Kimberly Moore Yale University Advisors: Dr.

Raphael Kudela and Jennifer Broughton

Red tides }  Marine ecosystem damage }  Human health effects }  Akashiwo sanguinea
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◦  Existing data ◦  Known presence in Monterey Bay, CA


Image from: Kai Schumann, http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/

Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) }  Surface chlorophyll concentration [Chl]
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{Scattering}
Incident radiation Reflected radiation Aerial imaging system Output spectrum

Fig. 1. Remote sensing

Sunlight

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Rrsà surface Chl Chl maximum usually isn’t at the surface }  Nutrients Dinoflagellate migration }  Migrations Optimal imaging hours
Depth [m]

Chl a [mg/m3]

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Nitrogen, etc
Fig. 2. Example Chl depth profile

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Use Hydrolight

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Apply to Monterey Bay
–  Complex –  Four major rivers

◦  Model dinoflagellate blooms at depth ◦  Calculate Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) ◦  Case 2 waters (turbid, coastal) ◦  Confirmed blooms

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COAST 2006 water samples
◦  September 5-15, 2006 ◦  Akashiwo sanguinea bloom

SAMSON imagery }  Moss Landing Weather Station }  Spectra from Stramski et al., 2001*
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Photo by Dr. Raphael Kudela

Akashiwo sanguinea.

*Used with permission: Stramski, D., A. Bricaud, and A. Morel. 2001. Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community. Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945.

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Hydrolight ENVI-IDL

◦  Inputs ◦  Finite depth ocean, layer of A. sanguinea ◦  Spectral mixing analysis (SMA) ◦  Red tide mapping

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% dinoflagellates % water

Fig. 3. Spectral mixing analysis

0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0.5 m 1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 7.5m 10m

Rrs

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 4. Spectra for A. sanguinea layers at depth

0.004 0.0035 0.003 0.0025 0.002 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 0

Rrs

3m 4m 5m 7.5m

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Wavelength (nm) Fig. 5. Spectra for deeper layers of A. sanguinea

573nm
0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

688 or 701nm

Rrs

0.5 m 3m

500

Wavelength (nm)

600

700

800

900

Fig. 6. Spectral shifts in Rrs

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Shift in peak λ at 3m depth
3 2.5

Rrs ratio of 573nm peak to red peak

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

`

peak at 701.4nm peak at 688.6nm

0

5

10

Depth(m)

15

20

25

Fig. 7. Shift in Rrs peaks with depth

Table 1. Sensitivity of model to variables Variable Minerals Clouds Wind Precipitable water content Chlorophyll phase function Max percent error of Rrs 3.7% 1.0% 2.8% 1.9% Depth and λ dependent; 0.1% to >50% Largest error (depth, λ) Deeper water, small λ Surface Surface Deeper water, λ= 700nm Deeper water, smallest and largest λ

0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 ffbb006, 0.5 m ffbb006, 1m ffbb006,2m ffbb006, 3m ffbb006, 4m ffbb012, 0.5 m ffbb012, 1m ffbb012, 2m ffbb012, 3m ffbb012, 4m

Rrs

0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

0

100

200

300

Wavelength (nm)

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Fig. 8. Rrs for two phase functions

0.0045 0.004 0.0035 0.003

Rrs

0.0025 0.002 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 0

ffbb006, 3m ffbb006, 4m ffbb012, 3m ffbb012, 4m

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Wavelength (nm) Fig. 9. Rrs for two phase functions at depth

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RGB image of Monterey Bay during a red tide event COAST 2006, 9/05

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Fig. 10. SAMSON image of Monterey bay

Surface (0-3m) Figs. 11,12: SMA mapping of A. Sanguinea by depth

Depth (7.5m)

All depths

R: dinoflagellates at 0-3m G: dinoflagellates at 7.5m B: open water White is clouds

First time dinoflagellates have been mapped by depth using remote sensing imagery

Fig. 13. SMA map of A. sanguinea by depth

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HABs are often subsurface during optimal imaging times New model allows enhanced HAB detection New for Case II waters Implications for human and marine ecosystem health

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Dr. Raphael Kudela }  Jennifer Broughton, M.S. }  Dr. Sherry Palacios }  Dr. Emily Schaller }  Rick Shetter

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Office of Naval Research: Deric J Gray, Bradley Penta, W. Dave Miller, William A. Snyder, Wesley Goode, and W. Joe Rhea Dariusz Stramski, Annick Bricaud, & André Morel

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Blasco, D. (1978). Observations on the diel migration of marine dinoflagellates off the Baja California Coast. Marine Biology 46, 41-47. Carr, M. E., Friedrichs, M. A. M., Schmeltz, M., Aita, M. N., Antoine, D., Arrigo, K. R., Asanuma, I., Aumont, O., Barber, R., Behrenfeld, M., Bidigare, R., Buitenhuis, E. T., Campbell, J., Ciotti, A., Dierssen, H., Dowell, M., Dunne, J., Esaias, W., Gentili, B., Watson. G., Groom, S., Hoepffner, N., Ishizaka, J., Kameda, T., Le Quere, C., Lohrenz, S., Marra, J., Melin, F., Moore, K., Morel, A., Reddy, T. E., Ryan, J., Scardi, M., Smyth, T., Turpie, K., Tilstone, G., Waters, K., & Yamanaka, Y. (2006). A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color. Deep Sea Research II 53, 741-770. Cullen, J. J., & Horrigan, S. G. (1981). Effects of nitrate on the diurnal vertical migration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and the photosynthetic capacity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens. Marine Biology 62. 81-89. Dierssen, H. M., Kudela, R. M., Ryan, J. P., & Zimmerman, R. C. (2006). Red and black tides: Quantitative analysis of water-leaving radiance and perceived color for phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 51(6), 2646-2659. Gholamalifard, M., Esmaili-Sari, A., Abkar, A., Naimi, B., & Kutser, T. (2013). Influence of vertical distribution of phytoplankton on remote sensing signal of Case II waters: southern Caspian Sea case study. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 7, id 073550. Gordon, H. R., & Clark, D. K. (1980). Remote sensing optical properties of a stratified ocean: an improved interpretation. Applied Optics 19(20). Gray, D. J., Penta, B., Miller, W. D., Snyder, W. A., Goode, W., & Rhea, W. J. (2012). Optical Properties of Dinoflagellate Blooms in Monterey Bay. Poster presented at the 2012 Ocean Sciences Meeting. Hasle, G. R. (1950). Phototactic vertical migration in marine dinoflagellates. Oikos, 2(2), 162-175. Kutser, T., Metsamaa, L., & Dekker, A. G. (2008). Influence of the vertical distribution of cyanobacteria in the water column on the remote sensing signal. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78(4), 649-654. Mobley, C. D., & Sundman, L. K. (2008). Hydrolight 5 Ecolight 5: Users’ Guide. Bellevue, WA: Sequoia Scientific, Inc. Mobley, C. D., Sundman, L. K., & Boss, E. (2002). Phase function effects on oceanic light fields. Applied Optics, 41(6), 1035-1050. Morel, A. (2006). Meeting the challenge of monitoring chlorophyll in the ocean from outer space. Advance in Photosynthesis and respiration  Series Editor Godvindje, Springer, Vol 25,Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls, B. Grimm, R.J. Porra, W. Rûdiger, and H. Scheer Eds. Chap. 36, 521-534. Nair, A., Sathyendranath, S., Platt, T., Morales, J., Stuart, V., Forget, M. H., Devred, E., & Bouman, H. (2008). Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 3366-3375. Ryan, J. P., Chavez, F. P., & Bellingham, J. G. (2005). Physical-biological coupling in Monterey Bay, California: topographic influences on phytoplankton ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 287, 23-32. Schofield, O., Kerfoot, J., Mahoney, K., Moline, M., Oliver, M., Lohrenz, S., & Kirkpatrick, G. (2006). Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties. Journal of Geophysical Research 3(C06009). Stramski, D., Bricaud, A., & Morel, A. (2001). Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community. Applied Optics 40(18). Twardowski, M. S., Boss, E., Macdonald, J. B., Pegau, W. S., Barnard, A. H., & Zaneveld, R. V. (2001). A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 106(C7), 14129-14142. Uitz, J., Claustre, H., Morel, A., & Hooker, S. B. (2006). Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll. Journal of Oceanographic Research, Vol 111. Xi, Y, Du, K., Sun, L., & Lee, Z. (2008). The effect of nonuniform vertical profiles of chlorophyll concentration on apparent optical properties. Proceedings from SPIE7149, Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Remote Sensing Technology, Techniques, and Applications II. Noumea, New Caledonia.

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