rates, in accordance with service demands in multiuser environment.

What is 4G?
The fourth generation wireless mobile systems, commonly known as 4G, is expected to provide global roaming across different types of wireless and mobile networks, for instance from satellite to mobile networks and to Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). 4G Technology is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. The vision of 4G wireless/mobile systems will be the provision of broadband access, seamless global roaming, and Internet/data/voice everywhere, utilizing for each the most

"appropriate" always best connected technology . The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. These systems are about integrating terminals, networks, and applications to satisfy increasing user demands.


Japan. This enabled seamless services through out Europe by means of international roaming. Transmissions from the base stations to mobiles occur over the forward channel using frequencies between 869-894 MHz. roaming concept etc.2 kbps. Low bit rate data services were supported as well as the traditional speech service. frequency multiplexing.6 kbps to 19. Second-generation (2G) systems use digital multiple access technology. The Second-generation 2G (Digital ) : Second-generation (2G) mobile systems were introduced in the end of 1980s. uses TDMA technology to support multiple users. each user„s packets compete for available bandwidth.5G networks. First-generation mobile systems used analog transmission for speech services. The GSM system also has an advantage of giving the operator a chance to create a whole range of new services During development over more than 20 years. 2. In this system. GSM technology has been continuously improved to offer better services in the market. This was one of the inevitable „drawback‟ of first-generation mobile networks.First Generation 1G (Analog ) : The first generation of mobile phones was analog systems that emerged in the early 1980s and since then mobile communications have undergone significant changes and experienced enormous growth. The two most popular analog systems were Nordic Mobile Telephones (NMT) and Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). the first cellular system in the world became operational by Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT) in Tokyo. Second generation networks allow limited data support in the range of 9. better data services.5G) systems. leading to some more advanced systems known as 2. The reverse channel is used for transmissions from mobiles to base station. In 1988. such as TDMA (time division multiple access) and CDMA (code division multiple access). Traditional phone networks are used mainly for voice transmission. It introduced the first basic framework for mobile communications like the basic architecture. compared with first-generation systems. using frequencies between 824-849 MHz. In 1979. the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) was deployed to provide a single unified standard.5 Generation (2. such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The system was allocated a 40-MHz bandwidth within the 800 to 900 MHz frequency range by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for AMPS. Access technology used was AMPS (Advances Mobile Phone Service). and users are billed only for the amount of data transmitted. and more advanced roaming were offered by 2G systems. In Europe. All of these systems offered handover and roaming capabilities but the cellular networks were unable to interoperate between countries. New technologies have been developed based on the original GSM system. Global System for Mobile Communications. and are essentially circuit-switched networks. . are an extension of 2G networks. called Expanded Spectrum (ES) was allocated to AMPS. or GSM. an additional 10 MHz bandwidth. higher spectrum efficiency. in that they use circuit switching for voice and packet switching for data transmission resulting in its popularity since packet switching utilizes bandwidth much more efficiently.

and by finalizing specifications for High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). taking into account interference from peripheral cells. On December 25. As from diagram we can infer that by the 2010 we would be able to achieve the 1 Gbps in motion at low speed and 100 Mbps at high speed. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony. HSDPA and HSUPA cover area by 3-4 times relative to WCDMA and by providing the high transmission rate with low cost per bit transmission. An organization called 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has continued that work by defining a mobile system that fulfills the IMT-2000 standard. The 3G provides packet and voice services separately where as Super 3G is based on ALL-IP network covering both packet and voice services. all in a mobile environment. video calls. . which increases the downlink data rate of packet services. Additional features also include HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) data transmission capabilities able to deliver speeds up to 14. The main objective of the Super 3G is to construct simple. CDMA2000 & TD-SCDMA) : The standards for developing the networks were different for different parts of the world. 2001. which enhances uplink speed. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defined the demands for 3G mobile networks with the IMT-2000 standard. low cost system by removing the complexity from wireless network and mobile handsets. based on W-CDMA technology on October 1. The first commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan branded FOMA. 3G was born. Hence. 2006. The test was undertaken to demonstrate the expected maximum transmission speed in an actual cell environment. and broadband wireless data.4 Mbps on the downlink and 5.The Third-generation 3G (WCDMA in UMTS. Thus. it was decided to have a network which provides services independent of the technology platform and whose network design standards are same globally. 4G In order to make smooth transition from 3G to 4G the mobile communication companies are promoting Super 3G/LTE. NTT DOCOMO became the first in the world to achieve a packet signal speed of 5 Gbps in an outdoor test in a low-speed environment (10 km/h).8 Mbps on the uplink. The companies are upgrading 3G Technology by initializing the introduction of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) service.

of capability of taking the signal. but also a framework for improving layer 2 performance by proposing an additional degree of freedom.We are steadily approaching towards 4G wireless technologies by upgrading the current 3G technology by increasing the data rate speed and by reducing the cost of transmission which is the main objective of 4G wireless technology. Using ODFM. the frequency domain and even the code domain to optimize radio channel usage. only fraction of the energy of the multipath signal because of limited no. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) not only provides clear advantages for physical layer performance. There are some key components for the successful deployment of the 4G wireless technology : OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) modulation Implementation of MIMO (multiple inputs. It ensures very robust transmission in multi-path environments with reduced receiver complexity. multiple outputs) Smart antenna enhancements SDR (Software-Defined Radio) IPv6 and IP mobility OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) modulation Multipath phenomena in CDMA can tolerate long delay but it does not capture the entire energy. it is possible to exploit the time domain. the space domain. In OFDM as from the below figure it can be understand the long guard band interval is long enough to absorb all intersymbols-interference. .

OFDMA) can also be used for modulation of OFDM. in order to meet growing data rate needs of the data communication. The MIMO enables significant increase in the data throughput and link range with additional bandwidth or transmit power. The signal transmitted by m antennas and signal received by n antennas and the processing of the received signal may produce significant performance improvement such as range. The long guard band is inserted between each OFDM symbol to absorb all inter signal symbols interference. quality of received signal and spectrum efficiency. MIMO multiplex the signals from the multiple transmitting antennas as it is suitable for OFDM because time symbols can be processed independently after OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the channel. The OFDM signal is also compatible with other enhancement technologies like smart antennas and MIMO. the multiple antennas are used at both transmitter and receiver end. Implementation of MIMO (multiple inputs. a data stream is split into Nc parallel lower data streams (a few kHz) that are modulated on separate subcarriers. each OFDM signal symbol can transmit information to/from several users using a different set of subcarriers (subchannels). In early 90s. This significantly improves the physical layer performance. Spatial multiplexing provides the multiple . but also enables cross-layer optimization of radio link usage. In order to improve the communication performance between sender and receiver. The split the signal is called orthogonal subcarriers and these subcarriers are modulated by Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation (IDFT) and hence it does not affect the signals on multipath effects. many transmission techniques were proposed such as spatial multiplexing which increases the bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. The gain in spectrum efficiency is directly related to the minimum number of antennas in the link. This not only provides additional flexibility for resource allocation (increasing the capacity). Hence MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received. In this case. This aspects of OFDM reduces the complexity while transmission and makes processing simple.In OFDM. Because of these properties MIMO has become current theme of wireless research. Smart antenna enhancements. multiple outputs). The main purpose of the radio communication depends on the advancements of the antennas which refer to smart or intelligent antennas. It achieves this by higher spectral efficiency more bits per second per hertz of bandwidth) and link reliability or diversity (reduced fading). Multiple access technology (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access.

While adaptive arrays allow the antenna to steer the beam to any direction of interest while simultaneously nulling interfering signals. A SDR will allow to increase network capacity at specific time (e. The other category is closed-loop multiple antenna technologies which use the channel knowledge at the transmitter. SDR (Software-Defined Radio) A basic SDR produces a radio that is capable of receiving and transmitting a different form of radio protocol (sometimes referred to as a waveform) as per the needs just by running different software. both of which must serve a wide variety of changing radio protocols in real time. during a sports event) and the operator can reconfigure its network by adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Switched beam systems have several available fixed beam patterns which help in making decisions as to which beam to access at any given point of time based on the requirements of the system. Both transmit/receive diversity and transmit spatial multiplexing are categorized into the space-time coding techniques. SDR can be a powerful aid for manufacturer by providing multi-standard. In the long term. At the present SDR implementation is done by the infrastructure which develops multi-band. The reliability in transmitting high speed data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver. . There are two types of smart antennas which are switched beam smart antennas and adaptive array smart antennas. which does not necessarily require the channel knowledge at the time of transmitting the signals. Software radios have significant utility for the military and cell phone services. multi-band equipment with reduced development effort and costs through simultaneous multi-channel processing. This is called transmit or receive diversity. SDR will allow reconfigure network structure as per the needs.g.deployment of antennas at the transmitting and receiving end and then independent streams of data can be transmitted as requested by the user can be transmitted simultaneously from the all transmitting antennas. Thus increasing the throughput into multiple folds with minimum number of the transmitting and receiving antennas. multistandard base stations and terminals. softwaredefined radio is expected by its proponents to become the dominant technology in radio communications.

and 48. In high mobility a device is capable to cope with more than 10 handovers per minute. and sometimes by the media access control (the channel access protocol). However. the frequency range is limited to between 300 hertz and 3. The spectral efficiency is 56.1 (bit/s)/Hz downstream. .400 hertz. Also. the implementation of macro-diversity implies that MIMO processing is centralized and transmissions are synchronous. rising to 8 bit/s/Hz in nomadic use. User can keep their IP address even if user changes the access point.IPv6 and IP mobility 4G wireless technology will be using mobile IPv6 which allows assigning more number of addresses than IPv4. In IPv6 each device have own IP address. For example.000/3. a V. It is a measure of how efficiently a limited frequency spectrum is utilized by the physical layer protocol. corresponding to a bandwidth of 3400 − 300 = 3100 hertz. During handover in IP Mobility the OFDM. The following diagram shows that each IPv6 packet can have multiple source addresses and multiple destination addresses. Presently translate IP with each change because there are not enough IP addresses. a host performing less than 10 handovers is considered to have low mobility. Mobile IP techniques allow network roaming.5 (bit/s)/Hz upstream. a good target is a network performance of 5 bit/s/Hz. Due to filtering in the telephone exchange. Spectral efficiency in 4G The 4G wireless technology bandwidth efficiency will be measured in terms of spectral efficiency. Clearly the bit rate should be associated with an amount of spectrum. IP Mobility is often termed „macro-mobility‟ since it will be global. These methods are applicable to data and probably also voice. and independent of mechanisms (such as routing protocols. link-layers technologies and security architectures) of different administrative IP-domains. Spectrum efficiency describes that the amount of information that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific communication system.92 modem for the telephone network can transfer 56.000/3.000 bit/s upstream over an analog telephone network. a device can move from one network to other network.000 bit/s downstream and 48.100 = 15. a transmission technique using one kilohertz of bandwidth to transmit 1000 bits per second has a spectral efficiency of 1 (bit/s)/Hz. MIMO allows „macro-diversity‟ processing with performance gains.100 = 18. For mobile use. In contrast.

WiMAX could potentially erase the suburban and rural blackout areas that currently have no broadband Internet access. This connection to a second tower (often referred to as a backhaul). where a small antenna on your computer connects to the tower.A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area -. wired connection (for example. a T3 line). or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today. It can also connect to another WiMAX tower using a line-of-sight.The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card.A WiMAX tower station can connect directly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth. Line-of-sight transmissions use higher frequencies. so it's able to send a lot of data with fewer errors.There is line-of-sight service. In this mode. microwave link. around obstacles.000 square km). along with the ability of a single tower to cover up to 3. The line-of-sight connection is stronger and more stable. where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole. At higher frequencies. similar in concept to a cell-phone tower .2 GHz to 11 GHz (similar to WiFi). over greater distances and for a greater number of users. . A „WiMAX receiver‟ . there is less interference and lots more bandwidth. WiMAX uses a lower frequency range -. WiMAX would operate similar to WiFi but at higher speeds. Lower-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physical obstructions -. A WiMAX system consists of two parts: A „WiMAX tower‟.000 square miles (~8. with ranges reaching a possible 66 GHz.One Of The Brands Of 4G Technology WiMAX Wireless Network In practical big as 3.000 square miles. WiFi sort of service.What this points out is that WiMAX actually can provide two forms of wireless service: There is the non-line-of-sight.they are better able to diffract. or bend. is what allows WiMAX to provide coverage to remote rural areas.

short-term demands of our fighting warriors in the battle space. which provides Ground Guidance. . The uniform along with the armor. nowhere is this truer than on the battlefield. soldier-worn power sources. The key to empowering the military with tactical broadband voice. Unit Detection.Appliction Of 4G : Military Application Introduction Information is power. onboard computer network. Soldier Status. and will remind you of an ominous creature out of a science fiction movie. and enhanced human performance. video and data is 4G communications technology. The new systems include a weapon. Advanced antennae technologies and More advanced wireless security technologies. head-to-toe individual protection. Next thing is about the gear for the future warrior. Our system provides a enhanced power of vision. This technology adopts Wireless technology on the platform of fixed networks. onboard computer which will monitor soldiers' overall physiological and psychological picture of how they are performing in the battle zone and enhanced human performance which weighs 50 pounds from head to toe against 120 pounds of the current day system present. The Future Warrior system will meet the more immediate. where the ability to communicate clearly and rapidly pass on information spells the difference between survival and death? 4G (4th Generation) is the technology that is going to drive a soldier in the field in future. Target Hand-Off and provides the Soldier Rescue during the battle. "The Future Warrior will be a responsive and formidable member of an invincible battle space team".

or that of another soldier. troop transports and command centers.infrastructure : Military engagements are often spontaneous. At a minimum. Ad hoc p2p operates by taking a collection of mobile terminals (such as handheld devices and vehicular systems) that communicate directly with each other without the aid of established infrastructure. and extend the range and coverage of communications links between individual soldiers. Multi-hop routing terminals act as routers and relays for each other. Ad hoc networking provides a self-organizing and self-healing network structure. based on mesh-enabled . also known as a mobile mesh network. This is illustrated in Figure given below.Technique The approach will support military operations across a spectrum of environments from backpacks to ships. Battle field forces without any fixed infrastructure The Basic Design The military and DARPA have outlined specific capabilities for these devices. GPS is also limited in that satellite signals cannot penetrate caves. they will need the following setup processes that are essential for a good and effective communication between the soldier and his troops. The 4G Warrior can triangulate his or her position. Ad hoc p2p wireless has built-in geo-location using an extremely accurate form of triangulation. The key technology supporting these initiatives is ad hoc peer-to-peer wireless networking (ad hoc p2p). helicopter or ship. Network setup automatically begins the minute troops exit a transport. and take them away when they leave. Geo-location well beyond the limitations of GPS : Soldiers cannot afford to expose themselves on a battlefield to acquire GPS coordinates. 4G Warriors bring their networks with them. and a communications solution needs to be. Deploy-ability with little or no fixed. as well. underground bunkers or inside shielded buildings.

Security : The device security must address both communications security (COMSEC) and a way to protect the network from unauthorized use if the device is captured. and use voice over IP to communicate with nonmilitary phones in an occupied city. 4G On The Battlefield All of the battlefield network devices including those embedded in tanks or other vehicles will instantly form.vehicles or other devices. such as the Predator. Readings are faster than GPS (under a second) because soldiers don_t have to wait for multiple satellites to acquire a fix. even when hiding in caves or otherwise out of harm_s way. can send photos of enemy positions back to the camp for analysis. self-healing networks will have the ability to instinctively and proactively reduce the probability of jamming. unlike cell-based solutions. as well. That is. they will associate in an ad-hoc manner. heal. Communications devices must operate while vehicles or soldiers are mobile. Drone flying over a battlefield. using instant messaging. 4G Warriors can receive real-time streaming video from aircraft. and update the network as users come and go. These self-forming. the 4G Warrior can blacklist that device to maintain the integrity of the network.Moreover. This lowers the probability of detection and increases battery life. Meshed architectures also allow devices to transmit at lower output power to neighbours rather than _Shouting_ at a cell tower. End-to-end IP : Modern soldiers grew up with computers and will demand the same applications and user interfaces available to civilians. As intelligent elements. The 4G Warrior is neither dependent on a single frequency nor constrained to a military band. Should a device be captured. Multi-tap rake receivers minimize the effects of Doppler radar to maximize the impact of theater air assets. The 4G Warrior. The network resources are better utilized because networks are selfbalancing. all of thedevices will constantly reconfigure routing tables to determine the best network routes and. Anti-jamming robustness : . the devices will automatically and continuously optimize network connections as users merge in and out of the network at will. network coverage and service levels will improve when soldier density increases. The soldiers_ subscriber devices can hop to distant network access . even at speeds in excess of 100 mph. Communications are more secure when mesh networks allow for route diversity.

or wide area network (WAN). so it hangs out in space. It is the equivalent of a Bluetooth. shifting network capacity to meet demand. a dropdown piece of eyewear from the helmet allows the soldier to see a 17-inch computer screen displaying anything relayed to the soldier. This means that the same network can connect a soldier to the squad or platoon. This technology could function as a personal are network (PAN). Here we have used the next technology of mobile technology. but in a single network. Network deployment will be fast and easy because it is tower less. and 3G convergences. "This eyewear device is see-through. This system can be used to provide intelligent communication cum detection system using which every soldier can be virtually connected to a network that will be monitored by a mobile unit. with a single device. Since the 4G technology is yet to become a reality the system may look very simple but as the technology will be implemented a more complex and cost effective system could be designed. Communication systems providing the backhaul and the network will disappear as fast as it was formed once soldiers leave the area. 802. As the history of mobile communications shows. local area network (LAN).11. The ever increasing demands of users have triggered researchers and industries to come up with a comprehensive manifestation of the up-coming fourth generation (4G) mobile communication system. .” This allows soldiers to take in all supporting data while keeping both hands on their weapons. The 4G battlefield will be entirely mobile. attempts have been made to reduce a number of Technologies to a single global standard. away from points of congestion.points. with satellites or other. and to a fully mobile division. Power Of Vision This has been seen in science-fiction movies. to the battalion.4G for creating a fool proof system that can be used at any place by a military force in the future. simultaneously. Conclusion : The last few years have witnessed a phenomenal growth in the wireless industry.