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PRA Techniques

 Technology Map
 Matrix ranking
 Consequence diagramme

Bharat S. Sontakki (bharatss@naarm.ernet.in)


Why technology mapping?
• Diffusion history of farm technologies

• Develop and promote appropriate


technologies

• Avoid duplication of research efforts


Technology Mapping

1.Why social knowledge for scientists?

•Adoption
•Rejection PLAN
TD
Social issues •Discontinuance TAR
•Overadoption TTr

Technology map
Technology Map

• It is a map to show the behavioural


patterns towards a technology
• Technology behavioural patterns are
adoption, rejection, discontinuance,
reinvention and over adoption
• Reasons for specific behaviour
What the map contains?

• Adoption behaviours and reasons


• Technologies may be HYV, artificial
insemination, balanced feeding schedule, low
cost post harvest structures, family planning
techniques, etc.
Technology Map

adoption discontinuance

Technology map

Over adoption rejection

reinvention
Procedure
• Identify KIs
• Initiate discussion based on observations
• Progress from common technologies to complex ones
• Document technology adoption behaviours separately
for crops, livestock, NRM, etc. (adoption, rejection,
discontinuance, reinvention & over adoption together
with reasons for the same
• Explore and analyze diffusion histories
• Depict the technology adoption behaviours on village
map with suitable legend (two separate maps one for
crops and the other for AH)
TECHNOLOGY MAP (Crops)
RAINFALL:640MM

ARKA ANAMIKA
(BHENDI)(adopted
Rejected,discontinued
PKM-1 TOMATO (adoption/
Negative consequence)
overadoption)

CO-1(ONION)passive rejection
TECHNOLOGY MAP(ANIMALS)
RAINFALL:640MM

ARTIFICIAL
INSEMINATION)
NILI SURTHI

VACCINATION
Matrix ranking

• What is a matrix?
– A rectangular array of cells basically rows and
columns
• Why it is used?
– Stakeholders’ comparisons of technologies
• What is ranking?
– It is the ordinal arrangement of the technologies
w.r.t. an indicator
Methodology for Matrix Ranking
(steps)
• Identify technologies to be compared using the
matrix ranking (all varieties, all agronomic
practices, all IPM practices)
• Identify ‘technology behaviour’ to be matrix ranked
(adoption/rejection/discontinuance)
• Ask KIs to identify indicators specific to
technology (hybrids/varieties/practices) and
behaviour (high yield/low yield,more pest less pest
etc.,)
• Facilitate KIs to rank the technologies on the
identified criteria/indicators
Methodology for Matrix Ranking
(steps)
• Minimum five key informants for the exercise

• Convert ranks to values (scores) – reverse the ranks

• Add up rank values (scores) for 5 KIs

• Work out the total rank value (score) for the


technologies compared/indicator identified
Utility of Matrix Ranking

• It gives the relative comparison of


technologies/indicators for various technology
behaviour
• It highlights the trends of technology behaviour
to be used in transfer of technology
• It helps to develop appropriate technologies-
technology development
TOTAL AND RANK CRITERIA WISE AND TECHNOLOGY WISE
FOR ADOPTION /REJECTION AND DISCONTINUANCE
Matrix Ranking (Fisheries) : adoption
Brakish
Key shrimp Paddy cum
Criteria crab water shrimp
informants fish
fishes III – 2
I–4 III – 2 III – 2 II – 3
KI I–4 II – 3
I–4 III – 2 I–4
Net Profit KII
III – 2
I–4
I–4 III – 2
KIII I–4 I–4
KIV II – 3 IV – 1 I–4 III – 3
II – 2 II – 2
KV I-4 III – 2 II – 2
I–4
KI IV – 1 III- 3 I–4 II – 3
I–4
KII III –
I 2 II – 3 I–4 IV- 1
Disease KIII III – 2 II – 3
I–4
I–4 IV – 1
I–4
KIV II – 3 IV – 1 I–4 II – 2
I–4
KV III – 2 II – 3 I–4 IV – 1
V–1 I–4
KI III – 2 I–4 III – 2
III – 2 I–4
KII III – 2 I–4 II – 3
Labor IV – 2 III – 2
I–4
I–4 III – 2
KIII I–4
problem KIV II – 2 IV – 1 I–4 II – 3
III – 2 I–4
V III – 2 I–4 IV – 1
III – 3
KI I–4 I–4 III – 3 IV – 1
Good II – 3
KII I–4 I–4 II – 3 II – 3
II – 3
quality KIII I–4 I–4 II – 3 II – 3
I–4
KIV II- 3 II – 3 I–4 III – 3
seeds KV II – 3
I-4 I–4 II – 3 IV – 1
I–4 I–4
KI I–4 I–4 I–4
Polution IV – 1 II – 3
K II II – 3 II – 3 III – 2
IV – 1 II – 3
and water K III II – 4 II – 3 III – 2
III – 2 I–4
K IV II – 3 I–4 IV – 1
quality KV II – 3 II – 4
I–4 II – 4 I-4

88
Total score 68 64 88 57
CONSEQUENCE DIAGRAM
• It is the pictorial depiction of consequences faced
by the farmers by using a technology/enterprise
• We normally use a flow diagram with arrows
connected to consequences
• Here also we use the key informants around 5 in
number
• Note down the name of the key informants
• Then elicit the consequences of using various
technologies/enterprises
CONSEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR CROP

ONION TURMERIC

LESS SPACING LESS PESTS

MORE PLNT POPN LESS EXPENDITURE

MORE YIELD MORE SAVING

RICH
IMPACT DIAGRAM
NAME OF THE TECHNOLOGY:NILI SURTHI

POSITIVE NEGATIVE
ASPECTS ASPECTS