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mixed signal circuit design notes

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BASIC SUBTRACTOR OR DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER A simple subtractor or difference amplifier can be constructed with four resistors and an op amp, as shown in Figure 1 below. It should be noted that this is not an in-amp (see Tutorial MT-061), but it is often used in applications where a simple differential to single-ended conversion is required, such as current sensing.

R1 V1 _ VOUT 1+ + R1' V2 R2' REF Where Kr = Total Fractional Mismatch of R1/ R2 TO R1'/R2' CMR = 20 log10 R2 R1 R2

Kr

R2 R1

Figure 1: Op Amp Subtractor or Difference Amplifier There are several fundamental problems with this simple circuit. First, the input impedance seen by V1 and V2 isn't balanced. The input impedance seen by V1 is R1, but the input impedance seen by V2 is R1' + R2'. The configuration can also be quite problematic in terms of CMR, since even a small source impedance imbalance will degrade the workable CMR. This problem can be solved with well-matched open-loop buffers in series with each input (for example, using a precision dual op amp). But, this adds complexity to a simple circuit, and may introduce offset drift and non-linearity. The second problem with this circuit is that the CMR is primarily determined by the resistor ratio matching, not the op amp. The resistor ratios R1/R2 and R1'/R2' must match extremely well to reject common mode noiseat least as well as a typical op amp CMR of 100 dB. Note also that the absolute resistor values are relatively unimportant.

Rev.0, 10/08, WK

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MT-068

Picking four 1% resistors from a single batch may yield a net ratio matching of 0.1%, which will achieve a CMR of 66 dB (assuming R1 = R2). But if one resistor differs from the rest by 1%, the CMR will drop to only 46 dB. Clearly, very limited performance is possible using ordinary discrete resistors in this circuit (without resorting to hand matching). This is because the best standard off-the-shelf RNC/RNR style resistor tolerances are on the order of 0.1%. In general, the worst case CMR for a circuit of this type is given by the following equation:

Eq. 1

where Kr is the individual resistor tolerance in fractional form, for the case where 4 discrete resistors are used. This equation shows that the worst case CMR for a tolerance build-up for 4 unselected same-nominal-value 1% resistors to be no better than 34 dB. A single resistor network with a net matching tolerance of Kr would probably be used for this circuit, in which case the expression would be as noted in the figure, or:

Eq. 2

A net matching tolerance of 0.1% in the resistor ratios therefore yields a worst case dc CMR of 66 dB using Equation 2, and assuming R1 = R2. Note that either case assumes a significantly higher amplifier CMR (i.e., >100 dB). Clearly for high CMR, such circuits need four singlesubstrate resistors, with very high absolute and TC matching. Such networks using thick/thinfilm technology are available from companies such as Caddock and Vishay, in ratio matches of 0.01% or better.

In implementing the simple difference amplifier, rather than incurring the higher costs and PCB real estate limitations of a precision op amp plus a separate resistor network, it is usually better to seek out a completely monolithic solution. The AMP03 is just such a precision difference amplifier, which includes an on-chip laser trimmed precision thin film resistor network. It is shown in Figure 2 below. The typical CMR of the AMP03F is 100 dB, and the small-signal bandwidth is 3 MHz.

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MT-068

Another interesting variation on the simple difference amplifier is found in the AD629 difference amplifier, optimized for high common-mode input voltages. A typical current-sensing application is shown in Figure 3 below. The AD629 is a differential-to-single-ended amplifier with a gain of unity. It can handle a common-mode voltage of 270 V with supply voltages of 15 V, with a small signal bandwidth of 500 kHz.

Figure 3: High Common-Mode Current Sensing Using The AD629 Difference Amplifier

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MT-068

The high common-mode voltage range is obtained by attenuating the non-inverting input (pin 3) by a factor of 20 times, using the R1-R2 divider network. On the inverting input, resistor R5 is chosen such that R5||R3 equals resistor R2. The noise gain of the circuit is equal to 20 [1 + R4/(R3||R5)], thereby providing unity gain for differential input voltages. Laser wafer trimming of the R1-R5 thin film resistors yields a minimum CMR of 86 dB @ 500 Hz for the AD629B. Within an application, it is good practice to maintain balanced source impedances on both inputs, so dummy resistor RCOMP is chosen to equal to the value of the shunt sensing resistor RSHUNT.

APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT SENSING USING DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIERS

Difference amplifiers are often used in current sensing applications. Figure 4 shows a block diagram of the AD8202 difference amplifier which is optimized for automotive applications.

The A1 input amplifier is configured as a simple subtractor or difference amplifier with a gain of 10. The A2 amplifier provides an additional non-inverting gain of two. The use of thin film resistors allows an input common-mode voltage up to 28 V when the AD8202 operates on a single supply voltage of 3.5 V to 12 V. The thin film resistors also provide matching within 0.01% which yields an overall CMR of 80 dB. Figure 5 shows how the AD8202 is configured for high-side and low-side operation in a battery current sense application. The clamp diodes protect the AD8202 input from large inductive spikes which can occur when the power device is suddenly turned off. A four-terminal (Kelvin sense) shunt resistor is used to sense the current.

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MT-068

HIGH-SIDE CURRENT SENSE LOW-SIDE CURRENT SENSE

BAT

BAT

Figure 5: High and Low-Side Battery Current Sensing Using the AD8202 28V Difference Amplifier

The difference amplifiers considered up to this point achieve their high common-mode input voltage by the use of thin film resistors to divide the input voltage down. The AD8210, AD8211, AD8212, AD8213 and AD8215 difference amplifiers, on the other hand, achieve their high common-mode input voltage of 65 V by virtue of the high breakdown voltages of their input transistors. This provides the advantage of higher bandwidth, and higher input impedance. This architecture also features lower noise because the input signal is not first attenuated. In typical applications, the AD8210 amplifies a small differential input voltage generated by the load current flowing through a shunt resistor. The AD8210 rejects high common-mode voltages (up to 65 V) and provides a ground referenced buffered output that interfaces with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Figure 6 shows a simplified schematic of the AD8210.

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MT-068

The AD8210 is comprised of two main blocks, a differential amplifier and an instrumentation amplifier. A load current flowing through the external shunt resistor produces a voltage at the input terminals of the AD8210. The input terminals are connected to the differential amplifier (A1) by R1 and R2. Amplifier A1 nulls the voltage appearing across its own input terminals by adjusting the current through R1 and R2 with Q1 and Q2. When the input signal to the AD8210 is 0 V, the currents in R1 and R2 are equal. When the differential signal is nonzero, the current increases through one of the resistors and decreases in the other. The current difference is proportional to the size and polarity of the input signal. The differential currents through Q1 and Q2 are converted into a differential voltage by R3 and R4. A2 is configured as an instrumentation amplifier. The differential voltage is converted into a single-ended output voltage by A2. The gain is internally set with precision-trimmed, thin film resistors to 20 V/V. The output reference voltage is easily adjusted by the VREF1 pin and the VREF2 pin. In a typical configuration, VREF1 is connected to VCC while VREF2 is connected to GND. In this case, the output is centered at VCC/2 when the input signal is 0 V.

REFERENCES

1. Hank Zumbahlen, Basic Linear Design, Analog Devices, 2006, ISBN: 0-915550-28-1. Also available as Linear Circuit Design Handbook, Elsevier-Newnes, 2008, ISBN-10: 0750687037, ISBN-13: 9780750687034. Chapter 2. Walter G. Jung, Op Amp Applications, Analog Devices, 2002, ISBN 0-916550-26-5, Also available as Op Amp Applications Handbook, Elsevier/Newnes, 2005, ISBN 0-7506-7844-5. Chapter 2. Charles Kitchin and Lew Counts, A Designer's Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, 3rd Edition, Analog Devices, 2006.

2.

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Copyright 2009, Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Analog Devices assumes no responsibility for customer product design or the use or application of customers products or for any infringements of patents or rights of others which may result from Analog Devices assistance. All trademarks and logos are property of their respective holders. Information furnished by Analog Devices applications and development tools engineers is believed to be accurate and reliable, however no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices regarding technical accuracy and topicality of the content provided in Analog Devices Tutorials.

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