JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AUTHORS GUIDELINE

GENERAL The Journal of Science and Technology (JUST) aims primarily to publish articles resulting from original research – pure or applied – in the various aspects of academic endeavour broadly classified as science (physical, biological), technology and the humanities. The primary criteria will be that these papers contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the respective fields. Papers submitted to other publishing houses will not be accepted although manuscripts published in un-refereed magazines, proceedings, etc, may be accepted subject to satisfying the requirements for publishing in the JUST. JUST also publishes technical notes and reviews. Technical notes give opportunity to present preliminary but meaningful results or purely practical papers on how certain problems are solved. Reviews give opportunity to experts to provide readers with a thorough review and analysis of issues in a subject area of relevance. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION Preparation Manuscripts should generally be arranged in the following order: title page, abstract, introduction, materials and methods (or Methodology or Procedure), results, discussion (or results and discussions), conclusion (or conclusion and recommendations) acknowledgements, and references. However, papers in the humanities and the technological fields may follow rules differing from the above but must remain logical. Submission Manuscripts, preferably in English, should be submitted via the online system of JUST. Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced on A4 size paper with at least 3cm margins on either side of the paper; double spacing applies to text only and NOT to tables, references and figure legends. It is recommended that prospective authors use numbered pages. Papers that fail to meet the JUST style and form will be rejected outright. Returning revised manuscripts should also be via the online system of JUST. Scripts should be typeset in MS Word format. Submission of papers to JUST is understood to mean that the author(s) agree to transfer copyright of the article solely to the publisher to facilitate the widest possible dissemination.

Title page The first page of any manuscript shall include the title, name(s) of authors, their institutional affiliations and addresses, city and country (zip codes, if applicable). The title of the article is typed in bold capitals using font size 14 Times New Roman; abbreviations are not allowed. Title must be within one hundred characters (including spaces) and descriptive of the contents of the manuscripts. Authors should be listed with surnames first followed by their initials in font size 12 Times New Roman. Addresses (including emails) should be listed under the names of authors. Where authors work at different addresses, they should be identified by numbered superscripts against their names. References to professional qualifications/titles are not required. The first author will be assumed to be the contact person unless otherwise stated. The title page should also have a running heading of 50 characters or less, including spaces placed at the top of the page. Abstract The abstract heading should be typed in font size 12 Times New Roman in bold UPPERCASE. The text of the abstract should be typed in font size 12 Times New Roman and in italics. The abstract is a concise abbreviated version of the paper which tells the reader whether the paper is worth reading at all; it must therefore be informative with respect to aim, methods, procedures, results, discussion, and conclusion. An abstract should not exceed 300 words.

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a short review of literature in the field of study is obligatory although any exhaustive review properly belongs to the Discussion section. Line drawings must be done in black ink. Fig. As much as possible avoid numbering unrelated tables as (a). Figures Figures should be inserted at the exact positions where they belong in the body of the paper and should also be referred to in the text before they are placed. 2 .g. Results and Discussion This section describes clearly the observations made and their concise interpretation. Footnotes to the title page (including title. Table numbers and titles should be placed at the top left of the Tables. As much as possible avoid numbering unrelated figures as (a). but should be clearly explained in the text taking care to avoid unnecessary repetition of tabular data. The introduction is limited to not more than two pages double spaced. or vice versa. Photocopies/scanned copies are not acceptable. A maximum of five keywords (separated by comma) that best describe the material being presented must follow the abstract. Where methods employed are commonly known in a given field details should be omitted and the reference given instead. (b). etc. Modifications to known methodology must however be clearly described and explained. Provide sufficient detail so as to remove any possible ambiguities with respect to design. Size and layout limitations of JUST do not allow for large tables. The Tables should be inserted at the exact positions where they belong in the body of the paper. All Tables must have short but self-explanatory titles. The discussion should include references to earlier or contemporary literature relevant to the topic studied. Figures should be numbered from 1 and continued serially to 2. glossy black and white) and line drawings should not be mounted. Tables should be numbered from Table 1 and continued serially to 2. 3. Table 3(a). e. the discussion is probably the single most important section. (b). however in certain circumstances an additional horizontal line may be applicable. The discussion should interpret observations – i. authors. etc. Table 3(b). treatments. Colour illustrations may be reproduced at the author's expense. Results should be presented in tables and/or figures whenever possible. Information presented in tables should not be repeated in figures. 3(b). The introduction should follow the key words and should be as brief as possible. Arabic numerals are to be used.e. Footnotes Footnotes to tables should be superscript numbers (1) while superscript letters (a) should be reserved for statistical analysis. While the two sections (Results and Discussion) may be separated. Tables Tables are to be numbered according to their sequence in the text and should also be referred to in the text before they are placed. Fig. a reviewer can decide on the merits of the manuscript. Photographs (good. 3. Photographs and illustrations other than tables are considered as figures and should be referred to as such. this way. This section describes concisely the methodology/procedures employed so that anyone wishing to replicate the trial can do so and obtain comparable results. analysis. it is generally advisable to combine them to facilitate easy discussion of the results without having to repeat the results. it should concern itself with a clear justification for the work undertaken and the underlying theory and hypothesis. 3(a).Keywords Heading should be 12 points Times New Roman bold. Figures may not be used to duplicate data already presented in tables or text or vice versa. Standard deviations/errors help the reader to follow the trend of results and should be supplied whenever appropriate. Tables should have only three horizontal lines. asterisks (*) are reserved for probability values.g. Materials and Methods The heading should be typed with font size12 Times New Roman and in bold UPPERCASE. measurements. Introduction The heading should be typed in font size 12 Times New Roman in bold UPPERCASE. They should be clearly captioned and numbered in sequence below each figure. etc. e. explain the causes of events – and not simply state the obvious.

.g. The year of publication (in brackets) must follow the names of authors who should be listed surname first followed by initials. edition number (if more than one). followed by year. Follow the title with the volume number in Arabic numerals and the first and last pages of the article. where a paper has more than two authors. 1999. and e. the citation should include the title of the paper. quote the full name of the journal. Unpublished papers must also be listed in the References section. (1999). B. editors. References References to literature in the body of the manuscript are cited by author(s).. while personal communications must be referred to only in the text (A. 1994a. do not require italicisation. Where the book is edited. etc) are numbered sequentially from the beginning. However in case of a direct quote. D. For references to conference and seminar papers. Archival collections present an impartial body of information (Andam. M. 1994b. In addition. and Tuah. Amino acid nutrition of the chick. (e. give only the name of the first author followed by et al. similarly phrases like et al. words should be used for all numbers less than 10 and numerals for those greater than 10. P. per se. A.g. the theme of the conference/seminar. commonly used abbreviations such as etc.g. Journal of the University of Science and Technology 19(2): 1 – 4 For books. in situ. in the references section is not allowed.. (1999). city of publication and country (if city cannot be easily identified by readers): Cryer. D.. (1977). New York.g. 19 – 21 May). e. K. see full reference below) or Ayim et al. if in doubt. New York. S. In: Draper. Plenum Press. numerals are not used to start sentences. Latin Words and Phrases Latin words used to identify biological structures or entities are always italicised. Oxford University Press.. personal communication). “Quality protein maize as the sole source of amino acids in the diets of starter pigs: a preliminary study”. Andam (1999. place where it was held and date (days and month. Authors are cited by their surnames only. H. In the situation where a sequence of numbers is given 3 . Provide the full title of the paper in the original language or in an English translation. The name of the journal. for example: Osei. In the body of the paper. Ayim. Andam (1999) stated that archival collections present an impartial body of information. volume and pages should be typed in italics. The use of et al. H. versus. city of publication Baker. A. a reference to part of it must be given the normal literature citation but the title of the article is followed by the word In: and then the name of editor. Okai.g. name of publishers. (1976). Only proper nouns in titles of papers and books need to be capitalized. Numbers As a rule. publishers. use the proper journal abbreviations. and 1994c. 25) or (Andam. H. 1999) depending on sentence structure. Issue numbers are not necessary except for journals where continuous pagination is not used. Footnotes should be used sparingly and only if absolutely required. E. For Journals.g.. e.. All literature mentioned in the text should be listed in alphabetical and chronological (if same authors have more than one paper cited) order at the end of the paper under References. viz. e. the page number is added to the above style. 1999:25). Diagnostic Endocrinology. otherwise the information should be embodied in the text of the paper. (Editor) Advances in Nutrition Research.addresses. On the other hand. book title. Ayim et al. Ayim. 1999). in vivo. Distinguish between different papers by the same author(s) in the same year by postscript letters – e. Andam (1999) or (Andam. words are preferred. the full citation should also include the title.

Proofs Galley proofs of all accepted manuscripts are sent to the senior author (or as indicated in the original manuscript) who should check for typographical errors and answer queries raised by the Editor-in-Chief. while Reviews submitted for publication should be between 3. 45. 90. 3). Authors must state categorically how they have followed ethically accepted means of reporting the information. irrespective of comments of reviewers. 9. Authors will also receive a pdf version of their published paper via email. The Editor-in-Chief and the Editorial Board make the final decision on any paper. Based on their comments. All articles should remain within these limits to be accepted for publication! Ethics in Publishing Authors MUST follow ethical means of undertaking the research.500 and 6.000. Originality of Manuscripts The Editorial Board of JUST assumes no responsibility for statements made or opinions expressed by authors who should ensure that all submitted manuscripts have resulted from their own original work.000. Extensive alterations to the galley proof beyond those demanded by the Editor-in-Chief may require further review and will attract a surcharge. Technical notes submitted for publication should be up to a maximum of 3. These reviewers ensure the accuracy.g.g. currency and relevance of papers and their comments aid the Editor-in-Chief in deciding on the acceptability or otherwise of submitted manuscripts. 2g.000 and 6. 150. Additional copies will be sent only upon receipt of the payment of the appropriate fees. acquiring the data. on personal issue and people’s picture. 4 . e. the use of numerals for all is advised. Copy of the Published Paper Authors whose papers are accepted for publication will be sent one copy of the volume of the JUST in which their papers appeared. Units of Measurement The metric system (SI) of measure is obligatory.with some less and others more than 10 (e. In such cases.. use the numeral. Manuscript Length Research papers submitted for publication should be between 1. and presenting information especially. The checked proofs should be returned to the Editor-in-Chief via the journal online system of JUST. 17.000 words (or between 6 and 22 pages long when typed in double spacing). Peer Review All manuscripts are subject to review by at least two referees knowledgeable in the author's field of study. including tables and figures. authors may be required to make alterations to their papers before final acceptance. 3cm. If a number is followed immediately by a unit of measurement.

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