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Drying Technology

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DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION IN COUNTER-CURRENT SPRAY DRYERS


C. T. Crowea a Mechanical Engineering Department Washington State University, Pullman, WA

To cite this Article Crowe, C. T.(1983) 'DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION IN COUNTER-CURRENT SPRAY DRYERS',

Drying Technology, 1: 1, 35 56 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/07373938308916769 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07373938308916769

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DRYING TECHNOLOGY, 1(1),

35-56 (1983-84)

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION I N COUNTER-CURRENT SPRAY DRYERS by C. T. Crowe Mechanical E n g i n e e r i n g Department Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Pullman. W A 99164
Key Words and Phrases:

2920

Flow r a t e ; food products; h e a t transfer; mass

transfer; models; plug flow; s l u r r y .


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ABSTRACT The mass, momentum and energy exchange between t h e d r o p l e t s and p a r t i c l e s and t h e d r y i n g medium i n a spray d r y e r i s a complex process. One approach t o modeling t h i s process i s t o a p p l y t h e p a r t i c l e - s o u r c e in-cell model i n which t h e d r o p l e t s and p a r t i c l e s a r e regarded as This The r e s u l t s show and gas f l o w sources o f mass, momentum and energy t o t h e conveying gas f l o w . model i s a p p l i e d t o a c o u n t e r - c u r r e n t spray d r y e r . fields. t h e s t r o n g i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e d r o p l e t / p a r t i c l e t h e exchange between phases i s ignored. INTRODUCTION Spray d r y i n g i s a process whereby a s l u r r y i s c o n v e r t e d t o a d r y , p a r t i c u l a t e f o r m by s p r a y i n g t h e s l u r r y i n t o a d r y i n g medium. The process can be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e steps; a t o m i z a t i o n o f t h e l i q u i d f l u i d , d r y i n g o f t h e d r o p l e t s t o f o r m a powder by c o n t a c t w i t h a h o t gas, and c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d r y p r o d u c t . The process has l a r g e a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n t h e food, pharmaceutical i n d u s t r i e s (1). chemical and Food p r o d u c t s commonly made u s i n g t h e

The c a l c u l a t i o n s show t h e inadequacy o f p r e d i c t i o n s i n which

35

Copyright 6 1983 by Marcel Dekkcr, Inc.

0737-3937/83/01010035S3.50/0

spray d r y i n g process i n c l u d e powdered m i l k , c o f f e e , and d r i e d f r u i t j u i c e s .

powdered eggs,

instant

The spray d r y i n g process i s advantaIt i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l t o d r y

geous because o f i t s continuous o p e r a t i o n , amenabil i t y t o c o n t r o l and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o d u c t (powder). m a t e r i a l which may be heat s e n s i t i v e o r c o r r o s i v e and abrasive. The fundamental processes t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g d r y i n g a r e complex. When t h e s l u r r y d r o p l e t f i r s t encounters t h e h o t gas stream, i t w i l l evaporate due t o heat t r a n s f e r t o t h e d r o p l e t f r o m t h e h o t gas. t h e same time, t h e h o t gas i s b e i n g cooled. may be a porous b u l k o r a porous s h e l l . l i q u i d i s removed.
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At

A f t e r a c e r t a i n amount o f

l i q u i d i s removed, t h e d r o p l e t i s transformed i n t o a p a r t i c l e , which A f t e r t h i s phase i s reached, t h e p a r t i c l e may n o t change i n s i z e , b u t i t w i l l heat up as f u r t h e r Ultimately, an acceptable l e v e l o f dryness i s achieved which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e f i n a l product. Various numerical models have been developed and appeared i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( 2 ) o v e r t h e l a s t several y e a r s t o s i m u l a t e t h e d r y i n g p r o cess. These models have been c l a s s i f i e d according t o t h e i r dimenA ones i o n a l i t y and t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between phases. i n one d i r e c t i o n .

dimensional model i s a model which assumes t h a t changes occur s o l e l y I n chemical engineering, such an assumption i s r e The quasi one-dimensional model i s a model Such models a r e found t o f e r r e d t o as " p l u g f l o w " .

i n which t h e primary changes occur i n t h e streamwise d i r e c t i o n b u t o n l y small changes i n t h e l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n . flow direction. have f r u i t f u l a p p l i c a t i o n i n ducts w i t h small area changes along t h e Two-dimensional models a r e e i t h e r p l a n a r o r axisymm e t r i c . An axisylmnetric s w i r l i n g f l o w i s a l s o a two-dimensional f l o w . The i n t e r a c t i o n between phases i s described as one-way o r two-way coupling. A model w i t h one-way c o u p l i n g i s a model i n which t h e acFor example, a model w i t h t i o n o f t h e h o t gas on t h e d r o p l e t s i s considered, b u t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d r o p l e t s on t h e h o t gas i s ignored. one-way c o u p l i n g would i n c l u d e t h e heat t r a n s f e r t o t h e d r o p l e t s b u t n o t f r o m t h e gas; t h a t i s , t h e gas temperature would remain unchanged. T h i s assumption makes t h e a n a l y s i s much s i m p l e r and was t h e b a s i s o f t h e e a r l y models proposed f o r spray d r y i n g . A model w i t h two-way For c o u p l i n g accounts f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s between phases. d r o p l e t s and p a r t i c l e s would be included.

example, t h e subsequent c o o l i n g o f t h e gas due t o h e a t t r a n s f e r t o t h e

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION

37

C o n s i d e r a b l e success i n modeling c o n v e n t i o n a l s p r a y - d r y i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h q u a s i one-dimensional, two-way coupled models has been achieved (3). t h e spray, C e r t a i n e m p i r i c a l f a c t o r s , such as t h e spread r a t e o f The e m p i r i c i s m i n a r e needed t o implement such a model.

two-dimensional models i s l i m i t e d t o more b a s i c parameters such as e f f e c t i v e v i s c o s i t y o r thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y . A two-dimensional n u m e r i c a l model was used by Crowe ( 2 ) t o s i m u l a t e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t e d by Manning ( 4 ) f o r e v a p o r a t i o n o f a s p r a y i n a d u c t . e v a p o r a t i v e h i s t o r y o f t h e spray. Reasona b l y good agreement was o b t a i n e d f o r gas temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n and The purpose o f t h i s paper i s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s same model t o a c o u n t e r - c u r r e n t s p r a y d r y e r i n which t h e s l u r r y s p r a y i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a porous powder.
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The

calculations

illustrate

the strong

coupling effects

between phases and suggest t h e u t i l i t y o f such a model i n s p r a y d r y e r design. THE DRYING PROCESS The fundamental process i n s p r a y d r y i n g i s t h e removal o f l i q u i d f r o m t h e d r o p l e t by e v a p o r a t i o n and h e a t t r a n s f e r . f a l l i n g rate period. meter, shown i n F i g . 1. Typically, the process i s d i v i d e d i n t o two phases, t h e c o n s t a n t r a t e p e r i o d and t h e The t y p i c a l v a r i a t i o n o f p a r t i c l e l d r o p l e t d i a t e m p e r a t u r e and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t d u r i n g t h e s e two p e r i o d s i s During t h e constant r a t e period, the s l u r r y droplet

behaves as if i t were a l i q u i d d r o p l e t i n which mass t r a n s f e r takes p l a c e b y e v a p o r a t i o n f r o m t h e d r o p l e t s u r f a c e . The r a t e o f mass t r a n s f e r i s q u a n t i f i e d by t h e e q u a t i o n

where m i s t h e d r o p l e t mass, Sh t h e Sherwood number, p i s t h e gas dens i t y , Dv i s t h e d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , D i s t h e d r o p l e t diameter, and


(xm

x S ) i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n vapor mass f r a c t i o n between t h e gas and The Sherwood number i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e l a During t h i s period the

t h e d r o p l e t surface.

t i v e v e l o c i t y between t h e d r o p l e t and t h e gas.

t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e d r o p l e t assumes t h e l o c a l w e t - b u l b temperature. A f t e r a c e r t a i n amount o f l i q u i d i s removed, t h e s l u r r y d r o p l e t becomes a wet, porous s o l i d o r s h e l l . The mass l o s s r a t e i s now con-

PARTICLE DIAMETER

I I
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TIME
1.
T y p i c a l v a r i a t i o n w i t h t i m e o f p a r t i c l e / d r o p l e t s i z e , temperature and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i n a spray d r y e r .

t r o l l e d by t h e d i f f u s i o n o f t h e l i q u i d vapor t h r o u g h t h e pores. There appears t o be l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g the drying r a t e during t h i s period. Generally the assumption i s made t h a t t h e d r y i n g r a t e i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e moist u r e content remaining i n the p a r t i c l e o r

where W i s t h e r a t i o o f mass o f l i q u i d t o t h e mass o f s o l i d i n t h e particle. During t h i s period, t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e i s e s s e n t i a l l y unThe changed and t h e temperature i n c r e a s e s toward t h e gas temperature. f r a c t u r e o f t h e s o l i d i n t o s m a l l e r fragments. The p r i m a r y concern i n t h e d e s i g n of a spray d r y e r i s t o d r y t h e p a r t i c l e t o a s u f f i c i e n t degree b e f o r e removal. cyclone separator. P a r t i c l e s which a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y d r i e d may t e n d t o cake on t h e w a l l s o f t h e d r y e r o r

t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m s l u r r y d r o p l e t t o porous s o l i d may a l s o l e a d t o

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION
DRYING AIR E X I T

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DRYING AIR

A -

INLET

\+

DRIED PRODUCT

/ ' -

2.

C o u n t e r - c u r r e n t spray d r y e r .

Spray d r y e r s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . C o - c u r r e n t d r y e r s a r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e spray and d r y i n g a i r f l o w i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n and t h e p r o d u c t i s c o l l e c t e d i n a c y c l o n e separator. I n counter-current dryers, t h e spray i s i n j e c t e d a t t h e Mixed f l o w d r y e r s t o p and t h e d r y i n g gas f l o w s upward t h r o u g h t h e spray and o u t t h e top. The d r i e d p r o d u c t f a l l s i n t o a b i n a t t h e bottom. have t h e spray i n j e c t e d upward and t h e d r y i n g a i r f l o w i n g i n f r o m t h e t o p w h i l e b o t h t h e a i r and t h e p r o d u c t e x i t f r o m t h e bottom. The n u m e r i c a l model d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s paper i s a p p l i e d t o t h e c o u n t e r - c u r r e n t d r y e r shown i n Fig. 2. T h i s t y p e o f d r y e r o f f e r s good h e a t u t i l i z a t i o n and i s recommended f o r h i g h b u l k d e n s i t y p r o d u c t s which can w i t h s t a n d h i g h temperatures. These t y p e s o f d r y e r s g e n e r a l l y operate w i t h nozzle atomizers. The d e s i g n suggests t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f

40

CROWE

i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r n a l f l o w p a t t e r n s because o f t h e opposing f l o w d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e d r o p l e t s and t h e d r y e r a i r . NUMERICAL MODEL The PSI-Cell(Partic1e-Source-in Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y i n 1976. electrostatic precjpitators, and d r o p l e t combustion. The f i r s t t a s k i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e P S I - C e l l model i s t o d i v i d e t h e f l o w f i e l d i n t o a s e r i e s o f g r i d s d e f i n i n g computational c e l l s as shown i n F i g . 3.
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C e l l ) model ( 5 ) was developed a t Since t h a t time, i t has been

used t o model a v a r i e t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g f i r e suppression, pneumatic t r a n s p o r t , and c o a l p a r t i c l e

Each c o m p u t a t i o n a l c e l l i s t r e a t e d as a

c o n t r o l volume f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s phase and, as t h e d r o p l e t s t r a v e r s e t h e c o n t r o l volume, t h e y p r o v i d e a source o f mass, momentum and energy t o t h e gaseous phase. The gas f l o w f i e l d i s a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e E u l e r i a n approach i n which f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e e q u a t i o n s f o r mass, momentum and energy cons e r v a t i o n a r e w r i t t e n f o r each c e l l , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d r o p l e t phase. These f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e e q u a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e a The n u m e r i c a l scheme used t o s o l v e system o f simultaneous a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n s t h a t can be s o l v e d t o y i e l d t h e f l u i d p r o p e r t i e s i n each c e l l . t h e gas f l o w f i e l d i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e TEACH program ( 6 ) developed a t I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e o f Science and Technology, London. The d r o p l e t p r o p e r t i e s a r e o b t a i n e d by u s i n g t h e L a g r a n g i a n approach i n which t h e e q u a t i o n s o f m o t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d r o p l e t s a r e integrated t o y i e l d droplet trajectories i n the flow field. e x p r e s s i o n s f o r mass and h e a t t r a n s f e r r a t e s . d r o p l e t source terms f o r t h e g a s - f l o w e q u a t i o n s . d r o p l e t and gas f l o w f i e l d s . The d r o p l e t f i e l d i s i n i t i a t e d b y c h o s i n g s t a r t i n g l o c a t i o n s f o r the droplet trajectories. agglomeration occur, Along each t r a j e c t o r y i t i s assumed t h a t t h e number f l o w r a t e o f t h e d r o p l e t s i s c o n s t a n t . Droplet t e m p e r a t u r e and mass a r e c a l c u l a t e d a l o n g t h e t r a j e c t o r y by u t i l i z i n g The change i n mass, I n t h i s fashion a momentum and energy o f t h e d r o p l e t s on t r a v e r s i n g each c e l l p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n i s o b t a i n e d which accounts f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e

If shattering o r
This effect

t h e number f l o w r a t e w i l l change.

DROPLET-GAS

INTERACTION

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D R Y I N G GAS

3.

G r i d system and c o m p u t a t i o n a l c e l l

can e a s i l y be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e model i f i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on breakup o r a g g l o m e r a t i o n r a t e s . Mass C o n s e r v a t i o n Equations As i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 3, t h e f l o w f i e l d i s d i v i d e d i n t o a s e r i e s o f computation a t c e l l s . A s i n g l e c o m p u t a t i o n a l c e l l e n c l o s i n g node The f o u r f a c e s o f t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l c e l l a r e

I , J i s shown i n F i g . 4.

i d e n t i f i e d as p o i n t s on a compass, N, E, S and W. The c o n t i n u i t y equat i o n f o r s t e a d y f l o w o f a gas d r o p l e t m i x t u r e t h r o u g h t h i s c e l l cont r o l volume i s


GE + G N

GW - GS + AmD = 0

(3)

where G i i s t h e mass f l o w r a t e t h r o u g h f a c e i and AmD i s t h e n e t mass e f f l u x r a t e o f gas due t o d r o p l e t s i n t h e c e l l . negative. The gas mass f l u x a c r o s s t h e west f a c e i s g i v e n by I f the droplets are e v a p o r a t i n g t h e y r e p r e s e n t an i n f l u x o f mass t o t h e c e l l and AmD i s

--

r DROPLET TRAJECTORY

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4.

Computational c e l l f o r mass c o n s e r v a t i o n .

where uW i s t h e v e l o c i t y component i n t h e x - d i r e c t i o n on t h e west f a c e and AW i s t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area o f t h e west f a c e . t i o n o f d e n s i t y between nodes I, J, and I - l , J A linear variaI f the

i s assumed.

d r o p l e t s occupy a s i g n i f i c a n t f r a c t i o n o f t h e m i x t u r e volume, t h e a r e a o f t h e f a c e must be m u l t i p l i e d by t h e l o c a l v o i d f r a c t i o n . I n the The a p p l i c a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d here, t h i s area c o r r e c t i o n i s n e g l i g i b l e .

gas mass f l o w t h r o u g h t h e r e m a i n i n g f a c e s i s c a l c u l a t e d i n t h e same manner. One n o t e s t h a t t h e d r o p l e t mass t e r m can be r e g a r d e d as a source o f mass t o t h e gaseous f l o w s w h i c h i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e P S I - C e l l model. Momentum E q u a t i o n As n o t e d i n F i g . 4, t h e v e l o c i t y needed t o e v a l u a t e t h e mass f l u x a c r o s s t h e west f a c e o f t h e c e l l l i e s midway between nodes I, J and I-1,J. Thus, t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l c e l l used f o r x-component o f v e l o c i t y The i s bounded by I - g r i d l i n e s and l i n e s midway between J - g r i d l i n e s . c o n t r o l volume b u t s t i l l i d e n t i f i e d by t h e node, 1 , J . The momentum e q u a t i o n i n t h e x - d i r e c t i o n i s w r i t t e n as

x-momentum c o n t r o l volume i s d i s p l a c e d t o t h e l e f t o f t h e c o n t i n u i t y

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION

43

where EI? i s t h e momentum f l u x o f t h e gas i n t h e x - d i r e c t i o n a c r o s s t h e f a c e i,AM; i s t h e momentum e f f l u x due t o mass t r a n s f e r f r o m t h e droplets, P i s t h e pressure, F : due t o d r o p l e t d r a g and S
! J

i s t h e f o r c e on t h e gas i n x - d i r e c t i o n The momentum f l u x t e r m i s com-

i s a term which account f o r v a r i a t i o n o f

e f f e c t i v e v i s c o s i t y over t h e f i e l d .

posed o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s due b o t h t o c o n v e c t i o n and d i f f u s i o n ( 6 ) . The momentum f l u x terms a r e e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h e h y b r i d d i f f e r e n c i n g scheme. form. a u = P P By so d o i n g t h e e q u a t i o n can be expressed i n an a l g e b r a i c

a . u . + %(pW
1 1

p p ) + F;

X AM^

NESW

s u

(6)

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where ai

a r e t h e v e l o c i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e momentum The surrmation i s performed o v e r a l l Note, as b e f o r e , t h a t t h e n e t e f f l u x o f p a r t i c l e

f l u x arid f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e forms. faces o f t h e c e l l .

momentum i n t h e c e l l and t h e d r o p l e t d r a g can be r e g a r d e d as a body f o r c e t e r m a c t i n g on t h e gaseous phase. The c e l l used t o s o l v e f o r t h e y-component o f momentum i s l o c a t e d below t h e node 1,J and bounded n o r t h and s o u t h by J - g r i d l i n e s . The f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e e q u a t i o n s a r e o f t h e same f o r m as Eq. 6. These e q u a t i o n s would a l s o have a source t e r m r e p r e s e n t i n g e f f l u x o f momentum f r o m t h e d r o p l e t s and d r o p l e t d r a g on t h e gas. Energy E q u a t i o n The c o n s e r v a t i o n o f thermal energy f o r s t e a d y f l o w t h r o u g h a comp u t a t i o n a l c e l l can be w r i t t e n as

where Ei

i s t h e energy f l u x across f a c e i ( i n c l u d i n g b o t h c o n v e c t i o n

and c o n d u c t i o n ) , AED i s t h e energy e f f l u x t o gas due t o d r o p l e t mass t r a n s f e r , QD i s t h e h e a t conducted t o gas f r o m t h e d r o p l e t s and S k i s a t e r m owing t o n o n - u n i f o r m i t y o f thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n t h e f i e l d . The d i s s i p a t i o n t e r m i s s m a l l i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n addressed i n t h i s paper and i s n e g l e c t e d . Ther d r o p l e t h e a t t r a n s f e r and energy f l u x The energy equar e p r e s e n t a source o f energy t o t h e gaseous phase.

44

CROW!?.

t i o n can be w r i t t e n i n f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e f o r m i n t h e same manner as t h e mon~entume q u a t i o n . L i q u i d Vapor C o n c e n t r a t i o n I n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e model t o s p r a y d r y i n g i t i s assumed t h a t t h e gaseous f l o w f i e l d c o n s i s t s o f t h e d r y i n g medium and t h e vapor o f t h e s l u r r y l i q u i d . Another c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n i s t h e r e b y needed f o r t h e mass f r a c t i o n o f t h e l i q u i d vapor i n t h e c e l l . c o m p u t a t i o n a l c e l l shown i n F i g . 4, one has Applyi n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n f o r l i q u i d vapor mass f r a c t i o n i n t h e

where Li
Downloaded At: 11:17 17 January 2011

i s t h e f l u x o f l i q u i d vapor a c r o s s f a c e i ( c o n v e c t i o n and The e q u a t i o n f o r l i q u i d v a p o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n can be w r i t t e n

d i f f u s i o n ) and AmD i s t h e mass e f f l u x o f l i q u i d vapor f r o m d r o p l e t s i n the cell. i n a l g e b r a i c f o r m u s i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e as used f o r t h e momentum and energy e q u a t i o n s . Two more e q u a t i o n s a r e needed t o model t h e t u r b u l e n c e and d i s s i p a t i o n r a t e t o determine t h e e f f e c t i v e v i s c o s i t y i n t h e f l o w f i e l d . The f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e f o r m o f t h e e q u a t i o n s i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e program t o y i e l d t h e k i n e t i c energy o f t u r b u l e n c e and d i s s i p a t i o n r a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e scheme proposed by Launder and S p a l d i n g ( 7 ) . Once t h e the l o c a l t u r b u l e n c e i n t e n s i t y and d i s s i p a t i o n r a t e s a r e e v a l u a t e d , la.

e f f e c t i v e v i s c o s i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e Prandtl-Kolmogorov formuNo a t t e m p t i s made t o i n c l u d e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d r o p l e t s on t h e t u r b u l e n t f i e l d , because l i t t l e i s known about t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e e f f e c t o f d r o p l e t s i z e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t u r b u l e n c e parameters. DROPLET PARTICLE EQUATIONS The s o u r c e terms i n t h e gas f l o w e q u a t i o n s a r e e v a l u a t e d by The mass and The

t r a c k i n g d r o p l e t s and p a r t i c l e s t h r o u g h t h e f l o w f i e l d .

t e m p e r a t u r e a r e updated w i t h each s t e p a l o n g t h e t r a j e c t o r y . e v e n t u a l l y comprise t h e d r y p r o d u c t .

s l u r r y d r o p l e t i s composed o f l i q u i d and i n s o l u b l e m a t t e r w h i c h w i l l The amount o f l i q u i d i s q u a n t i f i e d by t h e m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o r mass o f l i q u i d t o mass o f s o l i d .

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION

45

T h i s parameter i s a u s e f u l dependent v a r i a b l e t o d e f i n e t h e s t a t e and the droplet. A t a c r i t i c a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t , t h e d r o p l e t w i l ' l become a porous p a r t i c l e and t h e f a l l i n g r a t e p e r i o d w i l l ensue. The r a t e o f change of m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t d u r i n g t h e c o n s t a n t r a t e p e r i o d i s g i v e n by dW/dt = Sh(pDv)nD(~m - xS)/mS

(10)

The d r o p l e t d i a m e t e r a l s o decreases as t h e m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s removed according t o the r e l a t i o n

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where pS i s t h e d i a m e t e r o f d r y s o l i d (compacted) and p Q / p S i s t h e l i q u i d / s o l i d material density r a t i o . A f t e r t h e c r i t i c a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s reached, assumed t o proceed as the drying i s

where k i s a c o n s t a n t and W

i s the e q u i l i b r i u m moisture content core r e s p o n d i n g t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s as t o t h e For t h e

v a l u e o f t h i s c o n s t a n t and on what parameters i t may depend. -dW/dt/(W constant. The e q u a t i o n o f m o t i o n f o r t h e d r o p l e t o r p a r t i c l e i s

a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h i s paper, t h e c o n s t a n t k i s equal t o t h e v a l u e o f
C

We) when t h e c r i t i c a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s reached.

D u r i n g t h i s second stage, t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e i s assumed t o remain

where as

$ i s t h e l o c a l gas v e l o c i t y and p i s t h e gas v i s c o s i t y . The f a c t o r f i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t t o Stokes d r a g d e f i n e d


f = CDRe/24
(14)

where Re i s t h e Reynolds number based o n t h e r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y between phases. The d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t i s p r i m a r i l y a f u n c t i o n o f Reynolds numb e r . R good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r t h e f a c t o r f v a l i d f o r Reynolds numbers u p t o 1,000 i s ( 8 )

f = 1 + .15Re'
O t h e r f a c t o r s such as mass t r a n s f e r ,

67

(15) shape, rotation,

acceleration,

and so on can a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t . These o t h e r e f f e c t s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o spray d r y e r s .

If the s l u r r y

d r o p l e t d r i e s t o an i r r e g u l a r l y shaped p a r t i c l e o r fragments i n t o nons p h e r i c a l shapes, a c o r r e c t i o n would have t o be made a t t h e end o f t h e c o n s t a n t r a t e p e r i o d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e change i n shape o f t h e p a r t i c le.
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T h i s e f f e c t i s e a s i l y i n c l u d e d i n t o t h e model.

Integration o f

Eq. 13 y i e l d s t h e d r o p l e t v e l o c i t y . droplet trajectory.

A further integration yields the

The energy e q u a t i o n f o r t h e d r o p l e t o r p a r t i c l e i s expressed as (mI1cpI1+ where c mscps)dT PI d t = NunkTO(T

T ) P

+ i hf g

(16)

and c a r e t h e s p e c i f i c h e a t s o f t h e l i q u i d and s o l i d PI1 PS phase, r e s p e c t i v e l y , Nu i s t h e N u s s e l t number, k i s t h e t h e r m a l conT d u c t i v i t y and h i s t h e h e a t o f t h e v a p o r i z a t i o n o f t h e l i q u i d . The f9 N u s s e l t number, l i k e t h e Sherwood number, depends on t h e r e l a t i v e Reyn o l d s number between phases. The energy e q u a t i o n can be r e w r i t t e n as

D u r i n g t h e c o n s t a n t r a t e d r y i n g p e r i o d , t h e mass l o s s r a t e depends on t h e v a p o r mass f r a c t i o n g r a d i e n t and t h e d r o p l e t t e m p e r a t u r e assumes t h e l o c a l w e t - b u l b temperature. ing this D u r i n g t h e second s t a g e t h e temperatemperature h i s t o r y t u r e i n c r e a s e s as t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r t e r m b e g i n s t o dominate. I n t e g r a t equation y i e l d s the d r o p l e t l p a r t i c l e along t h e t r a j e c t o r y . SOURCE TERMS The d r o p l e t source t e r m s f o r t h e gas f l o w f i e l d a r e e v a l u a t e d as t h e p a r t i c l e s pass t h r o u g h t h e f l o w f i e l d . As a p a r t i c l e t r a v e r s e s a

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION

I
5.
Downloaded At: 11:17 17 January 2011

TIME INTERVALS ALONG TRAJECTORY

Subdividivision o f t r a j e c t o r y i n t o time i n t e r v a l s traversing a computational c e l l .

c o m p u t a t i o n a l c e l l , i t c o n t i n u a l l y s u p p l i e s mass, momentum and energy t o t h e gas w i t h i n t h e c e l l . Fig. 5 .


r i ~ where t

Consider t h e t r a j e c t o r y shown i n t h e

The number o f p a r t i c l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t i m e i n t e r v a l A t i s

ri i s t h e number f l o w r a t e a l o n g a g i v e n t r a j e c t o r y . The mass

e f f l u x f r o m t h e c e l l due t o t h e s e p a r t i c l e s i s
AS,
= h~t(dm/dt)

(18)

where d n / d t i s t h e r a t e o f change o f mass f o r a s i n g l e d r o p l e t o r p a r ticle.


I f t h e d r o p l e t i s e v a p o r a t i n g , dm/dt i s n e g a t i v e and t h e t e r n

r e p r e s e n t s an i n f l u x o f mass t o t h e c e l l . Summing o v e r a l l t i m e i n t e r vals associated w i t h the p a r t i c l e s ' traverse o f the c e l l y i e l d s the n e t mass source t e r m f o r t h a t t r a j e c t o r y . cell. AnlD = Z traj
Z ht

Summing o v e r a l l t r a j e c t o r -

i e s w h i c h t r a v e r s e t h e c e l l y i e l d s t h e f i n a l source t e r m f o r t h a t

AS,,^
The

The momentum source terms a r e e v a l u a t e d I n t h e same way. momentum source a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t i m e element A t i s

+
where fD i s t h e aerodynamic f o r c e a c t i n g on a s i n g l e d r o p l e t . The f i r s t t e r m r e p r e s e n t s t h e monlentum e f f l u x a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mass t r a n s f e r f r o m t h e d r o p l e t and t h e second t e r m r e p r e s e n t s t h e aerodynamic f o r c e o f t h e d r o p l e t s on t h e gas. Sumning o v e r a l l t i m e elements and cloud t r a j e c t o r i e s y i e l d s t h e o v e r a l l momentum source t e r m f o r t h e gas. Energy exchange between t h e gas and t h e d r o p l e t / p a r t i c l e mass t r a n s f e r .
~t i s g i v e n by

a r i s e s t h r o u g h t h e c o n v e c t i v e h e a t t r a n s f e r and energy f l u x due t o The energy source term, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t i m e element ASE = h t ( h dm/dt 9 where h
Downloaded At: 11:17 17 January 2011

qD)

(21)

D haves as an i d e a l gas a l l o w s one t o r e p l a c e t h e h i s t h e s p e c i f i c h e a t o f t h e vapor.

i s t h e e n t l i a l p y o f t h e vapor l e a v i n g t h e d r o p l e t s u r f a c e and 9 i s h e a t t r a n s f e r t o an i n d i v i d u a l d r o p l e t . Assuming t h e vapor bew i t h C T where C 9 9 P 9 Summing o v e r t i m e i n t e r v a l s and

t r a j e c t o r i e s g i v e s t h e energy source t e r m f o r t h e c e l l . SOLUTION SCHEME The f l o w c h a r t f o r t h e n u m e r i c a l program i s shown i n F i g . 6. The

p r o c e d u r e b e g i n s by o b t a i n i n g a s o l u t i o n f o r t h e f l o w f i e l d w i t h no d r o p l e t s t o g i v e t h e f i r s t e s t i m a t e o f t h e gas v e l o c i t y and temperature distribution. Droplet t r a j e c t o r i e s and s i z e and t e m p e r a t u r e A t t h e same t i m e , the a l o n g each t r a j e c t o r y a r e t h e n c a l c u l a t e d .

mass, momentum and energy source terms a r e accumulated f o r each c e l l . The gas f l o w f i e l d i s r e c a l c u l a t e d i n c o r p o r a t i n g these source terms.

I f convergence i s n o t achieved ( w h i c h w i l l n o t be t h e case f o r t h e


f i r s t i t e r a t i o n ) , t h e n t h e d r o p l e t t r a j e c t o r i e s and s o u r c e terms a r e re-evaluated. The gas f l o w f i e l d i s r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e updated s o u r c e terms. When convergence i s achieved, t h e c a l c u l a t i o n t e r m i n ates w i t h p r i n t o u t o f t h e f i n a l values. APPLICATION TO SPRAY DRYER The n u m e r i c a l scheme was a p p l i e d t o a c o u n t e r - c u r r e n t s p r a y d r y e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n shown i n F i g . 3 . The d r y e r was assumed t o be 1 m i n
A

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION

SOLVE FLOW FIELD WlTH NO DROPLETS

I I

EVALUATE DROPLETS SOURCE TERMS

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6.

Flow c h a r t f o r n u m e r i c a l program.

d i a m e t e r and 4 m l o n g .

The i n l e t f l o w r a t e o f t h e d r y i n g a i r was

.25kg/s a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 300C and an a b s o l u t e h u m i d i t y o f .005. The a t o m i z e r was l o c a t e d 45 cm f r o m t h e t o p o f t h e d r y e r and d i r e c t e d downward. The a t o m i z e r was assumed t o p r o v i d e a f u l l cone spray w i t h 70' i n c l u d e d a n g l e a t a s l u r r y f l o w r a t e o f 45 kg/hr. m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f 45%. The s l u r r y was assumed t o be a m i x t u r e o f w a t e r and i n s o l u b l e s o l i d w i t h i n i t i a l

A c r i t i c a l moisture content ( t r a n s i t i o n from


The d e n s i t y o f t h e The d i s c r e t i z e d d r o p l e t s i z e d i s t r i b u -

l i q u i d d r o p l e t t o porous s o l i d ) o f . 3 was assumed. d r i e d p r o d u c t d was 550 kg/m3. tion, t a b l e below. size (um) mass f r a c t i o n (gm/gm)

mass f r a c t i o n and i n i t i a l d r o p l e t v e l o c i t y a r e shown i n t h e

i n i t i a l velocity (m/s)

D r o p l e t s i z e , mass f r a c t i o n and i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y o f s l u r r y d r o p l e t s i s s u i n g from atomizer. The i n i t i a l d r o p l e t temperature was taken as 25C. The s o l i d cone

spray was represented by 30 s t a r t i n g angles f o r t h e d r o p l e t s . T y p i c a l l y , 40 i t e r a t i o n s were r e q u i r e d f o r convergence. The p r e d i c t e d gas v e l o c i t y and temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e shown i n Fig. 7. The two curves r e p r e s e n t d i s t a n c e s o f .45 and 3.5

- - - - - - --

300

200
Downloaded At: 11:17 17 January 2011

100

Y
0
W

3 I 4

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300

I
I 200
W

m
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X / D = 3.5

-2.0WALL CENTERLINE

WALL

P r e d i c t e d gas

velocity

and temperature

distributions a t

two

l o c a t i o n i n dryer.

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION 0.5'


ONE-WAY COUPLING
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- 200 - 150 - 100
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0.5

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3.5

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DISTANCE FROM ATOMIZER, X/D

8.

Temperature and m o i s t u r e h i s t o r y o f 750 m i c r o n d r o p l e t s i n spray.

diameters f r o m t h e atomizer.

One immediately n o t i c e s a v e r y s i g n i f i This gives r i s e t o a r e c i r c u l a t i v e

c a n t e f f e c t o f momentum c o u p l i n g where t h e d r o p l e t s produce a r e v e r s e f l o w near t h e a x i s o f t h e d r y e r . flow w i t h i n the dryer. The d r o p l e t s which t r a v e l near t h e c e n t e r l i n e The temperature near t h e a x i s i s a l s o One no-

have a much s h o r t e r residence t i m e i n t h e d r y e r t h a n those which t r a v e l downward n e a r t h e w a l l . reduced due t o t h e i n t e n s e thermal c o u p l i n g i n t h i s r e g i o n .

t i c e s t h a t t h e assumption o f one-way c o u p l i n g leads t o v e l o c i t y and temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n those o b t a i n e d when c o u p l i n g e f f e c t s a r e included. The temperature and m o i s t u r e h i s t o r y o f (75bm) i n j e c t e d a t 2 5 ' i s shown i n Fig. 8. distance. the largest droplet i n t h e f u l l cone spray (spray h a l f a n g l e 35')

The m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t decreases m o n o t o n i c a l i y w i t h The f i n a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s approxt o the

The c r i t i c a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s reached a t approximately The d r o p l e t temperature r i s e s r a p i d l y f r o m 25'

one diameter f r o m t h e atomizer. i m a t e l y .09. w e t - b u l b temperature. end o f t h e d r y e r .

A f t e r t h e c r i t i c a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s reached,

t h e p a r t i c l e temperature r i s e s and reaches approximately 160C a t t h e The assumption o f one-way coup1 i n g l e a d s t o a more

- 250

- 200 n
ONE-WAY COUPLING MOISTURE CONTENT TEMPERATURE

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DISTANCE FROM ATOMIZER, X I 0

9.

Temperature and m o i s t u r e h i s t o r y o f 300 c l i c r o n d r o p l e t i n spray.

r a p i d d r y i n g and p r e d i c t s a f i n a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f 5% and a f i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200C. The t e m p e r a t u r e and m o i s t u r e h i s t o r y o f t h e l a r g e r d r o p l e t s on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e s p r a y corresponds more c l o s e l y t o t h e one-way c o u p l i n g assumption s i n c e t h e d r o p l e t s p e n e t r a t e t o a r e g i o n where t h e gas f l o w c o n d i t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i n i t i a l conditions. The t e m p e r a t u r e and m o i s t u r e h i s t o r y o f t h e s m a l l e s t d r o p l e t (300um) i n j e c t e d a t 2 5 ' i s shown i n F i g . 9. I n t h i s case, t h e d r o p l e t d r i e s somewhat f a s t e r and a c h i e v e s a f i n a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t somewhat less than t h e l a r g e s t droplet. The f i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t a c h i e v e d by t h e l a r g e s t d r o p l e t because t h e s m a l l d r o p l e t does n o t p e n e t r a t e as f a r r a d i a l l y f r o m t h e c e n t e r l i n e and remains i n t h e l o w t e m p e r a t u r e r e g i o n n e a r t h e a x i s . t h r o u g h t h e d r y e r more q u i c k l y . A l s o i t passes One n o t i c e s a d r a m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e

between t h e p r e d i c t i o n s w i t h and w i t h o u t c o u p l i n g e f f e c t s . t h e a t o m i z e r and r a p i d l y , r e a c h i n g t h e l o c a l gas temperature.

A one-way

coupled c a l c u l a t i o n shows t h e d r o p l e t c o m p l e t e l y d r y .5 m e t e r s f r o m

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION

yl

.aONE-WAY COUPLING

5 re

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DISTANCE FROM ATOMIZER, XID

10.

T o t a l m o i s t u r e removal f r o m s p r a y as f u n c t i o n o f d i s t a n c e f o r m atonli z e r .

The f r a c t i o n o f m o i s t u r e removed f r o m t h e s p r a y as a f u n c t i o n o f d i s t a n c e f o r m t h e a t o m i z e r i s shown i n F i g . 10. The r a t e o f m o i s t u r e removal i s h i g h i n t h e b e g i n n i n g when t h e d r o p l e t i s l o s i n g m o i s t u r e by e v a p o r a t i o n and decreases as t h e d r o p l e t s t r a n s f o r m i n t o porous p a r t i c l e s and t h e f a l l i n g r a t e p e r i o d ensues. n i n g , as expected. The n u m e r i c a l model p r e s e n t e d h e r e s h o u l d s e r v e as a u s e f u l t o o l i n s p r a y d r y e r design. temperature, velocity, I n t h i s paper o n l y one d r y e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n , However, t h e i n l e t Also, the and h u m i d i t y l e v e l can be e a s i l y changed t o spray c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( f u l l cone o r f l o w c o n d i t i o n , and spray p a t t e r n were considered. The assumption o f oneway c o u p l i n g l e a d s t o a h i g h e r r a t e o f m o i s t u r e removal i n t h e b e g i n -

assess t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e parameters on d r y e r performance. i n l e t droplet size distribution, be changed.

h o l l o w c o n e ) , s p r a y angle, as w e l l as t h e i n l e t d r o p l e t v e l o c i t y can Such c a l c u l a t i o n s would suggest t h e optimum atomizer. Even w i t h t h i s compuA l t h o u g h n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s paper, i n l e t gas s w i r l and s w i r l a t o m i z e r s can a l s o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e model. t a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y t h e v a l u e o f t h e model i s o n l y as good as t h e

information provided t o it.

C o n s i d e r a b l y more q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a a r e

needed on t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s l u r r y d r o p l e t s t o porous p a r t i c l e s and on t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r o l t h e d r y i n g r a t e o f porous p a r t i c l e s . CONCLUSIONS The mass, momentum and energy exchange between t h e d r o p l e t s and d r y i n g a i r i n a c o u n t e r - c u r r e n t spray d r y e r g i v e s r i s e t o v e l o c i t y and t e m p e r a t u r e f i e l d s much d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n e d i f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d r o p l e t phase on gas phase i s i g n o r e d . The particle-source-in-cell model is I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e momenof p r e d i c t i n g these Howtum exchange g i v e s r i s e t o a r e c i r c u l a t i v e f l o w p a t t e r n i n t h e d r y e r . capable e f f e c t s and s h o u l d be u s e f u l t o complement s p r a y d r y e r design.
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e v e r , t h e r e i s a need f o r more fundamental i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s l u r r y d r o p l e t s t o porous p a r t i c l e s and on t h e r a t e o f m o i s t u r e removal d u r i n g t h e f a l l i n g r a t e p e r i o d . ACKNOWLEDGEFIENTS The s u p p o r t o f t h e Mechanical E n g i n e e r i n g Department a t Washingt o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y i s acknowledged. The s k i l l o f P a t M a r t i n i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f the manuscript i s appreciated.

NOMENCLATURE f a c t o r i n f i n i t e difference equation


,

ai A
Co

area drag c o e f f i c i e n t s p e c i f i c heat s p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e o f gas p a r t i c l e / d r o p l e t diameter diffusion coefficient energy f l u x a c r o s s f a c e i

9 D Dv Ei

energy source t e r m due t o p a r t i c l e s / d r o p l e t s AED F : aerodynamic f o r c e on gas i n x - d i r e c t i o n due t o p a r t i c l e s l d r o p l e t s f drag f a c t o r

fD

aerodynamic f o r c e on i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e / d r o p l e t

DROPLET-GAS INTERACTION

*
g G i

gravity vector mass f l u x a c r o s s f a c e i e n t h a l p y o f vapor a t d r o p l e t s u r f a c e heat o f vaporization f a c t o r f o r m o i s t u r e removal r a t e thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f gas v a p o r mass f l u x a c r o s s f a c e i p a r t i c l e / d r o p l e t mass momentum f l u x i n x - d i r e c t i o n a c r o s s f a c e i mass s o u r c e t e r m due t o p a r t i c l e s / d r o p l e t s

hg
k

hfg

kT
Li m

M !

AMD momentum source t e r m i n x - d i r e c t i o n due t o p a r t i c l e s / d r o p l e t s n number f l o w r a t e a l o n g t r a j e c t o r y Nu


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Nussel t number heat t r a n s f e r t o individual p a r t i c l e / d r o p l e t h e a t t r a n s f e r t o gas due t o p a r t i c l e s / d r o p l e t s r e l a t i v e Reynolds number Sherwood number s o u r c e t e r m i n momentum e q u a t i o n due t o n o n u n i f o r m e f f e c t i v e viscosity

qD

QD
Re Sh

sX u

ASm mass source t e r m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t i m e A t source t e r m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t i m e A t

morn momentum
time

ASE t

energy source t e r m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t i m e At gas v e l o c i t y particle/droplet velocity moisture content v a p o r mass f r a c t i o n viscosity density

u'
W
x
p
p

Subscripts c
D

critical droplet equilibrium liquid solid

9.
s

REFERENCES

Masters, K., Crowe, Systems," Gauvin, Design," erating pp.184-190, Crowe, C.T., Cell
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Spray D r y i n g Handbook, H a l s t e d Press, 1979. "Modeling Spray-Air Contact 1980. Concept of Spray Dryer 1976. Vo1.6, No.2, in Vol. Spray 1, Drying pp.63-99,

C.T.,

Chapter 3 i n Advances i n D r y i n g , W.H. and Katta, S., No.4, "Basic

ed. A.S. Mujumdar, Hemisphere Pub. Co., AIChE J., Vo1.22, Finely 1960. Sharma, M. and Stock, D.E., Model f o r Gas-Droplet 1977. pp.325-332, and Pun, W., Imperial Atomized

pp.713-724,

Manning, W.P.

and Gauvin, W.H.,

"Heat and Mass T r a n s f e r t o DecelAIChEJ.,

Sprays,"

"The P a r t i c l e - S o u r c e - i n Flows,"

(PSI-Cell) No.2,

J. F l u i d s Engr.,

Vo1.99, lecture

Gosman, A.D. London, 1973. Launder, B.E. Clift, R.,

" C a l c u l a t i o n o f R e c i r c u l a t i v e Flows," College


of

notes,

Science

and

Technology,

and S p a l d i n g , D.B.,

Mathematical Models o f Turbu-

l e n c e , Academic Press, New York, 1972. -

g fl., Bubbles,

Drops and P a r t i c l e s , Academic Press,

New York, 1978.