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cxc MATHS Formula Sheet

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Perimeter = distance around the outside (add all sides).

Trigonometric Formula

Opposite side opposite to angle Adjacent side beside (adjacent) to angle Hypotenuse- longest side opposite sin = hypotenus adjacent cos = hypotenus opposite tan = adjacent hyp adj a opp b Remember: works only on right angle triangles c hyp

Pythagorean Theorem

Triples: 3,4,5 5,12,13 8,15,17

C is the hypotenuse, a and b are the other sides. Remember: works only on right angle triangles

Volume and Surface Area

Distance Formula:

Midpoint Formula:

Gradient Formula:

Equation of a line

Slope-Intercept Method:

y = mx + c

Point-Gradient Method:

Parallel lines have equal slope. Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal gradients.

Angle Information Complementary angles - two angles whose sum is 90. Supplementary angles - two angles whose sum is 180. General Triangle Information Sum of angles of triangle = 180.

Parallel lines

1= 8 3=

5,

Measure of exterior angle of triangle = the 6, sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles. The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

Alternate Exterior angles are equal. 1= 8, 2= 7 Same side interior angles are supplementary. m 3+m 5=180, m 4+m 6=180

Solving triangles

A

Polygons Sum of Interior Angles:

c B a

b C

Sine rule

a b c sin A sin B sin C = = = = or a b c sin A sin B sin C Used when any two sides and their corresponding angles are involved to find one missing side or angle.

Cosine rule

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ac cos B

Quadratic Formula

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C

If

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x= b b 2 4ac 2a

then

Used when three sides and an angle between them are given to find the other side Herons Formula Area of a triangle given only the length of the sides A = s( s a )( s b)( s c ) a+b+c 2 Capital letters represent Angles Common letters represent sides where s =

Circle Facts

radius diameter

Tangent

5. Radius to tangent is 90o at point of contact. 6. The tangents to a circle from an external point T are equal in length. 7. Angle between tangent to circle and chord at the point of contact is eqaual to the to the angle in the alternet segment 2. 1a. O

segment

4.

Length of arc = 2r

6. 5.

1 2 2 = r r sin 360 2

B

T 7.

Angles in circles

A E D T

1. a,b,c,d Angle at the center in twice angle at the circumference. 2. Angle formed on the diameter in 90o 3. Angles in the same segment are equal

1b.

1c.

Matrices

Adding or subtracting matrices a b e f a e b f = c d g h c g d h Multiplying Matrices a b e f ae + bg af + bh = c d g h ce + dg cf + dh Determinant of 22 Matrix a b A= If c d A = ad cb A singular matrices has a determinant of 0 Adjoint of 22 matrix a b A= c d d b A adjo int = c a Inverse of 22 matrix

Transformational Matrices

REFLECTION Multiply matrices by each point to get reflection in

x- axis

1 0 0 1

y- axis

1 0 0 1

y=x

0 1 1 0

y=-x

0 1 1 0

TRANSLATION

ROTATION Multiply by matrices to get rotation of -degrees clockwise about origin (0,0)

sin cos 0 1

0 R90 1 0 R270 1

1 0 1 0

Enlargment

Multiply each point by scale factor K to get the image of the point for an enlargment from the origin.

Sets

a b A= c d 1 A 1 = A adjoint A or A 1 = d b 1 ad bc c a

= universal set = is a member of = is not a member of = union = intersect = null set A' = Elements not in set A

Reverse oppertions

+ _

x

+ a ax

Shape Cube

Volume

Surface Area

2 2 2r r +2 h rh

6l2

2lw+2hw+2lh

1 bhl 2

h or

2r ( r + h )

Cone

r h r2 + rs 3

2

Sphere

4 r 3 3 2 4r

2006 D. Ferguson

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