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Published in the proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics (AIP), 18th National Congress incorporating the 27th AINSE Plasma Science Conference: http://www.lulu.com/content/multimedia/18th-national-congress-(aip)/6346375

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Riccardo C. Storti1

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Delta Group Engineering.

Abstract

The principles of mass-energy distribution and similitude by Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) equilibria are utilised to derive

the values of “H0” and “T0”; where, “T0” [2.7248 (K)] is derived from “H0” [67.0843 (km/s/Mpc)]. The values

derived arise by assuming that the “Primordial Universe” was analogous to a homogeneous Planck scale particle of

maximum permissible energy density, characterised by a single wavefunction. Simultaneously, the “Milky-Way” is

represented as a Planck scale object of equivalent total Galactic mass “MG”, acting as a “Galactic Reference

Particle” (GRP) characterised by a large number of wavefunctions with respect to the solar distance from the

Galactic centre “Ro”. This facilitates a comparative analysis between the Primordial and Galactic particle

representations by application of a harmonic relationship, yielding “H0” in terms of “Ro” and “MG”. Consequently,

utilising the experimental value of “T0”, improved estimates are derived for “Ro” and “MG” as being “8.1072 (kpc)”

and “6.3142 x1011 (solar-masses)” respectively. The construct herein implies that “Accelerated Cosmological

Expansion” is attributable to the determination of the ZPF energy density threshold “UZPF” being “< -2.52 x10-13

(Pa)” [i.e. “< -0.252 (mJ/km3)”]. Moreover, it is graphically illustrated that the gradient of the Hubble constant in

the time domain is presently positive (i.e. “dH/dt > 0”).

Keywords: CMBR, Cosmological Expansion / Inflation, Dark Energy / Matter, Gravitation, Hubble constant.

Introduction

Electro-Gravi-Magnetics (EGM) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] derives critical Cosmological information such as the present

values of the Hubble constant “H0” and Cosmic-Microwave-Background-Radiation (CMBR) temperature “T0”. The

most important concept developed herein is that “Dark Matter / Energy” is not required to mathematically

articulate and precisely numerically determine “H0” and “T0”. The “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion”

phenomenon (i.e. “dH/dt > 0”) is derived organically from Particle-Physics, in favourable agreement with

experimental evidence. Therefore, it is proposed that the observational inference for the existence of “Dark Matter”

from flat Galactic rotation curves, may be explained by halos of ejected Gravitons; i.e., populations of conjugate

wavefunction pairs of non-zero mass Photons. Moreover, it is demonstrated in [4] that “Dark Energy” is analogous

to the Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) energy associated with the Casimir Effect, acting on a Cosmological scale.

Invoking principles of similitude, “H0” is derived by relating the Polarisable Vacuum (PV) spectrum of a “Planck-

Particle” to the present-day utilising the “Milky-Way” Galaxy as a basis for comparison. Within the EGM

construct, a “Planck-Particle” denotes the condition of maximum permissible energy density, representing the

Universe compacted to a point. As mass-energy density increases, the PV modal bandwidth compresses such that

for a particle approaching the Planck Scale, the PV spectrum converges to a single mode approaching the Planck

Frequency.

Galaxies are homogeneously distributed throughout the Universe and are “approximately” in the same stage of

evolution. Hence, it follows that we may utilise our own “Milky-Way” Galaxy as a universal reference to yield an

average value of Cosmological gravitational intensity. Utilising astronomical estimates of Galactic radius “Ro” and

total mass “MG”, we may represent the “Milky-Way” as a particle at the centre of the galaxy, termed the “Galactic

Reference Particle” (GRP). The radiant gravitational intensity of the GRP may be calculated from its PV spectral

limit.

The GRP is representative of the total mass-energy density and vacuum equilibrium state of the Universe at the

present time, as viewed by instrumentation within our solar system. Thus, “H0” is derived by comparing the

“Planck-Particle Universe” at the instant of creation to the GRP, facilitated by utilisation of the harmonic

representation of fundamental particles.

Relating the “Cosmological Expansion” of the primordial “Planck-Particle Universe” to the GRP yields an

expansive scaling factor “KT”. Subsequently, Wien’s displacement constant is applied to determine a

thermodynamic scaling factor “TW”; quantifying the manner in which Photons radiated at the instant of the “Big-

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Bang” have red-shifted to the microwave range after Hubble time. The microwave frequency is converted to

temperature by relating “KT” and “TW”, producing a value of “T0” precisely matching physical measurement.

Analysis

EGM models mass-objects as being in equilibrium with the Quantum Vacuum (QV) such that the energy state of

matter describes the energy state of the vacuum. Consequently, the “Cosmological Inflation” and “Accelerated

Cosmological Expansion” phenomena emerge naturally within the EGM construct and are not presumed “a priori”

as part of the modelling process. The EGM construct generates the “Cosmological Inflationary Epoch” from first

principles, derived from Particle-Physics.

The resulting history of the CMBR temperature corroborates with all epochs of “Cosmological Evolution” as

predicted by the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMoC). The theory of early “Cosmological Inflation” is

reinforced and “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion” is derived. Even though the “Cosmological Inflation

Epoch” is a contrivance introduced to fit the “Big-Bang” theory, EGM substantiates its inclusion because it

emerges as a natural consequence of the derivation of “H0” and “T0”. However, community understanding of “Dark

Energy / Matter” must be questioned as the EGM method predicts “H0”, “T0” and “Cosmological Inflation /

Accelerated Expansion”, without invoking “Dark Matter or Energy”; producing results substantially more precise

than the SMoC. The key mathematical facts derived and subsequently analysed in [4, 5, 6] are as follows,

Dark Matter / Energy required Yes No

Maximum Cosmological Temperature ≈ 1031 (K) Yes Yes

Big Bang Temperature = 0 (K) No Yes

Unification with Particle-Physics No Yes

Relationship between “H0” and “T0” No Yes

Precise determination of distinct Cosmological evolutionary phases No Yes

Sign of the Deceleration Parameter is in agreement with expectation No Yes

Prediction of “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion” No Yes

Table 1: SMoC vs. EGM

The EGM construct implies that “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion” is attributable to the determination of the

ZPF energy density threshold “UZPF” being “< -2.52 x10-13 (Pa)” [i.e. “< -0.252 (mJ/km3)”]. Moreover, it is

graphically illustrated that the gradient of the Hubble constant in the time domain is presently positive (i.e. “dH/dt >

0”). Subsequently, it is mathematically demonstrated that the magnitude of the impact of “Dark Matter / Energy”

upon the value of the Hubble constant and CMBR temperature is “< 1 (%)” such that the Universe is composed of:

• “> 94.4 (%) Gravitons”, “< 1 (%) Dark (i.e. inexplicable) Matter / Energy” and “4.6 (%) Atoms”.

Refer to “Appendix A” for simulation results produced utilising the MathCad computational environment.

Conclusions

The PV model of gravity represents a useful and complimentary alternative to General Relativity (GR).

References

[1] Derivation of the photon mass-energy threshold; Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Proc. SPIE 5866, 207

(2005), DOI:10.1117/12.614634 {available for download as Ch. 3.8 in [5]}.

[2] Derivation of the photon and graviton mass-energies and radii; Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Proc.

SPIE 5866, 214 (2005), DOI:10.1117/12.633511 {available for download as Ch. 3.10 in [5]}.

[3] The natural philosophy of fundamental particles; Riccardo C. Storti, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640J (2007),

DOI:10.1117/12.725545 {available for download as Ch. 4 in [6]}.

[4] Quinta Essentia: A Practical Guide to Space-Time Engineering – Part 4; Riccardo C. Storti, ISBN-13: 978-

1847533548, LuLu Press {available for download: http://www.lulu.com/content/795547}.

[5] Quinta Essentia: A Practical Guide to Space-Time Engineering – Part 3; Riccardo C. Storti, ISBN-13: 978-

1847539427, LuLu Press {available for download: http://www.lulu.com/content/471178}.

[6] Quinta Essentia: A Practical Guide to Space-Time Engineering – Part 2; Riccardo C. Storti, & G. S. Diemer,

ISBN-13: 978-1847993618, LuLu Press {available for download: http://www.lulu.com/content/1540406}.

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Appendix A

Note: The “Mag. of Hubble Constant” (i.e. “|H|” in “Fig. A1” and the graph title of “Fig. A2”) is an abbreviated

reference to the square-root of the magnitude of the rate of change of the Hubble Constant in the time domain

(required due to text field character limitations). The value of the Hubble Constant at “t1” is graphically stated in

“Fig. A1”; “|H| = √|dH/dt| = 0” denotes the instant when “dH/dt = 0” (as represented by the equations in “Fig. A2”).

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Figure A2: (i) Magnitude of the Hubble Constant vs. Cosmological Age, (ii) 1st Derivative of the Hubble

Constant in the Time Domain vs. Cosmological Age {http://www.lulu.com/content/2486994}. Note: the graph

title is an abbreviated reference to the square-root of the magnitude of the rate of change of the Hubble Constant in

the time domain (required due to text field character limitations). The logic for the specified abbreviation arises

twofold; (i) from two distinct numerically coincident derivations of “H0” within the EGM construct such that, for

the present day, “√|dH/dt| = H0” (see [4] for details) and (ii), to visually accentuate curve characteristics at ‘t4”.

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