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The atural Philosophy of the Cosmos (A)

Riccardo C. Storti1
1
Delta Group Engineering.

Abstract
The principles of mass-energy distribution and similitude by Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) equilibria are utilised to derive
the values of “H0” and “T0”; where, “T0” [2.7248 (K)] is derived from “H0” [67.0843 (km/s/Mpc)]. The values
derived arise by assuming that the “Primordial Universe” was analogous to a homogeneous Planck scale particle of
maximum permissible energy density, characterised by a single wavefunction. Simultaneously, the “Milky-Way” is
represented as a Planck scale object of equivalent total Galactic mass “MG”, acting as a “Galactic Reference
Particle” (GRP) characterised by a large number of wavefunctions with respect to the solar distance from the
Galactic centre “Ro”. This facilitates a comparative analysis between the Primordial and Galactic particle
representations by application of a harmonic relationship, yielding “H0” in terms of “Ro” and “MG”. Consequently,
utilising the experimental value of “T0”, improved estimates are derived for “Ro” and “MG” as being “8.1072 (kpc)”
and “6.3142 x1011 (solar-masses)” respectively. The construct herein implies that “Accelerated Cosmological
Expansion” is attributable to the determination of the ZPF energy density threshold “UZPF” being “< -2.52 x10-13
(Pa)” [i.e. “< -0.252 (mJ/km3)”]. Moreover, it is graphically illustrated that the gradient of the Hubble constant in
the time domain is presently positive (i.e. “dH/dt > 0”).

Keywords: CMBR, Cosmological Expansion / Inflation, Dark Energy / Matter, Gravitation, Hubble constant.

Introduction
Electro-Gravi-Magnetics (EGM) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] derives critical Cosmological information such as the present
values of the Hubble constant “H0” and Cosmic-Microwave-Background-Radiation (CMBR) temperature “T0”. The
most important concept developed herein is that “Dark Matter / Energy” is not required to mathematically
articulate and precisely numerically determine “H0” and “T0”. The “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion”
phenomenon (i.e. “dH/dt > 0”) is derived organically from Particle-Physics, in favourable agreement with
experimental evidence. Therefore, it is proposed that the observational inference for the existence of “Dark Matter”
from flat Galactic rotation curves, may be explained by halos of ejected Gravitons; i.e., populations of conjugate
wavefunction pairs of non-zero mass Photons. Moreover, it is demonstrated in [4] that “Dark Energy” is analogous
to the Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) energy associated with the Casimir Effect, acting on a Cosmological scale.

Materials and Methods


Invoking principles of similitude, “H0” is derived by relating the Polarisable Vacuum (PV) spectrum of a “Planck-
Particle” to the present-day utilising the “Milky-Way” Galaxy as a basis for comparison. Within the EGM
construct, a “Planck-Particle” denotes the condition of maximum permissible energy density, representing the
Universe compacted to a point. As mass-energy density increases, the PV modal bandwidth compresses such that
for a particle approaching the Planck Scale, the PV spectrum converges to a single mode approaching the Planck
Frequency.

Galaxies are homogeneously distributed throughout the Universe and are “approximately” in the same stage of
evolution. Hence, it follows that we may utilise our own “Milky-Way” Galaxy as a universal reference to yield an
average value of Cosmological gravitational intensity. Utilising astronomical estimates of Galactic radius “Ro” and
total mass “MG”, we may represent the “Milky-Way” as a particle at the centre of the galaxy, termed the “Galactic
Reference Particle” (GRP). The radiant gravitational intensity of the GRP may be calculated from its PV spectral
limit.

The GRP is representative of the total mass-energy density and vacuum equilibrium state of the Universe at the
present time, as viewed by instrumentation within our solar system. Thus, “H0” is derived by comparing the
“Planck-Particle Universe” at the instant of creation to the GRP, facilitated by utilisation of the harmonic
representation of fundamental particles.

Relating the “Cosmological Expansion” of the primordial “Planck-Particle Universe” to the GRP yields an
expansive scaling factor “KT”. Subsequently, Wien’s displacement constant is applied to determine a
thermodynamic scaling factor “TW”; quantifying the manner in which Photons radiated at the instant of the “Big-

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Bang” have red-shifted to the microwave range after Hubble time. The microwave frequency is converted to
temperature by relating “KT” and “TW”, producing a value of “T0” precisely matching physical measurement.

Analysis
EGM models mass-objects as being in equilibrium with the Quantum Vacuum (QV) such that the energy state of
matter describes the energy state of the vacuum. Consequently, the “Cosmological Inflation” and “Accelerated
Cosmological Expansion” phenomena emerge naturally within the EGM construct and are not presumed “a priori”
as part of the modelling process. The EGM construct generates the “Cosmological Inflationary Epoch” from first
principles, derived from Particle-Physics.

The resulting history of the CMBR temperature corroborates with all epochs of “Cosmological Evolution” as
predicted by the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMoC). The theory of early “Cosmological Inflation” is
reinforced and “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion” is derived. Even though the “Cosmological Inflation
Epoch” is a contrivance introduced to fit the “Big-Bang” theory, EGM substantiates its inclusion because it
emerges as a natural consequence of the derivation of “H0” and “T0”. However, community understanding of “Dark
Energy / Matter” must be questioned as the EGM method predicts “H0”, “T0” and “Cosmological Inflation /
Accelerated Expansion”, without invoking “Dark Matter or Energy”; producing results substantially more precise
than the SMoC. The key mathematical facts derived and subsequently analysed in [4, 5, 6] are as follows,

Key Mathematical Fact SMoC EGM


Dark Matter / Energy required Yes No
Maximum Cosmological Temperature ≈ 1031 (K) Yes Yes
Big Bang Temperature = 0 (K) No Yes
Unification with Particle-Physics No Yes
Relationship between “H0” and “T0” No Yes
Precise determination of distinct Cosmological evolutionary phases No Yes
Sign of the Deceleration Parameter is in agreement with expectation No Yes
Prediction of “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion” No Yes
Table 1: SMoC vs. EGM

Results and Discussion


The EGM construct implies that “Accelerated Cosmological Expansion” is attributable to the determination of the
ZPF energy density threshold “UZPF” being “< -2.52 x10-13 (Pa)” [i.e. “< -0.252 (mJ/km3)”]. Moreover, it is
graphically illustrated that the gradient of the Hubble constant in the time domain is presently positive (i.e. “dH/dt >
0”). Subsequently, it is mathematically demonstrated that the magnitude of the impact of “Dark Matter / Energy”
upon the value of the Hubble constant and CMBR temperature is “< 1 (%)” such that the Universe is composed of:
• “> 94.4 (%) Gravitons”, “< 1 (%) Dark (i.e. inexplicable) Matter / Energy” and “4.6 (%) Atoms”.

Refer to “Appendix A” for simulation results produced utilising the MathCad computational environment.

Conclusions
The PV model of gravity represents a useful and complimentary alternative to General Relativity (GR).

References
[1] Derivation of the photon mass-energy threshold; Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Proc. SPIE 5866, 207
(2005), DOI:10.1117/12.614634 {available for download as Ch. 3.8 in [5]}.
[2] Derivation of the photon and graviton mass-energies and radii; Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Proc.
SPIE 5866, 214 (2005), DOI:10.1117/12.633511 {available for download as Ch. 3.10 in [5]}.
[3] The natural philosophy of fundamental particles; Riccardo C. Storti, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640J (2007),
DOI:10.1117/12.725545 {available for download as Ch. 4 in [6]}.
[4] Quinta Essentia: A Practical Guide to Space-Time Engineering – Part 4; Riccardo C. Storti, ISBN-13: 978-
1847533548, LuLu Press {available for download: http://www.lulu.com/content/795547}.
[5] Quinta Essentia: A Practical Guide to Space-Time Engineering – Part 3; Riccardo C. Storti, ISBN-13: 978-
1847539427, LuLu Press {available for download: http://www.lulu.com/content/471178}.
[6] Quinta Essentia: A Practical Guide to Space-Time Engineering – Part 2; Riccardo C. Storti, & G. S. Diemer,
ISBN-13: 978-1847993618, LuLu Press {available for download: http://www.lulu.com/content/1540406}.

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Appendix A

Figure A1: Average Cosmological Temperature vs. Hubble Constant {http://www.lulu.com/content/2588584}.


Note: The “Mag. of Hubble Constant” (i.e. “|H|” in “Fig. A1” and the graph title of “Fig. A2”) is an abbreviated
reference to the square-root of the magnitude of the rate of change of the Hubble Constant in the time domain
(required due to text field character limitations). The value of the Hubble Constant at “t1” is graphically stated in
“Fig. A1”; “|H| = √|dH/dt| = 0” denotes the instant when “dH/dt = 0” (as represented by the equations in “Fig. A2”).

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Figure A2: (i) Magnitude of the Hubble Constant vs. Cosmological Age, (ii) 1st Derivative of the Hubble
Constant in the Time Domain vs. Cosmological Age {http://www.lulu.com/content/2486994}. Note: the graph
title is an abbreviated reference to the square-root of the magnitude of the rate of change of the Hubble Constant in
the time domain (required due to text field character limitations). The logic for the specified abbreviation arises
twofold; (i) from two distinct numerically coincident derivations of “H0” within the EGM construct such that, for
the present day, “√|dH/dt| = H0” (see [4] for details) and (ii), to visually accentuate curve characteristics at ‘t4”.