# Physical/Earth Science Final Semester II Review Chapters 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24

Figure 11-1 1. Examine Figure 11-1. If you were standing under the tree, which object would appear to be moving? 2. What types of distances can be most accurately measured with a ruler?

3. One kilometer equals 1000 meters. What does the prefix kilo- mean?
4. What is the most appropriate SI unit to express the speed of a cyclist in the last leg of a 10-km race? 5. Speed is the ratio of the distance an object moves to 6. What is the slope of a line on a distance-time graph? 7. What does a horizontal line on a distance-time graph mean? 8. A distance-time graph indicates that an object moves 200 m in 8 s and then remains at rest for 1 s. What is the average speed of the object? 9. The rate at which velocity changes is called 10. An object moving at 30 m/s takes 5 s to come to a stop. What is the object’s acceleration? 11. What three changes in velocity can cause acceleration? 12. A train approaching a crossing changes speed from 50 m/s to 10 m/s in 340 s. How can the train’s acceleration be described? 13. What is instantaneous acceleration? 14. What is the SI unit of force? 15. What happens when an unbalanced force acts on an object? 16. When a pair of balanced forces acts on an object, what is the net force that results? 17. What kind of friction occurs as a fish swims through water? 18. As you push a cereal box across a tabletop, the sliding friction acting on the cereal box does what? 19. What forces are acting on a falling leaf?

20. The property of matter that resists changes in motion is called 21. According to Newton’s second law of motion, the acceleration of an object equals the net force acting on the object divided by the object’s 22. Newton’s third law of motion describes 23. The product of an object’s mass and velocity is its 24. As an astronaut travels far away from Earth, her weight 25. The force that keeps an object moving in a circle is called 26. In which of the following is no work done? 27. What is the unit of work? 28. The power of a machine measures 29. A machine is a device that can multiply 30. Reducing friction in a machine 31. Why is the efficiency of a machine is always less than 100 percent? 32. How does an inclined plane reduces the effort force? 33. An ax is an example of a(an) 34. The ideal mechanical advantage of a pulley system is equal to the 35. An example of a compound machine is a 36. A machine is classified as a compound machine if it 37. The study of Earth’s composition, structure, and history is called 38. What are the three main layers of Earth’s interior? 39. A series of processes in which rocks are continuously changed from one type to another is called 40. What is the hypothesis that the continents move slowly over Earth’s surface and once were joined into one supercontinent called? 41. New ocean crust is formed along 42. Plates slide pass each other, and crust is neither created nor destroyed at a 43. What is a break in a rock mass along which movement occurs? 44. Stress in Earth’s crust is caused by

45. What is the name of the location within Earth where an earthquake begins?

46. The amount of energy released by an earthquake is measured on the
47. Shield volcanoes are produced by 48. A steep-sided volcano formed entirely of ash and cinders is a 49. In the water cycle, the process that changes a liquid into a gas is called 50. Most of Earth’s liquid fresh water is found in 51. A permeable layer of rock that is saturated with water is called a(an) 52. Tilted telephone poles and fences curving in a downward direction on a hillside are evidence of 53. Meanders, V-shaped valleys, and oxbow lakes are all features formed by 54. Unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier is called 55. Describe the changing conditions in the ocean as depth increases? 56. Why do most ocean organisms live above a water depth of 500 meters? 57. What type of ocean current brings cold water from the deep ocean to the surface? 58. What is the process that moves sand along a shore? 59. Geologists could use which of the following to compare the age of sedimentary rock layers in Bryce Canyon with sedimentary rock layers in the Grand Canyon? 60. The Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods are divisions of 61. As altitude increases, what happens to pressure and density of the atmosphere 62. Most weather takes place in the 63. Day and night are caused by Earth’s 64. As Earth completes one orbit around the sun, it has completed one _____________ and one ____________ 65. Which regions usually has temperatures cooler than temperatures near the equator? 66. Lists all the zones in the correct order, starting at the North Pole and ending at the South Pole? 67. The daily breezes that occur in a city that is located near a large body of water are examples of 68. A cloud is a dense, visible mass of which two things? 69. Which forms of precipitation falls as a liquid?

70. Round, solid pieces of ice more than 5 millimeters in diameter fall as 71. What type of front forms when two unlike air masses form a boundary but neither is moving? 72. A cold front forms when a cold air mass 73. A tropical storm with sustained winds of at least 119 kilometers per hour is called a 74. A small, intense storm formed when a vertical cylinder of rotating air develops is a

Figure 24-1 79. Name the symbols in Figure 24-1. 80. A description of the pattern of weather over many years is a region’s 81. What factors affect a region’s temperature? 82. An example of a long-term climate change that occurs naturally is 83. What climate changes may be affected by human activities? 84. A rapid mass movement of large amounts of rock and soil down a slope is called a