This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
DecorativePlastering ConcreteFinishes FloorFinishes Wall Finishes Paints MiscellaneousDecorativeFinishes
Key Words FurtherReadings Answers to SAQs
In every building, finishes are provided as a part of the final treatment to dl the surfaces of walls, ceilings, floors, wood work, metal work, etc., both internallyand externally. These could be in the form of different types of plastering, diskemper, colour washing, snowcem,painting, varnishing,flooring, wall tiles, papering, finishes to concrete surfaces ctc. These building finishcs or treatments perform, two major functions : They provide a pmlective coating to the surfaces, This helps in preserving and i) protecting thematerialsused in the buildingconstructionfromenvironmental effects like heat, frost, and rain water. They provide decorativefinish or treatment which adds to the aesthetic ii) appearance of the surfaces andthe building. In this unit, our particular emphasis will be onmodern decorative treatments andfinisheson different surfaces in a building. Any brand names mentioned in the text are only for illustration andeducational purposes, andshouldnot bc construedasrecommendation for useofany particularproduct/finish.
At the end of this unit you should be able to * describe decorative finishesfor differentsurfacesina building
clistinguishbetween the effecl-ivenessof differentfinishes for the same surface and choosetliemostappropriate. describe the procedure for carryingoutaparticular fmishandtheprecautionsrequired tobc observed duringexecution.
7.2 DECOMTHVE PLASTERING
Plasteringis the proccss of covering uneven surfaces in structures with aplasticmaterial known as plaster. It is also referred to as "rendering"when describing the plasteringappliedto the externalsurfacesofwallstobnprove their appearanceand to protect thernfromenvironmental agencies like sun and rain. It also provides the satisfactory base for decorating the surface by applyingcolour wash, distemper or paint on it. While there areseveral typesofplasters,the most common are cement mortar,limemortaraud cement linie mortar plaster. I-Iowever, hi this unit, we shall take about decorative finishes in Plaster.
7 . 2 . 1 Stucco Plaster
"Stucco" is the name given to an eye catching decorative plaster which is used both on interior and exterior walls. The stucco plastered surface has an attractive appearance, which closely resembles marble finish. Let us see how it is applied.
After preparing thewall surface, the first coat of lime plaster is applied in thickness of 12mm.This is called scratch or rough coat. After drying of the scratch coat, the second coat also known as finer or brown coat of lime plaster, which is richer in lime, is applied in thickness of 9mm. After drying of the second coat, the finishining coat of thickness 3mm is applied. This consists of a mixture of frnest h e and well powdered white stone likemarble or quartz. Now, the fishing coat is polished properly, initially with linen bag containing moist chalk and then with oil and chalk. The surface is finally rubbed with oil only and finishedperfectlysmooth. After preparing the surface, the first coat of composite mortar 1cement :3sand mixture with 10% by weight of hydrated lime is applied on the surface upto 12mm thick. When the first coat has been cured and dried, second coat of same composition as first coat is applied in thickness of 9 m .
The finishing coat consisting of 1cement : 2 sand is now applied in thickness of 3mm after second coat has been cured and dried. In case you desire colour finish, then colouredcement may be usedin this coat. We will now discuss some special and decorative external finishes for plastered surfaces.
7.2.2 ~ b u Cast ~ h or Spatter - dash Finish
In this finish, the plastic m i x has proportions of 1 cement : 1.5 sand : 3 coarse aggregate and is dashed against the prepared plastered surface by using a large trowel. The surface is finished rough by means of a wooden float.
Fig 7.1 : Roughcnst Wet-nash Or Haruns (Approx. 0.5 size )
The roughcast hishisdurable, resistant to cracking andcrazingand is consideredwaterproof by adding water proofing agents to the mortar. I€coloured finish is desired then suitable colouringpigments canbe added.This fmishis preferred for buildings which aresubjected to heavy rainfall and strong winds. This finish is shown in the Figure 7.1
- dash Finish
In this type, initially a rendering coat of 1:3 cement sand mortar and 12mm thickness is applied to the surface. When this m o w is still fresh small dry pebbles or crushed stones of size lOmm to 20mm are dashed or thrownagainstit. Then thepebblesare lightlypressedand tappedinto themortarwith awooden float.
The finish obtained is similar to rough cast fmish and is effective against heavy rainfall and strong winds. This finish is shown in the Figure 7.2
7.2.4 Depter Finish
Flg 7.2 Pebble Dash (Approx. 0.5 Size )
This is another variety of rough cast finish. The rendering coat is same as that for Pebble Dash. When it is still wet, pikces of gravel or ilht of different colours are pressedwith hand into this mortar. You canobtainbeautiful coloursand ornamental patterns in this type offinish.
7.2.5 Sand faced Finish
This finish is carried out in two stageslcoats. The first coat comprising 1 cement : 4 coarse angular river sand is applied over the surface upto a thickness of 12mmminimum. It is then well cured with water for 7 days. Now second coat of cement plaster 1:lcement and uniform size When it is still wet, sponge is applied to obtain sand faced sand is applied in thickness of 8mm. finish. The surface of final coat is finishedbyrubbing it with clean and washed sand using a wooden float. The resultingsurface has equalanduniform density sandgrains. It is then watered and cured for 15 days. a
7.2.6 Scrapped Finish
This type of finish is obtained by scrapping the final coal of plaster a few hours after scuing, by means of steel straight edgc, or board studded with nails or other toolslike steel combs upto a depth of 3mm.This scrapped surface is less prone to crackingand has a rough finish with exposed aggregate and texture. This Finish is shown in Fig7.3.
Fig 7.3 : Scrnyped Finish
7.2.7 Textured or Ornamental Finish
This type of fmish is obtained by use of suitable tools like combs, trowels or special tools on freshlylaidiinalcast of stucco plaster describedat7.2.1. Ornamentalpatter~ls areobtained which look very pleasing as shown in Figure 7.4.
(a) Fan texlure '(Approx. sire)
@) Ribbed Texture
(c) Ornpmental Finish
(d) Ornamental tinlsa
Flg 7.4 : Textured or Ornamentnl F l d h
7.2.8 Special Materials Used in Plastering
Decorative appearance or finish is also obtained in plasteringby use ofspecial materials in the finishing coat. Let us study some of these now.
a) Plaster of Paris
When finelyground gypsum rock is heated to a temperature between 100 and 1 4 0 ' C, three-fourths of the combined water passes off assteam. The residue is known as Plaster of Paris which hardens in3 to 4 minutes on addition of water aiid hence retarders like glue, sodium citrate etc arc added in small amounts. Plaster of Paris is used for cast ornamental plaster work ininleriors.
b) Keene's Cement
This is obtained'hycalcining plaster of Paris withalum. It is the hardest form of gypsum plaster and sets within a few days. It is white in colour and call take high glass 1 % polish. It is used for internal plasteringand in situations like skirtings.It is also used for ornamental work and highly decorativeplaster tinishesbecauseofitsgoodpolishiugcharacterislics.
c) Parian Cement
This is obtained by calcining plaster of Paris with borax. It is cheaper than Keene's cement and issuitable for largeareaswhich areintendcd to be painted at the earliest.
d) Martin's Cement
In this case plaster of paris is calcined with pearl ash. It is quick sctling, and gives white hard surface on drying. It is consideredsuitable for internal work.
This material is produced by slakingplaster of paris in petroleum. This is also quick setting and giveswhite hard surface.It has high fire resistance and is therefore used in internal fireresistanceplasteringwork.
This material is obtainedby dissolving keene's cement and suitable colouring pigments in glue. It has the appearance of imitation marble, and isused for columns, panels, etc.
This is also an imitation marble, which is set upon a smooth surface, and is formed by m k b g Keene's cementand colours.
h) Barium Blaster
This plaster material is made froin barium sulphate and is used in the final coat of plaster to the walls of X-rayrooms in hospitals.It acts as a protection to the personnel and technicians working in these rooms, as it,absorbs X-rays.
i) Acoustic Plaster
This is a proprietary~aterialwhi~h consists of gypsum mixtures conlbitled with water and used as final coat in plastering.This plaster undergoes il chemical reaction releasing gas bubbles and hence fornling tiny openings in plaster coat. Thus a honey conlbed surface is obtained which absorbs thesound. This acoustic plaster is applied in two coats of Gmin thickness each and lillished with awooden float.
j) Asbestos Marble Plaster
This consists of arraixtureof finelv crushedmarble. asbestos and cement. It is auite ex~ensive and is used in decorative finishes.Pt imparts a pleasing marble like finish.
PC) Granite Silicon Plaster
This type of plaster is quick setting andelastic and therefore does not crack. It is used for finishingcoat in the superior type of constrt~ctions.
I) Marble Finish Plaster
It is decorative, smooth and even surface f i s h e d and is applied to interior and external dado work to obtain a marblelike appearance. The base surface is kept rough. Zt is thoroughly ci~d.?~:! fi'l;t!i ~d'icrz-nd a thhi coat of white cement slurry is applied. Now the marble finish laster is app1ied.The mixfor this plaster is one part white cement and two parts coarse calcite powder. Calcitcpowderimpartsbrightnesstotheplaster.Thismortar/plasterisappliedwitha
Figure 7:s : Marble Finish
steel float on the rough surface on which white cement slurry has been applied. Now a coat of white cement and lime is given to get a smooth finish. To obtain black streaks, white cement is mixed with black oxide colour and is applied randomly on the surface to get the desired design and levelledsmoothly by a steel float. The final surface is cured for two days. This plaster surface is easily washable, requiresno painting, is weather resistant and requires little maintenance. This finish canbe seen inFigure 7.5.
rn) Stoneerete Plaster
c his is aplain white cement plaster having Ashlar stone finish. It isused for external surfaces. c his plaster is carried out over a base coat of gray cement plaster.
~dr~mix preparedwith is one part white cement andone part coarsedolomite powder. Different shades are obtained by adding suitable pigments while dry mixing. The mortar is and applied on the walls with a steel float.The surface is levelled with gentle pressure. It is then curedwith water for 48 hours. Finally, chiselling is done to obtain Ashlarstone finish. This finish is shown in Figure 7.6.
n) Grit Wash
This is permanent decorative finish used on external walls.Here also the basesurface should be rough and even. Firstly, panels are prepared of thedesired design on thesurface with batten strips. Now mortar consisting of white cement, dolomite powder and aggregate chips or grit in the ratio of 1:1:2.5 is applied. The surface is levelled with a float applying gentle pressure. After the initial setting, say after about 1 to2 hours, the surface is scrubbedgently with a nylon brush and water. Now the cement on the surface of chips is washedaway thus exposing the aggregates. It is also called exposed aggregate plaster. This Finish is shown in figure 7.7
o) Tyrolean Plaster
This fmish is used in interiors and exteriors to obtain a long lasting andmaintenance frcc plaster. It is a sand h c e spray plaster coating, which is easy to apply. The mkconsists of 3 parts white cement,1 part marble powder and 1 part coarse white sand or fine grains of marble chips (No. ' 0 ' )by volumc. Calour, pigments are added to achieve desiredshades. This plastering is applied in two to three coats. After proper curing the finishedsurface is left to dry. In order to avoid accumulation of dust; a coat of silicon should be appliedon perfectly dry surface. This Finish shown in Figure 7.8
7.3 CONCRETE FINSHES
Concrete is aversatile building material as well as an architectural material, It can be cast into complex shapes and can also be given a variety of special surface finishes, textures and colours. Architectural effects can be obtained by a suitable choice of materials, formwork,and casting techniques. The concrcte finishes maybe goupedas: a) b) Formwork finishes, and Texture rinishes or surface finishes.
Flg. 7.8 : Tyrolean Plasicr
'7.3.1 Fornwork Finishes
In order to obtain good formwork finishit is essential tochoose proper formworkmaterial, and spccialcareisrequired,initsconstructionandpreparation. Weknowthat concrete reproduces the surface against wliich it is cast. This can properly be used to advantage in obtaining pleasing formworkfinishes. But then care is required because concrete will also faithfully reproduce blemishes and defects on the formworklike knots, patchesand marks.Stainingmaybe caused by untreated wood, formwork pi1or by steel corrosion. A tightly constructed formwork which is leak prdofwill provide good finish. Wherever possible, joints should be sealed with tape; caulkingmaterial or compressiblegaskets. Different effects offormwork canbe obtaincdas below :
Fig. 7 . 9 :ltln$h obtained hy a cnvcrlng sheell* Jolnls w i l b Illlets
Distinctive finishingcan be obtained by use of saw or timber boards. This effect can beedanced by deliberatelyusing boardslforms of unequal ~hickness. Finishing may be emphasized by fixing angle fillets over the joints of boards. The fillets should bevery lightly fmed to the shuttering. When formwork is stripped, the fillets swollen with moisture from concrete should be left in place. As they dry, they will shrink and fall out. Pleasing effecl can also be obtained by~sin~carefullycreated planedboards together with fillet treatment. This finish is shown in Figure 7.9. If it is desired to hide the faint grain markings left by the planed board, then the concretesurfaceshouldbewire brushed to remove laitance, and treatedwith any concrete paint. A plain smooth surface may be obtained by lining the formwork with thin mctal sheet or plywood. The plywood should be resin-bonded type so as no1 to be affected by moisture. Plywood should be paintedtopreventgrainreproduction. Very pleasing effect may be obtained by using linings of wall board or hessian. Where hessian is used, it should be of a coarse texture to obtain the weave pattern. It shouldbewellstretched and be turnedover the edges of shutteringat joints, as otherwise,concrete is liable to work up behind it. Moulding, flutes, reeds, letteringanddecorative featuresmay be reproducedby futingappropriate insets in theshuttering. Plaster moulds should be used where high degree of finish is required or complicated designs are to be reproduced. Such moulds should be of stick and 'rog' type that is, the plaster is reinforced with sticks and strips of canvas. They are generally used once only and where undercut work is beingproduced, it can be broken awaywithout damage to concrete. The expense of such moulds is offset by the high degree of decorative finish obtained thus obviating the need for any retouching of concrete. This Finish can be seen in Figure 7.10.
Flg. 7.10 : Flnish uslng of Plaster mouid~
Very pleasing effect can be obtained by using textures impendedin rubber and plastic form liners.
7.3.2 Textured Concrete Finishes
Tex?ured surfaces are pleasingand eliminate smallvariations in surface texture and colour on the form work finish surface.Several types of designs can be incorporated on the surface. Thc texturedfmishescan beobtained bythreemethods namely Texturedfor~n liners,Exposed aggregate finishesand mechanicalfinishes. a) Textured Form Liners Interestingeffectson concrete can be produced by the use of textured form liners. The variety can range from ridging or dimplingor repetitive geometrical designs to complex mural designs. The flexible liners can be moulded to impart a variety of patterns. The liners are generally made from rubbers, PVC or fiber glass and can be reused several times. They canbe used both in precast and cast-in-site concretes. Specialdesigns for murals are sculptured, either insand beds or in expanded polystyrene blocks. The panels aregenerally cast face downwards to obtaina clearer reproduction ofthe details of design. This finish is shown in Figure 7.11.
Fig. 7.11 : 'l'exiured Form Lincnr Finlshes
Exposed Aggregate finishes The colour, texture and shape of coarse aggregate can be usedadvantageouslybyexposing it. This can be done by various methods. One of the methods is called "The face up method". Here a base of ordinary concreteis cast, screeded and trowelled flat.This surface is Lhen covercd unifornilywith the desired aggregate. It is then floated into the surface and again trowelled flat. When the initial set is about to take place, a thin layer of cement paste is carefully removed by washing the surface with alight spray ofwater. The results are quite pleasing if small aggregatevarying from 10mm to 20mm are used. If the cement film is to be removedwitl~in 48 hours of casting, then the surface may be scrubbed with stiffbrushes andwater or dry brushedwith a stiff fibreor wire brush. Care milst be taken to see that concrete is sufficiently hard so as not to dislodge the aggregate. This Finish is shown in Figure 7.12.
Fig. 7.12 : Exposed Aggregate Finlshes
Use of Retarding Agent Another way to achieve the objective is to apply a retarding agent to the surface of the concrete after trowelling.After about 16 hours, when the rest of the concrete hasset, the retardedsurfacepaste canbe brushed andwashed off easily. A retarder can also be used as a coating on the formwork so as to retard the concrete in contact with the formwork. It can be painted on to the formwork or a cloth impregnated with the retarder can line the formwork. You can use this for casting both horizontal andvertical surfaces. The horizontal casting is used in precast elements,where the prefabricated panels are cast face down with the retarding form at the bottom. A special facing mix may be used consisting of aggregates possessing good colour, texture and shape, together with whiteor coloured cement.Plain concrete is then cast on top to form anintepal panel. However thisapproach isreplacedbytheprepacked aggregate methodin vertical casting. What kind of retarder one may use, you may ask ? Well, the quantity andqualityofretarderdepends on the depth of cxposure of the aggregate,youdesire. A water-insoluble retarder isrecommended for exposure to a depth of upto 3mm, while water soluble retarders will give greater exposure.Generallythedepthof exposure shouldnot exceed one-third of the average diameter ofthe aggregate to be exposed. The size of aggregate can also be determineddependingon the depth of texture and the distance at which texture should be visible. Some relevant information is given in Table 1. Table 1: Visibility Scale for Exposed Aggregate Concrete
Size of Exposed Aggregate
Distance at which Texture is Visible
'Acid Etchingn;Vashing This consists of applying liberal washings of hydrochloric acid solution of approximately one part acid to six parts of water. The acid attacks the cement and enables it to be brushed off. If the solution has no effect, it should be graduallystrengthened. Following precautionsmust be observed:
Workers must wear rubber gloves. down thoroughly with clean water to remove all traces of the acid solution.
- When sufficient penetration has been achieved the work must be waslled - The surface should be treated with an alkaline solution to neutralize any
traces of acid - This treatment must not be applied on concretc made with carbonate aggregates like limestones, dolomites and marbles. Sand-Bedding Technique This is used gainfully when large aggregates arc required to be exposed, or when special effects like flat-stone arrangement is required. T o begin with, a bed of sandas usedinconcrete is spread, and the desired aggregate is embedded in it to the required depth=This layer is then dampened and consolidated, and structural concrete is cast on top of i t When concretc has hardened, the cast panel is removed and excess sand is washed off its facc. This technique permits depth of exposure of 12 to 50mm of the aggregate, which is much greater than what is possiblewith retarding agents.
Mechanical Finishes This method involvesabrasive action and fraction processes. In abrasive action we have the use of "Sand Blasting"for obtaining exposed aggregate by abrasing of the hardened paste. Light sand blastingmay be used to obtain lightly roughened surface without ex-
Fig. 7.13 : Mecbn~llcnlPinlsl~es
posing aggregate. It can also exposc 1lie aggregate lo a depth of 12mm. However, by usingrubbertcmplatcstoprotcclprcdetcrmincdareasnfconcrete,veyplcasant designs call bc obtained by use o l sand blasting as can be scen in Figure7.13.
A bush hammer lias a series of pyramidal tecth on its facc, andca~ibe hand, pneumaticor
(a) Ilosh hnrtui~erin use
@) Close up of bufih hammer
Fig. 7.14 Texture produced by bush hammering varticelly casl ribs.
The m a i n characteristic ofbush hammeringis that it not onlyremoves the outer cement film, but also breaks some of the exposedaggregate, giving a bright, colourful and interesting facade. Very pleasing effects may be obtained by carefully selecting aggregates, which may be larger &an thoseforthe exposedaggregate finish, to produce the requiredfinish. Concrete mustbe at least three weeks old before it is bush hammered as otherwise there is danger ofwhole pieces of aggregate being dislodged. This finish can be seen in Figure 7.14.
7.4 FLOOR FINISHES
There are a large type of floor, and floor finishes available today ranging from common to very sophisticated and decorative.Theselection of a particular floor type will depend upon several factors like sub floor type, suitability to receive various floorings, resistance to wear, chemical resistance,impervioussurfacefinish,maintenance,soundinsulation,appearance,durability, smoothnessand thermal insulation.While there are several types of floorings and floor finishes, we would study few special types which are now being used extensively and some of them are of recent origin in the country.
7.4.1 Terrazo Flooring
The terrazo flooring is a special type of concrete flooring in which marble chips are used as aggregates.The terrazo finish is at least lOmm thick, and comprises a mixture of desired cement likewhiteor colouredcement, marble powder andcoarse aggregates such as choppings of marble, pearl, glass, quartzite etc. of selectcd colours and size grades from2mmto 8mm. Sometimes, large aggregate sizes are also in use. This terrazo finish is provided over the concrete basecoarse,whichispreviouslyprepardandroughened t o p o d e proper bond.First of all a thin coat of cement slurry is spread over the wet concrete base. This layer is then swept witha broom, and a layer of cement mortar 1:2,12mm thick is evenly spread immediately over it. Metal or glass dividingstripsabout 30mm in depth and 1.3mm in thickness are inserted on edge in desiredpatterns. Whenthe mortar bed has sufficientlyhardened, the terrazo topping1 cement : 3 marble chips, 6 to 12mm thick (depending upon the size of thc chips selected), in a workablemixwithwater is applied.This topping is then rolled and compacted in both directions.About 85% ofthe marble chips should be exposcdover the finished surface. After curing for several days, the surface is properly polished by means of a grinding machine fitted withcarborundum stone disc. During the process of grinding, the surface is kept wet. Holes or pores are filled with a thingrout of matching cement paste. The surface is then again cured for a few days and finally ground by grinding machine fitted with a finer carborundum stone disc. Finally the surface is washed with a week solution of soft soap in warm water. The final surface is very pleasing in appearance. Tlle terrazo flooring is very popular for use in banks, hotel, office buildingsand in living accommodations because of its wear-resisting properties and decorativeappearance.Insitu terrazo canbeused forwall finishes also.
7.4.2 Tiled Flooring
a) Precast terrazo tilesaremanufacturedinsquare, hexagonal andmany other shapes and thicknesses these days. These tiles are cominonly used for flooring in residential buildings, hotels, officesand other public buildingswhere durable floorswith pleasing appearance are required.The terrazo 'mosaic' tiles come in single colours or in combinations. Some of them have rich variety of carpet designs and are called Galicha. A few designs are shown in Figure 7.15. The ground for receivingthe floor is levelled, well watered and rammed, and on tlus sub grade of lime concrete usually 150mm thick is provided. Over the sub grade a thin layer of cement mortar 1:l or lime sand mortar 1:3 about 25inm thick is laid as bedding mortar for tiles. The bedding mortar is allowed to harden for few hours and then neat cement slurry is spread over the surface. Now the tiles with a thin coat of cement paste applied omtheir surface are laid flat and pressed so that extra mortar comes out through the joints which is wiped clean. The joints are kept as thin as 1.5mm. After 2 to 3 days, the joints are well rubbed with a carborundum stone to levelany slight projections above the surface.The entire floor is then polishedwith soft carborundumstone first and with pumice stone later. The polishing is done using a machine. Finally the surface is washed with a weak solution of soft soap in warm water. However, these days, to obtain high adhesion strengths, polymer based hydraulically setting ready to use water proof tile adhesives are available which can bond the tiles by thin bed method. There is no necd to wet the tiles and tile laying output
is 2 t o 3 times more than the conventional method. The bed adhesive mortar thickness is 1 to 2mm only. For heavy tiles like marble, polymer based, ready to
Fig. 7.16 : Ccrnlnic Tile finishes
use tile adhesive can be used. Were the thickness of layer should not exceed 5mm. The consumption of this adhesive varies between 1.5 to 2.5 k m2 depending upon type of tiles and the bonding strength 0f2.20 N/mm can be achieved The flooring tiles in India are manufacturedgenerally in square sizes of 200 x200mm, 250 x250mm and 300 x3Otlmm. One of the brand names is SomaniTiles amongseveral other. Ceramic Tiles Ceramic tiles mine in tremendous range of colows, patterns and designs which include even sculptured tiles. The tiles finishcs include glazed, unglazed, texturedglaze (matt) and abrasive finish. These tiles are popularly used for decorative effect throughout the buildingsboth for exterior and interior surfaces where sanitation, stain resistance, easy cleanability, low maintenance cost combinedwith beauty and elegance is desired. Tiles to be used on external surfacesshouldbe frost proof andshould have lowwater absorption. Glazed ceramic tiles are not suitable for the external use. Ceramic tiles often come mounted onto sheets with some type of backing o n the sheet or between the tiles to hold them together. Tiles less than sixsquare inchcs in area are ternledas nlosaics and are available in sheet form. The Cerrunic tiles 13 finishcs can be seen in Figure 7.16. These tiles can be laid by means of mortar bed or iia thin bcd proccss. The surface should be even, flat but rough. The paper bacltingis stripped offwith water after the furingof the tile. Ira the thin bed process, the tiles art: fixed with hydraulicor ilormally drying mortar or by adhesive. Spccial adhesives are spread about 2 to 3mm thick onto the base or tothe pieces with a toothed scraper. Then the ceramic tile is funnly pressed in. 'Flie joints ahout lmm thick are filled upwith ajoint mortar or a joint mastic on a synthetic material base. For this purpose, a rubber disc or sponge is used. Joil~t mastic is sold in tubes in different colours in ready to use form. The mastic is pressed into the joint by a immediately. nylon nozzle. Any smudges of mastic should he re~novcd Ceramic tiles are availablein plain and printed designs in a wide range of colours. The ceramic tiles come in sizes of 20(1 X 200, 200 X 100,200 x 250, 300 x 300mm. There is a wide range of brand names, a few are S p t c k , Regency, Naveen, Kajaria, etc. Granamite Vitrified Floor Tiles The floors used in homes have to resist materials like sand which has hardness of 7 on the Moh scale and has, therefore, strong scratching power which ordinary floors cannot take. The only tile which call resis~ this cffect is a fully vitrified floor tile.This tile ismanufacturedat high pressures and tempcratures so that the entire tile becomes one homogeneous rock like mass. The principle involved is similar to the one which helps transform coal into diamond. This tile is claimed to be twice as strong as granite with 1.5 times impact rcsistance. In order to providedecorative appearance grsmainite is available in a range of coloursanddesigns, in smooth, mirror polished or texturedfiaish.Anot11er vitrified floor tile is called mirror stone polished vitrilied floor tile. Marble Agglomerated Tiles This is also anew material in the market. The marble agglomerated tilcs are marble dust granules boildedinto tilcs which coines in several colours. These arefar stronger than niarble and many times stronger than ceramic tiles and gives a hard working floor. These tiles are perfectly cut and polished with chamfered edges.Thcyare consistent in dimension, thickness pattern and quality and require minimummaintenance. These tiles have Moll's hardness of 3 to 4 and come in sizes of 300nlm X300mn1, 6 0 x300nam, 600 x OOOmm, 900 X600 and 120 xGOmmwith standard thickness of 10 to 15mn1. Their density for a lOmm thick t i l ~ is 25 kgs/m2andcoillpressivestrengthran es 4 .The from 1100 to 1400 kg/cm2 and flexural strengths from 200 to 325 kg/cm water absorption is 0.1 to 0.18 percent. These tiles are available in wide range of colours, patterns and finishcs. Ranging froin classic looks of natural granite to rnoderndesips ingloss, hone and bush hammered finish. Thesc Tiles & Finishes can be seen in These tiles can be used in floors, wall cladding, facades, kitchen counters, decorativesettings, furniture tops in homes, hotels, offices, schools, showrooms, theaters, hospitals and airports and publicarcas with high traffic. One such tile has the brandname "Villa Nova". Another product is called "Marbella".
Pig. 7.17 : Murhle Asglomeraled Tlles & Finlshes
7.4.3 PVC Floorings
The PVC flooring is also a recent development, and has bccornevery popular as a P finish in all typcs of buildings. ThePVC (polyvinyl chloride) is fabricated in thl- '. of tiles and is available in different sizes and colour shades. The overall advavinylised tiles is that it provides a flooring orgood coml~iercial suitability at a, economic price. They are laid on the concrete baseusing adhesives.The floors SI. ~ l d beprotecledagainst indentationfrompoinlloading.Heavyfi~rnitureshould befitted
Fig. 7;18.,VLnyl Asbtstos Tlles Floor'
with large flat based shoes, and castors should be rubber tyred. One of the floorings is namedas Fixem PVC tiles. They are available in pastel shades and designs and are consideredideal for homes, offices and shops.
Vinyl Asbestos Tiles
These tiles are formulated usingplasricised vinyl resins with asbestos fibers, mineral fillers and pigments. These tiles come in bright colours and have good dimensional stabilityresistancetowear and recoveryfrom indentation. Good resistance to effect Crom dilute acids, alkalis, mosl common chemicals and grease and oil is afforded. Decorative featureslike embossing tosimulate marbleis available. These tiles are anattractivealternativc for entrance halls, reception areasand lobbies. They can be usedin schools,hospitals,office buildingsand recreational centres where the provision of decorative and highly functional floor covering at a low cost is needed. This tile finish is Shown in Figure 7.18. One of the brand names of theasbestos-vinyl flooring is Marblex. The relevant Indian standard specification for this type of flooring is IS: 3461. Q~rartzReinforced Vinyl Flooring This type of flooringis lnani~factured by calieilderingPVC,plasticisers, stabiliscrs and piplents. It is reinforced by use ofaspecial quartzrnilneralto increase resistance to abrasion, chemical attacksand indentatioti.This type of flooring conforms loIS-34621986 and BS 32618,1973 and is factory finishcd with a metalliscd dressing. These tiles come in size of 300rnm x3eMmm and thickness of 1.6,2.0,2.5 and 3.2nlm for residential, commercial,commercial heavy duty and industrial purposes, respectively. This type of flooring can be installed easily on any sub floor which is even, dry, free from cracks,gzase and oil. Themoisture content in concrete sub floors must not exceed 3 percent to5 percent. The layilagof tiles should be done at a room temperaturcof about lgOc, which should remain constant during laying operations. Layingshould commence from the centre oftheroom, marking right angles to ensure proper alignment or the tiles. Si~Wcient lime should be allowed for soivznt evavaporalion of the adhesive applied on the sutvfloor,before the laying of tiles. Press ehc tile in thu ccntre and run the thumb around the edge thuselirninatingall air hubhles. After laying thc tilesit is prelerable to roll it down with a roller of about 50 u s . After laying, remove any adhesive stains and clean the floor. A surface trealment with at least two coats of metallised acrylic floor dressing immediately after laying imparts a pleasant gloss and helps in maintenance. One such type of flooring is manufactured by Rikvin Floors Limited in India. Some other vinyl floorings inIndia are Corara blcrldedvinyl flooring and Woncle~ lloor vinyl flooring and Classivin among many others. Foam backed V i ~ ~ Flooring yl Tlds type of flooring generally colnprises calendered-sheetvinyl flooring which is backed up by a high density PVC foam. The wear surface affords all the advantages of unbacked sheet vinyl.The foam backing additionally affords excellent resilience for quietness under fool and also imparts a very high degree of insulation against hnpact transmitted sound.This flooring is normally laid by usingadhesives ofcither thc syutlietic rubbcr or acrylicco- polymer emulsion type. Seam joints in rolls are usually welded to provide a jointless, water tight finish. This type offlooring provides highly resilient and hardwearing flooring tosuit residential buildings, hospitals, sliow~.oorns and office buildings. Foam backed vinyl floorings must not be laid over subfloors which do no1 have properwaterproofmg treatment.Al1 suhtloors must besufticienl lydry. One type of cushioned vinyl flooring is called Vinoleurn. They can be llsetl at home, office, shopping plaza, medical centre and computer room. This flooring is available in roll of 2 metre width.
Linoleum is fabricated by mixing oxidized linseed oils with gum, resins, pigments, corkdust and other organic and mineral fillers. It is available invarious coiours, both in plain and printed rolls. Generally the rolls are in widths d 2 metres or 4 metres with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 7mm. Higher thicknesses, i.e., 5 to 7mm are used in floors subjected to heavy wear floors like in Cinemas, hotels, hospitals, etc. while lower thickness of 2 to 5mm is used in offices, shops,
houses etc. Linoleum tiles are also available. Linoleum must not be applied to
~1 h-floors, which do not incorporate an efficient damp-proof membrane. Linoleum isge~ierally
ldd by means of suitable adhesive as advised by the manufacturer. Linolcurn provides an attractive, resaient, anddurable surface,and offersadequateinsulation against noise and heat, but it does not offer resistance against fire.
7.4.5 Cork Flooring
cork flooringtiles are manufactured from granulated cork of selected qualitywhich is heavily compressed and baked, causing the natural resins to flowand form a firmlybonded homogcneou~ block, from which tilcs of various sizes and thickness are cut. The standard sizes are 100 x 100 to 300 x900mm with varying shades and thicknesses of 5 to 15mm.Thc cork tilcs ;ire usually made in two types called ordinary and heavy density. The hcavy density tiles are heavywear and tear surfaces as in theaters, colleges, art galleries, etc. The tilejoints are either tongue and groove type or butt type. Cork tiles must not be applied over sub floors, which do not cater foran efficient dampproofrnembra~le.
7.4.6 Rubber Flsorirng
~ u b b eflooriqcoverings r arerna~~ufactured fromnatural or synthetic rubber or arnixture of thc tw0.Thes.e rubbersue combhedwithcuringagents, r e i n fidcrs, anit colours. Thecomponents e mixed, homogenised, cooled, blended, calendered andvulcanized.Smooth rubber flooringis available in a variety of colours with either a plain or mitrblcd effect in shcet or tile form. Pn additiontothe smooth surfacedrubber flooring other types ofrubberand or syntheticrubber flooring are also there with raised surfaces in the form of ribs and studs. A wide range of colours are manufactured. This rubber flooring is usuallyin form (if tiles, ,..~d has decorative value in I addition to providing a high dcgree of slip resistance. Rubber sheetb are usually in sizes of 500 x(H)cms, 350 x90 cms, and 250 XW cms, whilc rubber tiles are in sizes of 200 X200rnm, 300 x3001nm and 450 x4501nmwith thickness of 3.2, 4.8 and 6.4mm respectively. The rubber flooring is fixed to the sub floor by meansof a contact adhesive as recommended by the manufacturer. Rubber flooring has been used extensivelyfor affording highly durable and decorative finish. Oil grease and gasoline make this floor slippery. Though rubber llooring is expensive in terms ofinitial cost, but it providesadurable dccorativc and resilicllt sur face suitable for a wide range of sportingactivitics.
7.4.7 Wood Flooring
a) "Wood Mosaic" is a clevclopnlent in hardwood which has allowcd thc provision of a floor linish with all the natural warmth and bcauty of timber at a lower cost wood block or strip flooring.Teak is a good wood for this than thc conve~~tional purpose though thefc arc several other cquallysuitable hardwoods.Theflooring is supplied in panels of 460 x4601nm at 8n1m thicknw, made up of opposed squares of 115 xll5mn1 comprising 4 or 5 fingers with the squares set in a basket weave design. It is used extensively in private houses, schools, churches and recreational areas. Paper facedpanelsarelaid with the paper side up.The paper is removed from the surface after laying, and thc flooring needs to be sanded loa suitable standard for polishing, Parquet flooring has always bccn pubular, and the process of laying parquet (i.e. pieces of wood in a geometric pattern) has become easier with the arrival of the parquettile. "Wood block" flooring is very popular in public buildings officer messes, churches, schools, rccreational arcas, etc. wherecombination ofhardwcar with the warmth ancl beauty of natural wood ir required. Wood blocks of 230 x 75mm at 25111mnulninal thickness are pro~idedwithgrooves on both cnds and one side and tongue on one side. They are usually laid onto a wood float screeded basc and adhesion Is provided by bitumen rubber emulsion into which thc blocks are dipped individually.A wide range of patterns can bc achieved, the most c o ~ n n ~ being o n the herringbone. Wood rnakcs a hardy, maintenance free, beautiful floor linish which has currcntly become less popular from an ccological and cost point ofview.
7.4.8 Stone Flooring
"Granite flooring" is considered to be the most prestigious, andcostly stone flooringwhose mirror like finish of which provides elcganl decoration to all prestigious buildings. Granite is welcome in our hot climate because it does not allow the heal to penetrate too decp. It is available in avariety of colours, sizes and thicknesses. However, the larger [he granite slab, the
more elegant the finish as there are fewerjoints.Granite, though expensive, isvery durable, bighly scratch md chip resistant and is easy to clean and looks elegant. Granite is also known as toughest stonewith softest feel.It canbe polishedfor apermanent shear and tnirror smoothness. It is perfectfor floorings,stairways,corridors,pavements,ornamental pillars, monuments, elevations, bath room tiling,etc. "MarbleFIooring" is usedin the superior type offloor construction particularlywheresanitation andcleanlinessarerequiredasincase ofhospitals,temples, theatres, hotels, bathrooms, kitchen etc. Marble comes in different shades and has the quality ofimparting coolness to the eyes. It comes in slabs and nowadays in tile form also. Tajmahal is the fmest example of use of marble asa decorativeand functionalmaterial. Other stoneswhichlookbeautifulandcheap, areCuddapah,KotastonesandDholpurstones. While CuddapahaadKotastonesare usedinflooringinimportantareas, Dholpur stoneisused to enhance the facade beauty of a building, and is verypopular in large hotels and even in residentialbuildings.Cuddapah stone getsstained byacidicsubstances. and sturdy. Machine cut and In general thestone used in flooring should be ideallyimpe~ous polishedstoneshould be used in flooringas it is easier to clean and gentler on the feet and looks moredecorative.
7.4.9 Interlocking Concrete Block Plooring
Theseconcrete blocksareinterlockmgandprovide a high resistance to the transverseshearing forces. At the same time dismantling is easy and can be done without any damage. The concrete blocks have highcrushingstrength,andareportable,skid proof,weather resistant and durable. Theycan belaid quickly and the area can be used immediately.Their appearance is decorative as they come in range of colours, shapes and designs. They are ideal for paving areas quickly with minimum labour without use of anycementingmaterial.These type of concrete flooring blocks are shown in Fig 7.19.
Flg. : 7.19 : Concrete Flooring Blocks
SAQ I :
How you can do Stucco Plaster for internal walls and Ehtenial walls ?
What 1s plaster of Paris ? &plain its usage.
How is stonecretc plaster madc '?
Mention the t y p of Tiled flooring.
7.5 WALL FINISHES
Walls are often coveredby plastcr, paint, paper, tilcs and laminatedmatcrials to impart them decorative finish, which is aesthetically appealing and functionally useful. However, the difference in each tinish also depends upon, how imaginatively thcsc materials are used to decorate the wdls. We have already studied thc decorative plastering, Ictus see what other wall finishes arc in vogue.
7.5.1 Wall Tiling
In this finish the wall is tiilished with special tiles for heights upto 120 cms above thc floor levcl and in certain situations right upto the ceiling. The wall is first plastered with good lime mortar. Then the desired riles, which had heen soaked in water for about two liours are covered with a cement paste on thc backand prcsscdllat against the bedofceinent inortar.Tilesareprcsscd and tipped with light strokes of a wooden mallet to provide a firm bedai~d true vertical position. Now polymer based, ready to usc tile adhesives are available for bondillg of tiles, marbles, granites, stones, etc. This adhesive is applied to preparedsurfaccs by smoothening trowel in a thin layer of about 21iun.The surfacc should, theti, be combed with notched trowelsin a waving motion to obtain ribbed pattern to savematerial. The tile should then be placedincontact with the paste as soon as possible, bulllot later than about 20 minutes depeiidingupon the ambient temperatures. There is another type of adhesive, which ispolymerbased, hydraulicallysetting, ready to use and water proof. The wall tiles are of several varieties like terracota, china clay, vitreous china, granite marble agglomerated i~iarbleand ceramic. Thcrcare othertiles, called kenttilcs andvitrumtiles. Currently, ccramic tilcs have beconie very popular. Some ol the tiles are Kajoria, Regcncy, Villa Nova atid many others. These tilcs are available in a variety of colours,sizes and Lhickncss. These tilcs have classiclooks of naturalgranite to breathtakingmodernmaslerpicccs, which finish in glass, hoile as well as bush hammered. Some of the tiles are sold as in prepolished form. One common size of tile is 300mm ~ 3 0 0 m mwhile , tiles are available in rectangular sizes also, ranges like 200 XlOOmm, 200 x250mni and in bigger sizes upto 1200mm ~6OOmm.Thickness from 6mm to 12n1m generally. The wall tiling is most commonly usccl in bathrooms, kitchens, lobbies ofhotels and apartment blocks, passages, fire places, staircases, boiler rooms etc, They are also used externallyin the buildings to give a decorative effect, and to protect from atmospheric agencies.Small sized tiles are also used to make decorative murals a d designs. Designer tiles are also available lrom some manufacturerslikeKajoriaCeramicsLtd, and are calledtheJonicSeries, VetrataSeries and GraniloSeries.
7.5.2 Plaster of Paris wall Finish
Plaster of Paris moulded in flor al, geometricor repeatable patterns is a favourite amongwall fiiiishes. Inthis the shapes are cast in mouldsand f ~ e on d the wall at random or in a planned manner to obtain decorative designs. Aplaster of paris surface can be made to resemble or look like a stone surface like malachite through a process called "distressing".
7.5.3 Wall Coatings
New wall coatings are now available for providing decorative finish. The wall coating is i x of inert fillers like marble powder, limestone, sand etc. with a polymer generally aready m binder. It canbe sprayedby spray equipment, thus eliminating the bothcration of sitemixing which has to be done in case of plastering. The process of application is very fast and the coating dries quickly. One can achieve smooth or textured finish and pigments can be mixed togel different colours.The wall coating is flexible and, hence not liable to cracking. Another advantage is that it can be used almost on all k i d of surfaces including concrete, painted wood, glass and metal. Even old tiles on walls canbe covercd with this finish to obtain uniform appearance. One such coating for wall and ceiling is called "Alltek". Another single coat wall coating which is available in 100 shadts and is claimed to be permanent, economical, low maintenance cost, beingfiingus,fire and fadeaqd, damp resistant, washable and considered suitable forapartments, bungalows, hospitals,lobbies, corridors, lift facias, partitions, ceilings and stairwells, is called "Heritage".
7.5.4 Exterior Wall Coating
The first impressionabout a building is made by itsexterior looks. The exterior finish serves the dual purposeof aestheticsand protection. Texturisedexlerior finishesareverypopular, andare available inas manyas 31shades. One such finish contains granite based aggregate for durability and special resins to improve adhesionand prevent peeling off. It has thermo plastic character and hence flexible and prevents cracking. It is also impervious to chemical andsaline corrosion. One suchexterior Finish paint is soldunder the name of "SandtexMatt".Another such coating which is weather resistant and damp resistant is called "Heritage" surface textures.It is a single cost mulii colour surface finishing system which is durable and washable. It has over 100 shades.TheHeritage rangeconsists ofFlakes, Granules, Granite Finish andMetallic. Ernce color- flexisaspecially designed protection and decorative coating for plaster, brick workand concretesurfaces.This coating is carbonation resistant and it has crack bridging properties.Normally, two coats of this areapplied on the preparedsurface,with paintingrollers or brushes. A primer coat of Primox250improves adhesion and scaling of the surface. Another wall finish is called "Spectrum", and it is a single coat application. Tliese wall finishes are claimed to beanti-fungal, anti-graffiti, fire retardant and come in myriad designs andshapes.
7.5.5 Wall Coverings
Several types of wallpapers are available, which are used on walls and ceilings to improve aestheticvalues of the interiors ofbuildings.The three common type of papers used for papering are : i) Common or pulp paper ii) Satin Paper iii) Flock Paper The first type is most commonly used for ordinary papering. The satin paper is maintained clean easily but is affected by dampeners in the walls.The third type has very good aesthetic appeal but is prone to dust. The wall papering process is as below:The wall surface to b e paperedshould be rubbed down and scrapped free of dirt, i) oldwhitewash or colourwash or any other similar treatment.
Prepare adhesive paste by mixing floor, g4ue and water. Small quantities of alum and coppersulphate aresometimesaddqdin the paste to improve flow and termiteproofmgpropertiesrespective~y.However,thesedaysmodernsynthetic polymer basedadhesives are availablefor wail paper bonding and other bonding applications. The most commonly used synthetic adhesive, whiteglue, is based to form polyvinyl on a chemical known as vinyl acetate which is ~olylnerised acetateadhesive.Theyarenontolric,odourlessandinflan~mable.
The paper is coated with adhesive andspread on the wall and finished smooth with a roller covered with flannel. Wall coverings enjoy immense popularity in the West and are gaining ground in India slowly.
However humid climate like that in Bombay is not most conducive for wall covering, though of course it can be used in air conditioned interiors as in hotels and offices. The choice of designs is very large. Cheerful floral patterns and chickgeometricand stripes are availablebut squiggles, gasses, mock suedes, metallics are also becoming popular. Wipeable vinyls in myriad designs are most popular and practical. One type of wall coveriiigis called "Clarsivin".Another type of wall paper is manufactured by M/s Bhor Industries. Plastic wall fabrics and filmsof vinyl are also used as wall covering.
7.5.6 Wall and Ceilings Boards
Officesare a centre of life for people where they spend most of their day time. Therefore they need a finish on partitions walls and ceilings which is versatile, fire resistant, and sound insulating. One such material is called Gypsum Board. It is light weight, simple to erect and is about 25% cheaper than other materials. It can take on nine different kinds of finish andis ideal for wall linings, ceilings and partitions. Its market name is "Gypboard. Another boardis cement-wood wonder board which is claimed tobevirtuaUyincombustible and its trade names is "Bison Panel". It is a unique combination of two most resilient building materials- cement and wood. It is of highstrength,fire resistant, termite proof,weather resistant alld dimensionally stable and nou-toxic. It is easilyworkable i.e. it can be sawn, drilled, nailed ~ldshapedwith carpentry tools.1t can bepaiiited, laminated or surface coated,Itprovidessound and heat insulation. It is available in thickness from 4 to 40mm. In addition to use as wall panelling, it can be used in a wide range of exteriors and interiors, like prefab houses, partitions, shutters,cupboardsetc. noth her board is called Hex-0-board.It is a high pressure, steain cured, asbestos ccmcnt board which is versatile and elegant. It is totally incombustible and fire-resistant, and ideal for high rise buildings. It can be easily cut, drilled, nailed and screwed with ordinary tools. Flex-0-board can be paintedwith any paint. It can take on decorative paper or laminated paper.It is also smooth,insect andvermin proof.
A new designcr board which can be used for wall panelling is called "E-Board Classic", which offers awide range ofself embossed building boards. It combinessuperior attributes of cement with stylish aesthetics and easy work ability. It is also fire retardant, termite proof, warp and corrosion resistant. It is idcal for wall panelling, partitioning, falsc ceilings and cabinets.
7.5.7 Natural Stone Cladding
Stone is a traditional element which has come into its own today in a newer form, of much thinner slabs and in tile form thus making its installation much easier. Stone is sometimes painted over to highlight the texture or the colouredstone cladding can be used to provide an aestheticappearance. Stone claddingis suitable for most locations injudicious amounts only, as
Fig. : 7.20 : Natural Stone Clrdding
excess of it in a room could cause an overpowering and boring effect. The stone finish is very practicalin bathrooms,kitchens, wide passagesand places which are likely t o collect dirt. ~raniteandmarblearelhemostpopularstonesforcladdings.~thersaresandstone,Kadappa and Dholpur stone which are machine cut and polishedwith thickness from 20mm to 87mn1. The picture which follows shows polishedgranite claddingon the Terminal building, Sahara International Airport Bombay. ThisFinish can be seen in theFigure 7.20.
7.5.8 Agglomerated Marble Wall Facings
Agglomeratedmarblegotdeveloped to fulfiil the demand for new and suitable internaland externalfacings for the buildings to providean aesthetic qualily combinedwith superior technicalperformance.Agglomeratedmarbleiscomposed ofselectedqualitymarblepieces which are bonded together withspecial polyester resins or while cement. This material is used LO produce standardsize blockswhich are then cut into slabsof required thickness. The manufactureof the standardsize block is done by usingavacuum vibromixing method 10 ensure homogeneity and highdurability. This material is strong, aesthetically appealing and can have varying colours. Byvarying combinationsof base materials in terms of grain, size, type and number new colour schemes with originalvisualeffects can be generated. Some of these finishes are given in Figure 7.21.
Flg. 7.21 : Agglorneraled marble wall facings
Agglomeratedmarbleis ideallysuited for both interior and exterior wall surfaces, When used on internal wallsurfacesit offersunmatched elegance. Its exceptional qualities like resistance to atmosphericagencies,freezingand thawing,andits permanence, imparts durabilitywhen used on externalwall surfaces.The agglomerated marble enables us to create exclusive walled surfaces,which can have original shades, and personal touch of the designer,' and a uniformity whichcanberepeated.
In addition to these qualities, another advantage is that it can be fabricated in large slabs. his facilitates easy and practical installation, thus making it an ideal choice for cavitywalls. ~gglomeratedmarble can also be usedas decorative coveringfor furnitureand table tops. It is also an ideal material for use as contour tops for wash basins. The material possesses high compressivestrength,fle~ural strengthandlowwater absorption. The maintenance ofagglomerated marble surface iseasy as dirt, sandearth etc. can be removed by means of a normal rag soaked in water containing a minimum amount of denatured alcohol or neutral detergent.This procedure should be repeated with theragsoakedinwater onlytill a clean surface has been obtained. It is advisable to regularly apply a thin coat of marble wax or other approved wax in solid or liquid form to enhance its colour and retain constant gloss of the surface. Any excess wax should be removed with a dry rag. Agglomerated marble hassimilar characteristics as common themarble. It is prone to staining effect ofsubstances like asphalt, thumsup, coffee, Lipstic,Tea wax, Crayon, but they are removable. However in case of shoe polish, a slight stain remains while inkstains are not removable. Installation of Agglomerated Marble a) b) c) d) e) f) Prepare cement sand mortar l:4and addjust enough water so as to produce a dry mix. Spread the mortar and level it to get a floor screed of 4to 5 cms thickness. Now dust adequately and uniformly with dry cement. Thensprinkle water until the dry cement attainscreamconsistency. Lay the tiles on the preparedscreed without adding any furtherwater and tap them to ensure uniform bedding over the wholesurface. Cement andwater grout should bc applied to the tiles5 to 6 days after they are laid. Remove cxcess grout with damp cloth. Protect finished floor with clean non-staining saw dust when other building work is beingcarriedout.
A paint is a coating of a fluid material, which is applied as a final finish to all surfaccs such as walls, ceilings, metal, wood work, etc. Thc process ofapplication of paint is called painting. The purpose of Painting is:
To protect the surfaccs from weathering effects of the atmosphere. T o prevent corrosion of mctals, and lo protect thcwood surface. T o provide adecorative finish.
7.6.1 Types of Paints
There are several types of paints, which are readily available in t l ~ market e ina variety of shades and colours. They are generally supplied in tins and drums, are available in ready to use form important andaresometimes rcquircd to be thinnedwithoil orturpentincbeforeuse.Some paints are nowdiscussed. a) Aluminium Paint The aluminium paint consists of finely ground aluminium suspendedin quickdrying spirit varnish or slow drying oil varnish. As spirit or oil evaporates the particles of aluminium form a thin metalliccoating on the painted surface. Due to its brilliant silvery shining texture, this paint i s visible even in dark and provides agoodappearance. It also protccts metallic surfaces like iron and steel from corrosion. It has highspreading or coveringpower. Aluminium paints is widely used for painting metal roofs, gas tanks, silos, electric and telegraphicpoles, hotwaterpipes,radiirtorsetc, Asbestos Paint This paint consistsof fibrous asbestos as the main ingredient. It is very effective in retarding the action of fire and resisting the effects ofwater steam and acidicgases. Therefore, it is generally used for painting of public buildings. rt is also used for paintinggutters, spouts, etc. to prevent rusting. It is alsosuitable for repairing metal roofs to stopleakages.
Bituminous and Tar Paints These paints contain bitumen or tar dissolvedin naptha, orpetroleum orwhitespirit. They are alkali-resistant, and havea high coveringcapacity. The paintedsurface prcsentsablackappearance.Thesepaintsaresuitableparticularlyforpaintingstructural steel and ironwork under water. The colour of this paint can be modified by adding certain colouringpigments like rcdoxide. They are also used in this form for painting extcrnal brick workandplasteredsurfaces. Cellulose Paint This is a different kind ofpaint cornparedto ordinary oil paints. Thc differenceis that the cellulose paint hardens byevaporation ofthe thinner or solvent used while the ordinary paints harden by oxidation. The cellulose paint is made fromcelluloidsheets,nitrocotton,photographicfilmsetc. Cellulose paints areslightly costlybut far superior than ordinary paints. They can be easily washed and cleaned. Cellulose paintscan stand extreme degrees of heat and cold andare unaffected by hot water. They dry rapidly and possessgreater hardness, smoothncss and flexibility.These paints are used for painting cars, aircrafts and other surfaces requiringsuperiorfinish. Silicate Paint This paint is produced by mixing calcinedand finelyground pure silica with resinous substances. In a dry state it forms very hard and durable surface. The silica paints possessthe qualityof good adhesion and are used on brickwork, plaster and concrete surfaces directly in two or three coats. NO priming coat is required, but the surface should be wetted beCore application ofthis paint. The painting should not be carried out in hot weather.This paint has no chemical reaction with metals and is unaffected by alkalis. 11 canwithstand exlreme heat and hasgood coveringcapacity.
Rubber Based Paints This paint consists of synthetic resins dissolved in suitable solventsanci then furcdwith other pigments. It possessesseveral special qualities. It has excellent acid, allkali and moistureresistance properties. It dries rapidly and has high coveringcapacity. It is no1 very costly and can be easily applied on different surfaces. The painted surfaces exhibit uniformityin colour on drying. It offerssufficient resistance against weather elements like rain, snowfall and hot sun.
Synthetic rubberpaints are readily usedfor application over fresh and lime plastercdsurfaces.They are used as aprotective coating on concrete floors and masonrysurfaces even when they are not dry completely. We shall now discuss a few paints, which impart excellent decorative frnish to the surfaces. Enamel Paint The enamel paint consists of metallic oxide like white lead or zinc white which is groundwith small quantity of oil and mixed with petroleum spuit containingresinous matter insolution fom.Thusthereare four major constituentsnmely oil, petroleum, metallic oxide and resinous matter. These ~ a i n tare s available in ready to use form in themarket inwidevarieties.The enamel paint hascertainimportantqualities.
It dries slowly, but on dryingit produces avery hard, impervious, elastic, smooth, glossy and durable film over the painted surface. This paint is flowable, and leavesnobrush marks like other paints. The enamel painted surface is easilywashable.
The enamel painted surface is not affected by hot and cold water, acid, alkalies, steam, fumes of gases, etc. Enamel paints, with so many qualities,are used both for internal and external surface painting. The appearance of glossinessof painted surface can be further irnpro1:t:d hy application of a coat of titaniumwbite in pale linseed oil on the surface before the application of the enamelpaint.
Theenamelpaintsaregenerallyusedforpainting of porches, entrance halls, decks, staircasesandconcretesurfaces. Some of theenamel paints are BrolacPolyurethane Enamel, Shalimar SuperlacSyntheticEname1, etc., among a large variety available, These paints are available in a large number ofshades.
Emulsion Paint This paint is also known as Stucco pailit or Brick and Masonrypaint. This paint consists of avehicle, such as polyvinyl acetate, synthetic resins like chlorinated rubber, etc. as the main co~istituent. Thisvehicle imparts an excellent qualityof alkali resistance to this paint.Additionally, the emulsio~l paint has the qualities ofgood workability, higher durability and quick drying. Stucco, brick and masonrysurfacesshould first be washedwithzincsulphate solution so as to reduce free alkalinity, which is present in these surfaces.The emulsion paint should now be applied on these surfaces.
One of the emulsion paints is "Lux01Silk. Plastic Emulsion Paints The plastic paint consists of avariety of plastics as the base, which is also the main constituent of the paint. When this paint is thinned with water it is known as plastic emulsion paint. The plastic paints have thc qualities of quick drying, high covering capacity a~id~rovidingdecorativeappcaraiice.The~epaints havegoodad1iesionpower.These paints requiregood surface preparation, andcan beapplied bybrushes or byspraying equipment like spray gun. These paints arevery popular and arewidely used for paintingshow rooms, cinema halls, auditoriums, offices, etc., whereattractive appearance and decorative finish is essential. Acrylic emulsion paints have becornevery popular. They are carefully formulated emulsion based on a durable polymer resin ~ t a high h opacity, micronised pigments and anti fungicide and statsilising agents. They are also sometimes reinforced with silicon or quartz. They can beapplied by brush, roller or spray. Some names in this field are Nerolac AcrylicEmulsion with silicone, Armor QuartzfromJohnsonNicholson,
7.6.2 Cement Paints
Super S~iowcem is a quick mixingand fast setting decorative water proof powder which ismade with a white portland cement. It is made into a liquid of uniform consistencyby mixing with equal volumc of water and is applied directly to the surface within one hour of mixing either by using brush or by spraying.The liquid shouldbe kept stirred during use. Beforeapplication of the first coat by brush, the surfaceshollld be properlywetted.Thesecohdorsubsequent coats should be applied by brushing or spraying. At the end of the day's work super snowcem applied surface should be wet cured by sprinkling a line water spray. These materials comein a large number of attracliveshades which can be applied to interior and exteriorsurfaces olwalls, fiber boards, concrete, A C shect, rcndcrings, etc. One of these Cement Paints finish is shown Fig7.22 Cement paints provide hard, durable, water proof surface. It does not rub, flake or peel offand can be washed. It is not recommended for direct application to anysurface containing gypsum plaster, chunam, lime wash, oil paints, varnishes etc. Some more types of cement paints are calledColorcemandTcrracem.Some cement paintsclaimtocontainsuperplasticizers, effective water and fungus repellents and fade resistant colourpi~mcnts. They maycontain external hydrophobicagcntstopreventclampnessandFutilcGradeTiQ for grealer opacity and coverage.
~ i g 7.22 . : Cemenl Pnlnts Plnish
7.6.3 Synthetic Oil Bound Distemper
A distemper is composed of base, glue,water or carrier or thinner andacolouring pigment. distemper and Oil bound didemper types, oil bound They canbe ofwhite distemper, coloi~red distemper is a variety of oil paint, in which thc drying oil is so treated thal it mixes with water. Such distempers are diluted or thiniled with water,when required.These disternpers,on drying, form a durable and washable coating. Onc type of oil bound distemper is supplied in a thick paste like consistency, and has to bc rliixecl with about one third water beforc applying. Two coats of distemper paintedwith a time lapse of six hours between the two coats are sufficient to get a pleasant finish free of patches. Freshly plastered surfaced should bc allowed to thoroughly dry and then applied with an under coat of spccial cement primer.The oil bound distempers come in attractive colours and may have a covering capacity of 7to 9 sq.m per kg.
SAQ 2 :
1. Mention all types of wall finishes.
List the commonly used wall papers and describe the f paper.
~ procedure g of w a l l
List the types of paints.
7 . 7 MISCELLANEOUS DECORATIVE FINISHES
7.7.1 Decorative Ceiling Tiles
There are several types of decorativeceiling tiles available. One type is made from special qualitythree layered particleboard.It is flat pressedandboardedwithBWP-gradephenol FormaldehydeSyntheticResin.This material is ideal for making rigid and strong decorative ceiling tiles. They are available in embossed designs also.
PI$. 7.23 : Dccoratlve Celllng TUes
These tiles are available both hrtlf and full perforated in size of 60 X60cms and 12mm thick. They are fire resistant, termite, weather and fungus proof, dimensionally stable and warp free, and provide excellent insulationagainst heat and sound. Topline Ceiling Tiles is one such type. Another type is Anchor CeilingTile.Similarly,there are other brands, which come indifferent architecturalpatterns,andarecomideredideaIforhomes,offices,showrooms,restaurants, auditoriums,airportsandfactories.Theycomeindesignslikediamond, chequered,paragon, Serrated and Gothic.They combine beauty and safety. These tiles and finish Can be seen in Figure 7.23.
' 5 2 'Z
o ag yo3
E e. b2 E Q ~,,: D 0
7.7.2 Decorative Ceiling§
False ceiling areused inbuildiigs for architecturalapplications.These ceilingscome indifferent materials,and they offer solutionsfor commercialdesign problemssome ofthese ceilings are showing in Figure 7.2.4. Recently, colour coated steel sets of false ceiling panel have entered the market.Theycome in differentcolours, f ~ s h eand s patterns.
Flg, 7.24 : Decoreilvt Ceiling
Some such ceilings are called "Tract' and "Supersil".Another decorative ceilingconsists of aluminiumsheets slatesPouvers.This ceiling system is suitable mainly for centrally air conditionedbuildings.
7.7.3 Decorative Films for Glass Surfaces
Another decorativefinishwhichis becoming popular is the decorativeadhesive coatedfh on glass in windows, doors and on mirrors, shower partitions, acrjllicceiling, panels andshowcases. It rendersglass shatter-resistant anddiffusessunlightso as to lendsoftglow and prevent discolouration of interiors. It isultravioletrays resistant.It reduces heavy air conditioningbills
and lends sophistication and style to the interiors. These C i s come in a range of finishes and patterns, stained glass or embossed. One such material is known "Glass DecorN. 7.7.4 Decorative Damp Proofer NOW damp proofers are available which protect aswell as decorate.They protect surfaces from dampness, leakage, seepage, fungus gowth, sunlight, week acids, etc. and also decorates like a paint. They are inherently coloured in as many as 30 shades or more and can be applied directly over the plaster providing a smooth satin finish. One such damp proofer is known as "Chemistik ProDecor".
7.7.5 Decorative Laminates
Another material which is becoming very popular in imparting decorative finish in interiors is decorative laminate. These laminates are available in several types offinishes like plain shade, geometrical, textile marble and grade, metallic etc. They generally come in'sizes of g ' -0 " x4 ' -0 " with general size thickness of 1.0 and 1.55mm.There are several brands available in the market like Formica, Neoluxe,Sunglass, Decolam, etc. Flooring grades which arefire retardant arealsoauailable.Theinformation about differentfinishesandbrandstogether with specific designs is given in Table 2for your ready reference. Post Forming Laminates Another iiew decorative laminate which has just come and is being claimed as India's first world class post forming laminator is "Curvica".The post forming laminates can be bent by heat to body liuggingshapes in furniture or other building fixtures.Unlike the normal decorative laminates, this new laminate, apart from being aesthetically pleasing, also possesses the advantage of lacking sharp projections and corners. Activity Since, decorativc finishes are heingaddedratherquicklyand newerfinishesare beingannounced everyday, the bcst way to learnabout them is to kcep an updated record. As part of the learning activity, you areadvised to keep separate pages for wall, floor and ceiling finishes, whercin you may record, namc of the finish, its technical background, manufacturer,coslelc.
The decorative finishes encompass all surfaccs in a building, like wall, floor, ceiling, concrcte etc.Thedecorativefinish not only adds to acsthelicappearance, but also provides protective coating to the surace. The decorativc finishes in plastcr are divcrse in naturewith rough finishes like pebble dash & rough cast, at one end, and tcxtured or ornamentnl finish, at the other end. Concrete can beimparteddecorative finishes like Corm work and texture finishes.Apopular finish is exposed agregate finish. Ceramic tilcs arc becoming popular as lloor finishes, though newer materials like marble aggloincratcd tilcs ant! foam backed vinyl flooring are takingover gradually. A new flooring type is interlocking concrete block Ilooring. In the wall finishes, exterior wall coating are coming up in a big way, together with wall and cciling boards. In paints enamel paint and plasticemulsic~n paints, arc the most l'avoureddecorative paints, whilecements paints like snowcem remain as popular as evcr. In the interior decorative finishes,decorative laminates are becomingvcry popular, and they come in largcvariety of finishes. Thus overall it is observed that there is an explosion of informalion about new decorative finishes, and almost every quarter a new decorative finish is entering the building industry.
7.9 KEY WORDS
Agglomerated marble Paint PVC Plastering Quality selected marble pieces, bonded togcther with s p i a l polyester resin. Coating of a fluid materiai Poly Vinyl Chloride Process of covering u.ieven surfaces with a plaslic material like plaster
7.10 FURTHER READINGS :
"QuartzReinforcedFlooring",Indian Architect & Builder; Feb; 92.
Bhingarde Anil, "All In a Chart", India11Architect & Builder, May 92. The CFA Flooririg Comperldiunt forArchitectf and Specifiers, TheConslructionPress,
Indian Architect & Builder,July 92. SB Rai, "AgglomeratedMarbleFor Internal and ExternalFacings",CivilEngineering and Construction Review, August1991. Arora SP & Bindra SP "A Text book of Building Cnnstrudion" Dhanpat Rai Sr Sons. Sidney Mindess & J. Francis Young, Concrete, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Inside Outside, the Indian design magazine,17/19 Dalal Street, Bombay.
7.11 ANSWERS to SAQs
Check your Answers for all SAQswith specification.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.