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Formula Sheet 4 CXC

Area and Perimeter Formula

Perimeter = distance around the outside (add all sides).

Trigonometric Formula
Opposite side opposite to angle Adjacent side beside (adjacent) to angle Hypotenuse- longest side opposite sin = hypotenus adjacent cos = hypotenus opposite tan = adjacent hyp adj a opp b Remember: works only on right angle triangles c hyp

Pythagorean Theorem
Triples: 3,4,5 5,12,13 8,15,17
C is the hypotenuse, a and b are the other sides. Remember: works only on right angle triangles

Coordinate Geometry Formula

Volume and Surface Area
Distance Formula:

Midpoint Formula:

Gradient Formula:

Equation of a line
Slope-Intercept Method:

y = mx + c

Point-Gradient Method:

Parallel lines have equal slope. Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal gradients.

Angle Information Complementary angles - two angles whose sum is 90. Supplementary angles - two angles whose sum is 180. General Triangle Information Sum of angles of triangle = 180.

Parallel lines

Corresponding angles are equal. 2= 6, 3= 7, 4=

1= 8 3=


Alternate Interior angles are equal. 4= 5

Measure of exterior angle of triangle = the 6, sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles. The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

Alternate Exterior angles are equal. 1= 8, 2= 7 Same side interior angles are supplementary. m 3+m 5=180, m 4+m 6=180

Solving triangles
Polygons Sum of Interior Angles:

c B a

b C

Sum of Exterior Angles: Each Interior Angle (regular poly):

Sine rule
a b c sin A sin B sin C = = = = or a b c sin A sin B sin C Used when any two sides and their corresponding angles are involved to find one missing side or angle.

Each Exterior Angle (regular poly):

Cosine rule
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ac cos B

Quadratic Formula

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C


ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x= b b 2 4ac 2a


Used when three sides and an angle between them are given to find the other side Herons Formula Area of a triangle given only the length of the sides A = s( s a )( s b)( s c ) a+b+c 2 Capital letters represent Angles Common letters represent sides where s =

Circle Facts
radius diameter

5. Radius to tangent is 90o at point of contact. 6. The tangents to a circle from an external point T are equal in length. 7. Angle between tangent to circle and chord at the point of contact is eqaual to the to the angle in the alternet segment 2. 1a. O


Sector Diameter = 2 radius Area of circle = r2 Circumference of circle = 2r or d 3.


360 2 Area of sector = r 360

Length of arc = 2r

6. 5.

Area of Segment = Area of sec tor Area of triangle

1 2 2 = r r sin 360 2

T 7.

Angles in circles

1. a,b,c,d Angle at the center in twice angle at the circumference. 2. Angle formed on the diameter in 90o 3. Angles in the same segment are equal



1d. 4. opposite angles in a cyclic Quadrilateral are supplimentary( add up to 180o)

Adding or subtracting matrices a b e f a e b f = c d g h c g d h Multiplying Matrices a b e f ae + bg af + bh = c d g h ce + dg cf + dh Determinant of 22 Matrix a b A= If c d A = ad cb A singular matrices has a determinant of 0 Adjoint of 22 matrix a b A= c d d b A adjo int = c a Inverse of 22 matrix

Transformational Matrices
REFLECTION Multiply matrices by each point to get reflection in

x- axis
1 0 0 1

y- axis
1 0 0 1

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 0


Movement of x in x direction and y in ydirection add matrix

x y to eack point to get its image.

ROTATION Multiply by matrices to get rotation of -degrees clockwise about origin (0,0)

cos R sin 1 R180 0

sin cos 0 1

0 R90 1 0 R270 1

1 0 1 0

Multiply each point by scale factor K to get the image of the point for an enlargment from the origin.


a b A= c d 1 A 1 = A adjoint A or A 1 = d b 1 ad bc c a

= universal set = is a member of = is not a member of = union = intersect = null set A' = Elements not in set A

Reverse oppertions
+ _

+ a ax

sin cos tan f ( x)

sin 1 cos 1 tan 1 f 1 ( x )

Shape Cube


Surface Area

lll=l3 1 l l Cuboid lwh h l w Prism bh + lb + sl + s hl h l b Cylinder

2 2 2r r +2 h rh



1 bhl 2

h or
2r ( r + h )

r h r2 + rs 3

4 r 3 3 2 4r

2006 D. Ferguson