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# Formula Sheet 4 CXC

## Area and Perimeter Formula

Perimeter = distance around the outside (add all sides).

Trigonometric Formula
Opposite side opposite to angle Adjacent side beside (adjacent) to angle Hypotenuse- longest side opposite sin = hypotenus adjacent cos = hypotenus opposite tan = adjacent hyp adj a opp b Remember: works only on right angle triangles c hyp

Pythagorean Theorem
Triples: 3,4,5 5,12,13 8,15,17
C is the hypotenuse, a and b are the other sides. Remember: works only on right angle triangles

## Coordinate Geometry Formula

Volume and Surface Area
Distance Formula:

Midpoint Formula:

Equation of a line
Slope-Intercept Method:

y = mx + c

Parallel lines have equal slope. Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal gradients.

Angle Information Complementary angles - two angles whose sum is 90. Supplementary angles - two angles whose sum is 180. General Triangle Information Sum of angles of triangle = 180.

Parallel lines

1= 8 3=

5,

## Alternate Interior angles are equal. 4= 5

Measure of exterior angle of triangle = the 6, sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles. The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

Alternate Exterior angles are equal. 1= 8, 2= 7 Same side interior angles are supplementary. m 3+m 5=180, m 4+m 6=180

Solving triangles
A
Polygons Sum of Interior Angles:

c B a

b C

## Sum of Exterior Angles: Each Interior Angle (regular poly):

Sine rule
a b c sin A sin B sin C = = = = or a b c sin A sin B sin C Used when any two sides and their corresponding angles are involved to find one missing side or angle.

## Each Exterior Angle (regular poly):

Cosine rule
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ac cos B

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C

If

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x= b b 2 4ac 2a

then

Used when three sides and an angle between them are given to find the other side Herons Formula Area of a triangle given only the length of the sides A = s( s a )( s b)( s c ) a+b+c 2 Capital letters represent Angles Common letters represent sides where s =

Circle Facts

Tangent
5. Radius to tangent is 90o at point of contact. 6. The tangents to a circle from an external point T are equal in length. 7. Angle between tangent to circle and chord at the point of contact is eqaual to the to the angle in the alternet segment 2. 1a. O

segment

4.

## 360 2 Area of sector = r 360

Length of arc = 2r

6. 5.

## Area of Segment = Area of sec tor Area of triangle

1 2 2 = r r sin 360 2
B

T 7.

Angles in circles
A E D T

1. a,b,c,d Angle at the center in twice angle at the circumference. 2. Angle formed on the diameter in 90o 3. Angles in the same segment are equal

1b.

1c.

## 1d. 4. opposite angles in a cyclic Quadrilateral are supplimentary( add up to 180o)

Matrices
Adding or subtracting matrices a b e f a e b f = c d g h c g d h Multiplying Matrices a b e f ae + bg af + bh = c d g h ce + dg cf + dh Determinant of 22 Matrix a b A= If c d A = ad cb A singular matrices has a determinant of 0 Adjoint of 22 matrix a b A= c d d b A adjo int = c a Inverse of 22 matrix

Transformational Matrices
REFLECTION Multiply matrices by each point to get reflection in

x- axis
1 0 0 1

y- axis
1 0 0 1

y=x
0 1 1 0

y=-x
0 1 1 0

TRANSLATION

## x y to eack point to get its image.

ROTATION Multiply by matrices to get rotation of -degrees clockwise about origin (0,0)

## cos R sin 1 R180 0

sin cos 0 1

0 R90 1 0 R270 1

1 0 1 0

Enlargment
Multiply each point by scale factor K to get the image of the point for an enlargment from the origin.

Sets

a b A= c d 1 A 1 = A adjoint A or A 1 = d b 1 ad bc c a

= universal set = is a member of = is not a member of = union = intersect = null set A' = Elements not in set A

Reverse oppertions
+ _
x

+ a ax

Shape Cube

Volume

Surface Area

2 2 2r r +2 h rh

6l2

2lw+2hw+2lh

1 bhl 2

h or
2r ( r + h )

Cone
r h r2 + rs 3
2

Sphere
4 r 3 3 2 4r

2006 D. Ferguson