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Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: ‫د ب الد‬ (bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ‫ܒ ܝܬ‬

‫(ܢ ܗܪܝ ܢ‬Beth Nahrin): "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modernday Iraq, the northeastern section of Syria and to a lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran. Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian,Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrianand Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by theAchaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthians. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, it fell to the Sassanid Persians and remained under Persian rule until the 7th-century Arab Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Empire. A number of primarily neo Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene, Osroene, andHatra.

Tigris-Euphrates river system, great river system of Southwest Asia, comprising the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which have their sources within 50 miles (80 km) of each other in eastern Turkey and travel southeast through northern Syria and Iraq to the head of the Persian Gulf. The lower portion of the region that they define, known as Mesopotamia (Greek: “Land Between the Rivers”), was one of the cradles of civilization. The total length of the Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranun; Akkadian: Purattu; biblical: Perath; Arabic: Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat) is about 1,740 miles (2,800 km). The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna; Akkadian: Idiklat; biblical: Hiddekel; Arabic: Dijlah; Turkish: ... (100 of 5,174 words)

Difference between the Nile, and the Euphrates and Tigris 1 Reply Such as the Nile was the lifeline of Ancient Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers gave life to states that would have not existed, in present-day Iraq. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers gave life to Mesopotamian states that could have not survived without these rivers. The rivers provided fertile land to Mesopotamians, as the Nile did to the Egyptians, but there is a distinct difference as to the progression of the state in Mesopotamia. With the Nile and Egypt, only one overall identity, the Egyptian, came out of Egypt. In Mesopotamia, more than a handful of different states rose there, and during the same time as others. One factor that contributed to this was that the land around the rivers of Mesopotamia was not strictly a dried desert that could have not supported people. People were able to move farther away from the rivers and still be able to survive because of this, which allows for more states to survive. Also, there is a lot more livable land around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, than the Nile. Some scholars estimate that maybe three or even four Egypt’s could have flourished in the land of Mesopotamia. States such as Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, and Assyria all flourished due to these rivers, but they never fused into one identity. Even when the Persian Empire controlled the lands of Mesopotamia, some peoples still identified themselves as something other than Persian. The reason that this might have occurred could be the same reasons as to why these states first emerged separately. Because this land was much more fertile in area, compared to the Nile and Egypt, there was not any danger of not having enough land to survive off of in the beginning. Only when population began to expand very rapidly did empires emerge, and by the time of their emergence, these separate state already had their own concrete identities, and could not be coerced into accepting foreign beliefs.