You are on page 1of 376

First published 2010 by

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd


42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064

Offices also in Sydney and Melbourne

Typeset in 10.5/12.5pt Times

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2010

The moral rights of the author and contributors have been asserted.

ISBN 978 1 74216 026 9

Reproduction and communication for educational purposes
The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum
of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the
greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational
institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational
institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration
notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL).

Reproduction and communication for other purposes
Except as permitted under the Act (for example, a fair dealing
for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part
of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without
prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the
publisher at the address above.

Illustrated by Aptara and the Wiley Art Studio

Typeset in India by Aptara

Printed in Singapore by
Markono Print Media Pte Ltd

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The publishers would like to thank the following contributors:
Ross Allen Joe Ardley Caroline Denney
Elena Iampolsky Peter Matassa Carolyn Mews
David Phillips Colin Shnier Sonja Stambulic
Jenny Watson Ian Younger


Table of contents
About eBook PLUS v
Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials 1
Exercise 1A The binomial theorem 1
Exercise 1B Polynomials 2
Exercise 1C Division of polynomials 4
Exercise 1D Linear graphs 7
Exercise 1E Quadratic graphs 8
Exercise 1F Cubic graphs 11
Exercise 1G Quartic graphs 13
Chapter review 15
Short answer 15
Multiple choice 16
Extended response 17
Chapter 2 Functions and transformations 21
Exercise 2A Transformations and the parabola 21
Exercise 2B The cubic function in power form 22
Exercise 2C The power function (the hyperbola) 25
Exercise 2D The power function (the truncus) 29
Exercise 2E The square root function in power form 32
Exercise 2F The absolute value function 34
Exercise 2G Transformations with matrices 38
Exercise 2H Sum, difference and product functions 40
Exercise 2I Composite functions and functional
equations 41
Exercise 2J Modelling 43
Chapter review 46
Short answer 46
Multiple choice 48
Extended response 49
Exam practice 1 52
Short answer 52
Multiple choice 52
Extended response 53
Chapter 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations 54
Exercise 3A The index laws 54
Exercise 3B Logarithm laws 55
Exercise 3C Exponential equations 56
Exercise 3D Logarithmic equations using
any base 58
Exercise 3E Exponential equations (base e) 60
Exercise 3F Equations with natural (base e)
logarithms 62
Exercise 3G Inverses 63
Exercise 3H Literal equations 65
Exercise 3I Exponential and logarithmic modelling 66
Chapter review 68
Short answer 68
Multiple choice 69
Extended response 70
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs 72
Exercise 4A Graphs of exponential functions with
any base 72
Exercise 4B Logarithmic graphs to any base 76
Exercise 4C Graphs of exponential functions with
base e 81
Exercise 4D Logarithmic graphs to base e 86
Exercise 4E Finding equations for graphs of exponential
and logarithmic functions 90
Exercise 4F Addition of ordinates 91
Exercise 4G Exponential and logarithmic functions with
absolute values 95
Exercise 4H Exponential and logarithmic modelling
using graphs 96
Chapter review 98
Short answer 98
Multiple choice 99
Extended response 100
Chapter 5 Inverse functions 103
Exercise 5A Relations and their inverses 103
Exercise 5B Functions and their inverses 105
Exercise 5C Inverse functions 109
Exercise 5D Restricting functions 111
Chapter review 117
Short answer 117
Multiple choice 120
Extended response 121
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions 123
Exercise 6A Revision of radians and the unit circle 123
Exercise 6B Symmetry and exact values 124
Exercise 6C Trigonometric equations 127
Exercise 6D Trigonometric graphs 130
Exercise 6E Graphs of the tangent function 135
Exercise 6F Finding equations of trigonometric
graphs 137
Exercise 6G Trigonometric modelling 138
Exercise 6H Further graphs 139
Exercise 6I Trigonometric functions with an increasing
trend 144
Chapter review 145
Short answer 145
Multiple choice 147
Extended response 148
Exam practice 2 148
Short answer 148
Multiple choice 150
Extended response 151
Chapter 7 Differentiation 152
Exercise 7A Review gradient and rates of change 152
Exercise 7B Limits and differentiation from first
principles 154
Exercise 7C The derivative of x
n
158
Exercise 7D The chain rule 160
Exercise 7E The derivative of e
x
164
Exercise 7F The derivative of log
e
(x) 167
Exercise 7G The derivatives of sin(x), cos(x) and
tan(x) 172
Exercise 7H The product rule 176
Exercise 7I The quotient rule 179
Exercise 7J Mixed problems on differentiation 183
Chapter review 190
Short answer 190
Multiple choice 192
Extended response 195
Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation 196
Exercise 8A Equations of tangents and normals 196
Exercise 8B Sketching curves 199
Exercise 8C Maximum and minimum problems when the
function is known 209
Exercise 8D Maximum and minimum problems when the
function is unknown 210
Exercise 8E Rates of change 213
Exercise 8F Related rates 215
Exercise 8G Linear approximation 217
Chapter review 217
Short answer 217
Multiple choice 219
Extended response 221
Chapter 9 Integration 225
Exercise 9A Antidifferentiation 225
Exercise 9B Integration of e
x
, sin(x) and cos(x) 230
Exercise 9C Integration by recognition 233
Exercise 9D Approximating areas enclosed by
functions 237
Exercise 9E The fundamental theorem of integral
calculus 238
Exercise 9F Signed areas 244
Exercise 9G Further areas 249
Exercise 9H Areas between two curves 260
Exercise 9I Average value of a function 270
Exercise 9J Further applications of integration 271
Chapter review 276
Short answer 276
Multiple choice 278
Extended response 281
Exam practice 3 283
Short answer 283
Multiple choice 284
Extended response 285
Chapter 10 Discrete random variables 286
Exercise 10A Probability revision 286
Exercise 10B Discrete random variables 289
Exercise 10C Measures of centre of discrete random
distributions 293
Exercise 10D Measures of variability of discrete random
distributions 297
Chapter review 302
Short answer 302
Multiple choice 304
Extended response 306
Chapter 11 The binomial distribution 308
Exercise 11A The binomial distribution 308
Exercise 11B Problems involving the binomial
distribution for multiple probabilities 311
Exercise 11C Markov chains and transition
matrices 315
Exercise 11D Expected value, variance and standard
deviation of the binomial distribution 318
Chapter review 321
Short answer 321
Multiple choice 323
Extended response 325
Chapter 12 Continuous distributions 328
Exercise 12A Continuous random variables 328
Exercise 12B Using a probability density function to find
probabilities of continuous random variables 330
Exercise 12C Measures of central tendency and
spread 336
Exercise 12D Applications to problem solving 341
Exercise 12E The normal distribution 343
Exercise 12F The standard normal distribution 347
Exercise 12G The inverse cumulative normal
distribution 350
Chapter review 354
Short answer 354
Multiple choice 357
Extended response 358
Exam practice 4 360
Short answer 360
Multiple choice 361
Extended response 361
Solutions to investigations 363
Chapter 1 363
Investigation Quartics and beyond 363
Chapter 2 363
Investigation Goal accuracy 363
Chapter 9 363
Investigation Definite integrals 363
Chapter 11 363
Investigation Winning at racquetball! 363
Chapter 12 364
Investigation Sunflower stems 364

Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 1
Exercise 1A The binomial theorem
1 a (x + 3)
2
=
2
2
0
x
| |
|
\ .
+
1 1
2
3
1
x
| |
|
\ .
+
2
2
3
2
| |
|
\ .

= x
2
+ 6x + 9
b (x + 4)
5
=
5
5
0
x
| |
|
\ .
+
4
5
4
1
x
| |
|
\ .
+
3 2
5
4
2
x
| |
|
\ .
+
2 3
5
4
3
x
| |
|
\ .
+
4
5
4
4
x
| |
|
\ .
+
5
5
4
5
| |
|
\ .

= x
5
+ 5x
4
4 + 10x
3
16 + 10x
2
64 + 5x256
+ 1 1024
= x
5
+ 20x
4
+ 160x
3
+ 640x
2
+ 1280x + 1024
c (x 1)
8
=
8
8
0
x
| |
|
\ .
+
7
8
( 1)
1
x
| |

|
\ .
+
6 2
8
( 1)
2
x
| |

|
\ .

+
5 3
8
( 1)
3
x
| |

|
\ .
+
4 4
8
( 1)
4
x
| |

|
\ .

+
3 5
8
( 1)
5
x
| |

|
\ .
+
2 6
8
( 1)
6
x
| |

|
\ .
+
7
8
( 1)
7
x
| |

|
\ .
+
8
8
( 1)
8
| |

|
\ .

= x
8
8x
7
+ 28x
6
56x
5
+ 70x
4
56x
3
+ 28x
2

8x + 1
d (2x + 3)
4
=
4
4
(2 )
0
x
| |
|
\ .
+
3
4
(2 ) 3
1
x
| |
|
\ .
+
2 2
4
(2 ) 3
2
x
| |
|
\ .

+
3
4
(2 )3
3
x
| |
|
\ .
+
4
4
3
4
| |
|
\ .

= 16x
4
+ 96x
3
+ 216x
2
+ 216x + 81
e (7 x)
4
=
4
4
7
0
| |
|
\ .
+
3 2 2
4 4
7 ( ) 7 ( )
1 2
x x
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

+
3 4
4 4
7( ) ( )
3 4
x x
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= 2401 1372x + 294x
2
28x
3
+ x
4

f (2 3x)
5
=
5
5
2
0
| |
|
\ .
+
4
5
2 ( 3 )
1
x
| |

|
\ .
+
3 2
5
2 ( 3 )
2
x
| |

|
\ .

+
2 3
5
2 ( 3 )
3
x
| |

|
\ .
+
4
5
2( 3 )
4
x
| |

|
\ .

+
5
5
( 3 )
5
x
| |

|
\ .

= 32 240x + 720x
2
1080x
3
+ 810x
4
243x
5

2 a
3
1
x
x
| |
+
|
\ .
= x
3
+ 3x
2
1
x
+ 3x
2
1
x
| |
|
\ .
+
3
1
x
| |
|
\ .

= x
3
+ 3x +
3
x
+
3
1
x

b
7
2
3x
x
| |

|
\ .
= (3x)
7
7(3x)
6
2
x
+ 21(3x)
5
2
2
x
| |
|
\ .

35(3x)
4
3
2
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 35(3x)
3
4
2
x
| |
|
\ .

21(3x)
2
5
2
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 7(3x)
6 7
2 2
x x
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

= 2187x
7
10 206x
5
+ 20 412x
3
22 680x
+
3
15120 6048
x x
+
5 7
1344 128
x x

c
6
2
3
x
x
| |
+
|
\ .
= (x
2
)
6
+ 6(x
2
)
5
3
x
+ 15(x
2
)
4
2
3
x
| |
|
\ .

+ 20(x
2
)
3
3
3
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 15(x
2
)
2
4
3
x
| |
|
\ .

+ 6(x
2
)
5
3
x
| |
|
\ .
+
6
3
x
| |
|
\ .

= x
12
+ 18x
9
+ 135x
6
+ 540x
3
+ 1215
+
3
1458
x
+
6
729
x

d
5
2
3
2x
x
| |

|
\ .
=
5 4
2 2
3 3
5 2x
x x
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .
+
3
2
2
3
10 (2 ) x
x
| |
|
\ .

2
3
2
3
10 (2 ) x
x
| |
|
\ .
+
4 5
2
3
5 (2 ) (2 ) x x
x

=
10 7
243 810
x x
+
4
1080 720
x x

+ 240x
2
32x
5

3 (r + 1)
th
term is
n
r
| |
|
\ .
(ax)
n r
b
r

a (x 7)
3

i x
2
is the 2nd term
r = 1
Coefficient =
3
1
| |
|
\ .
x
2
(7)
1

= 21
ii x
3
is first term r = 0
term =
3
0
| |
|
\ .
x
3
7
0

Coefficient = 1
iii x
4

Coefficient = 0
b (2x + 1)
5

i x
2
is the 4
th
term r = 3
term =
5
3
| |
|
\ .
(2x)
2
1
3

Coefficient = 40
ii x
3
is the third term
r = 2
term =
5
2
| |
|
\ .
(2x)
3
1
2

Coefficient = 80
iii x
4
is the 2nd term r = 1
term =
5
1
| |
|
\ .
(2x)
4
1
1

Coefficient = 80
c
5
2
3x
x
| |
+
|
\ .

i Coefficient of x
2
= 0
Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials
MM1 2 - 1 2 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

ii x
3
is the 5
th
term r = 4
term =
1
5 2
4 x
| || |
| |
\ . \ .
(3x)
4

Coefficient = 810
iii Coefficient of x
4
= 0
d
6
2
3
x
x
| |

|
\ .

i Coefficient of x
2
= 0
ii x
3
is the 4
th
term r = 3
term =
6
3
| |
|
\ .
(x
2
)
3
3
3
x
| |

|
\ .

Coefficient = 540
iii Coefficient of x
4
= 0
e
6
2
3
7x
x
| |
+
|
\ .

i Coefficient of x
2
= 0
ii x
3
is the 2nd term r = 1
term =
6
1
| |
|
\ .
(7x)
5
1
2
3
x
| |
|
\ .

Coefficient = 302 526
iii Coefficient of x
4
is 0.
4
3
2
5
3x
x
| |

|
\ .

x
3
is the 2nd term r = 1
term =
3
1
| |
|
\ .
(3x
2
)
2
1
5
x
| |
|
\ .

= 3 9x
4

1
5
x


= 135x
3

The answer is A.
5 When the expression for C is expanded it does not contain
an x
5
term. The first three terms contain x
8
, x
6
and x
4

respectively. All the other expressions contain an x
5
term.
The answer is C.
6
5
3
2
2
x
x
| |
+
|
\ .
= (x
3
)
5
+ 5(x
3
)
4
2
2
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 10(x
3
)
3
2
2
2
x
| |
|
\ .

+ 10(x
3
)
2
3
2
2
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 5(x
3
)
4
2
2
x
| |
|
\ .
+
5
2
2
x
| |
|
\ .

= 1x
15
+ 10x
10
+ 40x
5
+ 80 +
3
80
x
+
2
32
x

= 1 + 10 + 40 + 80 + 80 + 32
= 243
The answer is D.
7 (2x 3)
4

= (2x)
4
4(2x)
3
3 + 6(2x)
2
3
2
4(2x)3
3
+ 3
4

= 16x
4
96x
3
+ 216x
2
216x
3
+ 81
The answer is D.
8 Fourth term =
6
C
3
x
3
(3y)
3

= 20 x
3
27y
3

= 540x
3
y
3

9 Term 3 r = 2
=
2
7
9
3
2 4
x | | | |

| |
\ . \ .

=
2
78 732
16
x

=
2
19 683
4
x

10 x
6
, x
3
, x
0
3rd term is independent of x. r = 2
=
2
4
2
6 2
(3 )
2
x
x
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

= 4860
11 Powers of x are (x
2
)
5
, (x
2
)
4
3
1
x
| |
|
\ .
, (x
2
)
3
2
3
1
x
| |
|
\ .

x
10
, x
5
, x
0
,
The third term is independent of x.
term =
5
C
2
(x
2
)
3
2
3
4
x
| |

|
\ .

= 10 +16
= 160
12
4
2
2
3
x
x
| |
+
|
\ .

Powers of x are (x
2
)
4
, (x
2
)
3
2
1
x
| |
|
\ .
, (x
2
)
2
2
2
1
x
| |
|
\ .

x
8
, x
4
, x
0

The third term is independent of x.
term =
4
C
2
(x
2
)
2
2
2
3
x
| |
|
\ .

= 6 9
= 54
13 Expand (p + 3)
5
= p
5
+ 5p
4
3 + 10p
3
3
2
+ 10p
2
3
3
+ 5p3
4
+ 3
5

= p
5
+ 15p
4
+ 90p
3
+ 270p
2
+ 405p + 243
(2p 5)(p
5
+ 15p
4
+ 90p
3
+ 270p
2
+ 405p + 243)
2p
6
+ 30p
5
+ 180p
4
+ 540p
3
+ 810p
2
+ 486p
5p
5
75p
4
450p
3
1350p
2
2025p 1215
Coefficient of 4
th
term = 180 75 = 105
14 (2a 1)
n

2nd term is
n
C
1
(2a)
n 1
(1)
1

coefficient: n 2
n 1
= 192
n 2
n

1
2
= 192
n 2
n
= 384
= 3 2
7

= 3 2 2
6

= 6 2
6

n = 6
Exercise 1B Polynomials
1 Polynomial expressions consist of terms which have non
negative integer powers of x only.
Not Polynomial:
ii x
4
+ 3x
2
2x + x
iii x
7
+ 3x
6
2xy + 5x
vi 2x
5
+ x
4
x
3
+ x
2
+ 3x
2
x

Polynomial:
i x
3
2x
iv 3x
8
2x
5
+ x
2
7
v 4x
6
x
3
+ 2x 3
2 a P(x) + Q(x) = 8 3x + 2x
2
+ x
4
+ x
5
3x
4
4x
2
1
= x
5
2x
4
2x
2
3x + 7
b Q(x) R(x) = x
5
3x
4
4x
2
1 (8x
3
+ 7x
2
4x)
= x
5
3x
4
4x
2
1 8x
3
7x
2
+ 4x
= x
5
3x
4
8x
3
11x
2
+ 4x 1
c 3P(x) 2R(x).
3P(x) = 3(8 3x + 2x
2
+ x
4
)
= 24 9x + 6x
2
+ 3x
4
Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 3
2R(x) = 2(8x
3
+ 7x
2
4x)
= 16x
3
+ 14x
2
8x
3P(x) 2R(x) = 24 9x + 6x
2
+ 3x
4

(16x
3
+ 14x
2
8x)
= 24 9x + 6x
2
+ 3x
4
16x
3
14x
2
+ 8x
= 3x
4
16x
3
8x
2
x + 24
d 2P(x) Q(x) + 3R(x)
2P(x) = 2(8 3x + 2x
2
+ x
4
)
= 16 6x + 4x
2
+ 2x
4
3R(x) = 3(8x
3
+ 7x
2
4x)
= 24x
3
+ 21x
2
12x
2P(x) Q(x) + 3R(x)
= 16 6x + 4x
2
+ 2x
4
(x
5
3x
4
4x
2
1)
+ 24x
3
+ 21x
2
12x
= 16 6x + 4x
2
+ 2x
4
x
5
+ 3x
4
+ 4x
2
+ 1
+ 24x
3
+ 21x
2
12x
= 17 18x + 29x
2
+ 24x
3
+ 5x
4
x
5
3 a P(x) = x
6
+ 2x
5
x
3
+ x
2
i degree = 6
ii P(0) = 0
6
+ 2 0
5
0
3
+ 0
2
= 0
iii P(2) = 2
6
+ 2 2
5
2
3
+ 2
2
= 124
iv P(1) = 1
6
+ 2 1
5
(1)
3
+ (1)
2
= 1
b P(x) = 3x
7
2x
6
+ x
5
8
i degree = 7
ii P(0) = 3 0
7
2 0
6
+ 0
5
8
= 8
iii P(2) = 3 2
7
2 2
6
+ 2
5
8
= 280
iv P(1) = 3 (1)
7
2 (1)
6
+ (1)
5
8
= 3 2 1 8
= 14
c P(x) = 5x
6
+ 3x
4
2x
3
6x
2
+ 3
i degree = 6
ii P(0) = 5 0
6
+ 3 0
4
2 0
3
6 0
2
+ 3
= 3
iii P(2) = 5 2
6
+ 3 2
4
2 2
3
6 2
2
+ 3
= 331
iv P(1) = 5 (1)
6
+ 3 (1)
4

2 (1)
3
6 (1)
2
+ 3
= 5 + 3 + 2 6 + 3
= 7
d P(x) = 7 + 2x 5x
2
+ 2x
3
3x
4
i degree = 4
ii P(0) = 7 + 2 0 5 0
2
+ 2 0
3
3 0
4
= 7
iii P(2) = 7 + 2 2 5 2
2
+ 2 2
3
3 2
4
= 55
iv P(1) = 7 + 2 (1) 5 (1)
2

+ 2 (1)
3
3(1)
4
= 7 2 5 2 3
= 19
4 P(x) = x
8
3x
6
+ 2x
4
x
2
+ 3
P(2) = (2)
8
3 (2)
6
+ 2 (2)
4
(2)
2
+ 3
= 95
The answer is B.
5 P(x) = 2x
7
+ ax
5
+ 3x
3
+ bx 5
P(1) = 4
4 = 2 1
7
+ a 1
5
+ 3 1
3
+ b 1 5
4 = 2 + a + 3 + b 5
4 = a + b [1]
P(2) = 163
163 = 2 2
7
+ a 2
5
+ 3 2
3
+ b 2 5
= 256 + 32a + 24 + 2b 5
112 = 32a + 2b [2]
[1] 2 8 = 2a + 2b [3]
[2] [3] 120 = 30a
a = 4 b = 8
6 f(x) = ax
4
+ bx
3
3x
2
4x + 7
f(1) = 2
2 = a (1)
4
+ b (1)
3
3 1
2
4 1 + 7
2 = a + b 3 4 + 7
2 = a + b
2 b = a [1]
f(2) = 5
5 = a 2
4
+ b 2
3
3 2
2
4 2 + 7
5 = 16a + 8b 12 8 + 7
5 = 16a + 8b 13
8 = 16a + 8b
8 = 8(2a + b)
1 = 2a + b [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
1 = 2(2 b) + b
1 = 4 2b + b
1 = 4 b
b = 5
If b = 5, then [1] 2 5 = a.
3 = a
f(x) = 3x
4
5x
3
3x
2
4x + 7
7 Q(x) = x
5
+ 2x
4
+ ax
3
6x + b
Q(2) = 45
45 = 2
5
+ 2 2
4
+ 2
3
a 6 2 + b
45 = 52 + 8a + b
7 = 8a + b
7 8a = b [1]
Q(0) = 7
7 = 0
5
+ 2 0
4
+ a 0
3
6 0 + b
7 = b [2]
Substitute [2] into [1].
7 8a = 7
8a = 0
a = 0
Q(x) = x
5
+ 2x
4
6x 7.
8 P(x) = ax
6
+ bx
4
+ x
3
6
If 3P(1) = 24
then 3P(x) = 3(ax
6
+ bx
4
+ x
3
6)
24 = 3(a 1
6
+ b 1
4
+ 1
3
6)
8 = a + b + 1 6
8 = a + b 5
3 = a + b
3 a = b [1]
If 3P(2) = 102
then 3P(x) = 3(ax
6
+ bx
4
+ x
3
6)
102 = 3[a(2)
6
+ b(2)
4
+ (2)
3
6)
34 = 64a + 16b 8 6
34 = 64a + 16b 14
48 = 64a + 16b
( 16) 3 = 4a + b [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
3 = 4a + (3 a)
3 = 4a 3 a
6 = 3a
2 = a
If 2 = a then b = 3 a
b = 3 2
b = 5
P(x) = 2x
6
5x
4
+ x
3
6
9 a P(x) = ax
4
x
3
+ 3x
2
5
If P(1) = 1
then 1 = a (1)
4
(1)
3
+ 3 (1)
2
5
MM1 2 - 1 4 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

1 = a 1 + 3 5
1 = a 3
2 = a
The answer is C.
b f(x) = x
n
2x
3
+ x
2
5x
If f(2) = 10
then 10 = 2
n
2 2
3
+ 2
2
5 2
10 = 2
n
16 + 4 10
10 = 2
n
22
32 = 2
n
2
5
= 2
n
n = 5
The answer is D.
Exercise 1C Division of polynomials
1 a

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 13
2 5 2
4
4
2 5

2 8
13 2

13 52
50
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +


Q(x) = x
2
+ 2x + 13
R(x) = 50
b
5 4 3 2
5 4
4 3
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2
0 3 0 4 3
3
3
3 3

3 9
6 0

6 18
18 4

18 54
58 3

58 174

x x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x

+ + + +
+
+

+

+

4 3 2
3 6 18 58
171
x x x x + +



Q(x) = x
4
3x
3
+ 6x
2
18x + 58
R(x) = 171
c

3
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
6 17
6 2 4 0
3
6 18
17 2

17 51
53 4

53 159
155 0

155 465
465
x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+ +

2
53 155 x + +


Q(x) = 6x
3
+ 17x
2
+ 53x + 155
R(x) = 465
d 3 2
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
7 7 101
3 9 27
3 6 0 12 0
3 1
3
7 0

7
7
3
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
+ +

+ + +
+
+



2
2
7
12
3

7 7
3 9
101
0
9

101 101
9 27
101

27
x x
x
x
x
x


Q(x) = x
3

7
3
x
2
+
7
9
x +
101
27

R(x) =
20
3
27

101
27
| |
=
|
\ .

2 a i P(x) = x
3
2x
2
+ 5x 2
P(4) = 4
3
2 4
2
+ 5 4 2
= 50
ii P(x) = x
4
+ x
3
+ 3x
2
7x
P(1) = 1 + 1 + 3 7
= 2
iii P(x) = x
5
3x
3
+ 4x + 3
P(3) = (3)
5
3 (3)
3
+ 4 (3) + 3
= 171
iv P(x) = 2x
6
x
4
+ x
3
+ 6x
2
5x
P(2) = 2 (2)
6
(2)
4
+ ( 2)
3
+ 6 (2)
2
5
(2)
= 138
v P(x) = 6x
4
x
3
+ 2x
2
4x
P(3) = 6 3
4
3
3
+ 2 3
2
4 3
= 465
vi P(x) = x
4
13x
2
+ 36
P(2) = 2
4
13 2
2
+ 36
= 0
vii P(x) = 3x
4
6x
3
+ 12x

1
3
P
| |

|
\ .
= 3
4
1
3
| |

|
\ .
6
3
1
3
| |

|
\ .
+ 12
1
3

= 3
20
27

viii P(x) = x
5
+ 3x
3
4x
2
+ 6x 8

3
2
P
| |
|
\ .
=
5
3
2
| |
|
\ .
+ 3
3
3
2
| |
|
\ .
4
2
3
2
| |
|
\ .

+ 6
3
2
8
=
23
9
32

b The values obtained in 2 were the same as the remainder
values obtained in 1.
3 a P(3) = 3
3
+ 9 3
2
+ 26 3 30
= 156
Since P(3) 0, x 3 is not a factor
b P(2) = (2)
4
(2)
3
5 (2)
2
2 (2) 8
= 0
Since P(2) = 0 then x + 2 is a factor.
Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 5
c P(+ 4) = 4 9 + 4 + 6 4
2
13 (+ 4)
3

12 (+ 4)
4
+ 3 (+ 4)
5

= 4 36 + 94 832 3072 + 3072
= 768
Since P(4) 0 then 4 x is not a factor.
d P
1
2
| |

|
\ .
= 4
6
1
2
| |

|
\ .
+ 2
5
1
2
| |

|
\ .
8
4
1
2
| |

|
\ .

4
3
1
2
| |

|
\ .
+ 6
2
1
2
| |

|
\ .
9
1
2
6
= 0.0625 + 0.0625 0.5 + 0.5 + 1.5 + 4.5 6
= 0
Since P
1
2
| |

|
\ .
= 0 then 2x + 1 is a factor.
4 a f(x) = x
4
4x
3
x
2
+ 16x 12
A x + 1 f( 1)
= (1)
4
4 (1)
3
(1)
2
+ 16 (1) 12
= 1 + 4 1 16 12
= 24
B x f(0)
= 12
C x + 2 f( 2)
= (2)
4
4 (2)
3
(2)
2
+ 16 (2) 12
= 16 + 32 4 32 12
= 0
Since f(2) = 0 then (x + 2) is a factor.
D x + 3 f(3)
= (3)
4
4 (3)
3
(3)
2
+ 16 (3) 12
= 120
E x 4 f(4)
= 4
4
4 4
3
4
2
+ 16 4 12
= 36
The answer is C.
b

3 2
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2
6 11 6
4 16 12
2
2
6

6 12
11 16

11 22
6 12

6 12
0
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+
+
+

+

+


Test x = 1 into x
3
6x
2
+ 11x 6
= 1
3
6 1 + 11 6
= 0
x 1 is a factor.

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
5 6
6 11 6
1
5 11

5 5
6 6

6 6
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+

+


x
2
5x + 6 = (x 3)(x 2)
f(x) factorises to
(x + 2)(x 1)(x 3)(x 2)
The answer is B.
5 a P(x) = x
3
+ 4x
2
3x 18
Test x = 1 P(x) 0
x = 2, P(x) = 0
(x 2) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
6 9
4 3 18
2
2
6 3

6 12
9 18

9 18
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +


(x 2)(x
2
+ 6x + 9)
= (x 2)(x + 3)
2

b P(x) = 3x
3
13x
2
32x + 12
Test x = 1 P(x) 0
x = 2
when x = 2, P(x) = 0
(x + 2) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
3 19 6
3 13 32 12
2
3 6
19 32

19 38
6 12

6 12
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +

+
+
+


(x + 2)(3x
2
19x + 6)
= (x + 2)(3x 1)(x 6)
c P(x) = x
4
+ 2x
3
7x
2
8x + 12
Test x = 2, P(x) = 0
(x + 2) is a factor

3 2
4 3 2
4 3
2
2
0 7 6
2 7 8 12
2
2
0 7 8

7 14
6 12

6 12
0
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +

+ +
+
+


(x + 2)(x
3
+ 0x
2
7x + 6)
Test x = 2, P(x) = 0
(x 2) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 3
0 7 6
2
2
2 7

2 4
3 6

3 6
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+ +


(x + 2)(x 2)(x
2
+ 2x 3)
(x + 2)(x 2)(x + 3)(x 1)
MM1 2 - 1 6 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

d P(x) = 4x
4
+ 12x
3
24x
2
32x
Test x = 1, P(x) = 0
x + 1 is a factor

3 2
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2
4 8 32
4 12 24 32 0
1
4 4
8 24

8 8
32 32

32 32
0
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
+

+ +
+
+


(x + 1)(4x
3
+ 8x
2
32x)
Take out factor of 4x.
4x(x + 1)(x
2
+ 2x 8)
4x(x + 1)(x 2)(x + 4)
6 a 3x
3
+ 3x
2
18x = 0
Test x = 2, f(x) = 0
(x 2) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
3 9
3 3 18 0
2
3 6
9 18

9 18
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
+

+ +


(x 2)(3x
2
+ 9x) = 0
3x(x 2)(x + 3) = 0
x = 0, 2, or 3
b 2x
4
+ 10x
3
4x
2
48x = 0
Test x = 2, f(x) = 0
(x 2) is a factor

3 2
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 14 24
2 10 4 48
2
2 4
14 4

14 28
24 48

24 48
0
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
+ +


(x 2)(2x
3
+ 14x
2
+ 24x)
Take out common factor of 2x:
2x(x 2)(x
2
+ 7x + 12)
= 2x(x 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) = 0
x = 2, 3, 0, and 4
c 2x
4
+ x
3
14x
2
4x + 24 = 0
Test x = 2, f(x) = 0
(x 2) is a factor

3 2
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 5 4 12
2 14 4 24
2
2 4
5 14

5 10
4 4

4 8
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
+

+ +


12 24

12 24
0
x
x
+


(x 2)(2x
3
+ 5x
2
4x 12)
Test x = 2, f(2) = 0
(x + 2) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 6
2 5 4 12
2
2 4
4

2
6 12

6 12
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+
+
+


(x 2)(x + 2)(2x
2
+ x 6)
(x 2)(x + 2)(2x 3)(x + 2)
x = 2, 2, or
3
2

d x
4
2x
2
+ 1 = 0
Test x = + 1, f(x) = 0
(x 1) is a factor

3 2
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2
1
0 2 0 1
1
2

0

1

1
0
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+ + +

+

+


(x 1)(x
3
+ x
2
x 1)
Test x = 1, f(x) = 0
(x + 1) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
1
1
1
0
1

1
0
x
x x x
x
x x
x
x

+
+
+


(x 1)(x + 1)(x
2
1) = 0
(x 1)(x + 1)(x 1)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1
7 If (x 2) is a factor then
when x = 2, f(x) = 0
0 = x
3
+ ax
2
6x 4
f(2) = 0 = 2
3
+ a2
2
6 2 4
0 = 8 + 4a 12 4
0 = 4a 8
8 = 4a
2 = a
8 Let
P(x) = x
3
+ x
2
ax + 3
P(1) = 1 + 1 a + 3 = 0
(x 1) is a factor
a = 5
Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 7
9 If (x + 3) is a factor then
when x = 3, f(x) = 0
f(3) = 0 = 2(3)
4
+ a(3)
3
3
(3) + 18
0 = 162 27a + 9 + 18
0 = 189 27a
27a = 189
a = 7
10 If (x + 1) is a factor then
when x = 1, f(x) = 0
f(1) = 0 = a 4 b 12
0 = a b 16
a = b 16 [1]
If (x 2) is a factor then
when x = 2, f(x) = 0
f(2) = 0 = 8a 16 + 2b 12
0 = 8a + 2b 28
28 = 8a + 2b
14 = 4a + b [2]
Sub [1] into [2]
14 = 4(b 16) + b
14 = 4b 64 + b
14 = 3b 64
78 = 3b
26 = b
a = + 26 16
a = 10
11 (2x 3) and (x + 2) are factors of
2x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + 30
P(x) = 2x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + 30
P(2) = 2(2)
3
+ a(2)
2
+ b(2)
+ 30 = 0
16 + 4a 2b + 30 = 0
4a 2b = 14 [1]
P
3
2
| |
|
\ .
= 2
3
3
2
| |
|
\ .
+ a
2
3
2
| |
|
\ .
+ b
3
2
| |
|
\ .

+ 30 = 0
2
27
84
+
9
4
a
+
3
2
b
+ 30 = 0
27 + 9a + 6b + 120 = 0
9a + 6b = 147
3a + 2b = 49 [2]
[1] + [2] 7a = 63
a = 9
Substitute into [1] 4 9 2b = 14
2b = 22
b = 11
a = 9, b = 11.
Exercise 1D Linear graphs
1 a 2x + 3y = 12
x-intercept when y = 0
2x = 12
x = 6
y-intercept when x = 0
3y = 12
y = 4


b 2y 5x 10 = 0
x-intercept when y = 0
5x = 10
x = 2
y-intercept when x = 0
2y = 10
y = 5


c 2x y = 1
x-intercept when y = 0
2x = 1
x =
1
2

y-intercept when x = 0
y = 1
y = 1


2 a y = mx + c
y = 3x + c
find c in (2, 1)
1 = 3 2 + c
5 = c
y = 3x 5
3x + y + 5 = 0
b y = mx + c
y = 2x + c
find c, sub in (4, 3)
3 = 2 4 + c
3 = 8 + c
5 = c
y = 2x 5
2x + y + 5 = 0
3 a (3, 4), (1, 10)
m =
10 4
1 3
+
+

=
6
2


= 3
y = 3x + c
sub in (3, 4)
4 = 3 3 + c
13 = c
y = 3x 13
3x + y + 13 = 0
b (7, 5), (2, 0)
m =
5 0
7 2


=
5
5

= 1
y = x + c
sub in (2, 0)
0 = 2 + c
2 = c
y = x 2
x + y + 2 = 0
4 2y 3x 6 = 0
A 2 6 3 2 6 = 0
12 6 6 = 0
B 2 0 3 2 6 = 0
0 + 6 6 = 0
C 2 3 3 0 6 = 0
6 0 6 = 0
D 2 2 3 1 6 = 0
4 3 6 0
E 2 9 3 4 6 = 0
18 12 6 = 0
The answer is D.
5 a i 2 =
5
1 2
b
+

2 =
5
3
b

6 = b 5
1 = b
ii y x = 7
y = x + 7
m = 1
1 =
5
1 2
b
+

3 = b 5
8 = b
b parallel to y = 3x 4
m = 3
y = 3x + c
sub in (4, 5)
5 = 3 4 + c
7 = c
y = 3x 7
0 = 3x y 7
c 2y x + 1 = 0
2y = x 1
y =
1
2
x
1
2

m = 2 gradient of perpendicular line
y y
1
= m(x x
1
)
Sub in (2, 4) y 4 = 2(x + 2)
y 4 = 2x 4
2x + y = 0
6 i x + 2y + 4 = 0
x-intercept when y = 0
x = 4
y-intercept when x = 0
2y = 4
y = 2
Graph e
ii y = 3 Graph f
iii y 2x 2 = 0
x-intercept when y = 0
2 = 2x
1 = x
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 2
Graph a
iv 3y + 2x = 6
x-intercept when y = 0
2x = 6
x = 3
y-intercept when x = 0
3y = 6
y = 2
Graph c
v y 2x = 0
x- and y-intercepts occur at the
origin.
Graph b
vi x = 2 Graph d.
MM1 2 - 1 8 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

7 a y 2 or [2, )
b y 5 or (5, )
c 2 y < 3 or [2, 3)
d 2 y 3 or [2, 3]
e R
f < y < 6 or (, 6)
8 a 4y + 3x = 24 x [12, 12]
x-intercept
3x = 24
x = 8
y-intercept
4y = 24
y = 6
when x = 12 y = 15
when x = 12 y = 3
i domain [12, 12]
ii range [3, 15]


b 2x 5y = 10x < 5
x-intercept
2x = 10
x = 5
y-intercept
5y = 10
y = 2
when x = 5, y = 0
i domain (, 5)
ii range (, 0)


c 4x 3y 6 = 0 x [2, 5)
x-intercept
4x = 6
x =
3
2

y-intercept
3y = 6
y = 2
when x = 2 y =
2
3

when x = 5 y =
14
3

i Domain [2, 5)
ii Range
2 14
,
3 3
|
|
.



9 a Parallel m = 2
y = 2x + c
sub in (2, 5)
5 = 4 + c
9 = c
y = 2x + 9
2x + y 9 = 0
b Perpendicular m =
1
3

y =
1
3
x + c
sub in (2, 5)
(y 5) =
1
3
(x 2)
y 5 =
3
x
+
2
3

3y 15 = x + 2
3y + x 17 = 0
x + 3y 17 = 0
10 a Parallel to
4x 13 = 2y
2x
13
2
= y
m = 2
y = 2x + c
sub in (3, 1)
1 = 2 3 + c
7 = c
y = 2x + 7
2x + y 7 = 0
b 4x 2y = 13
4x 13 = 2y
2x
13
2
= y
m = 2
Perpendicular m =
1
2

sub in (3, 1)
y 1 =
1
2
(x + 3)
y 1 =
1
2
x
3
2

y =
1
2
x
1
2

2y = x 1
x + 2y + 1 = 0
11 3x y = 2
3x + 2 = y
m = 3
ax + 2y = 3
2y = ax + 3
y =
2
a
x +
3
2

3 =
2
a

6 = a
6 = a
The answer is E.
12 5x + y 3 = 0 bx y 2 = 0
y = 5x + 3 y = bx 2
gradient 5 gradient b =
1
5

The answer is B.
Exercise 1E Quadratic
graphs
1 b
2
4ac =
a f(x) = x
2
3x + 4
a = 1, b = 3, c = 4
= 9 16
= 7
b
2
4ac < 0. No x-intercepts
b f(x) = x
2
+ 5x 8
a = 1 b = 5 c = 8
= 25 + 32
= 57
b
2
4ac > 0. Two x-intercepts
c f(x) = 3x
2
5x + 9
a = 3 b = 5 c = 9
= 25 108
= 83
b
2
4ac < 0. No x-intercepts
d f(x) = 2x
2
+ 7x 11
a = 2 b = 7 c = 11
= 49 + 88
= 137
b
2
4ac > 0. Two x-intercepts
e f(x) = 1 6x x
2
a = 1 b = 6 c = 1
= 36 + 4
= 40
b
2
4ac > 0. Two x-intercepts
f f(x) = 3 + 6x + 3x
2
a = 3 b = 6 c = 3
= 36 36
= 0
b
2
4ac = 0. One x-intercept
2 a f(x) = x
2
6x + 8
y-intercept x = 0
y = 8
x-intercept(s)
0 = (x 4)(x 2)
x = 4 or 2


b f(x) = x
2
5x + 4
y-intercept x = 0
y = 4
x-intercept y = 0
0 = (x 4)(x 1)
x = 4 or 1


c f(x) = 10 + 3x x
2
y-intercept x = 0
y = 10
x-intercept y = 0
0 = (5 x)(2 + x)
x = 5 or 2


d f(x) = 6x
2
x 12
y-intercept x = 0
y = 12
Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 9
x-intercept(s) y = 0
0 = (3x + 4) (2x 3)
x =
4
3
or
3
2



3 a f(x) = x
2
6x + 8
= x
2
6x + 3
2
3
2
+ 8
= (x 3)
2
9 + 8
= (x 3)
2
1
TP is (3, 1)
b f(x) = x
2
5x + 4
= x
2
5x +
2 2
5 5
2 2
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .
+ 4
=
2
5
2
x
| |

|
\ .

25
4
+ 4
=
2
5
2
x
| |

|
\ .

25
4
+
16
4

=
2
5
2
x
| |

|
\ .

9
4

TP is
5 9
,
2 4
| |

|
\ .

c f(x) = 10 + 3x x
2
= (x
2
3x 10)
=
2 2
2
3 3
3 10
2 2
x x
(
| | | |
+ (
| |
\ . \ . (


=
2
3 9
10
2 4
x
(
| |
(
|
\ . (


=
2
3 9 40
2 4 4
x
(
| |
(
|
\ . (


=
2
3
2
x
| |

|
\ .
+
49
4

TP is
3 49
,
2 4
| |
+
|
\ .
=
1 1
1 , 12
2 4
| |
|
\ .

d f(x) = 6x
2
x 12
=
2
6 2
6
x
x
| |

|
\ .

=
2 2
2
1 1
6 2
6 12 12
x
x
(
| | | |
+ (
| |
\ . \ . (


=
2
1 1 288
6
12 144 144
x
(
| |
(
|
\ . (


=
2
1 289
6
12 144
x
(
| |
(
|
\ . (


=
2
1
6
12
x
| |

|
\ .

289
24

TP is
1 1
, 12
12 24
| |
|
\ .

4 a i y = 2 x
2
a = 1, h = 0, k = 2
TP = (0, 2)
ii Domain = R
iii Range = (, 2]
b i y = (x 6)
2
a = 1, h = 6, k = 0
TP = (6, 0)
ii Domain = R
iii Range = [0, )
c i y = (x + 2)
2

a = 1, h = 2, k = 0
TP = (2, 0)
ii Domain = R
iii Range = (, 0]
d i y = 2(x + 3)
2
6
a = 2, h = 3, k = 6
TP = (3, 6)
ii Domain = R
iii Range = [6, )
5 Using y = A (x + B)
2
+ C
a i TP = (1, 2)
B = 1 and C = 2
Assume A = 1
y = 1(x 1)
2
2
y = x
2
2x + 1 2
y = x
2
2x 1
ii Domain = R
iii Range [2, )
b i TP = (2, 3)
B = 2
C = 3
Assume A = 1
y = 1 (x 2)
2
3
= x
2
4x + 4 3
= x
2
4x + 1
ii Domain = [1, )
iii Range = [3, )
c i TP = (1, 9)
B = 1 and C = 9
Assume A = 1
y = 1(x 1)
2
+ 9
y = 1(x
2
2x + 1) + 9
y = x
2
+ 2x 1 + 9
y = x
2
+ 2x + 8
ii Domain = [4, 4)
iii Range = [16, 9]
6 a y = 2x
2
+ 3
TP = (0, 3)
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 3
x-intercepts when y = 0
0 = 2x
2
+ 3
There are no x-intercepts.


b y = 1 4(2 x)
2

TP = (2, 1)
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 1 4 4
= 15
x-intercepts when y = 0
0 = 1 4(2 x)
2

0 = 1 4(4 4x + x
2
)
= 1 16 + 16x 4x
2

= 4x
2
+ 16x 15
x =
3
2
and x =
5
2



c y = (2x 3)
2
8
TP =
3
, 8
2
| |

|
\ .

y-intercept when x = 0
y = (3)
2
8
= 1
x-intercepts when y = 0
0 = (2x 3)
2
8
= 4x
2
12x + 9 8
= 4x
2
12x + 1
From the graphics calculator,
x = 2.91 and x = 0.09


7 a y = x
2
2x 3
x-intercepts y = 0
0 = (x 3)(x + 1)
x = 3 or 1
(3, 0)(1, 0)
The answer is B.
b y = x
2
2x 3
y = x
2
2x + 1
2
1
2
3
y = (x 1)
2
4
TP = (1, 4)
The answer is C.
8 f(x) = (x + 3)
2
+ 4
TP = (3, 4)
range (2, 4]
The answer is D.
9 y = (x 4)
2
x [0, 6]
TP = (4, 0)


When x = 0 y = (4)
2
= 16
range [0, 16]
When x = 6 y = (6 4)
2
= 2
2
= 4
But x = 4 y = 0
The answer is A.
10 a f(x) = (x 2)
2
4
TP = (2, 4)
y-int x = 0
y = (0 2)
2
4
y = (2)
2
4
y = 0
MM1 2 - 1 10 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

x-int y = 0
0 = (x 2 2)(x 2 + 2)
0 = (x 4)(x)
x = 4 or 0


b f(x) = (x + 4)
2
+ 9
TP = (4, 9)
y int x = 0
y = (0 + 4)
2
+ 9
y = 16 + 9
y = 7
x-int y = 0
0 = 9 (x + 4)
2

0 = (3 (x + 4))(3 + (x + 4))
0 = (3 x 4) (3 + x + 4)
0 = (x 1)(7 + x)
x = 1 or 7


c y = x
2
+ 4x + 3
y = x
2
+ 4x + 4 4 + 3
y = (x + 2)
2
1
TP = (2, 1)
y-int x = 0
y = 3
x-int y = 0
0 = (x + 2 1)(x + 2 + 1)
0 = (x + 1)(x + 3)
x = 1 or 3


d y = 2x
2
4x 6
y = 2[x
2
2x 3]
= 2[x
2
2x + 1 1 3]
= 2[(x 1)
2
4]
y = 2(x 1)
2
8
TP = (1, 8)
y-int x = 0
y = 6
x-int y = 0
0 = 2[(x 1 2)(x 1 + 2)]
0 = 2(x 3)(x + 1)
x = 3 or 1


11 a y = x
2
2x + 2 x [2, 2]
y = x
2
2x + 1 1 + 2
y = (x 1)
2
+ 1
TP = (1, 1)


i Domain = [2, 2]
ii Range:
When x = 2 y = 10
When x = 2 y = 2
but TP = (1, 1)
[1, 10]
b y = x
2
+ x 1 x R
+

y = (x
2
x + 1)
y =
2 2
2
1 1
1
2 2
x x
| |
| | | |
+ + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

y =
2
1 3
2 4
x
(
| |
+ (
|
\ . (


y =
2
1
2
x
| |

|
\ .

3
4

TP =
1 3
,
2 4
| |

|
\ .



i Domain = R
+

ii Range = (,
3
4
]
c f(x) = x
2
3x 2 x [10, 6]
f(x) = x 3x +
2
3
2
| |
|
\ .

2
3
2
| |
|
\ .
2
=
2
3
2
x
| |

|
\ .

9
4

8
4

=
2
3
2
x
| |

|
\ .

17
4

TP =
3 17
,
2 4
| |

|
\ .



i Domain = [10, 6]
ii Range:
When x = 10 y = 128

17
, 128
4
(

(


d f(x) = 3x
2
+ 6x + 5 x [5, 3)
=
2
5
3 2
3
x x
(

(



=
2
5
3 2 1 1
3
x x
(
+
(


=
2
8
3 ( 1)
3
x
(

(


= 3(x 1)
2
+ 8
TP = (1, 8)

i Domain = [

5, 3)
ii Range:
When x = 5, y = 100
[

100, 8]
12 V(t) = 2t
2
16t + 40 t [0, 10]
V(t) = 2(t
2
8t + 20)
= 2[t
2
8t + 16 16 + 20]
= 2[(t 4)
2
+ 4]
= 2(t 4)
2
+ 8
TP = (4, 8)
When t = 0 V(t) = 40
When t = 10
V(t) = 2 6
2
+ 8
= 80


a minimum V = 8 m
3
b maximum V = 80 m
3

13 h(t) = 3t
2
+ 12t + 36
h(t) = 3[t
2
4t 12]
= 3[t
2
4t + 4 4 12]
= 3[(t 2)
2
16]
= 3(t 2)
2
+ 48
TP = (2, 48)
a maximum height = 48 m
b When h(t) = 0
0 = 3[(t 2 4)(t 2 + 4)]
0 = 3(t 6)(t + 2)
t = 6 or 2
Since time 6 seconds
c Domain [0, 6]
Range [0, 48]


14 a h(t) = t
2
12t + 48, t [0, 11]
The lowest point is the
y-coordinate of the turning point
h(t) = t
2
12t + 36 36 + 48
= (t 6)
2
+ 12
Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 11
TP = (6, 12)
Lowest point is 12 m above the
ground.
b Time taken is the x-coordinate of
the turning point.
t = 6 seconds
c Check the end points of the
domain
h(0) = 48
h(11) = 11
2
12 11 + 48
= 37
The highest point above the
ground is 48 m.
d Domain = [0, 11]
Range = [12, 48]
e


Exercise 1F Cubic graphs
1 a Positive cubic so a = 1. Goes
through origin so x is a factor.
y = x(x a)(x b)
= x(x + 6)(x 5)
b Positive cubic in form
y = a(x m)(x n)
2

a = 1, m = 1, n = 2
y = 1(x 1)(x + 2)
2

2 a Positive cubic in form
y = (x l)(x m)(x n)
l = 3, m = 1, n = 4
y = (x + 3)(x 1)(x 4)
(v)
b Negative cubic in form
y = a(x m)(x n)
2

a = 1, m = 5, n = 2
y = 1(x 5)(x + 2)
2

y = (5 x)(x + 2)
2

(iv)
c Negative cubic in form
y = a(x l)(x m)(x n)
a = 1, l = 3, m = 1, n = 4
y = 1(x + 3)(x 1)(x 4)
y = (x + 3)(1 x)(x 4)
(ii)
d Positive cubic in form
y = a(x t)
3

a = 1, t = 3
y = (x 3)
3

(i)
e Positive cubic in form
y = a(x l)(x m)(x n)
a = 1, l = 4, m = 2, n = 1
y = (x + 4)(x + 2)(x 1)
(vi)
f Positive cubic in form
y = a(x m)(x n)
2

a = 1, m = 5, n = 2
y = (x 5)(x + 2)
2

(viii)
g Negative cubic in form
y = a(x t)
3

a = 1, t = 3
y = 1(x 3)
3

y = (3 x)
3

(vii)
h Negative cubic in form
y = a(x l)(x m)(x n)
a = 1, l = 4, m = 2, n = 1
y = 1(x + 4)(x + 2)(x 1)
y = (x + 4)(x + 2)(1 x)
(iii)
3 a y = x
3
+ x
2
4x 4
y-intercept x = 0
y = 4
Factorise to find x-intercepts
Test x = 1, y = 0
x + 1 is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
4
4 4
1
4 4

4 4
0
x
x x x
x
x x
x
x

+
+
+


y = (x + 1)(x
2
4)
y = (x + 1)(x 2)(x + 2)
If y = 0, x = 1, 2, or 2


b y = 2x
3
8x
2
+ 2x + 12
y-int x = 0
y = 12
Factorise to find x-intercepts
Test x = 1 so y = 0
(x + 1) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 10 12
2 8 2 12
1
2 2
10 2

10 10
12 12

12 12
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+ +
+
+

+

+


y = (x + 1)(2x
2
10x + 12)
y = 2(x + 1)(x 2)(x 3)
If y = 0, then x = 1, 2 or 3


c y = 2x
3
+ 26x + 24
y-int x = 0
y = 24
Factorise to find x-intercepts
Test x = 1 so y = 0
(x + 1) is a factor.

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 2 24
2 0 26 24
1
2 2
2 26

2 2
24 24

24 24
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +

+ + +
+

+

+


y = (x + 1)(2x
2
+ 2x + 24)
y = 2(x + 1)(x 3)(x 4)
If y = 0, then x = 1, 3 or 4.


d y = x
3
+ 8x
2
21x + 18
y-int x = 0
y = 18
x-intercept
Factorise:
Test x = 3 so y = 0
(x 3) is a factor.

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
5 6
8 21 18
3
3
5 21

5 15
6 18

6 18
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+ +

+


y = (x 3)(x
2
+ 5x 6)
= (x 3)(x
2
5x + 6)
y = 1(x 3)(x 3)(x 2)
x = 3 or 2


4 a x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 12x + 8 = y
Test x = 2 so y = 0
(x + 2) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
4 4
6 12 8
2
2
4 12

4 8
4 8

4 8
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +

+ + +
+
+


y = (x + 2)(x
2
+ 4x + 4)
= (x + 2)(x + 2)
2

y = (x + 2)
3

The answer is B.
MM1 2 - 1 12 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

b In form y = a(x t)
3

a = 1, t is intercept
The answer is E.
5 Function graph is a negative cubic
so a = 1
Point of inflection (2, 2)
The answer is C.
y = (2 x)
3
+ 2
6 f(x) = 5(x + 1)
3
3
Point of inflection (1, 3)
Graph is a positive cubic
he answer is A.
7 Positive cubic
Turning point at (1, 0) because of
repeated factor
x-intercept at (3, 0)
y-intercept at (0, 6)
The answer is B.
8 Negative cubic A or D
Point of inflection is (a, b)
a < 0 so,
y = (x + a)
3
+ b
The answer is D.
9 y = h(x a)
2
(x c)
x = 0, y = ha
2
(c)
b = ha
2
c
h =
2
b
a c

y =
2
b
a c
(x a)
2
(x c)
The answer is E.
10 a f(x) = x
3
+ x
2
10x + 8 x [2, )
a > 1 positive
b > 1 so 2 turning points.
y-intercept x = 0
y = 8
When x = 2
y = 2
3
+ 2
2
20 + 8
= 0
Closed end point = (2, 0)


i Domain [2, )
ii range [0, )
b f(x) = 3x
3
5x
2
4x + 4 for
x [2, 1]
a > 1 so positive
b 0 2 turning points.
y-intercept x = 0
y = 4
When x = 2
y = 3 (2)
3
5 (2)
2
4 2
+ 4
= 32
When x = 1
y = 3 (1)
3
5 (1)
2
4 1
+ 4
= 0
Closed end point (2, 32)
Closed end point (1, 0)


i Domain [2, 1]
ii Range [

32, 0]
c f(x) = 3x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 27x 36
x (0, 1]
a < 1 negative
b 0 2 turning points
y-intercept x = 0
y = 36
When x = 0 y = 36
Open end point (0, 36)
When x = 1
y = 3 1
3
+ 4 1
2
+ 27 1 36
= 8
Closed end point (1, 8)
i Domain (0, 1]
ii Range (36, 8]

d f(x) = x
3
3x for x [1, 2)
a < 1 negative
b = 0
c < 1
y-int x = 0 y = 0
When x = 1, y = 4 closed end
point
x = 2, y = 14 open end point

i Domain [1, 2)
ii Range (14, 4]
e f(x) = x
3
+ 2x for
x [2, 1) (0, 3]
a > 1 positive
b = 0
c > 1
y-int x = 0 y = 0
When x = 2, y = 12 closed end
point
x = 1, y = 3 open end point
x = 0 y = 0 open end point
x = 3 y = 33 closed end point

i Domain [2, 1) (0, 3]
ii Range [12, 3) (0, 33]
f f(x) = 2x
3
x
for x (1, 1) [2, 3)
a < 1 negative
b = 0
c < 1
y-int x = 0, y = 0
When x = 1, y = 3 open end
point
x = 1, y = 3 open end point
x = 2, y = 18 closed end point
x = 3, y = 57 open end point

i Domain (1, 1) [2, 3)
ii Range (3, 3) (57, 18]
11 f(x) = x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx 64
0 = (2)
3
+ (2)
2
a + (2)b 64
= 8 + 4a 2b 64
72 = 4a 2b
36 = 2a b
b = 2a 36 [1]
f(x) = x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx 64
0 = 4
3
+ 16a + 4b 64
0 = 16a + 4b
0 = 4a + b [2]
Sub [1] into [2]
0 = 4a + 2a 36
0 = 6a 36
36 = 6a
6 = a
b = 12 36
= 24
12 0 = 1 2 a + 10
0 = 7 a [1]
a = 7
y = 6 + (7 + b)x 4x
2
x
3

0 = 6 + (7 + b) (1) 4 1
(1)
0 = 6 7 b 4 + 1
0 = 4 b
b = 4
13 a f(x) = a(x + b)
3
+ c
point of inflection (3, 3)
b = 3 and c = 3
f(x) = a(x 3)
3
+ 3
When x = 2, f(x) = 0
0 = a(2 3)
3
+ 3
0 = a (1)
3
+ 3
0 = a + 3
a = 3
f(x) = 3(x 3)
3
+ 3
b Point of inflection due to
reflection = (3, 3)
g(x) = 3(x + 3)
3
+ 3
domain [4, 2]
range [0, 6]
c When f(x) = 3.375
3.375 = 3(x 3)
3
+ 3
x = 3.5
width = 3.5 2
= 7 cm
Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 13
14 d(t) = at
2
(b t)
a (2, 3) and (5, 0)
3 = 4a(b 2) [1]
0 = 25a(b 5) [2]
3 = 4ab 8a 25
0 = 25ab 125a 4
75 = 100ab 200a
0 = 100ab 500a
75 = 300a

1
4
= a
Sub
1
4
= a into [1]
3 = 4
1
4
(b 2)
3 = 1(b 2)
5 = b
b Rule: d(t) =
2
4
t
(5 t) for
domain = [0, 5]
c


d d(t) =
2 3
5
4 4
t t

d (t) =
2
10 3
4 4
t t

Let d (t) = 0 =
2
10 3
4
t t

0 = 10t 3t
2
0 = t(10 3t)
t = 0 or 10 3t = 0
10 = 3t
time is
1
3
3
hours
When time is
1
3
3
,
d(t) =
2
(3.3)
4

1.6


Maximum distance = 4.6 km
Exercise 1G Quartic graphs
1 a y = (x 2)(x + 3)(x 4)(x + 1)
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 2 + 3 4 + 1
y = 24
x-intercepts when y = 0
x = 3, 1, 2 and 4


b y = 2x
4
+ 6x
3
16x
2
24x + 32
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 32
x-intercept when y = 0
Test x = 1, y = 0
(x 1) is a factor
Test x = + 2 so y = 0
(x 2) is a factor
(x 1)(x 2) = x
2
3x + 2
2
4 3 2
2
4 3 2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 12 16
2 6 16 24 32
3 2
2 6 4
12 20 24

12 36 24
16 48 32

16 48 32
0
x x
x x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x x
+ +

+ +
+
+

+

+

(x 1)(x 2)(2x
2
+ 12x + 16) = y
(x 1)(x 2)2(x
2
+ 6x + 8) = y
2(x 1)(x 2)(x + 4)(x + 2) = y
When using N.F.L, x = 1, 2, 4, 2
then y = 0.


c y = x
4
4x
2
+ 4
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 4
x-intercept when y = 0
Let a = x
2

y = a
2
4a + 4
y = (a 2)
2
Sub a = x
2
back in
y = (x
2
2)
2

x = 2


d y = 2x
4
+ 15x
3
37x
2
+ 30x
y-intercept, when x = 0
y = 0
x-intercepts when y = 0
Test x = 2 y = 0
Test x = 3 y = 0
(x 2)(x 3) are factors
(x 2)(x 3) = x
2
5x + 6
2
4 3 2
2
4 3 2
3 2
3 2
2 5
2 15 37 30
5 6
2 10 12
5 25 30

5 25 30
0
x x
x x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
+

+ +
+
+

+

+

(x 2)(x 3)(2x
2
+ 5x) = y
x(x 2)(x 3)(2x + 5) = y
Using N.F.L, x = 0, 2, 3 or
5
2



e y = 6x
4
+ 11x
3
37x
2
36x + 36
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 36
x-intercepts when y = 0
Test x = 3 y = 0
Test x = 2
(x + 3)(x 2) are factors
(x + 3)(x 2) = x
2
+ x 6
2
4 3 2
2
4 3 2
3 2
3 2
2
2
6 5 6
6 11 37 36 36
6
6 6 36
5 36

5 5 30
6 6 36

6 6 36
0
x x
x x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x x
+

+ +
+
+

+

+

(x + 3)(x 2)(3x 2)(2x + 3) = y


Using N.F.L
x = 3, 2,
2
3
,
3
2



2 a y = x
2
(x 2)(x 3)
y = 0, x
2
(x 2)(x 3) = 0
Turning point (0, 0)
Intercepts at x = 2 and x = 3
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 0(2)(3)
= 0
Positive quartic
Maximum turning point at (1.16, 2.08)
Minimum turning points at (0, 0)
and (2.59, 1.62)


b y = (x + 1)
2
(x 1)
2

x = 0, y = 1 y-intercept is 1
y = 0, (x + 1)
2
(x 1)
2
= 0
x = 1, x = 1
Minimum turning points at (1, 0)
and (1, 0).
Maximum turning point (0, 1)
MM1 2 - 1 14 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s



c y = (x 1)
2
(x + 1)(x + 3)
x = 0, y = 3 y-intercept is 3
y = 0, (x 1)
2
(x + 1)(x + 3) = 0
x = 1, 1, 3
Positive quartic
Minimum turning points
(2.28, 9.91) and (1, 0)
Maximum turning point
(0.22, 3.23)


d y = (x + 2)
3
(1 x)
x = 0, y = 8 y-intercept is 8
y = 0, (x + 2)
3
(1 x) = 0
x = 2, 1
Point of inflection (2, 0)
x-intercept is 1
Negative quartic (1 x) = (x 1)
Maximum turning point (0.25, 8.54)


3 a f(x) = x
4
8x
2
+ 16
Let x
2
= a
f(x) = a
2
8a + 16
= (a 4)
2

Substitute x
2
= a back in:
f(x) = (x
2
4)
2

(x 2)
2
(x + 2)
2

The answer is E.
b f(x) = x
4
8x
2
+ 16
y-int when x = 0
y = 16 (0, 16)
x-int when y = 0
2, 2
The answer is B.
c range = [0, 16]
The answer is A.
d 25 = x
4
8x
2
+ 16
0 = x
4
8x
2
9
Let x
2
= a
0 = a
2
8a 9
0 = (a 9)(a + 1)
Substitute x
2
= a back in
0 = (x
2
9)(x
2
+ 1)
x = 3
(3, +3) is the restricted domain.
The answer is D.
4 a x = 2, 1, 1, 3
y = a(x + 2)(x + 1)(x 1)(x 3)
(0, 6)
6 = a(0 + 2)(0 + 1)(0 1)(0 3)
6 = a 6
a = 1
y = (x + 2)(x + 1)(x 1)(x 3)
b x = 4, 2, 1
Repeated factor at x = 2.
y = a(x 4)(x 2)
2
(x + 1)
(0, 8)
8 = a(0 4)(0 2)
2
(0 + 1)
8 = 16a
a =
1
2

y =
1
2

(x 4)(x 2)
2
(x + 1)
5 a y = (2 x)(x
2
4)(x + 3) x [2, 3]
y-int when x = 0
y = 2 4 3
= 24
x-int when y = 0
x = 2, 2, 3.
when x = 2, y = 0 closed end
point
x = 3, y = 15 closed end point


i Domain [2, 3]
ii Range [15, 0]
b y = 9x
4
30x
3
+ 13x
2
+ 20x + 4x
(2, 1]
y-int when x = 0 y = 4
x-int when y = 0
Test x = 2 y = 0
(x 2) factor

3 2
4 3 2
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2
9 12
9 30 13 20 4
2
9 18
12 13

12 24
11 20

11 22
2 4

2 4
0
x x
x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x

+ + +

+

+

+

+

11 2 x

y = (x 2)(9x
3
12x
2
11x 2)
Try for 2nd factor of x 2
Test x = 2, 9x
3
12x
2
11x 2 = 0
x 2 is a factor. So turning point
at (2, 0)

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
9 6 1
2 9 12 11 2
9 18
6 11
6 12
2
x x
x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x
+ +


y = (x 2)
2
(9x
2
+ 6x + 1)
y = (x 2)
2
(9x
2
+ 6x + 1)
= (x 2)
2
(3x + 1)
2

Turning points at (2, 0) and

1
, 0
3
| |

|
\ .

when x = 2, y = 400 open end
point
when x = 1, y = 36 closed end
point


i Domain (2, 1]
ii Range [36, 400)
c y = (x 2)
2
(x + 1)
2
x (, 2]
y-int when x = 0
y = 1 4 1
y = 4
x-int when y = 0
0 = 1(x 2)
2
(x + 1)
2

x = 1 or 2
When x = 2, y = 16.
y = (2 2)
2
(2 + 1)
2

y = (4)
2
(1)
2

y = 16 1
y = 16


i Domain (,2]
ii Range (,16]
d y = x
4
+ 4x
2

x [3, 2]
y-int when x = 0
y = 0
x-int when y = 0
0 = x
2
(x
2
+ 4)
0 = x
2
(4 x
2
)
0 = x
2
(2 x)(2 + x)
x = 0 2
When x = 3, y = 45
x = 2, y = 0
Both of these are closed end points.


Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 15
i Domain [3, 2]
ii Range [45, 0]
6 f(x) = x
4
+ ax
3
4x
2
+ bx + 6
(2, 0):
0 = 2
4
+ 2
3
a 4 2
2
+ 2b + 6
16 + 8a 16 + 2b + 6 = 0
6 + 8a + 2b = 0
8a + 2b = 6
Divide both sides by 2:
4a + b = 3
4a 3 = b [1]
4a + 3 = b
(3, 0):
0 = (3)
4
+ (3)
3
a 4 (3)
2
3b + 6
0 = 81 27a 36 3b + 6
0 = 51 27a 3b
0 = 17 9a b [2]
Sub [1] into [2]
0 = 17 9a + 4a + 3,
0 = 20 5a
5a = 20
a = 4
If a = 4 then
b = 4 4 3
b = 16 3
b = 19
7 f(x) = x
4
+ ax
3
+ bx
2
x + 6
(x 1) is a factor
P(1) = 1 + a + b 1 + 6
a + b = 6 [1]
(x + 3) is a factor
P(3) = 81 27a + 9b + 3 + 6 = 0
27a 9b = 90
3a b = 10 [2]
[1] + [2] 4a = 4
a = 1
b = 7
8 y = (a 2b)x
4
3x 2
Sub in (1, 0):
0 = (a 2b)1
4
3 2
0 = a 2b 5
5 = a 2b
5 + 2b = a [1]
Sub (1, 0) into equation.
y = x
4
x
3
+ (a + 5b)x
2
5x + 7
0 = 1 1 + (a + 5b)1 5 + 7
0 = a + 5b + 2
2 = a + 5b [1]
Sub [1] into [2]
2 = 5 + 2b + 5b
7 = 7b
1 = b
If 1 = b then 5 2 = a
3 = a
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a (2y 3x)
5

= (2y)
5
+ 5(2y)
4
(3x) + 10(2y)
3
(3x)
2
+
10(2y)
2
(3x)
3
+ 5(2y)(3x)
4
+ (3x)
5

= 32y
5
+ 5 16 (3)y
4
x + 10 8
9y
3
x
2
+ 10 4 (27)y
2
x
3
+ 5
2 81yx
4
243x
5

= 32y
5
240y
4
x + 720y
3
x
2

1080y
2
x
3
+ 810yx
4
243x
5

b
8
2
2
x
x
| |

|
\ .
=
8
2
x | |
|
\ .
+ 8
7
2
2
x
x
| |

|
\ .
+
28
6 2
2
2
x
x
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .
+ 56
5 3
2
2
x
x
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .
+
70
4 4
2
2
x
x
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .
+ 56
3 5
2
2
x
x
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

+ 28
2 6
2
2
x
x
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .
+ 8
5
2
2
x
x
| || |

| |
\ .\ .

+
8
2
x
| |

|
\ .

=
8 6
256 8
x x
+
4
7
4
x
14x
2
+ 70

3
224
x
+
4
448
x

6
512
x
+
8
256
x

2 (x
2
1) = (x 1)(x + 1)
solutions are x = 1 or 1
If x = 1 then 0 = 7 a + 5 15 + b
0 = 17 a + b
17 + a = b [1]
If x = 1, then 0 = 7 + a + 5 + 15 + b
0 = 13 + a + b [2]
Sub [1] into [2]
0 = 13 + a + 17 + a
0 = 30 + 2a
30 = 2a
15 = a
b = 17 15
b = 2
3 a x
3
12x
2
+ 17x + 90 = y
Test x = 2. y = 0
(x + 2) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
14 45
12 17 90
2
2
14 17

14 28
45 90

45 90
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+ +
+
+


(x + 2)(x
2
14x + 45)
(x + 2)(x 9)(x 5)
b 2x
4
+ 7x
3
31x
2
+ 0x + 36 = y
Test x = 1 y = 0
Test x = 2 y = 0
(x + 1)(x 2) are factors
(x
2
x 2) is a factor
2
4 3 2
2
4 3 2
3 2
3 2
2 9 18
2 7 31 0 36
2
2 2 4
9 27 0

9 9 18
x x
x x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
+

+ + +



2
2
18 18 36
18 18 36
0
x x
x x

+ +

+ +


(x + 1)(x 2) (2x
2
+ 9x 18)
(x + 1)(x 2) (2x 3)(x + 6)
4 a (

5, 6), (1, 1)
m =
6 1
5 1
+


=
7
6

y =
7
6

x + c
Sub in (1, 1) to find c:
1 =
7
6
1 + c
1 +
7
6
= c

1
6
= c
y =
7
6

x +
1
6

6y = 7x + 1
7x + 6y 1 = 0
b 2x y + 10 = 0
2x + 10 = y
Perpendicular m =
1
2


y =
1
2
x + c
Sub in point (3, 3)
3 =
3
2

+ c
3 +
3
2
= c so c =
9
2
.
y =
1
2

x +
9
2

2y = x + 9
x + 2y 9 = 0
5 y = x
2
2x + 8
y-int when x = 0
y = 8
x-int when y = 0
0 = 1(x
2
+ 2x 8)
0 = 1(x + 4)(x 2)
x = 4 or 2
TP y = 1(x
2
+ 2x 8)
= 1(x
2
+ 2x + 1 1 8)
= 1[(x + 1)
2
9]
= 1(x + 1)
2
+ 9
TP = (1, 9)


Domain = R
Range = (

, 9]
6 y = 3x
2
+ 8x 3
x [3, 0)
y-int when x = 0
y = 3
x-intercepts when y = 0
0 = 3x
2
+ 8x 3
0 = (3x 1)(x + 3)
MM1 2 - 1 16 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

x =
1
3
or 3
TP y =
2
8
3 1
3
x x
| |
+
|
\ .

Now x
2
+
8
3
x 1
=
2
2
8 8 64 36
3 6 36 36
x x
| |
| |
+ + |
|
|
\ .
\ .

y =
2
8 100
3
6 36
x
(
| |
+ (
|
\ . (


=
2
8 100
3
6 2
x
| |
+
|
\ .

TP =
8 100
,
6 12
| |
|
\ .

=
4 25
,
3 3
| |
|
\ .



Domain [3, 0)
Range:
When x = 3, y = 0 closed end point
When x = 0, y = 3 open end point

25
, 0
3
(
(


7 a f(x) = x
3
+ bx
2
+ ax 18
0 = (3)
3
+ b(3)
2
+ a (3) 18
0 = 27 + 9b 3a 18
0 = 9 + 9b 3a
0 = 3 + 3b a
a = 3 + 3b [1]
g(x) = ax
2
+ bx 75
0 = a(3)
2
+ b (3) 75
0 = 9a 3b 75
25 = 3a b [2]
Sub [1] into [2]
25 = 3(3 + 3b) b
25 = 9 + 9b b
16 = 8b
2 = b
a = 3 + 6
= 9
b f(x) = x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 9x 18
y-int when x = 0
y = 18
x-int when y = 0
(x + 3) is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
5 6
2 9 18
3
3
5 9

5 15
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
+

+ +
+

+

+



6 18

6 18
0
x
x


(x + 3)(x
2
+ 5x 6) = 0
1(x + 3)(x
2
5x + 6) = 0
1(x + 3)(x 3)(x 2) = 0
x = 3, 3, or 2


8 f(x) = x
4
7x
3
+ 12x
2
+ 4x 16
y-int when x = 0
y = 16
x-int when y = 0
Test x = 1 (x + 1) is a factor
x = 2 (x 2) is a factor
2
4 3 2
2
4 3 2
3 2
3 2
2
2
6 8
7 12 4 16
2
2
6 14 4

6 6 12
8 8 16

8 8 16
0
x x
x x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x x
+

+ +

+ +

+ +


(x + 1)(x 2)(x
2
6x + 8)
(x + 1)(x 2)(x 4)(x 2)
x = 1, 2, or 4.


Multiple choice
1 (1 2x)
5

= 1
5
+ 5 1
4
(2x) + 10 1
3
(2x)
2

+ 10 1
2
(2x)
3
+ 5 1(2x)
4

+ (2x)
5

= 1 10x + 40x
2
80x
3
+ 80x
4
32x
5

The answer is E.
2
8
2
1
4x
x
| |

|
\ .
= x
8
,
7
2
x
x
= x
5

x
5
= 2nd term so r = 1
2nd term =
8
1
| |
|
\ .
(4x)
7
1
2
1
x
| |
|
\ .

= 8 16 384x
7

2
1
x


= 131 072x
5

The answer is B.
3
10
1
3x
x
| |
+
|
\ .

5
th
=
10
4
| |
|
\ .
(3x)
6
4
1
x
| |
|
\ .

= 210 729x
6

4
1
x

= 153 090x
2

The answer is A.
4 D x
4
+ 5x
3

3
2
2x + 5x 3
Positive whole number indices only
for polynomials.
5 P(3) = (3)
5
4 (3)
3
3(3)
2

+ 10 (3) + 1
= 243 + 108 27 30 + 1
= 191
The answer is C.
6 (5 6x + x
3
+
6 2 4
10
7 )( 3
21
x x x
x

+ 2)
The answer is C.
7
5 4 3 2
5 4
4 3
4 3
3 2
3 2
2
2 4 0 5 3
3
3
4

3
7 0

7 21
21 5

21 63
58 3

58 174

x x x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x

+ + + +
+
+

+

+

4 3 2
7 21 58
171
x x x x + +

The answer is C.
8 The answer is B.
If (x 2) was a factor, when x = 2
was substituted the expression would
be zero.
2
4
2 2
3
6 2
2
8 2 + 2
16 16 24 16 + 2 = 38
9 2x
4
4x
3
10x
2
+ 12x
To check if (x 3) is a factor,
substitute in x = 3
2 3
4
4 3
3
10 3
2
+ 12 3
= 162 108 90 + 36 = 0
The answer is E.
10 (4, 0), (0, 2)
m =
2 0
0 4

=
2
4
=
1
2

y =
1
2
x + c
Sub in (4, 0):
0 =
4
2
+ c
0 = 2 + c
2 = c
y =
1
2
x + 2
2y = x + 4
2y + x 4 = 0
The answer is D.
11 (2, b), (3, 5)
m =
5
3 2
b

= 2

5
5
b

= 2
5 b = 10
Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 17
5 + 10 = b
5 = b
The answer is A.
12 y = 2x + c
Sub in (2, 5)
5 = 4 + c
1 = c
y-int (0, 1)
The answer is D.
13 3x
2
+ 4x 5 = 0
b
2
4ac = 4
2
4 3 5
= 16 + 60
= 76
The answer is E.
14 y = 2x
2
+ 8x 10
x (6, 2)
y-int when x = 0
y = 10
x-int when y = 0
0 = 2(x
2
+ 4x 5)
0 = 2(x + 5)(x 1)
x = 5, or 1
When x = 6, y = 2 36 48 10
y = 14 open ended
When x = 2, y = 8 + 16 10
= 14 open ended
The answer is B.
15 y = 2(x
2
+ 4x 5)
= 2(x
2
+ 4x + 4 4 5)
= 2((x + 2)
2
9)
= 2(x + 2)
2
18
TP = (2, 18)
Range = [18, 14)
The answer is C.
16 y = 3x
3
a < 1 negative
b = 0
c = 0
he answer is B.
17 f(x) = 2x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 11x 6
Test x = 2, f(x) = 0
x + 2 is a factor

2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 7 3
( 2 ) 3 11 6
2
2 4
7 11

7 14
3 6

3 6
0
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+

+ +
+

+

+


f(x) = (x + 2)(2x
2
+ 7x 3)
= (x + 2)(2x + 1)(x 3)
x = 2,
1
,
2
3 are x-intercepts
and (0, 6) is the y-intercept.
The answer is A.
18 TP at (x + 1)
2

Other intercept (x 3)
he answer is E.
f(x) (x 3)(x + 1)
2

19 Two intercepts x = 2 or 0
x(x 2)
3

The answer is D.
20 (3, 0) is a TP so (x + 3)
2
is a factor.
(1, 0) infers (x 1) is a factor and
(3, 0) means (x 3) is a factor.
a is positive.
he answer is A.
21 y = x
2

Translate 3 units down y = x
2
3
Translate 2 units to the right
y = (x 2)
2
3
C
Extended response
1 a y = a(x b)
2
+ c
Turning point (2.5, 4)
y = a(x + 2.5)
2
+ 4
(0, 18) 18 = 2.5
2
a + 4
6.25a = 14
a = 2.24
y = 2.24(x + 2.5)
2
+ 4
b Domain [5, 0]
Range [4, 18]
c y = 5
5 = 2.24(x + 2.5)
2
+ 4
(x + 2.5)
2
= 0.446
x + 2.5 = 0.668 (x < 0)
x = 1.83
Coordinates are (1.83, 5)
d x + 2.5 = 0.668
x = 3.17
f:[ 3.17, 1.83] R, f(x) = 5
(Check answers using a graphics
calculator.)
2 a Initial distance is the day of launch.
t = 0, d = 0 km
b t = 0, d = 0 km
t = 1, d = 4000 km
t = 2, d = 2000 km
t = 3, d = 0 km

c d(t) = at
3
+ bt
2
+ ct + d
t = 0, d = 0
d(t) = at
3
+ bt
2
+ ct
When t = 1, d = 4
4 = a + b + c [1]
When t = 2, d = 2
2 = 8a + 4b + 2c [2]
When t = 3, d = 0
0 = 27a + 9b + 3c [3]
Solving [1], [2] and [3]
simultaneously, then
a = 1, b = 6 and c = 9
so, d(t) = t
3
6t
2
+ 9t
d When t = 8, d(8) = 8
3
6 8
2
+ 9 8
= 200
Distance is 200 000 km from Earth.
The moon is 240 000 km from
Earth. So, the satellite is closer by
40 000 km.
e 490 = t
3
6t
2
+ 9t
t
3
6t
2
+ 9t 490 = 0
When t = 10, d(10) = 490
So, the satellite will self-destruct
490 000 km from Earth, 10 days
after launching.
Thus, the life span of the satellite
is 10 days.
f Domain is [0, 10]
Range is [0, 490]
3 a Turning Point form: y = ax
2
+ 3
(2, 0) 0 = 4a + 3
3 = 4a
a = 0.75
y = 0.75x
2
+ 3
b Assuming symmetry, x = 1.5
y = 0.75(1.5)
2
+ 3
y = 1.3125 m and therefore cannot fit
c 1.7 1.3125
= 0.3875 m
Remove 0.4 m (to 1 dp)
4


Liney Starts 2.4 m in front of start
line moving forwards at a
constant speed of 0.75
m/min.
Passed by Cubric after 0.3
mins and 2.6 m from the
start line, meets Cubric
coming back towards Limey
at 3.8 min and 5.24 m from
the start line.
Quadder Starts at start line, travelling
1.3 m the wrong way for
2.55 mins, stopping
momentarily then moving
forward with increasing
speed
Meets Cubric at the start
line after 5.1 mins.
Cubric Starts at start line moving
very fast towards the finish
passing Liney at (0.3, 2.6),
then slowing, stopping
momentarily at (2.1, 8.8),
then moving back towards
the start.
Meets Liney at (3.8, 5.24)
and Quadder at the start line
at 5.1 min.
Slows down, stopping at
(7.37, 5.8) and then
speeding for the finish.


MM1 2 - 1 18 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

The Finish: Quadder overtakes Limey at (10.04, 9.9)
Cubric overtakes Limey at (10.0899, 9.97)
Quadder finishes race in 10.07 min, Cubric in
10.092 min, Liney in 10.13 min.
Quadder wins by 1.2 sec, Cubric second by
2.4 sec to Liney.
5 a C = (3, 0) and D = (2.25, 8.54)
b y = ax
3
(x 3)
8.54 = 2.25
3
(2.25 3)a
a =
3
8.54
2.25 0.75



0.9997
a 1
y = x
3
(x 3)
so, y = x
4
3x
3
c Find y when x = 1 to obtain B.
y = x
4
3x
3

y = (1)
4
3(1)
3

= 1 3
= 2
B is (1, 2)
Distance from road at A to river at B is 2 km.
d Distance OD =
2 2
2.25 8.54 +
= 5.0625 72.9316 +
= 77.99
8.83
Distance CD =
2 2
0.75 8.54 +
= 0.5625 72.9316 +
= 73.49
8.57
Total distance is 17.4 km
Yes because the straight route from O to D to C is
approximately 17.4 km and the river course is longer than
this.
6 a


x-intercepts 3, 1, 1, 3
y = a(x + 3)(x + 1)(x 1)(x 3)

1
0, 2
4
| |
|
\ .

9
4
= a 9
a =
1
4

y =
1
4
(x + 3)(x + 1)(x 1)(x 3)
b x = 4,
y =
1
4
(4 + 3)(4 + 1)(4 3)(4 1)
=
1
4
(7 5 1 3)
=
1
26
4

Coordinates are
1 1
4, 26 4, 26
4 4
| || |

| |
\ .\ .

c Domain is [4, 4]
d (2.236,

4)(2.236, 4)
Range
1
4, 26
4
(

(




e y =
1
4
(x + 3)(x + 1)(x 3)(x 1) + 4
=
1
4
(x
2
+ 4x + 3)(x
2
4x + 3) + 4
=
1
4
(x
4
4x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 4x
3
16x
2
+ 12x + 3x
2
12x + 9) + 4
=
1
4
(x
4
10x
2
+ 25) or
y =
1
4
(x 2.236)
2
(x + 2.236)
2

f Domain [4, 4]
Range
1
0, 30
4
(
(


7 Since smooth landing, the graph could have a turning point
at (0, 0). So, a factor of
2
( 0) x is possible. A further
x intercept (to the right of 50 km) of b, indicates a factor of
(x b). A dilation factor of a from the x-axis results in
y = ax
2
(x b)
a (50, 10) 10 = 50
2
a(50 b)
10 = 2500a(50 b) [1]
If gradient is 0 at x = 50,

d
d
y
x
= 3ax
2
2abx
0 = 3a 50
2
2ab 50
0 = 7500a 100ab
100ab = 7500a (divide by 100a, since a 0)
b = 75
Substituting into [1]
10 = 2500a(50 75)
10 = 6250a
a =
1
6250

y =
2
( 75)
6250
x x

b x = 2, y =
2
2 (2 75)
6250

= 0.04672 km
= 46.72 m
c Seems to be extremely low 2 km from touchdown.
Therefore, not very accurate.
8 a x-intercepts and turning points at x = 4
y = a(x 4)
2
(x + 4)
2

(0, 3) 3 = a(0 4)
2
(0 + 4)
2

3 = 256a
a =
3
256

y =
2 2
3( 4) ( 4)
256
x x +

Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s MM1 2 - 1 19
b If there is a smooth connection to the platform then x = 4 could be a turning point and an intercept. So, (x 4)
2
could be a
factor. The other turning point at (0, 3) suggests another x intercept to the left at x = b, where b is negative. So, in factor form:
y = a(x 4)
2
(x b), where a is a dilation constant.
(0, 3) 3 = a(0 4)
2
(0 b)
3 = 16ab
ab =
3
16
[1]
But zero gradient at G y = a(x
2
8x + 16)(x b)
y = a(x
3
bx
2
8x
2
+ 8bx + 16x 16b)

d
d
y
x
= a(3x
2
2bx 16x + 8b + 16)
Gradient = 0 at x = 0: 0 = a(8b + 16)
0 = 8b + 16 since a 0
8b = 16
b = 2
Substitute in [1]: a 2 =
3
16

a =
3
32

y =
2
3
( 4) ( 2)
32
x x +
c i y = ax
2
3
Since strut is 1 m long, F has coordinates (2, 2).
(2, 2) 2 = a 4 3
1 = 4a
a =
1
4

y =
2
3
4
x

ii y = a(x 4)
2

(2, 2) 2 = a(2 4)
2

2 = 4a
a =
1
2

y =
2
1
( 4)
2
x
=
2
1
( 8 16)
2
x x +
=
2
4 8
2
x
x +
Lower parabola
d
d
y
x
=
2
x
Upper parabola
d
d
y
x
= x + 4
x = 2
d
d
y
x
= 1
d
d
y
x
= 2
As the gradients are different, the connection is not smooth.
iii Lower equation is still y =
2
3
4
x

Upper y =
2
( 4) a x
(3, 0.75) 0.75 =
2
(3 4) a
a =
3
4

y =
2
3
( 4)
4
x
y =
2
3
( 8 16)
4
x x +
Lower parabola
d
d
y
x
=
2
x
Upper parabola
d
d
y
x
=
3
(2 8)
4
x
x = 3
d
d
y
x
=
3
2

d
d
y
x
=
3
( 2)
4

=
3
2

MM1 2 - 1 20 Gr a p h s a n d p o l y n o mi a l s

As the gradients are the same, the graphs meet smoothly at (3, 0.75).
d quartic: x = 2 y =
2 2
3(2 4) (2 4)
256
+

y =
3 4 36
256


= 1.6875 m
Difference from strut = 1.6 (1.6875)
= 0.0875 m
cubic: x = 2 y =
2
3
(2 4) (2 2)
32
+
y =
3
4 4
32

y = 1.5 m
Difference from strut = 1.6 (1.5)
= 0.1 m
quadratic: x = 2 y =
2
2
3
4

y = 2 m
Difference from strut = 1.6 (2)
= 0.4 m
The quartic model is the closest to the actual ramp with 1.6875 m.
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 21
Exercise 2A Transformations
and the parabola
1 y = a(x h)
2
+ k
a a = 2
Dilation by a factor of 2 in the
y direction.
b a =
1
3

Dilation by a factor of
1
3
in
the y direction.
c a = 3
Dilation by a factor of 3 in the
y direction and reflection in the
x-axis
d k = 6
Translation 6 units down.
e a =
1
2

, k = 1
Dilation by a factor of
1
2
in
the y direction, reflection in the
x-axis, translation 1 unit up.
f h = 2
Translation of 2 units to the
right.
g a = 1, h = 3
Reflection in the x-axis and
translation of 3 units to the left.
h a = 2, h = 3
Dilation by a factor of 2 in the
y direction and translation of 3
units to the right.
i h = 2, k = 1
Translation of 2 units to the
left and translation of 1 unit
down.
j h = 0.5, k = 2
Translation of 0.5 units to the
right and translation of 2 units up.
k a = 2, h = 3, k = 1
Dilation by a factor of 2 in the
y direction, reflection in the
x-axis, translation of 3 units to the
left and translation of 1 unit up.
l y = 12
2
3
2
x
| |

|
\ .

1
4

a = 12, h =
3
2
, k =
1
4

Dilation by a factor of 12 in
the y direction, translation of
3
2

(1.5) units to the right and
translation of
1
4
(0.25) units
down.
2 Increasing m a decreases.
Therefore the graph will be wider.
The answer is D.
3 a k = 2
graph (ii)
b a = 2, h = 2
graph (v)
c a = 1, h = 2, k = 2
graph (i)
d a =
1
2
, h = 2
graph (iv)
e a = 2, h = 2, k = 2
graph (iii)
4 y = a(k h)
2
+ k
a Turning point (2, 2)
h = 2, k = 2
y = a(x 2)
2
+ 2
Using (0, 0):
0 = a(0 2)
2
+ 2
0 = 4a + 2
4a = 2
a =
1
2


Equation is y =
1
2

(x 2)
2
+ 2
b Turning point (1, 2)
h = 1, k = 2
y = a(x + 1)
2
2
Using (0, 0):
0 = a(0 + 1)
2
2
0 = a 2
a = 2
Equation is y = 2(x + 1)
2
2
c Turning point (1, 3)
h = 1, k = 3
y = a(x 1)
2
+ 3
Using (0, 0)
0 = a(0 1)
2
+ 3
0 = a + 3
a = 3
Equation is y = 3(x 1)
2
+ 3
d Turning point (2, 4)
h = 2, k = 4
y = a(x + 2)
2
4
Using (0, 0):
0 = a(0 + 2)
2
4
0 = 4a 4
4a = 4
a = 1
Equation is y = (x + 2)
2
4
5 Turning point (c, d)
h = c, k = d
y = a(x c)
2
+ d
Parabola is negative a < 0
Only alternative is
y = d (x c)
2

The answer is E.
6 y = x
2

a a =
1
2

y =
1
2
x
2

b a = 1
y = x
2

c h = 2, k = 1
y = (x 2)
2
1
d a = 3, k = 2
y = 3x
2
2
e a = 1, h = 3
y = (x + 3)
2

7 y = a(x h)
2
+ k
a Turning point (3, 4)
h = 3, k = 4
y = a(x 3)
2
4
Using (5, 0)
0 = a(5 3)
2
4
0 = 4a 4
4a = 4
a = 1
Equation is y = (x 3)
2
4
b Turning point (1, 1)
h = 1, k = 1
y = a(x + 1)
2
+ 1
Using (0, 1)
1 = a(0 + 1)
2
+ 1
1 = a + 1
a = 2
y = 2(x + 1)
2
+ 1
c Turning point (3, 4)
h = 3, k = 4
y = a(x + 3)
2
4
Using (0, 1)
1 = a(0 + 3)
2
4
1 = 9a 4
9a = 3
a =
1
3

y =
1
3
(x + 3)
2
4
d Turning point (2, 2)
h = 2, k = 2
y = a(x 2)
2
+ 2
Using (0, 0)
0 = a(0 2)
2
+ 2
0 = 4a + 2
4a = 2
a =
1
2


y =
1
2

(x 2)
2
+ 2
e Turning point (1, 6)
h = 1, k = 6
y = a(x 1)
2
+ 6
Using (0, 9)
9 = a(0 1)
2
+ 6
9 = a + 6
a = 3
y = 3(x 1)
2
+ 6
f Turning point (2, 8)
h = 2, k = 8
y = a(x + 2)
2
+ 8
Using ( 2 2, 0)
0 = a( 2 2 + 2)
2
+ 8
0 = 2a + 8
2a = 8
a = 4
y = 4(x + 2)
2
+ 8
Chapter 2 Functions and transformations
MM1 2 - 2 22 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
8 y = x
2

a dilation of 2 from the x-axis
y = 2x
2

b reflection in the x-axis
y = 2x
2

c translation of 1 parallel to the
x-axis y = 2(x + 1)
2

d translation of 3 parallel to the
y-axis y = 2(x + 1)
2
+ 3
9 point (x, y)
a Reflection in the y-axis (x, y)
b Reflection in the x-axis (x, y)
c Dilation of 3 from the x-axis
(x, 3y)
d Dilation of 2 from the y-axis
(2x, y)
e Dilation of
1
3
from the y-axis

1
,
3
x y
| |
|
\ .

f A translation of 2 units
horizontally in the positive
direction (x + 2, y)
g A translation of 1 unit parallel to
the y-axis (x, y 1)
10 a y = a(x h)
2
+ k
Turning point (z, 8)
y = a(x z)
2
8
Using (0, 10):
10 = a(0 z)
2
8
10 = az
2
8
az
2
= 18
a =
2
18
z
1
Using (5, 0):
0 = a(5 z)
2
8
or 0 =
2
18
z
(5 z)
2
8 (using
equation 1 )
8 =
2
18
z
(25 10z + z
2
)
8z
2
= 18(25 10z + z
2
)
8z
2
= 450 180z + 18z
2

10z
2
180z + 450 = 0
or z
2
18z + 45 = 0
(z 3)(z 15) = 0
z = 3 or z = 15
b Substitute z = 3 or z = 15 into
equation 1
a =
2
18
3
or
2
18
15

a = 2 or
2
25

y = 2(x 3)
2
8 or
y =
2
25
(x 15)
2
8
11 y = a(x h)
2
+ k
a Range is y 3 a < 0
and k = 3 is the y-coordinate of
turning point.
h = 4
b y = a(x + 4)
2
+ 3
Using
1
0, 2
3
| |

|
\ .

2
1
3
= a(0 + 4)
2
+ 3

7
3

= 16a + 3
16a =
16
3


a =
1
3


y =
1
3

(x + 4)
2
+ 3
c x-intercepts: y = 0

1
3

(x + 4)
2
+ 3 = 0

1
3

(x + 4)
2
= 3
(x + 4)
2
= 9
x + 4 = 3 or 3
x = 7 or 1
12 1 h = 2, k = 3
f(x + 2) 3, 4 x 0
2 h = 2, k = 3
f(x 2) 3, 0 x 4
3 h = 4
f(x + 4), 6 x 2
4 h = 4
f(x 4), 2 x 6
5 a < 0, k = 6
f(x) + 6, 2 x 2
6 a < 0, h = 4, k = 6
f(x + 4) + 6, 6 x 2
7 a < 0, h = 4, k = 6
f(x 4) + 6, 2 x 6
8 a < 0, h = 2, k = 9
f(x + 2) + 9, 4 x 0
9 a < 0, h = 2, k = 9
f(x 2) + 9, 0 x 4
Exercise 2B The cubic
function in power form
1 a y = 7x
3

a = 7
The graph is dilated by a factor of
7 in the y direction.
b y =
2
3

x
3

a =
2
3


The graph is dilated by a factor of
2
3
in the y direction and also a
reflection in the x-axis.
c y = x
3
+ 4
k = 4
The graph is translated 4 units up.
d y = 6 x
3

a = 1
Reflected in the x-axis.
k = 6
Translated 6 units up.
e y = (x 1)
3

h = 1
Translated 1 unit right.
f y = (x + 3)
3

a = 1
Reflected in the x-axis.
h = 3
Translated 3 units left.
g y = 4(2 x)
3

a = 4
Dilated in the y direction by a
factor of 4.
Reflection in the y-axis.
h = 2
Translated 2 units right.
h y = 6(7 x)
3

a = 6
Dilated by a factor of 6 in the y
direction.
Reflected in the x-axis, reflected
in the y-axis
h = 7
Translated 7 units right.
i y = 3(x + 3)
3
2
a = 3, h = 3, k = 2
Dilated by a factor of 3 in the y
direction, translated 3 units left,
translated 2 units down.
j y = 6
1
2
(x 1)
3

a =
1
2

, h = 1, k = 6
Dilated by a factor of
1
2
in the
y direction, reflected in the x-axis,
translated 1 unit right, translated
6 units up.
k y =
1
4
(2x + 5)
3

=
3
1 5
2
4 2
x
( | |
+
| (
\ .

=
3
5
2
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .

a = 2, h =
5
2


Dilated by a factor of 2 in the
y direction, translated
5
2
units
left.
l y = 3 2
3
1
4
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .

= 3 2 ( )
3
1
8
2
x
(
+
(


= 3
1
4
(8 + x)
3

a =
1
4

, h = 8, k = 3
Dilated by a factor of
1
4
in the
y direction, reflected in the x-axis,
translated 8 units left, translated 3
units up.
2 a (i), (iv)
b (iii), (v)
c (ii)
d (i), (ii), (iv)
e (ii), (v)
f (iii), (iv)
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 23
3 a y =
3
4
x
3

a =
3
4
, h = 0, k = 0
Dilated by a factor of
3
4
in the
y direction.
a > 0: A positive cubic.
Stationary point of inflection is
(0, 0)
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
3
4
(0)
3

= 0
x-intercept: y = 0

3
4
x
3
= 0
x
3
= 0
x = 0

b y = 1 2x
3

a = 2, h = 0, k = 1
Dilated by a factor of 2 in the
y direction, reflected in the x-axis.
a < 0: A negative cubic
Stationary point of inflection
(0, 1)
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 1 2(0)
3

y = 1
x-intercept: y = 0
1 2x
3
= 0
2x
3
= 1
x
3
=
1
2

x =
3
1
2

0.8

c y =
2
3
x
3
6
a =
2
3
, h = 0, k = 6
a > 0: A positive cubic
Stationary point of inflection is
(0, 6)
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
3
(0)
3
6
y = 6
x-intercept: y = 0

2
3
x
3
6 = 0

2
3
x
3
= 6
x
3
= 9
x =
3
9
2.08

d y = 2(x 4)
3

a = 2, h = 4, k = 0
a > 0: A positive cubic
Stationary point of inflection is
(4, 0)
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 2(0 4)
3

y = 128
x-intercept: y = 0
2(x 4)
3
= 0
(x 4)
3
= 0
x 4 = 0
x = 4

e y =
1
2

(x 2)
3

a =
1
2

, h = 2, k = 0
a < 0: A negative cubic.
Stationary point of inflection is
(2, 0).
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
2

(0 2)
3

=
1
2

8
= 4
x-intercept: y = 0

1
2

(x 2)
3
= 0
(x 2)
3
= 0
x 2 = 0
x = 2

f y = 4(1 x)
3

= 4(x 1)
3

a = 4, h = 1, k = 0
a < 0: A negative cubic.
Stationary point of inflection is
(1, 0)
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 4(1 0)
3

= 4 1
= 4
x-intercept: y = 0
4(1 x)
3
= 0
(1 x)
3
= 0
1 x = 0
x = 1

g y = (x 1)
3
+ 2
a = 1, h = 1, k = 2
a > 0: A positive cubic.
Stationary point of inflection is
(1, 2)
y-intercept: x = 0
y = (0 1)
3
+ 2
= 1 + 2
= 1
x-intercept: y = 0
(x 1)
3
+ 2 = 0
(x 1)
3
= 2
x 1 =
3
2
x = 1
3
2
0.26

h y = 3 (x + 2)
3

a = 1, h = 2, k = 3
a < 0: A negative cubic.
Stationary point of inflection is
(2, 3)
y-intercept: x = 0
MM1 2 - 2 24 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
y = 3 (0 + 2)
3

= 3 8
= 5
x-intercept: y = 0
3 (x + 2)
3
= 0
(x + 2)
3
= 3
x + 2 =
3
3
x = 2 +
3
3
0.56

i y = 2(x + 1)
3
6
a = 2, h = 1, k = 6
a > 0: A positive cubic
Stationary point of inflection is
(1, 6)
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 2(0 + 1)
3
6
= 2 6
= 4
x-intercept: y = 0
2(x + 1)
3
6 = 0
2(x + 1)
3
= 6
(x + 1)
3
= 3
x + 1 =
3
3
x = 1 +
3
3
0.44

Questions 4 to 6
y = 2(mx 4)
3
3
= 2
3
4
m x
m
( | |

| (
\ .
3
= 2m
3
3
4
x
m
| |

|
\ .
3
4 h =
4
m
, k = 3

4
, 3
m

| |
|
\ .

The answer is E.
5 a = 2m
3

The answer is C.
6 If m > 1,
h =
4
m
decreases and a = 2m
3

increases
Graph is thinner and not shifted
as far to the right.
The answer is B.
7 a a =
1
2

y =
1
2
x
3

b a = 1, h = 5
y = (x + 5)
3

c h = 3, k = 1
y = (x 3)
3
1
d a = 2, k = 3
y = 2x
3
+ 3
e a = 1, h = 1, k = 1
y = (x + 1)
3
1
8 y = x
3

a dilation by a factor of 2 from the
x-axis y = 2x
3

b a reflection in the y-axis
y = 2(x)
3

y = 2x
3

c a translation of 2 in the positive
direction parallel to the x-axis
y = 2(x 2)
3

d a translation of 1 in the negative
direction parallel to the y-axis
y = 2(x 2)
3
1
9 a h = 0, k = 4
y = ax
3
+ 4
Using (2, 0):
0 = a 2
3
+ 4
0 = 8a + 4
8a = 4
a =
1
2


y =
1
2

x
3
+ 4
b h = 1, k = 2
y = a(x 1)
3
+ 2
Using (0, 0):
0 = a(0 1)
3
+ 2
0 = a + 2
a = 2
y = 2(x 1)
3
+ 2
c h = 1, k = 1
y = a(x + 1)
3
+ 1
Using (0, 2)
2 = a(0 + 1)
3
+ 1
2 = a + 1
a = 3
y = 3(x + 1)
3
+ 1
d h = 3, k = 0
y = a(x 3)
3

Using (0, 9):
9 = a(0 3)
3

9 = 27a
a =
1
3


y =
1
3

(x 3)
3

e h = 1, k =
1
2


y = a(x + 1)
3

1
2

Using
1
, 0
2
| |
|
\ .
:
0 = a
3
1
1
2
| |
+
|
\ .

1
2

=
8
a

1
2


8
a
=
1
2

a = 4
y = 4(x + 1)
3

1
2

10 y = 2(x + 3)
3
+ 1
Reflected in x-axis:
y = 2(x + 3)
3
1
Shifted 3 units to the right:
y = 2(x + 3 3)
3
1
y = 2x
3
1
Shifted 1 unit up:
y = 2x
3
1 + 1
y = 2x
3

The answer is E.
11 y = a(x h)
3
+ k
h = 1, k = 4
y = a(x + 1)
3
4
Using (0, 2)
2 = a(0 + 1)
3
4
2 = a 4
a = 2
y = 2(x + 1)
3
4
12 a y = a(h x)
3
+ k
h = 2, k = 1
y = a(2 x)
3
+ 1
Using
1
1,
2
| |
|
\ .


1
2
= a(2 1)
3
+ 1

1
2
= a + 1
a =
1
2

y =
1
2

(2 x)
3
+ 1
b y =
1
2
[(x 2)]
3
+ 1
y =
1
2
(x 2)
3
+ 1
a =
1
2

Therefore it is a positive cubic.
13 a y = a(x h)
3
+ k
a = 1
y = (x h)
3
+ k
Using (0, 28):
28 = (0 h)
3
+ k
h
3
+ k = 28
Using (4, 0):
0 = (4 h)
3
+ k
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 25
0 = 64 48h 12h
2
h
3

+ k 2
From 1 k = 28 + h
3

Substitute into 2 :
0 = 64 48h 12h
2
3
h
+ 28

3
h +
12h
2
+ 48h + 36 = 0
12(h
2
+ 4h + 3) = 0
12(h + 3)(h + 1) = 0
h = 3 or h = 1
Substitute h into 1
h = 3, k = 28 + (3)
3

= 28 27
= 1
h = 1, k = 28 + (1)
3

= 28 1
= 27
Therefore the stationary points
are (3, 1) or (1, 27).
b For y = (x + 3)
3
+ 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y = (0 + 3)
3
+ 1
= 27 + 1
= 28
x-intercept: y = 0
(x + 3)
3
+ 1 = 0
(x + 3)
3
= 1
x + 3 = 1
x = 4
For y = (x + 1)
3
+ 27
y-intercept: x = 0
y = (0 + 1)
3
+ 27
= 1 + 27
y = 28
x-intercept: y = 0
(x + 1)
3
+ 27 = 0
(x + 1)
3
= 27
x + 1 = 3
x = 4

Exercise 2C The power
function (the hyperbola)
1 y =
a
x h
+ k
a a = 2, h = 0, k = 0
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 2.
b a = 3
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 3, reflection in the
x-axis.
c a = 1, h = 6,
Translation 6 units right.
d a = 2, h = 4
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 2, translation 4 units left.
e a = 1, k = 7
Translation 7 units up.
f a = 2, k = 5
Dilation by a factor of 2 in the
y direction, translation 5 units
down.
g a = 1, h = 4, k = 3
Translation 4 units left,
translation 3 units down.
h a = 2, h = 3, k = 6
Dilation by a factor of 2 in the
y direction, translation 3 units
right, translation 6 units up.
i a = 4, h = 1, k = 4
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 4, reflection in the
x-axis, translation 1 unit right,
translation 4 units down.
2 a (v)
b (iii)
c (i)
d (v), (iii)
e (v), (ii), (iii)
f (i), (iii)
g (v), (i), (iv)
h (ii), (iv)
3 y =
a
x h
+ k
a i h = 0, k = 0
Horizontal asymptote: y = 0
Vertical asymptote: x = 0
ii Domain: R\{0}
iii Range: R\{0}
b i h = 6, k = 0
Horizontal asymptote: y = 0
Vertical asymptote: x = 6
ii Domain: R\{6}
iii Range: R\{0}
c i h = 2, k = 0
x = 2 Vertical asymptote
y = 0 Horizontal asymptote
ii Domain: R\{2}
iii Range: R\{0}
d i h = 3, k = 0
x = 3 Vertical asymptote
y = 0 Horizontal asymptote
ii Domain: R\{3}
iii Range: R\{0}
e i h = 0, k = 4
x = 0 Vertical asymptote
y = 4 Horizontal asymptote
ii Domain: R\{0}
iii Range: R\{4}
f i h = 0, k = 5
x = 0 Vertical asymptote
y = 5 Horizontal asymptote
ii Domain: R\{0}
iii Range: R\{5}
g i h = 6, k = 2
x = 6 Vertical asymptote
y = 2 Horizontal asymptote
ii Domain: R\{6}
iii Range: R\{2}
h i h = 2, k = 1
x = 2 Vertical asymptote
y = 1 Horizontal asymptote
ii Domain: R\{2}
iii Range: R\{1}
i i h = n, k = m
x = n Vertical asymptote
y = m Horizontal asymptote
ii Domain: R\{n}
iii Range: R\{m}
4 a i h = 4, k = 0
x = 4
y = 0
ii Domain: R\{4}
iii Range: R\{0}
b i h = 0, k = 2
x = 0
y = 2
ii Domain: R\{0}
iii Range: R\{2}
c i h = 3, k = 2
x = 3
y = 2
ii Domain: R\{3}
iii Range: R\{2}
d i h = 1, k = 1
x = 1
y = 1
ii Domain: R\{1}
iii Range: R\{1}
e i h = m, k = n
x = m
y = n
ii Domain: R\{m}
iii Range: R\{n}
f i h = b, k = a
x = b
y = a
ii Domain: R\{b}
iii Range: R\{a}
5

y =
2
3x
is dilated by a factor
2
3
in
the y direction.
y =
3
x
is dilated by a factor 3 in the
y direction.
y =
4
3x
is dilated by a factor
4
3
in
the y direction and reflected through
the x-axis.
6 y =
a
x h
+ k
a a = 1, h = 3, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 3
y = 0
MM1 2 - 2 26 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
0 3 +

y =
1
3

x-intercept: y = 0

1
3 x +
= 0
No solution.
No x-intercept.

b a = 1, h = 2, k = 1
Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
0 2 +
1
=
1
2

x-intercept: y = 0

1
2 x +
1 = 0

1
2 x +
= 1
x + 2 = 1
x = 1

c a = 3, h = 1, k =
3
4

Asymptotes: x = 1
y =
3
4

y-intercept: x = 0
y =
3
0 1

3
4

= 3
3
4

= 3
3
4

x-intercept: y = 0

3
1 x

3
4
= 0

3
1 x
=
3
4

3(x 1) = 12
3x 3 = 12
3x = 15
x = 5

d a = 2, h = 5, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 5
y = 0
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
0 5 +

=
2
5

x-intercept: y = 0

2
5 x +
= 0
No solution
No x-intercept.

e a = 6, h = 1, k = 3
Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 3
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
6
1 0
3
= 6 3
= 3
x-intercept: y = 0

6
1 x
3 = 0

6
1 x
= 3
6 = 3(1 x)
6 = 3 3x
3x = 3
x = 1

f a = 3, h = 2, k = 6
Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 6
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
3
0 2

+ 6
=
3
2
+ 6
= 7
1
2

x-intercept: y = 0

3
2 x

+ 6 = 0

3
2 x
= 6
3 = 6(x 2)
= 6x 12
6x = 15
x = 2
1
2


g a = +1, h = 2, k = 1
Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 1
1
2 0

= 1
1
2

=
1
2

x-intercept: y = 0
1
1
2 x
= 0

1
2 x
= 1
1 = 2 x
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 27
x = 1
x = 1

h a = 4, h = 1, k =
2
5

Asymptotes: x = 1
y =
2
5

y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
5
+
4
1 0 +

=
2
5
+ 4
= 4
2
5

x-intercept: y = 0

2
5
+
4
1 x +
= 0

4
1 x +
=
2
5


2(1 + x) = 20
2 + 2x = 20
2x = 22
x = 11

i y =
1
2 3 x +
+ 4
=
1
3
2
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 4
a =
1
2
, h =
3
2
, y = 4
Asymptotes: x =
3
2

y = 4
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
2 0 3 +
+ 4
=
1
3
+ 4
= 4
1
3

x-intercept: y = 0

1
2 3 x +
+ 4 = 0

1
2 3 x +
= 4
4(2x + 3) = 1
8x 12 = 1
8x = 13
x =
13
8


j y =
2
3 4x
1
=
2
3
4
4
x
| |

|
\ .
1
a =
1
2
, h =
3
4
, k = 1
Asymptotes: x =
3
4

y = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
3 4 0
1
=
2
3
1
=
1
3

x-intercept: y = 0

2
3 4x
1 = 0

2
3 4x
= 1
2 = 3 4x
4x = 1
x =
1
4


k y =
3
2
x
x
+


=
( 2) 5
2
x
x
+


=
2 5
2 2
x
x x

+


=
5
1
2 x
+


x-asymptote: x = 2
y-asymptote: y = 1
x-intercept, y = 0
0 =
3
2
x
x
+


0 = x + 3
x = 3
y-intercept, x = 0
y =
3
2

l y =
4 3
1
x
x
+


=
4( 1) 7
1
x
x
+


=
4( 1) 7
1 1
x
x x

+


=
7
4
1 x
+


x-asymptote: x = 1
y-asymptote: y = 4
y-intercept, x = 0
y =
3
1

= 3
x-intercept, y = 0
0 =
4 3
1
x
x
+


0 = 4x + 3
3 = 4x
x =
3
4


7 a < 0, h = 4, k = 3
y =
1
4 x

+ 3
The answer is E.
8 Asymptotes: x = 1 (vertical)
y = 3 (horizontal)
Domain: R\{1}
Range: R\{3}
The answer is C.
MM1 2 - 2 28 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
9 a h = 2, k = 0
y =
2
a
x

Using (0, 1)
1 =
0 2
a


=
2
a


a = 2
y =
2
2 x

b h = 0, k = 1
y =
a
x
+ 1
Using (3, 0):
0 =
3
a
+ 1

3
a
= 1
a = 3
y =
3
x

+ 1
c h = 4, k = 0
y =
4
a
x +

Using
3
0,
4
| |
|
\ .


3
4

=
0 4
a
+

=
4
a

3 = a
y =
3
4 x

+

d h = 0, k = 1
y =
a
x
1
Using (4, 0)
0 =
4
a

1

4
a

= 1
a = 4
y =
4
x

1
e h = 4, k = 2
y =
4
a
x
+ 2
Using
1
0, 1
2
| |
|
\ .

1
1
2
=
0 4
a

+ 2

1
2
=
4
a


a = 2
y =
2
4 x
+ 2
f h = 1, k = 1
y =
1
a
x +
1
Using (0, 5)
5 =
0 1
a
+
1
= a 1
a = 6
y =
6
1 x +
1
10 f(x) =
1
x

Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 0
a f(x + 2) =
1
2 x +

Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 0
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
0 2 +

=
1
2

x-intercept: y = 0
0 =
1
2 x +

No x-intercept.

b f(x) 1 =
1
x
1
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 1
x-intercept: y = 0
0 =
1
x
1
1 =
1
x

x = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
0
1
No y-intercept.

c f(x) 2 =
1
x
2
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 2
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
0
2
No y-intercept.
x-intercept: y = 0

1
2
x

= 0

1
x

= 2
2x = 1
x =
1
2



d f(1 x) + 2 =
1
1 x
+ 2
Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 2
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
1 0
+ 2
= 1 + 2
= 3
x-intercept: y = 0
0 =
1
1 x
+ 2
2 =
1
1 x

2(1 x) = 1
2 + 2x = 1
2x = 3
x =
3
2


e f(x 1) 1 =
1
1 x
1
Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 1
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 29
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
0 1
1
= 1 1
y = 0
So the x-intercept is at the origin.

f 1 f(x 2) = 1
1
2 x

Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 1
1
0 2

= 1
1
2

= 1
1
2

x-intercept: y = 0
0 = 1
1
2 x

1 =
1
2 x

x 2 = 1
x = 3

11 yx 3x + 1 = 0
y 3 +
1
x
= 0
y = 3
1
x

Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 3
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 3
1
0

No y-intercept
x-intercept: y = 0
0 = 3
1
x


1
x
= 3
3x = 1
x =
1
3



Domain: R\{0}
Range: R\{3}
Exercise 2D The power
function (the truncus)
1 y =
( )
2
a
x h
+ k
a a = 2, h = 0, k = 0
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 2.
b a = 3, h = 0, k = 0
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 3, reflection in the
x-axis.
c a = 1, h = 2, k = 0
Translation 2 units left.
d a = 2, h = 3
Dilation by a factor of 2 in the
y direction, translation 3 units right.
e a = 5, h = 4
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 5, reflection in the
x-axis, translation 4 units left.
f a = 2, k = 6
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 2, translation 6 units up.
g a = 1, k = 3
Reflection in the x-axis,
translation 3 units up.
h a = 4, h = 3, k = 1
Dilation in the y direction by a
factor of 4, translation 3 units
right, translation 1 unit up.
i a = 1, h = 2, k = 5
Reflection in the x-axis,
translation 2 units left, translation
5 units up.
2 a < 0 Reflected in the x-axis
h = 2 Translated 2 units right.
The answer is D.
3 Translated m units left, translated
n units up
The answer is C.
4 y =
2
( )
a
x h
+ k
a i h = 0, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 0
ii Domain: R\{0}
iii a = 2(> 0)
Range: y > 0
b i h = 0, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 0
ii Domain: R\{0}
iii a =
4
3


Range: y < 0
c i h = 2, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 0
ii Domain: R\{2}
iii a = 1
Range: y > 0
d i h = 1, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 0
ii Domain: R\{1}
iii a = 2
Range: y > 0
e i h = 4, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 4
y = 0
ii Domain: R\{4}
iii a = 5
Range: y < 0
f i h = 0, k = 3
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 3
ii Domain: R\{0}
iii a = 2
Range: y > 3
g i h = 0, k =
4
5

Asymptotes: x = 0
y =
4
5

ii Domain: R\{0}
iii a = 1
Range: y >
4
5

h i h = 0, k =
1
2

Asymptotes: x = 0
y =
1
2

ii Domain: R\{0}
iii a = 3
Range: y <
1
2

i i h = 1, k = 4
Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 4
ii Domain: R\{1}
iii a = 2
Range: y > 4
5 Vertical asymptote at x = 3 in
graphs (ii) & (iii)
The answer is C.
6 Horizontal asymptote y = 3 and
a < 0 in graphs (iii), (v) & (vi)
The answer is B.
7 Asymptotes y = 0 and x = 3 in
graph (ii)
The answer is B.
MM1 2 - 2 30 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
8 y =
2
( )
a
x h
+ k
a a =
2
5
, h = 0, k = 0
Reflected in the x-axis
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 0
x-intercept: y = 0

2
2
(5 ) x
= 0
No solution.
No x-intercept.
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
2
5 0

Undefined
No y-intercept.

b a = 1, h = 3, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 3
y = 0
No x-intercepts.
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
(0 3)
1


=
1
9


c a = 2, h = 4, k = 0
Asymptotes: x = 4
y = 0
No x-intercepts.
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
2
(4 0) +

=
2
16

=
1
8


d a = 1, h = 1, k = 0
Reflected in the x-axis
Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 0
No x intercepts.
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
1
(0 1)

= 1

e a = 4, h = 0, k = 1
Reflected in the x-axis
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 1
No y-intercept
x-intercept: y = 0
1
2
4
x
= 0

2
4
x
= 1
x
2
= 4
x = 2

f a =
1
2
, h = 0, k = 3
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 3
No y-intercept.
x-intercepts: y = 0

2
1
2x
3 = 0

2
1
2x
= 3
6x
2
= 1
x
2
=
1
6

x =
1
6
0.4

g a = 2, h = 1, k = 2
Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 2
x-intercept: y = 0

2
2
( 1) x
2 = 0

2
2
( 1) x
= 2
2(x 1)
2
= 2
(x 1)
2
= 1
x 1 = 1 or 1
x = 2 or 0
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
2
(0 1)
2
= 2 2
= 0

h a = 2, h = 3, k = 4
Reflected in the x-axis.
Asymptotes: x = 3
y = 4
x-intercepts: y = 0
4
2
2
(3 ) x +
= 0

2
2
(3 ) x +
= 4
4(3 + x)
2
= 2
(3 + x)
2
=
1
2

3 + x =
1
2

x = 3 +
1
2
or
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 31
3
1
2

x 2.3 or 3.7
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 4
2
2
(3 0) +

= 4
2
9

= 3
7
9


i a = 1, h = 2, k =
2
3

Asymptotes: x = 2
y =
2
3

x-intercept: y = 0

2
3
+
2
1
( 2) x
= 0

2
1
( 2) x
=
2
3

(x 2)
2
=
3
2

No solution
No x-intercepts.
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
3
+
2
1
(0 2)

=
2
3
+
1
4

=
11
12


j a =
3
4
, h = 1, k =
1
4

Asymptotes: x = 1
y =
1
4


x-intercepts: y = 0

2
3
4( 1) x +

1
4
= 0

2
3
4( 1) x +
=
1
4


2
3
( 1) x +
= 1
(x + 1)
2
= 3
x + 1 = 3
x = 1 + 3,
1 3
0.7, 2.7
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
3
4(0 1) +

1
4

=
3
4

1
4

=
1
2


k a = 1, h = 2, k = 3
Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 3
x-intercepts:
2
1
(2 ) x
+ 3 = 0

2
1
(2 ) x
= 3
(2 x)
2
=
1
3

No solution
No x-intercepts.
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
1
(2 0)
+ 3
=
1
4
+ 3
= 3
1
4


l y =
2
4
[2( 2)] x
1
=
2
4
4( 2) x
1
=
2
1
( 2) x
1
a = 1, h = 2, k = 1
Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 1
x-intercepts: y = 0

2
1
( 2) x
1 = 0

2
1
( 2) x
= 1
(x 2)
2
= 1
x 2 = 1
x 2 = 1 or 1
x = 3 or 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
4
[2( 2)]
1
=
4
16
1
=
3
4


9 y =
2
( )
a
x h
+ k where a = 1 or 1.
a a = 1, h = m, k = n
y =
2
1
( ) x m
+ n
b a = 1, h = q, k = p
y =
2
1
( ) x q

+
+ p
c a = 1, h = r, k = 0
y =
2
1
( ) x r


d a = 1, h = 0, k = t
y =
2
1
x
+ t
e a = 1, h = a, k = b
y =
2
1
( ) x a +
b
f a = 1, h = g, k = e
y =
2
1
( ) x g
e
g a = 1, h = 0, k = k
y =
2
1
x
k
MM1 2 - 2 32 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
h a = 1, h = 0, k = c
y =
2
1
x

c
10 y =
2
( )
a
x h
+ k
a h = 0, k = 2
y =
2
a
x
2
Using (1, 0):
0 =
2
1
a
2
2 = a
y =
2
2
x
2
b h = 2, k = 0
y =
2
( 2)
a
x

Using
3
0,
4
| |

|
\ .
:
3
4
=
2
(0 2)
a



3
4
=
4
a

a = 3
y =
2
3
( 2) x


c h = 2, k = 1
y =
2
( 2)
a
x +
+ 1
Using (5, 0): 0 =
2
( 5 2)
a
+
+ 1
0 =
9
a
+ 1

9
a
= 1
a = 9
y =
2
9
( 2) x

+
+ 1
d h = 1, k = 4
y =
2
( 1)
a
x +
+ 4
Using (0, 7):
7 =
2
(0 1)
a
+
+ 4
7 = a + 4
a = 3
y =
2
3
( 1) x +
+ 4
e h = 4, k = 3
y =
2
( 4)
a
x
3
Using (0, 2.5):
2.5 =
2
(0 4)
a

3
0.5 =
16
a

a = 8
y =
2
8
( 4) x
3
f h = 1, k = 2
y =
2
( 1)
a
x
2
Using (0, 7):
7 =
2
(0 1)
a

2
5 =
1
a

a = 5
y =
2
5
( 1) x

2
11 h = 2, k = 3, a > 0
y =
2
( 2)
a
x +
3
Using (1, 0):
0 =
2
( 1 2)
a
+
3
3 =
1
a

a = 3
y =
2
3
( 2) x +
3
12 h = 1, k = 2, a > 0
y =
2
( 1)
a
x
+ 2
Using (0, 5):
5 =
2
(0 1)
a

+ 2
3 =
1
a

a = 3
y =
2
3
( 1) x
+ 2
Exercise 2E The square root
function in power form
1 y = a x h + k
a a = 2, h = 0, k = 0
Dilated by a factor of 2 in the y
direction.
b a =
1
3
, h = 0, k = 0
Dilated by a factor of
1
3
in the y
direction, reflected in the x-axis.
c a = 3, h = 1, k = 0
Dilated in the y direction by a
factor of 3, translated 1 unit right.
d a = 2, h = 4, k = 0
Dilated in the y direction by a
factor of 2, reflected in the x-axis,
translated 4 units left.
e a = 1, h = 0, k = 1
Translated 1 unit down.
f a = 3, h = 0, k = 2
Dilated in the y-direction by a
factor of 3, reflected in the x-axis,
translated 2 units up.
g a = 1, h = 4, k = 3
Translated 4 units right, translated
3 units up.
h a = 2, h = 3, k = 6
Dilated in the y direction by a
factor of 2, reflected in the x-axis,
translated 3 units left, translated 6
units up.
i a =
1
,
2
h = 2, k =
2
3

Dilated by a factor of
1
2
in
the y direction, reflected in the
x-axis, reflected in the y-axis,
translated 2 units right, translated
2
3
units up.
2 (h, k) are the coordinates of the end
point.
a (0, 0)
b (0, 0)
c (1, 0)
d (4, 0)
e (0, 1)
f (0, 2)
g (4, 3)
h (3, 6)
i
2
2,
3
| |
|
\ .

3 The graph is translated 3 units up.
The answer is E.
4 The graph is reflected in the y-axis,
translated 2 units right, translated 4
units up.
The answer is D.
5 y = a x h + k
a y = 1 x +
h = 1, k = 0
Domain: x 1
Range: y 0
b y = 3 x
h = 3, k = 0
Domain: x 3
Range: y 0
c y = x 3
h = 0, k = 3
Domain: x 0
Range: y 3
d y = 4 + 2 x
h = 0, k = 4
Domain: x 0
Range: y 4
e y = 5 x
a < 0, h = 0, k = 5
Domain: x 0
Range: y 5
f y = 1 x + 3
h = 1, k = 3
Domain: x 1
Range: y 3
g y = 2 x + 1
h = 2, k = 1
Domain: x 2
Range: y 1
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 33
h y = 4 2 2 1 x +
2x + 1 0
2x 1
x
1
2

Domain: x
1
2

k = 4, a < 0
Range: y 4
i y =
3
3 4
5
x + 2
3x 4 0
3x 4
x
4
3

Domain: x
4
3

k = 2, a < 0
Range: y 2
j y = 3 x 7
h = 3, k = 7
Domain: x 3
Range: y 7
k y = 6 + 4 2x
4 2x 0
2x 4
x 2
Domain: x 2
k = 6,
Range: y 6
l y = 1 2 x
a < 0, h = 2, k = 1
Domain: x 2
Range: y 1
6 Since x 2 and y 2, graph is of
the form
y = a h x + k
The answer is D.
7 Domain: (, 2]
Range: (, 2]
The answer is D.
8 a y = a x h + k
a = 1, h = 2, k = 0
End point: (2, 0)
x-intercept: y = 0
0 = 2 x +
x = 2
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 0 2 +
= 2

b a =
1
3
, h = 0, k = 3
End point: (0, 3)
x-intercept: None since y 3
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
0
3
+ 3
y = 3

c a = 1, h = 0, k = 2
End point: (0, 2)
x-intercept: y = 0
2 x = 0
x = 2
x = 4
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 2

d a = 1, h = 6, k = 1
End point: (6, 1)
x-intercept: None since y 1
y-intercept: None since x 6

e a = 1, h = 3, k = 2
End point: (3, 2)
x-intercept: None since y 2
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 3 0 + + 2
= 3 + 2
3.7

f a = 1, h = 4, k =
1
2

End point:
1
4,
2
| |

|
\ .

x-intercept: y = 0

1
2
4 x + = 0
4 x + =
1
2

4 + x =
1
4

x = 3
3
4

y-intercept: x = 0
y =
1
2
4 0 +
=
1
2
2
= 1
1
2


g y = 2 3 x
=
3
2
2
x
| |

|
\ .

=
3
2
2
x
| |

|
\ .

a = 2, h =
3
2
, k = 0
End point:
3
, 0
2
| |
|
\ .

x-intercept: y = 0
2 3 x = 0
2x 3 = 0
2x = 3
MM1 2 - 2 34 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
x =
3
2

y-intercept: None since x
3
2


h y = 6 3x + + 2
= 3(2 ) x + + 2
= 3 2 x + + 2
a = 3 , h = 2, k = 2
End point: (2, 2)
x-intercept: None since y 2
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 6 3 0 + + 2
= 6 + 2
4.4

i h = 2, k = 1
End point: (2, 1)
x-intercept: y = 0
2 x 1 = 0
2 x = 1
2 x = 1
x = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 2 0 1
= 2 1
0.4

9 y = a x h + k
h = 1, k = 2
y = a 1 x + 2
Using (2, 0)
0 = a 2 1 + 2
0 = a + 2
a = 2
y = 2 1 x + 2
The answer is E.
10 a y = a x h + k
a = 2, h = m, k = 4
y = 2 x m 4
Using (5, 0)
0 = 2 5 m 4
2 5 m = + 4
5 m = + 2
5 m = 4
m = 1
b y = 2 1 x 4
11

Since x 4
y = a h x + k
h = 4, k = 3
y = a 4 x + 3
Using (0, 9)
9 = a 4 0 + 3
6 = a 4
= 2a
a = 3
y = 3 4 x + 3
12 a y = a x h + k
a = 4, h = 1, k = p
y = 4 1 x + + p
Using (0, 4):
4 = 4 0 1 + + p
4 = 4 + p
8 = p
p = 8
b y = 4 1 x + + 8
c x-intercept: y = 0
4 1 x + + 8 = 0
4 1 x + = 8
1 x + = 2
x + 1 = 4
x = 3
d Domain: x 1
e Range: y 8
f
Exercise 2F The absolute
value function
1 a Let y = 2x
Let x = 0:
y = 2 0
= 0 (0, 0)
Let x = 1:
y = 2 1
= 2 (1, 2)

b Let y = x 1
x-intercept: y = 0
x 1 = 0
x = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 0 1
= 1

c Let y = 3 6x
x-intercept: y = 0
3 6x = 0
6x = 3
x =
1
2

y-intercept: x = 0
y = 3 6 0
= 3
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 35

d Let y = x
2
6
Shape: Positive parabola
translated 6 units down.
Turning point: (0, 6)
x-intercept: y = 0
x
2
6 = 0
x
2
= 6
x = 6

e Let y = 4 x
2

Shape: Negative parabola
translated 4 units up.
Turning point: (0, 4)
x-intercept: y = 0
4 x
2
= 0
x
2
= 4
x = 4
x = 2 or 2
f Let y = (x 3)
2
4
Shape: Positive parabola translated
3 units right and 4 units down.
Turning point: (3, 4)
x-intercept: y = 0
(x 3)
2
4 = 0
(x 3)
2
= 4
x 3 = 4
= 2 or 2
x = 5 or 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y = (0 3)
2
4
= 9 4
= 5

g Let y = 3x
3

Shape: Positive cubic dilated by a
factor of 3 in y direction.
Stationary point of inflection:
(0, 0)

h Let y = (x + 2)
3
1
Shape: Positive cubic translated 2
units left and 1 unit down.
Stationary point of inflection:
(2, 1)
x-intercept: y = 0
(x + 2)
3
1 = 0
(x + 2)
3
= 1
x + 2 = 1
x = 1
y-intercept: x = 0
y = (0 + 2)
3
1
= 8 1
= 7

i Let y =
2
1 x

Asymptotes: x = 1
y = 0
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
0 1

= 2

2 For x 1: Positive cubic with
stationary point of inflection (0, 1)
y = x
3
+ 1
So graph is y = |x
3
+ 1|
The answer is C.
3 a Let y = 2x
Domain: R
Range: R
y = 2|x|
Domain: R
Range: y 0
b Let y = x + 1
Domain: R
Range: R
y = |x| + 1
Domain: R
Range: y 1
c Let y = 4 3x
Domain: R
Range: R
y = 4 3|x|
Domain: R
Range: y 4
d Let y = |x
2
3|
Domain: R
Range: y 0
y = |x
2
3| 2 (shifted down 2
units)
Domain: R
Range: y 2
e Let y =
1
1 x +

Domain: R\{1}
Range: y > 0
y =
1
1 x +
+ 1 (shifted up 1 unit)
Domain: R\{1}
Range: y > 1
f Let y = 2
2
1
x

Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 2
Domain: R\{0}
Range: y 2
y =
2
1
2
x

Domain: R\{0}
Range: y 0
4 a Let y = |x|
Dilated in the y direction by a
factor of 2 and reflected through
x-axis.
MM1 2 - 2 36 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
b The graph of y = |x + 5| is shifted
down 6 units.
Let y = x + 5
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 0 + 5
y = 5
x-intercept: y = 0
x + 5 = 0
x = 5

c The graph of y = |3 x| is dilated
in the y direction by a factor of 4
and shifted 1 unit up.
Let y = 3 x
x-intercept: y = 0
3 x = 0
x = 3
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 3 0
= 3

d The graph of y = |x
2
1| is shifted
up 1 unit.
Let y = x
2
1
Turning point: (0, 1)
x-intercept: x
2
1 = 0
x
2
= 1
x = 1 or 1

e The graph of y = |x
2
2| is
reflected through the x-axis and
translated 2 units up
Let y = x
2
2
Turning point: (0, 2)
x-intercept: y = 0
x
2
2 = 0
x
2
= 2
x = 2

f The graph of y = |(x + 1)
2
1| is
shifted down 2 units
Let y = (x + 1)
2
1
Turning point: (1, 1)
x-intercept: y = 0
(x + 1)
2
1 = 0
(x + 1)
2
= 1
x + 1 = 1 or 1
x = 0 or 2
y-intercept: x = 0
y = (0 + 1)
2
1
= 0

g The graph of y =
1
x
is translated
down
3
4
units
Let y =
1
x

Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 0

h The graph of y =
2
6 x
is
shifted up 3 units
Let y =
2
6 x

Asymptotes: x = 6
y = 0
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
2
6 0

=
1
3


i The graph of y =
2
1
x
is dilated in
the y direction by a factor of
1
4

and shifted down 4 units.
Let y =
2
1
x

Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 0

j The graph of y =
2
1
1
x
is
reflected through the x-axis.
Let y =
2
1
x
1
Asymptotes: x = 0
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 37
y = 1
x-intercept: y = 0

2
1
x
1 = 0

2
1
x
= 1
x
2
= 1
x = 1

k The graph of y = 2 2 x is
shifted up 3 units
Let y = 2 x 2
End point: (2, 2)
x-intercept: y = 0
2 x 2 = 0
2 x = 2
2 x = 4
x = 2
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 2 0 2
= 2 2 0.6

l The graph of y = 1 8 x + is
reflected through the x-axis and
shifted 2 units up.
Let y = 1 x + 8
End point: (1, 8)
x-intercept: y = 0
1 x + 8 = 0
1 x + = 8
x + 1 = 64
x = 63
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 0 1 + 8
= 1 8
= 7

5 f(x) = 3 1 x
a f(x) =
3 1 where 3 1 0
(3 1) where 3 1 0
x x
x x

<


1st function: 3x 1
1st domain: 3x 1 0
3x 1
x
1
3

2nd function: (3x 1)
= 3x + 1
2nd domain: 3x 1 < 0
x <
1
3

f(x) =
1
3 1 where
3
1
3 1 where
3
x x
x x

+ <


b f(0). x = 0 is in the domain of
the 2nd function.
f(0) = 3 0 + 1
= 1
f(2). x = 2 is in the domain of
the 1st function.
f(2) =3 2 1
= 5
c

y-intercept, x = 0
y = |3 0 1|
= |1|
= 1
6 f(x) = |x
2
3x| + 2
a
f(x) =
2 2
2 2
3 2 when 3 0
( 3 ) 2 when 3 0
x x x x
x x x x

+ <


1st function: x
2
3x + 2
1st domain: x
2
3x 0
x(x 3) 0
x (, 0] [3, )
2nd function: (x
2
3x) + 2
= x
2
+ 3x + 2
2nd domain: x
2
3x < 0
x(x 3) < 0
x (0, 3)
f(x) =
2
2
3 2 when ( , 0] [3, )
3 2 when (0, 3)
x x x
x x x

+ +


b f(1). x = 1 is in the domain of
the 1st function.
f(1) = (1)
2
3(1) + 2
= 1 + 3 + 2
= 6
f(2). x = 2 is in the domain of the
2nd function.
f(2) = 2
2
+ 3(2) + 2
= 4 + 6 + 2
= 4
c y-intercept, x = 0.
y =|0 0| + 2
= 2
Cusp points need to find x-
intercept of original positive
graph.
y = x
2
3x
0 = x(x 3)
x = 0, 3.
As the graph has been translated
2 units up,
Cusp points are (0, 2) and (3, 2)
Turning point of original graph:
y = x
2
3x
=
2 2
2
3 3
3
2 2
x x
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

=
2
3 9
2 4
x
| |

|
\ .

T.P.
3 9
,
2 4
| |

|
\ .

T.P. of absolute value function
is
3 9
,
2 4
| |
|
\ .

7 a y = ax, x 0
Using (2, 3)
3 = 2a
a =
3
2

y =
3
2
x
Rule is y =
3
2
x , 2 x 2
b Blue: Reflection through x-axis.
y =
3
2
x , 2 x 2
Green: Translated 6 units down.
y =
3
2
x 6, 2 x 2
MM1 2 - 2 38 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
Yellow: Reflection through x-axis
and shifted 6 units up.
y = 6
3
2
x , 2 x 2.
Exercise 2G Transformations
with matrices
1 i reflection in the y-axis, dilation
by factor 2 from the x-axis.
ii dilation factor
1
2
from the y-axis,
reflection in the x-axis, dilation
factor 4 from the x-axis.
iii reflection in the y-axis, dilation
by factor 2 from the y-axis,
dilation by factor 3 from the
x-axis.
iv reflection in the x-axis, dilation
by factor
1
2
from the x-axis.
2 (3, 5)
i
x
y

(
(


=
1 0 3
0 2 5
( (
( (


=
3
10
(
(


(3, 10)
ii
x
y

(
(


=
1
3 0
2
5
0 4
(
(
(
(
(

(


=
3
2
20
(

(
(
(



3
, 20
2
| |

|
\ .

iii
x
y

(
(


=
2 0 3
0 3 5
( (
( (


=
6
15
(
(


(6, 15)
iv
x
y

(
(


=
1 0
3
1
5 0
2
(
(
(
(
(


(


=
3
5
2
(
(
(

(



5
3,
2
| |

|
\ .

3 a y =
2
1
x

i reflection in the y-axis
y =
2
1
( ) x

=
2
1
x

dilation by factor 2 from the
x-axis y =
2
2
x

ii dilation factor
1
2
from the
y-axis y =
2
1
(2 ) x

y =
2
1
4x

reflection in the x-axis
y =
2
1
4x

dilation factor 4 from the
x-axis y =
2
4
4x

=
2
1
x

b y = x
3
5
i reflection in the y-axis
y = (x)
3
5
= x
3
5
dilation by factor 2 from the
x-axis y = 2 [x
3
5]
y = 2x
3
10
ii dilation factor
1
2
from the
y-axis y = (2x)
3
5
= 8x
3
5
reflection in the x-axis
y = [8x
3
5]
= 8x
3
+ 5
dilation factor 4 from the
x-axis y = 4[8x
3
+ 5]
= 32x
3
+ 20
c y = x
i reflection in the y-axis
y = x
dilation by factor 2 from the
x-axis y = 2 x
ii dilation factor
1
2
from the
y-axis y = 2x
reflection in the x-axis
y = 2x
dilation factor 4 from the
x-axis y = 4 2x
4 i
3
2
(
(


translation of 3 units in the
positive x-direction,
translation of 2 units in the
positive y-direction.
ii
2
2
(
(



translation of 2 units in the
positive x-direction, translation
of 2 units in the negative
y-direction
iii
1
5
0
(

(
(
(


translation of
1
5
units in the
negative x-direction.
5 i
x
y

(
(


=
1 3
2 2
( (
+
( (



=
4
0
(
(


(4, 0)
ii
x
y

(
(


=
1 2
2 2
( (
+
( (



=
3
4
(
(



(3, 4)
iii
x
y

(
(


=
1
1
5
2
0
(
(
(
+
(
(


(


=
4
5
2
(
(
(
(



4
, 2
5
| |

|
\ .

6 a y = |x|
i translation of 3 units in the
positive x-direction
y = |x 3|
translation of 2 units in the
positive y-direction
y = |x 3| + 2
ii translation of 2 units in the
positive x-direction
y = |x 2|
translation of 2 units in the
negative y-direction
y = |x 2| 2
b y = x
2
3x
i translation of 3 units in the
positive x-direction
y = (x 3)
2
3(x 3)
= x
2
6x + 9 3x + 9
= x
2
9x + 18
translation of 2 units in the
positive y-direction
y = x
2
9x + 18 +2
= x
2
9x + 20
ii translation of 2 units in the
positive x-direction
y = (x 2)
2
3(x 2)
= x
2
4x + 4 3x + 6
= x
2
7x + 10
translation of 2 units in the
negative y-direction
y = x
2
7x + 10 2
= x
2
7x + 8
7 y = x
3
y = (3x 6)
3
+ 1
= (3(x 2))
3
+ 1
dilation factor
1
3
from the y-axis,
then translation 2 units right, then
translation 1 unit up
C.
8 f(x) =
1
x

a translation 6 units in the positive
x-direction y =
1
6 x

F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 39
translation 1 unit in the positive
y-direction y =
1
1
6 x
+


reflection in the y-axis
y =
1
1
6 x
+


=
1
1
6 x
+
+

dilation factor 2 from the x-axis
y =
1
2 1
6 x
(
+
(
+


=
2
2
6 x
+
+

b dilation factor 2 from the y-axis
y =
1
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
=
2
x

reflection in the x-axis y =
2
x

dilation factor
1
2
from the x-axis
y =
1 2
2 x
| |

|
\ .

=
1
x

translation 3 units in the positive
x-direction
y =
1
( 3) x


translation 1 unit in the negative
y-direction
y =
1
1
( 3) x


c translation 1 unit in the positive
x-direction
y =
1
1 x

translation 2 units in the negative
y-direction
y =
1
2
1 x


dilation factor
1
3
from the y-axis
y =
1
2
3 1 x


reflection in the x-axis
y =
1
2
3 1 x
(

(



=
1
2
3 1 x


9 g(x) h(x)
h(x) = g(4(x + 1)) + 3
reflection in x-axis
dilation factor
1
4
from the y-axis
translation 1 unit in the negative
x-direction
translation 3 units in the positive
y-direction

x
T
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
1
1 0
4
3
0 1
x
y
(
( (
(
+
( (
(

(


10 y = x
3
4x
a 1st two transformations

1 0
0 2
(
(



x
T
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
x
y

(
(


=
1 0
0 2
x
y
( (
( (


=
2
x
y
(
(


translation
0
1
(
(



x
T
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
x
y

(
(


=
1 0 0
0 2 1
x
y
( ( (
+
( ( (



=
0
2 1
x
y
( (
+
( (



=
2 1
x
y
(
(



Therefore, x = x and y = 2y 1
x = x and y =
1
2
y +

y = x
3
4x
the resultant equation:

1
2
y +
= (x)
3
4(x)

1
2
y +
= x
3
+ 4x
y + 1 = 2(x
3
+ 4x)
= 2x
3
+ 8x
y = 2x
3
+ 8x 1
b
x
y

(
(


=
1 0 2 0
0 2 0 1
( ( (
+
( ( (



=
2 0
0 1
( (
+
( (



=
2
1
(
(



(2, 1)
x = 2 y = 2(2)
3
+ 8 (2) 1
= 16 16 1
= 1
the points lies on the curve
11 f(x) =
2
1
x
g(x) =
2
3
1
( 2) x


reflection in the x-axis
dilation factor 3 from the x-axis
translation 2 units in the positive
x-direction
translation 1 unit in the positive
y-direction

x
T
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
x
y

(
(


=
1 0 2
0 3 1
x
y
( ( (
+
( ( (



12 f(x) = g(2(x + 1)) + 1
g(x) = x
a reflection in the x-axis
x
dilation factor
1
2
from the
y-axis 2x
translation 1 unit in the
negative x-direction
2( 1) x +
translation 1 unit in the
positive y-direction
2( 1) 1 x + +
f(x) = 2( 1) 1 x +
b T
x
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
x
y

(
(


=
1
1 0
2
1
0 1
x
y
(
( (
(
+
( (
(

(


13 f(x) = 2g(x 1) 2
g(x) = x
2
3x
a dilation factor 2 from the
x-axis 2(x
2
3x)
= 2x
2
6x
translation 1 unit in the
positive x-direction
2(x 1)
2
6(x 1)
= 2(x
2
2x + 1) 6x + 6
= 2x
2
4x + 2 6x + 6
= 2x
2
10x + 8
translation 2 units in the
negative y-direction
2x
2
10x + 8 2
= 2x
2
10x + 6
f(x) = 2x
2
10x + 6
b
x
T
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
x
y

(
(


=
1 0 1
0 2 2
x
y
( ( (
+
( ( (



14
1
( 2) 1
2
h x + + =
3
2
1
3 6
2 2
x
x x
h(x) = ?
reflection in the x-axis
dilation factor
1
2
from the x-axis
translation 2 units in the negative
x-direction
translation 1 unit in the positive
y-direction

x
T
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
x
y

(
(


=
1 0
2
1
1 0
2
x
y
(
( (
(
+
( (
(


(



2
1
x
y
( (

( (


=
1 0
1
0
2
x
y
(
(
(
(
(


(



x
y
(
(

=
1
2 0
2 2
1
0 1
x
y
(
| | ( (
(

|
( (
(
\ .
(


=
1 0 2
0 2 1
x
y
+ ( (
( (



=
2
2( 1)
x
y
+ (
(



x = x + 2 and y = 2(y 1)
x = x 2 y 1 =
2
y

y = 1
2
y
+
MM1 2 - 2 40 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
y =
3
2
1
3 6
2 2
x
x x


1
2
y
+ =
3
2
( 2) 1
3( 2) 6( 2)
2 2
x
x x


= 3.5 0.5x
3
(using CAS)

2
y
= 2.5 0.5x
3

y = 5 x
3

y = x
3
5
Exercise 2H Sum, difference
and product functions
1 a


Domain g = R Domain h = R
Domain f = domain g domain h
Domain f: R
b


Domain g = R Domain h = [0, )
Domain f = domain g domain h
Domain f: [0, )
c


Domain g = R Domain h = R
Domain f = domain g domain h
Domain f: R
d


Domain g = R\{0} Domain h = R
Domain f = domain g domain h
Domain f: R\{0}
2 a g(x) h(x) = 1 x x +


b g(x) h(x) = |x| |x + 1| + 2

3 a Domain f = R Domain g = (, 3]
Domain f(x)g(x) =
domain f domain g
Domain f(x)g(x): (, 3]
b Domain f = R Domain g = R
Domain f(x)g(x) =
domain f domain g
Domain f(x)g(x): R
c Domain f = [0, )
Domain g = (, 1]
Domain f(x)g(x) =
domain f domain g
Domain f(x)g(x): [0, 1]
d Domain f = R Domain g = R
Domain f(x)g(x) =
domain f domain g
Domain f(x)g(x): R
e Domain f = R Domain g = [2, )
Domain f(x)g(x) =
domain f domain g
Domain f(x)g(x): [2, )
4

5 a


b Domain f = [2, 2]
Domain g = [0, 2]
Domain h(x) = domain f domain g
Domain h(x) = [0, 2]
a = 0
c f(0) = 0 g(0) = 0
h(0) = 0 + 0
= 0
d f(1) = 1 g(1) = 1
h(1) = 1 + 1
= 0
e f(2) = 4 g(2) = 2
h(2) = 4 + 2
= 2 4
f range h(x) = [0.47, 2 4] or
[0.47, 2.59]


6 a

b f(2) = 8 g(2) = 2
h(2) = 8 + 2
= 10
c f(0) = 0 g(0) = 0
h(0) = 0 + 0
= 0
d f(1) = 1 g(1) = 1
h(1) = 1 + 1
= 0
e f(2) = 8 g(2) =2
h(2) = 8 + 2
= 6
f range h(x) = [6, 10]
g

7 a Domain f = R Domain g = [0, )
Domain h(x) = domain f domain g
Domain h(x) = [0, )
b


c f(0) = 3 g(0) = 0
h(0) = 3 0
= 0
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 41
d f(1) = 2 g(1) = 1
h(1) = 2 1
= 2
e f(2) = 1 g(2) = 2
h(2) = 1 2
= 2
f range h(x) = [2, )
g

8

Domain f= [5, )
Domain g = (, 8]
Domain h(x) = domain f domain g
Domain h(x) = [5, 8]
9


Exercise 2 I Composite
functions and functional
equations
1 a f(x) = 2x 1, g(x) = 3 x +
i
f(x) g(x)
Domain R [3, )
Range R [0, )
for f (g(x)) ran g(x) dom f(x)
[0, ) R
f(g(x)) is defined
ii f(g(x)) = 2 3 1 x +
dom f(g(x)) = dom g(x)
= [3, )
b f(x) =
1
2 x +
, g(x) = |x| + 1
i
f(x) g(x)
Domain R\{2} R
Range R\{0} [1, )
ran g(x) dom f(x)
[1, ) R\{2}
f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) =
1
1 2 x + +

domain f(g(x)) = R
=
1
3 x +

c f(x) = 3(x 2)
3
, g(x) = x
2

i
f(x) g(x)
Domain R R
Range [0, ) [0, )
ran g(x) dom f(x)
[0, ) R
f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = 3(x
2
2)
3

domain f(g(x)) = R
d f(x) = |x|, g(x) = x
3

i
f(x) g(x)
Domain R R
Range [0, ) R
ran g(x) dom f(x)
R R
f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = |x
3
|
domain f(g(x)) = R
e f(x) = (x + 1)(x + 3), g(x) = x
2

i
f(x) g(x)
Domain R R
Range [1, ) [0, )
ran g(x) dom f(x)
[0, ) < R
f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = (x
2
+ 1)(x
2
+ 3)
dom f(g(x)) = R
2 f(x) = 3x

3
x y
f
+ | |
|
\ .
= 3
3
x y + | |
|
\ .

= x + y

( ) ( )
3
f x f y +
=
3 3
3
x y +

= x + y
f(x) = 3x satisfies the equation:

3
x y
f
+ | |
|
\ .
=
( ) ( )
3
f x f y +

3 f(x) =
2
x


( ) ( )
( )
f x f y
f xy
+
=
2 2
2
x y
xy
+

=
2 2
2
y x
xy
xy
+

=
2 2
2
y x +

= y + x
L.H.S = R.H.S
f(x) =
2
x
satisfies the equation
( ) ( )
( )
f x f y
f xy
+
= x + y
4 a f(x) = x
i f(x y) = f(x) f(y)
x y x y
L.H.S R.H.S
ii f(x y) =
( )
( )
f x
f y

x y
x
y

L.H.S R.H.S
iii f(x) + f(y) = (x
2
+ y
2
)f(xy)
x y + =
2 2
( ) x y x y +
L.H.S R.H.S
iv
x
f
y
| |
|
\ .
=
( )
( )
f x
f y


x
y
=
x
y

L.H.S = R.H.S
v f(xy) = f(x) f(y)
xy = x y
L.H.S = R.H.S
Ans: iv, v hold true
b f(x) = |x|
i f(x y) = f(x) f(y)
|x y| |x| |y|
L.H.S R.H.S
ii f(x y) =
( )
( )
f x
f y

|x y|
x
y

L.H.S R.H.S
iii f(x) + f(y) = (x
2
+ y
2
)f(xy)
|x| + |y| (x
2
+ y
2
)|xy|
L.H.S R.H.S
iv
x
f
y
| |
|
\ .
=
( )
( )
f x
f y


x
y
=
x
y

L.H.S = R.H.S
v f(xy) = f(x) f(y)
|xy| = |x| |y|
L.H.S = R.H.S
Ans: iv, v hold true
c f(x) =
1
x

i f(x y) = f(x) f(y)

1
x y

1 1
x y

L.H.S R.H.S
ii f(x y) =
( )
( )
f x
f y


1
x y

1
1
x
y
=
y
x

L.H.S R.H.S
MM1 2 - 2 42 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
iii f(x) + f(y) = (x
2
+ y
2
)f(xy)

1 1
x y
+ =
2 2
1
( ) x y
xy
+

y x
xy
+

2 2
x y
xy
+

L.H.S R.H.S
iv
x
f
y
| |
|
\ .
=
( )
( )
f x
f y


1
x
y
=
1
1
x
y


y
x
=
y
x

L.H.S = R.H.S
v f(xy) =f(x) f(y)

1
xy
=
1 1
x y

L.H.S = R.H.S
Ans: iv, v hold true.
d f(x) =
2
1
x

i f(x y) = f(x) f(y)

2
1
( ) x y

2 2
1 1
x y

L.H.S R.H.S
ii f(x y) =
( )
( )
f x
f y


2
1
( ) x y

2
2
1
1
x
y
=
2
2
y
x

L.H.S R.H.S
iii f(x) + f(y) = (x
2
+ y
2
) f(xy)

2 2
1 1
x y
+ = (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
1
( ) xy


2 2
2 2
y x
x y
+
=
2 2
2 2
x y
x y
+

L.H.S = R. H.S
iv
x
f
y
| |
|
\ .
=
( )
( )
f x
f y


2
1
x
y
| |
|
\ .
=
2
2
1
1
x
y


2
2
y
x
=
2
2
y
x

L.H.S = R.H.S
v f(xy) = f(x) f(y)

2
1
( ) xy
=
2 2
1 1
x y

L.H.S = R.H.S
Ans: iii, iv, v hold true
e f(x) = x
2

i f(x y) = f(x) f(y)
(x y)
2
x
2
y
2

L.H.S R.H.S
ii f(x y) =
( )
( )
f x
f y

(x y)
2

2
2
x
y

L.H.S R.H.S
iii f(x) + f(y) = (x
2
+ y
2
) f(xy)
x
2
+ y
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)(xy)
2

L.H.S R.H.S
iv
x
f
y
| |
|
\ .
=
( )
( )
f x
f y


2
x
y
| |
|
\ .
=
2
2
x
y

L.H.S = R.H.S
v f(xy) = f(x) f(y)
(xy)
2
= x
2
y
2

L.H.S = R.H.S
Ans: iv, v hold true.
f f(x) = 2
x

i f(x y) = f(x) f(y)
2
x y
2
x
2
y

L.H.S R.H.S
ii f(x y) =
( )
( )
f x
f y

2
x y
=
2
2
x
y

L.H.S = R.H.S
iii f(x) + f(y) = (x
2
+ y
2
)f(xy)
2
x
+2
y
(x
2
+y
2
)2
xy

L.H.S R.H.S
iv
x
f
y
| |
|
\ .
=
( )
( )
f x
f y

2
x
y

2
2
x
y

L.H.S R.H.S
v f(xy) = f(x) f(y)
2
xy
2
x
2
y

L.H.S R.H.S
Ans: ii holds true
5 f(x) =
2
1
( ) x a +
, g(x) = x
for f(g(x)) to exist: range g(x) dom f
[0, ) dom f
dom f [0, )
dom f: R\{a}
a > 0
6 f(x) = 2 x , g(x) =
1
2
1 x
+
+

f(x) g(x)
Domain [2, ) R\{1}
range [0, ) R\{2}
f (g(x)) range g(x) dom f(x)
R\{2} [2, )
f (g(x)) is not defined.
g(f(x)) range f(x) dom g(x)
[0, ) R\{1}
g(f (x)) exists
g(f (x)) =
1
2
2 1 x
+
+

7 f(x) = 3 x , g(x) = x
2
1
f(g(x)) range g(x) dom f(x)
[1, ) [0, )
f(g(x)) is note defined.
want range g(x) = [0, )
x
2
1 0
x R\(1, 1)
h(x) = x
2
1, x R\(1, 1)
8 w(x) = x + 3, x > 3, v(x) = |x| 2,
x R
+

w(x) v(x)
Domain (3, ) R
+

range (0,) (2, )
w(v (x)) range v (x) domain w(x)
(2, ) (3, )
w(v(x)) is defined.
w (v(x)) = |x| 2 + 3
= |x| + 1, x R
+

v (w(x)) range w(x) domain v (x)
(0, ) R
+

v (w(x)) exists
v(w(x)) = |x + 3| 2, x (3, )
9 g(x) = x
3

g(x) = g(x)
(x)
3
= x
3

x
3
= x
3

L.H.S = R.H.S
g(x) = x
3
satisfies the equation
g(x) = g(x)
g(x) = x
n
, when n = odd natural
number
g(x) = g(x)
(x)
n
= x
n

x
n
= x
n

g(x) = x
n
satisfies the equation
g(x) = g(x)
10 g(x) = x
4

g(xy) = g(x )g(y)
(xy)
4
= x
4
y
4

x
4
y
4
= x
4
y
4

L.H.S = R.H.S
g(x) = x
4
satisfies the equation
g(xy) = g(x)g(y)
g(x) = x
n
, n is a natural number
g(xy) = g(x) g(y)
(xy)
n
= x
n
y
n

x
n
y
n
= x
n
y
n

L.H.S = R.H.S
g(x) = x
n
satisfies the equation
g(xy) = g(x)g(y)
11 f: [0, b] R, f(x) =
2
1
( 6)
4
x x
g: [0, b] R, g(x) = x
2
+ bx
|f(x) g(x)|
=
2 2
1
( 6) ( 6 )
4
x x x x +
=
2 2
1
( 12 36) 6
4
x x x x x + +
=
3 2 2
1
3 9 6
4
x x x x x + +
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 43
=
3 2
1
2 3
4
x x x +
Maximum: (4.43, 4.23)
max value is 4.23 and this occurs
when x = 4.43
12 f: [4, ) R, f(x) = 4 x
g: R R, g(x) = 1 x
f(g(x)) = 1 4 x
= 3 x
= ( 3) x +
f(x) f(g(x))
reflection in the y-axis
translation 1 unit in the positive
x-direction
Exercise 2J Modelling
1 a


y =
a
x
+ b
(iii)
b


y = ax
3
+ b
(ii)
c


y =
2
a
x
+ b
(iv)
d


y = ax
2
+ b
(i)
e


y = a x + b
(v)
2 a


Assume y = ax
3

Using (1, 0.3):
0.3 = a 1
3

a = 0.3
y = 0.3x
3

Verifying;
(3, 8.1): y = 0.3 (3)
3

= 8.1
(2, 2.4): y = 0.3 (2)
3

= 2.4
(1, 0.3): y = 0.3 (1)
3

= 0.3
(0, 0): y = 0.3 0
3

= 0
(1, 0.3): y = 0.3 1
3

= 0.3
(2, 2.4): y = 0.3 2
3

= 2.4
(3, 8.1): y = 0.3 3
3

= 8.1
The rule that fits the data is y = ax
3

where a = 0.3.
b


Assume that y = ax
2

Using (1, 6):
6 = a 1
2

= a
a = 6
y = 6x
2

Verifying,
(2, 24): y = 6 (2)
2

= 24
(1, 6): y = 6 (1)
2

= 6
(0, 0): y = 6 0
2

= 0
(1, 6): y = 6 1
2

= 6
(2, 24): y = 6 2
2

= 24
(3, 54): y = 6 3
2

= 54
The rule is y = ax
2
where a = 6.
c


Assume y =
2
a
x

Using (1, 2):
2 =
2
1
a

=
1
a

a = 2
y =
2
2
x

Verifying,
(5, 0.08): y =
2
2
( 5)

=
2
25
= 0.08
(2, 0.5): y =
2
2
( 2)

MM1 2 - 2 44 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
=
2
4
= 0.5
(1, 2): y =
2
2
( 1)

= 2
(1, 2): y =
2
2
1

= 2
(2, 0.5): y =
2
2
2

= 0.5
(5, 0.08): y =
2
2
5

=
2
25
= 0.08
The rule is y =
2
a
x
where a = 2.
d


Assume y = a x
Using (1, 1.6):
1.6 = a 1
a = 1.6
y = 1.6 x
Verifying,
(0, 0): y = 1.6 0
= 0
(0.5, 1.13): y = 1.6 0.5
= 1.13
(1.5, 1.96): y = 1.6 1.5
= 1.96
(2, 2.26): y = 1.6 2
= 2.26
The rule is y = a x where a = 1.6
e


Assume y =
a
x

Using (1, 5):
5 =
1
a

a = 5
y =
5
x

Verifying,
(2, 2.5): y =
5
2

= 2.5
(4, 1.25): y =
5
4

= 1.25
(5, 1): y =
5
5

= 1
(10, 0.5): y =
5
10

= 0.5
The rule is y =
a
x
where a = 5.
f


Assuming y = ax
3

Using (1, 1.5):
1.5 = a 1
3

a = 1.5
Verifying,
(3, 40.5): y = 1.5 (3)
3

= 40.5
(2, 12): y = 1.5 (2)
3

= 12
(1, 1.5): y = 1.5 (1)
3

= 1.5
(0, 0): y = 1.5 0
3

= 0
(2, 12): y = 1.5 2
3

= 12
The rule is y = ax
3
where
a = 1.5.
3 i, ii, and iv as they have clear vertical
asymptotes along the y-axis.
The answer is D.
4 a


b
x
2
0 1 4 9 16 25
y 3.2 1 4.9 14.5 29 46.8



c a = m =
2 1
2 1
y y
x x


Using (0, 3.2) and (25, 46.8)
a =
46.8 3.2
25 0


=
50
25

= 2
y = 2x
2
+ b
If x = 0, y = 3.2
b = 3.2
5
x
3
64 8 0 8 64 216
y 28 13.5 12.5 10 4.3 41
Given y = ax
3
+ b
a = m =
2 1
2 1
y y
x x


=
41 28
216 64



=
69
280

a
1
4

Using (0, 12.5) b = 12.5
b 12
y =
1
4
x
3
12.
6 a


b Assume f =
a


F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 45
c
1

3.33 2 1 0.33 0.2 0.125 0.1


f 1130 680 340 110 70 40 35



f = a
1


a = m =
1130 35
3.33 0.1


=
1095
3.23

340
f =
340


7 a


It seems I =
a
d
or
2
a
d

b Assume I =
2
a
d

Using (1, 270):
270 =
2
1
a

a = 270
I =
2
270
d

8


Assuming y = a x + b
x
0 1 1.7 2.2 2.6 3
y 4 7 9 11 12 13



The graph is very close to a straight line so the assumption is
correct.
a = m =
2 1
2 1
y y
x x


=
13 4
3 0


=
9
3

= 3
Using (0, 4): b = 4
y = 3 x + 4
9 a


b Assume P = a m + b
m
1 1.4 1.7 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2
P 6 6.8 7.45 8 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.65 10 10.3



The graph closely fits a straight line so the assumption is
correct.
a = m =
10.3 6
3.2 1


=
4.3
2.1

2
MM1 2 - 2 46 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
P = 2 m + b
m = 0, P = 4
b = 4
P = 2 m + 4
c m = 11, P = 2 11 + 4
= 10.63
That is, $10.63
m = 12, P = 2 12 + 4
= 10.93
That is, $10.93
Chapter review
Short answer
1 y = 2(x 3)
2
4
a Turning point: (3, 4)
b Domain: R
Range: [4, )
c x-intercept: y = 0
2(x 3)
2
4 = 0
2(x 3)
2
= 4
(x 3)
2
= 2
x 3 = 2 or 2
x = 3 + 2 or 3 2
4.4 or 1.6
y-intercept: x = 0
y = 2(0 3)
2
4
= 18 4
= 14


2 a b = 2, a = 1
b y = 1
2
a
x


reflection in x-axis: y = 1
2
a
x


dilation by factor 3 from x-axis:
y =
3
1
2
a
x


horizontal shift of 2 units right:
y =
3
1
4
a
x


at (m, 2) 2 =
3
1
4
a
m

[1]
and 2 = 1
2
a
m

[2]
Solving equations [1] and [2]
simultaneously for m and a using
a CAS calculator gives m =
11
5

and a =
3
5

Ans: m =
11
5

c The equation of the transformed
graph is y =
3
1
4
a
x


3 f(x) =
6 5
3 1
x
x

+

=
2(3 1) 7
3 1
x
x
+
+

=
2(3 1) 7
3 1 3 1
x
x x
+

+ +

= 2
3 1 x
7
+

reflection in x-axis
dilation factor 7 from the x-axis
translation 1 unit left
dilation factor
1
3
from the y-axis
translation 2 units up.
or
reflection in the x-axis
dilation factor of 7 from the x-axis
dilation factor
1
3
from the y-axis
translation
1
3
units left
translation 2 units up.
4 y = a(x h)
3
+ k
h = 1, k = 1
y = a(x 1)
3
+ 1
Using (0, 4): 4 = a(0 1)
3
+ 1
= a + 1
a = 3
a = 3
y = 3(x 1)
3
+ 1
5 y =
( )
a
x h
+ k
a = 4, h = 2, k = 1
a Asymptotes: x = 2
y = 1
b Domain: R\{2}
Range: R\{1}
c y =
4
2 x

+
1
x-intercept: y = 0

4
2 x

+
1 = 0

4
2 x

+
= 1
x + 2 = 4
x = 6
y-intercept: x = 0
y =
4
0 2

+
1
= 3
d


6 a y =
2
( )
a
x h
+ k
h = 2, k = 1
y =
2
( 2)
a
x +
1
Using
3
0,
2
| |
|
\ .
:

3
2

=
2
(0 2)
a
+
1
=
4
a
1

4
a
=
1
2

a = 2
Dilation by a factor of 2 in
the y direction, reflection in the
x-axis, translate 2 units left,
translate 1 unit down.
b y =
2
2
( 2) x

+
1
7 Vertical asymptote x = 1
Horizontal asymptote y = 2
(0, 3)
y =
a
x b
+ c
y =
1
a
x
2
3 =
1
a

2
1 = a
a = 1
y =
2
1
( 1) x
2
8 y = h x + k
Using (0, 1):
1 = 0 h + k
1 = h + k
k = 1 + h 1
Using (5, 0):
0 = ( 5) h + k
= 5 h + + k
k = 5 h + 2
Equate equations 1 and 2
5 h + = 1 + h
Square both sides:
h + 5 = 1 + 2 h + h
5 = 1 + 2 h
4 = 2 h
2 = h
Square both sides:
4 = h
Substitute h = 4 into 1
k = 1 + 4
= 1 + 2
= 3
Translations are 4 units right and
3 units up.
y = 4 x + 3
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 47
9 a Let y =
2
2
( 2) x +
2


Asymptotes: x = 2, y = 2
x-intercept: y = 0

2
2
( 2) x +
2 = 0

2
2
( 2) x +
= 2
2 = 2(x + 2)
2

(x + 2)
2
= 1
x + 2 = 1 or 1
x = 1 or 3
y-intercept: y =
2
2
(0 2) +
2
= 1
1
2

y =
2
2
2
( 2) x

+



y =
2
2
2
( 2) x

+



y =
2
2
2 2
( 2) x

+

x-intercept.

2
2
( 2) x +
= 0 or 4
cannot = 0

2
2
( 2) x +
= 4
4(x + 2)
2
= 2
(x + 2)
2
=
1
2

x + 2 =
1
2
or
1
2

x = 2 +
1
2
or 2
1
2

1.3 or 2.7


b Domain = R\{2}
Range = (, 2]
10 a


b range = [0, | f(5)|]
= [0, 20]
11 (1, 3) (2, 0) via translations
indicates horizontal shift +3 units
and a vertical shift 3 units.

a
b
(
(

=
3
3
(
(


so a = 3 and b = 3
12 a
7
4
(
(

=
0 1 1
0 2 2
a
b
( ( (
+
( ( (


=
1
2 2
a
b
( (
+
( (



7
4
(
(

=
1
2 2
a
b
+ (
(
+


7 = a +1 4 = 2b + 2
a = 8 2 = 2b
b = 1
b
x
y

(
(


=
8 0 1
0 1 2
x
y
( ( (
+
( ( (


=
8 1
2
x
y
( (
+
( (


=
8 1
2
x
y
+ (
(
+


x = 8x + 1 y = y + 2
8x = x 1 y = y 2
x =
1
8
x


i y = 2 x
y 2 =
1
2
8
x


y =
1
2 2
8
x
+
ii y = x
3
+ x
y 2 =
3
1 1
8 8
x x | |
+
|
\ .

y =
3
(1 ) 1
2
512 8
x x
+ +
13 a
x
y

(
(


=
0
0 2
a x
y
( (
( (


=
2
ax
y
(
(


x = ax y = 2y
x =
x
a

y =
2
y

b y = 2x
2
x

2
y
=
2
2
x x
a a

| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

y =
2
2
2
4
x x
a a

=
2
2
4 2 x x
a a

c (3, 6) 6 =
2
2
4 3 2 3
a a


6 =
2
36 6
a a

6 =
2
36 6a
a


6a
2
= 36 6a
0 = 6a
2
+ 6a 36
0 = a
2
+ a 6
(a + 3)(a 2)
a = 3, 2
a = 2 (a > 0)
y =
2
2
4 2
2 2
x x

= x
2
x
14


15


16 f(x) = x
2

a f(x) f(y) = f(x) f(y)
x
2
(y)
2
= x
2
y
2

x
2
y
2
= x
2
y
2

L.H.S = R.H.S
b f(x) f(y) = f(x) + f(y)
x
2
y
2
x
2
+ y
2

L.H.S R.H.S
c f(x) + f(y) = f(x) + f(y)
(x)
2
+ (y)
2
= x
2
+ y
2

x
2
+ y
2
= x
2
+ y
2

L.H.S = R.H.S
MM1 2 - 2 48 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
d f(x) f(y) =f(x) + f(y)
x
2
(y)
2
= x
2
+ y
2

x
2
y
2
x
2
+ y
2

L.H.S R.H.S
Ans a and c satisfy the given equations

17 a


Assume y =
2
a
x

b
2
1
x
0.25 0.0625 0.04 0.01 0.0025 0.0016
y 25 6.25 4 1 0.25 0.16



The graph is a straight line so our assumption that
y =
2
a
x
is correct.
c a = m =
0.16 25
0.0016 0.25


=
24.84
0.2484


= 100
a = 100
Multiple choice
1 Turning point (3, m) for a negative parabola. As m
increases, the range increases
The answer is D.
2 y = 2(3x + 6)
2
3
= 2[3(x + 2)]
2
3
= 18(x + 2)
2
3
Turning point (2, 3)
The answer is E.
3 y =
2
3
(bx 3)
3
+ 1
=
3
2 3
3
b x
b
( | |

| (
\ .
+ 1
=
2
3
b
3
3
3
x
b
| |

|
\ .
+ 1
Dilation in the y direction by a factor of
3
2
3
b
.
The answer is C.
4 y = 2 (3 + 4x)
3

= 2
3
3
4
4
x
( | |
+
| (
\ .

= 2 64
3
3
4
x
| |
+
|
\ .

Stationary point of inflection is
3
, 2
4
| |

|
\ .
.
The answer is D.
5 f(x) + 2 =
2
x
+ 1 + 2
=
2
x
+ 3
Asymptotes: x = 0
y = 3
The answer is C.
6 y =
a
x h
+ k
a < 0, h = 2, k = 1
y =
2
2 x

+
1
The answer is E.
7 Reflection makes graph negative
vertical translation + 2
horizontal translation 4x 3
The answer is D.
8 The range is (4, )
The answer is D.
9 None of the transformations to y =
2
1
x
produce
the graph.
The answer is E.
10 y = a x h + k
= a x m + n where a < 0.
The answer is C.
11 y = a h x + k
y = a x + d
The answer is A.
12 2x 1 0
2x 1
x
1
2

[0.5, )
The answer is C.
13 Let y = 3
2
1
x

Range = (, 3)
y = |
2
1
3
x
|
Range = [0, )
y = |
2
1
3
x
|
Range = (, 0]
y = |
2
1
3
x
| 2
Range = (, 2]
The answer is E.
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 49
14


Rule is y = 2 |x + 2| (after translation 2 units up.)
The answer is B.
15 |2k + 1| = k + 1
2k + 1 = k + 1 or 2k + 1 = (k + 1)
k = 0 or 2k + 1 = k 1
3k = 2
k =
2
3


C
16
x
T
y
| | (
|
(
\ .
=
2 0 1
0 1 3
x
y
| | ( ( (
+
|
( ( (

\ .

translation 1 unit right |x 1|
translation 3 units down |x 1| 3
dilation factor 2 from the y-axis =
1
1 3
2
x
E
17 g(x) = x
2
(x 3), x [2, 4]
h(x) = 3 x, x (0, 3]
f(x) = g(x) h(x)
= x
2
(x 3)(3 x)
= x
2
(x 3) (x 3)
= x
2
(x 3)
2

domain f(x) = dom g(x) dom h(x)
= [2, 3]
C
18 f(x) = 3 x
for f(h(x)) range h(x) domain f(x)
range h(x) [3, )
if h(x) = x + 2, range = R
h(x) = x
2
3, range = [3, )
h(x) = x
3
, range = R
h(x) = x
2
+ 3, range = [3, )
h(x) = 2 x , range = [2, )
D
19


Assume y = ax
2

Using (1, 0.3):
0.3 = a 1
2

= a
a = 0.3
The answer is E.
20 Assume y = a
1
x
+ b
a = m =
19 1
1 0.1


=
18
0.9

= 20
Using (1, 19): 19 = 20
1
1
+ b
b = 1
y =
20
x
1
The answer is E.
Extended response
1 a i


A(2, 0), B(0, 2), C(2, 3), D(4, 6)
ii


A(2, 0), B(0, 2), C(2, 3), D(4, 6)
iii


A(0, 0), B(2, 2), C(4, 3), D(6, 6)
iv


A(2, 3), B(0, 5), C(2, 6), D(4, 9)
v


A(2, 0), B(0, 4), C(2, 6), D(4, 12)
MM1 2 - 2 50 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
vi


A(3, 1), B(1, 1), C(1, 2), D(3, 5)
b Translate the function f(x) up and down in multiples of 2,
that is, f(x) + 2, f(x) + 4, f(x) 2 and so on, keeping the
domain [3, 7] fixed.
2 f: R R, f(x) = (x 1)
2
(x 2) + 1
a Using the CAS calculator, the T.Ps are (1, 1) and

5 25
,
3 27
| |
|
\ .

a = 1, b =
5
3

b f(x) = p has one solution for p > 1 and p <
25
27

c i f(x) 1
x
f
k
| |

|
\ .

dilation by factor k from the y-axis
translation 1 unit down
ii y = 1
x
f
k
| |

|
\ .

=
2
1 2
x x
k k
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

x-int, y = 0
0 =
2
1 2
x x
k k
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

1
x
k
= 0 or 2
x
k
= 0

x
k
= 1
x
k
= 2
x = k x = 2k
x-intercepts are x = k and x = 2k
d f(x + h) = 1
f(x + h) 1 = 0
f(x) 1 = (x 1)
2
(x 2)
x-int: x = 1, 2.
A horizontal shift of h, so that there is only 1 positive
solution indicates h [1, 2)
3 f(x) =
2
1
x

a f(2x) + 1
dilation factor
1
2
from the y-axis
translation of 1 unit in the positive y-direction
b
1
0
2
0 1
(
(
(
(

and
0
1
(
(



c
x
y

(
(


=
1
1 0 0
2
1 1
0 1
(
( (
(
+
( (
(

(


=
1
0
2
1
1
(
(
(
+
(
(

(


=
1
2
2
(
(
(
(



1
, 2
2
| |
|
\ .


x
y

(
(


=
2 1
0 0
2 1
1
0 1
4
( (
(
( (
+
(
( (

( (


=
1
0
1
1
4
(
(
(
+
(
(

(


=
1
5
4
(
(
(
(



5
1,
4
| |
|
\ .

(1, 1)
1
, 2
2
| |

|
\ .


1
2,
4
| |

|
\ .

5
1,
4
| |

|
\ .

d


e f(x) =
2
1
x

f(2x) + 1 =
2
1
1
(2 ) x
+
=
2
1
1
4x
+
4 y =
2 3
1
(600 25 )
500
x x x +
a y =
2
( 25 600)
500
x
x x


= ( 15)( 40)
500
x
x x

+
x-int, y = 0
0 = ( 15)( 40)
500
x
x x

+
x = 0, 15, 40.
distance from A E = 40 + 15
= 55 m.
b Using the CAS calculator to find the T.P.
T.P.S. (8.08, 5.37)
(24.75, 30.01)
the greatest depth is 5.37 m
the greatest height is 30.01 m
c i dilation factor > 1 from the x-axis would have the effect
of increasing the height + depth as the graph would be
stretched along the y-axis.
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 51
ii dilation factor > 1 from the x-axis would not effect the x-intercepts. the point where the rollercoaster emerged from the
tunnel would be unchanged.
iii as the dilation change would increase height and depth, therefore the gradient would increase where the rollercoaster
emerges from the tunnel.
5 a


Assume y = a(x h)
2
+ k
b h = 9 since turning point is (9, 275)
c
(x 9)
2
64 49 36 25 16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
y 240 248 255 261 266 271 273 274 275 274 272 270



The graph closely fits a straight line.
d a = m =
275 240
0 64


=
35
64

0.55
Using (0, 275): k = 275
e y = 0.55(x 9)
2
+ 275
f The prices are not going up and likely to rise further as the graph is on a decline indicated that the prices are falling.
g x = 13, y = 0.55(13 9)
2
+ 275
= 0.55 16 + 275
= 8.8 + 275
= 266.2
The price in the next month is approximately $266 000.
x = 14, y = 0.55(14 9)
2
+ 275
= 0.55 25 + 275
= 13.75 + 275
= 261.25
The price in 2 months is approximately $261 000.
h 250 = 0.55(x 9)
2
+ 275
25 = 0.55(x 9)
2

(x 9)
2
= 45.45
x 9 = 6.74
x = 15.74
x 16
They will have to wait another (16 12) = 4 months for the price to fall within their range.
6 a h = 50 +
25
a
t

t = 0, h = 48.4
MM1 2 - 2 52 F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
48.4 = 50 +
25
a



25
a
= 1.6
a = 40
b h = 50 +
40
25 t

t = 5, h = 50 +
40
20

= 50 2
= 48
After 5 seconds, the eagle is 48 m
above the ground.
t = 20, h = 50 +
40
5

= 50 8
= 42
After 20 seconds, the eagle is 42 m
above the ground.
c h = 0 50 +
40
25 t
= 0
40 = 50(t 25)
50t + 1250 = 40
50t = 1210
t = 24.2
It takes 24.2 s to reach the
ground.
d The speed is slow to start but
increases as the eagle approaches
its prey on the ground.
e


f h = a(x 24)
2
+ c
h = 50 +
40
25 t

t = 24, h = 50 +
40
1

= 10
(24, 10) when bird begins 2nd part
of the journey
(26, 0) when it reaches the ground.
h = a(t 24)
2
+ c
10 = a(24 24)
2
+ c
c = 10
0 = a(26 24)
2
+ 10
4a = 10
a = 2.5
a = 2.5, c = 10
g
f(t) =
2
40
50 , 0 24
25
2.5( 24) 10, 24 26
t
t
t t


Exam practice 1
Short answer
1


2 f(x) =
2
3 x
For f to be defined: x
2
3 0.
So x
2
3
either x 3 or x 3
Domain: x (, 3 ] [ 3 , )
3 y = (2x 3)
2
1
a TP =
3
, 1
2
| |

|
\ .
, therefore the y-
coordinate of the turning point is 1.
b The x-value of the turning point is

3
2
, so the equation of the axis of
symmetry is x =
3
2

4 a For x + 2 to be a factor, P(2) = 0.
Let P(x) = x
2
7x 6
P(2) = 8 + 14 6
= 0
Hence x + 2 is a factor
b x
3
7x 6 = x
2
(x + 2) 2x(x + 2)
3(x + 2)
= (x + 2)(x
2
2x 4)
So Q(x) = x
2
2x 4
5 This means 2x + c = x
2
+ x 2 has
two solutions.
So x
2
3x + 2 + c = 0 has two
solutions.
This means > 0
b
2
4ac > 0
(3)
2
4 1 (2 + c) > 0
9 8 4c > 0
4c > 1
c <
1
4

6 f(x) = |3(x 3)
2
10| for x [1, 4)
First, sketch y = 3(x 3)
2
10.
TP = (3, 10)
y-intercept, x = 0
y = 3(3)
2
10
= 17
x-intercept, y = 0
0 = 3(x 3)
2
10

10
3
= (x 3)
2


10
3
= x 3
x =
10
3
3

x = 3
10
3
as x [1, 4)
Endpoints: f(1) = 3(1 3)
2
10
= 38
f(4) = 3(4 3)
2
10
= 7
For f(x) = |3(x 3)
2
10| the
negative portion of the graph is
reflected in the x-axis, therefore the
TP will become (3, 10), and the
right endpoint (4, 7).


Multiple choice
1 The graph is a positive hyperbola so
the basic form is y =
1
x

Translated a units right so y =
1
x a

Translated b units up so y =
1
b
x a
+

. This is not one of the


options, however,
y =
1
b
a x

is equivalent.
The answer is B.
2 Triple root at x = a. Double root at x
= c, so y = (x a)
3
(x c)
2

The answer is C.
3 (2x
2

3
x
)
5
(a + b)
5
= +
5
5
n n
a b
n

| |
|
\ .
+
In this case a = 2x
2
and b =
3
x
so to
obtain x
4
we need n = 3.
So the term for x
4
is
3 5 3
5
3
a b

| |
|
\ .

= 10 8 x
6

2
9
x

= 720x
4

Therefore, the coefficient of x
4
is 720.
The answer is E.
4 y =
3 2
4
x
x


=
3(4 ) 10
4
x
x
+


=
3(4 ) 10
4 4
x
x x

+


=
10
3
4 x
+


Therefore, the equation of the
horizontal asymptote is
y = 3.
The answer is B.
F u n c t i o n s a n d t r a n s f o r ma t i o n s MM1 2 - 2 53
5 f:[0, 3] R, f(x) = 2(x + 1)
2
5
TP = (1, 5) this is outside the
domain of [0, 3]
f(0) = 2(1)
2
5
= 3
f(3) = 2(4)
2
5
= 27
Therefore the range is [3, 27]
The answer is D.
6 3x + ay = 12
ax + 3y = 4a
If there are infinitely many solutions
then the equations must be equivalent.
Rewrite each so that the coefficient of
x is 1.
3x + ay = 12 x +
3
ay
= 4
ax + 3y = 4a x +
3y
a
= 4
If the equations are equivalent then
the y-coefficients must be equal.
So
3
a
=
3
a

a
2
= 9
a = 3
The answer is C.
Extended response
1 a v = at + b
Rate of change =
200
2

= 100 km/h
Therefore, a = 100
so v = 100t + b.
At t = 1, v = 0
0 = 100 1 + b
b = 100.
Hence, v = 100t 100
b v = 119
119 = 100t 100
219 = 100t
t =
219
100

= 2.19 hours = 2 hours 11 min.
Hence 2:11 pm
c v = 269
269 = 100t 100
t =
369
100

= 3.69 hours = 3 hours 42 min.
Hence 3:42 pm
d It predicts that the wind speed will
increase indefinitely. It also
predicts a negative speed at noon.
These problems could be avoided
simply by restricting the domain to
be [1, 3.69] for example.
e i If the wind peaked at 5 pm then
(5, 256) would be a turning
point.
In turning point form the rule
for the quadratic model would
be v(t) = a(t 5)
2
+ 256.
Since v(1) = 0,
0 = a(1 5)
2
+ 256
256 = 16a
a =
256
16


= 16
the model is v(t) = 16(t 5)
2

+ 256.
Using this model:
v(3) = 16 (2)
2
+ 256
= 192 km/hour. This is reasonably
close to the recorded value of
200 km/hour.
ii Predicted value is v(12)
= 16 7
2
+ 256
= 528 km/hour. Clearly the
model is inadequate.
f i t-intercepts when t = 1, 13
v
2
(t) = a(t 1)(t 13).
t = 5, v = 256 km/h.
Using this
256 = a (5 4) (5 13)
256 = 32a
a = 8
The model is
v
2
(t) = 8(t 1)(t 13).
ii Check model for t = 3.
v
2
(3) = 8(3 1)(3 13)
= 8 2 10
= 160 km/hour.
Compared with actual value of
200 km/hour, the model is not
adequate. The maximum wind
speed is predicted at t = 7
(t value of the TP):
v
2
(7) = 8(7 1)(7 13)
= 8 6 6
= 288 km/hour which is
later and faster than the
actual data.
g The full set of data is:
Time Wind speed
1 pm 0
3 pm 200
5 pm 256
1 am 0
Using cubic regression and CAS,
we get
v
3
(t) = x
3
27x
2
+ 195x 169.
h i The graph is symmetrical, so the
vertical asymptote is x =
500
2

x = 250
ii We need an estimate for the
horizontal asymptote. It seems
reasonable to use v = 0.
v(x) =
2
( 250)
a
x

v(0) 30
30 =
2
( 250)
a


a = 30 (250)
2

= 1 875 000
so the rule is v(t) =
2
1875 000
( 250) x

iii This function has the form
P(t) =
2
( 250)
A
B
x

+


B is approximately 1020
(horizontal asymptote) so
P(t) =
2
1020
( 250)
A
x

+

.
P(0) 1010
1010 =
2
1020
( 250)
A
+


10 =
2
( 250)
A


so A = 10 250
2

= 625 000
Hence, the rule is
P(t) =
2
6 25 000
1020
( 250) x


MM1 2 - 3 54 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

Exercise 3A The index laws
1 a x
3
x
4

= x
7

b x
7
x
2

= x
5

c (x
2
)
5

= x
10

d (x
3
)
2

= x
6

=
6
1
x

e
2 3 5
5 2
( )
( )
x x
x


=
6 5
10
x x
x


=
11
10
x
x

= x
f
2 4 5
2 3 2
5 4
2
x y x y
x y


=
7 5
3 2
20
4
x y
x y

= 5x
4
y
3

g
2 3 4 2
5 3 2 3
(2 ) 5( )
4 3
xy x y
x y x y


=
3 3 6 8 2
7 6
2 5
12
x y x y
x y


=
11 8
7 6
40
12
x y
x y

=
4 2
10
3
x y

2 a
2
3
27
=
2 3
( 27)
= 3
2

= 9
b
3
2
25
=
3
( 25)


= 5
3

=
3
1
5

=
1
125

c 81
0.25

=
1
4
(81)
=
4
81
= 3
d
2
3 27
64




=
2
27
3
64





=
2
3
4




=
9
16

e
3
5 243
32





=
3
243
5
32






=
3
3
2





=
3
2
3




=
8
27

3 a
4 5
3
x x
x


=
9
3
x
x

=
6
x
b
3
4
16
=
3
1
4
16





=
3
2
= 8
c
1.5
36
=
3
2
36
=
3
1
2
36





=
3
6
= 216
d
1
2 9
49




=
3
7

e
3
4 256
81





=
3
4 81
256




=
3
1
4 81
256









=
3
3
4




=
27
64

4 a
3 2 2 4
3 ( ) x y x y


=
3 2 8 4
3x y x y


= 3x
11
y
2

=
11 2
3
x y

b
2 1
3 2
2x y
1
3
2
2
2
9x y





=
2 1
3 2
2x y
1 3 2
2 4 2
9 x y
=
2 1
3 2
2x y
3
4
3x y
=
5 5
3 4
6x y
c
5 3
1 1 1
2 2
2
5 2 2
9 x y x y






=
3 5 1 5
3
4 2 2 4
9 x y x y


=
5 8
5
2 4
( 9) x y


=
5
5 2
2
3 x y


=
5
2
2
243x y


=
5
2
2
243x
y

d
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
3
a b c
a bc







3
2
3
3
1 2
3
a b
a c







=
3 4 2
2 2 4
3
a b c
ab c



2 9
3 6
3
a b
a c


=
3 4 2
2 4
2
1
3
a b c
ab c


3 6
2 9
1
3
a c
a b


=
2 6 4
3 7 4
3 4
3
a b c
a b c


= 3a
9
b
3
c
0

=
9 3
3
a b

5 a x
4
y
1
(x
2
y
3
)
1

= x
4
y
1
x
2
y
3

= x
6
y
4

=
6
4
x
y

b
1 3
3 4
5x y


2
1 2 1
3 3 2
8 x y





=
1 3
3 4
5x y



2 4 2
3 3 2
8 x y


=
1 3
3 4
5x y



4
2 1 3
3
( 8) x y


=
3 1
3 4
5x y



2
(2)
Chapter 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 55
=
1
4
20x
y

c
1
2 1 1
2
5 2 4
16 x y






1
2 1
2
5 2
4x y





=
1 1
5 8
4x y


1 1 1
5 2 4
4 x y
=
3
8
8y
d
2
3 3
2 4
2
a b
ab







1
3
2
2 3
9
4
a b
a b






=
6
3
4
2 4
a b
a b



1 3 1
2 2 2
1 3
2 2
9
4
a b
ab


=
3
3
2
2 4
a b
a b



3
2
3 1
2 2
4
9
ab
a b


=
4 0
7 7
2 2
2
3
a b
a b


=
15 7
2 2
2
3
a b

6 a 2
n
4
n + 1
8
n 1

= 2
n
(2
2
)
n + 1
(2
3
)
n 1

= 2
n
2
2n + 2
2
3n 3

= 2
6n 1

b 3
n
9
n 1
27
n + 1

= 3
n
(3
2
)
n 1
(3
3
)
n + 1

= 3
n
3
2n 2
3
3n + 3

= 3
6n + 1

c 2
n
3
n + 1
9
n

= 2
n
3
n + 1
(3
2
)
n

= 2
n
3
n + 1
3
2n

= 2
n
3
3n + 1

d
2 3
3
2
3 2
9

16
=
2 3
3
2
2
3 2
(3 )

2
4

=
2 1
3
3 2
3


= 3
1
2
=
2
3

7 a
1 1
2 3 6
n n n +

=
1 1
2 3 (2 3)
n n n +

=
1 1 1
2 3 2 3
n n n n + +

=
2 2 1
2 3
n n+

b
2 1
2
5 3
125 9


27
5

=
2 1
3 2 2
5 3
5 (3 )


3
5
3

=
2 1
3 4
5 3
5 3


3
5
3

=
3 1
3 1
5 3
5 3


=
0 0
5 3
= 1
8 a
1
1
1
x
x

+
=
1
x
x
+
=
2
1 x
x x
+
=
2
1 x
x
+

b
1 2 2
( ) x x

+
=
2
2
1 1
x x

+



=
2
2
1 x
x
+



=
2
4
( 1) x
x
+

c
1
1
1 x

+
+
1
1
1 x


=
1
1
1
x
+
+
1
1
1
x


=
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
x x
x x

+ +



+



=
2
2
1
1
x
x


=
2
2
2
1
x
x
x


2
2
x
x

=
2
2
1
x
x

d 2x(x
2
y
2
)
1
(x y)
1

=
2 2
2x
x y

1
x y

=
2
( )( )
x
x y x y +

( )( )
x y
x y x y
+
+

=
2
( )( )
x x y
x y x y

+

=
( )
( )( )
x y
x y x y

+

=
1
x y +

9 3 3
x x
+
=
1
3
3
x
x
+
=
2
1 3
3 3
x
x x
+
=
2
1 3
3
x
x
+

The answer is B.
Exercise 3B Logarithm laws
1 Using Laws log
a
(1) = 0, log
a
(a) = 1
and log
a
(0) is undefined.
a log
3
(1) = 0
b log
5
(1) = 0
c log
2
(2)= 1
d log
6
(6)= 1
2 a log
2
(16) = 4
16 = 2
4

b log
x
(25) = 2
25 = x
2

c log
5
(125) = x
125 = 5
x

d log
3
(x) = 5
x = 3
5

e log
5

1
5



= 1

1
5
=
1
5


3 a 2
3
= 8
log
2
(8) = 3
b 3
4
= 81
log
3
(81) = 4
c 4
3
= x
log
4
(x) = 3
d 5
x
= 125
log
5
(125) = x
e
1
2

=
1
2

log
2
1
2



= 1
f x
3
= 27
log
x
(27) = 3
4 a log
6
(3) + log
6
(2) = log
6
(3 2)
= log
6
(6)
= 1
b log
2
(10) log
2
(5)= log
2
10
5




= log
2
(2)
= 1
c log
2
(32) = log
2
(2
5
)
= 5 log
2
(2)
= 5 1
= 5
d log
3
(81)= log
3
(3
4
)
= 4 log
3
(3)
= 4 1
= 4
e log
5
1
5
= log
5
(5
1
)
= 1 log
5
(5)
= 1 1
= 1
f log
3
1
27



= log
3
3
1
3




= log
3
3
(3 )


= 3 log
3
(3)
= 3 1
= 3
5 a log
2
(
x
) = log
2
1
2
x





=
1
2
log
2
(x)
MM1 2 - 3 56 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

b 3 log
3
3
( ) x
= 3 log
3
3
1
x





= 3
1
3
log
3
(x)
= log
3
(x)
c log
2
4
2
x
y




= log
2
1
4
2
1
2
2
x
y







= log
2
2
x
y





6 a log
4
(10) + log
4
(2) log
4
(5)
= log
4
10 2
5




= log
4
20
5




= log
4
(4)
= 1
b log
5
(25) + log
5
(125) log
5
(625)
= log
5
(5
2
)

+ log
5
(5
3
)

log
5
(5
4
)
= 2 log
5
(5) + 3 log
5
(5) 4 log
5
(5)
= 2 1 + 3 1 4 1
= 5 4
= 1
c
1
2
log
10
(16) + log
10
(5
2
)
=
1
2
log
10
(2
4
)

+ log
10
(5
2
)
= 2 log
10
(2) + 2 log
10
(5)
= 2 (log
10
(2 5))
= 2 log
10
(10)
= 2 1
= 2
d log
3
(2) log
3
(10) + log
3
(15)
= log
3
2
15
10




= log
3

1
1
5
15
3





= log
3
(3)
= 1
e log
2
(16) + log
2
(8) + log
2
(4)
= log
2
(2
4
)

+ log
2
(2
3
)

+ log
2
(2
2
)
= 4log
2
(2) + 3log
2
(2) + 2log
2
(2)
= 4 1 + 3 1 + 2 1
= 4 + 3 + 2
= 9
7 a 4 log
2
(12) 4 log
2
(6)
= 4
2
12
log
6




= 4 log
2
(2)
= 4 1
= 4
b 2 + log
5
(10) log
5
(2)
= 2 log
5
(5) + log
5
(10) log
5
(2)
= log
5
(5
2
)

+ log
5
(10) log
5
(2)
= log
5
25 10
2


= log
5
(125)
= log
5
(5
3
)
= 3 log
5
(5)
= 3 1
= 3
c 1 + log
2
(5) = log
2
(2) + log
2
(5)
= log
2
(2 5)
= log
2
(10)
d
2
2
log (64)
log (8)
=
6
2
3
2
log (2 )
log (2 )

=
2
2
6log (2)
3log (2)

=
6 1
3 1


=
6
3

= 2
e
log ( )
log ( )
a
a
x
x
=
1
2
log
log ( )
a
a
x
x





=
1
log ( )
2
log ( )
a
a
x
x

=
1
2

8 a log
10
(3) = 0.477
b log
5
(4) = 0.861
c log
10
(0.5) = 0.301
d log
2
(0.8) = 0.322
e log
4
(20) = 2.161
f log
3
(60) = 3.727
9 a 5 log
3
(x) + log
3
(x
2
) log
3
(x
7
)
= log
3
5 2
7
x x
x





= log
3
7
7
x
x





= log
3
(1)
= 0
b log
2
(x
4
) + log
2
(x
3
)

log
2
(x
6
)
= log
2
4 3
6
x x
x





=

7
2
6
log
x
x





= log
2
(x)
c 3 log
4
(x) 5 log
4
(x) + 2 log
4
(x)
= log
4
(x
3
) log
4
(x
5
)

+ log
4
(x
2
)
=
3
2
4
5
log
x
x
x





= log
4
(x
2
x
2
)
= log
4
(x
0
)
= log
4
(1)
= 0
d 4 log
6
(x) 5 log
6
(x) + log
6
(x)
= (4 5 + 1)log
6
(x)
= 0 log
6
(x)
= 0
e log
10
(x
2
)

+ 3 log
10
(x) 2 log
10
(x)
= log
10
(x
2
)

+ log
10
(x
3
)

log
10
(x
2
)
=
2 3
10
2
log
x x
x





=
5
10
2
log
x
x





= log
10
(x
3
)
= 3 log
10
(x)
f 4 log
10
(x) log
10
(x) + log
10
(x
2
)
= log
10
(x
4
)

log
10
(x) + log
10
(x
2
)
=
4
2
10
log
x
x
x





= log
10
(x
3
x
2
)
= log
10
(x
5
)
= 5 log
10
(x)
g log
5
(x + 1) + log
5
(x + 1)
2

=
2
5
log (( 1) ( 1) ) x x + +
= log
5
(x + 1)
3

= 3 log
5
(x + 1)
h log
4
(x 2)
3
2 log
4
(x 2)
= log
4
(x 2)
3
log
4
(x 2)
2

=
3
4
2
( 2)
log
( 2)
x
x



= log
4
(x 2)
10 2 log
10
(5) log
10
(20) + log
10
(8)
= log
10
(5
2
)

log
10
(20) + log
10
(8)
=
2
10
5
log 8
20





= log
10
(10)
= 1
The answer is C.
11 log
a
b = 2 b = a
2

The answer is E.
12 y = a log
10
(x) when a = 2 and y = 3
3 = 2log
10
(x)
3 = log
10
(x
2
)
10
3
= x
2

1000 = x
2

x = 31.623
Exercise 3C Exponential
equations
1 a 3
x
= 81
3
x
= 3
4

x = 4
b 10
x
= 1000
10
x
= 10
3

x = 3
x = 3
c
1
2
x
= 32
2
x
= 2
5

x = 5
x = 5
d 7
x
=
1
49

7
x
= 7
2

x = 2
e 243
x
= 3
3
5x
= 3
1

5x = 1
x =
1
5

2 a 3 2
x
= 48
2
x
= 16
2
x
= 2
4

x = 4
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 57
b 6
x 2
= 216
6
x 2
= 6
3

x 2 = 3
x = 5
c 5
2x 1
=
1
125

5
2x 1
=
3
1
5

5
2x 1
= 5
3

2x 1 = 3
2x = 2
x = 1
d 2
2x 6
= 1
2
2x 6
= 2
0

2x 6 = 0
2x = 6
x = 3
3 a 3
x

1
3
x
= 243
3
x + x 1
= 3
5

2x 1 = 5
2x = 6
x = 3
b 5
x
5
2x + 1
= 625
5
x + 2x + 1
= 5
4

3x + 1 = 4
3x = 3
x = 1
c 2
x

1
4
x
= 16
2
x

2( 1)
2
x
= 2
4


2 2
2
x x +
= 2
4

3x 2 = 4
3x = 6
x = 2
d
3 1
2
3
9
x
x
+

= 81

3 1
2( 2)
3
3
x
x
+

= 3
4

3
3x + 1 (2x 4)
= 3
4

3
3x + 1 2x + 4
= 3
4

x + 5 = 4
x = 1
4 a (3
x
9)(3
x
1) = 0
3
x
9 = 0 or 3
x
1 = 0
3
x
= 9 3
x
= 1
3
x
= 3
2
3
x
= 3
0

x = 2 or x = 0
b 2
2x
6 2
x
+ 8 = 0
(2
x
)
2
6 2
x
+ 8 = 0
Let a = 2
x

a
2
6a + 8 = 0
(a 2)(a 4) = 0
a = 2 or a = 4
Substitute a = 2
x

2
x
= 2
1
or 2
x
= 2
2

x = 1 or x = 2
c 6
2x
7 6
x
+ 6 = 0
(6
x
)
2
7 6
x
+ 6= 0
Let a = 6
x

a
2
7a + 6 = 0
(a 6)(a 1) = 0
a = 6 or a = 1
Substitute a = 6
x

6
x
= 6 or 6
x
= 1
x = 1 or 6
x
= 6
0

x = 0
d 4
x
6 2
x
16 = 0
2
2x
6 2
x
16 = 0
(2
x
)
2
6 2
x
16 = 0
Let a = 2
x

a
2
6a 16 = 0
(a 8)(a + 2) = 0
a = 8 or a = 2
Substitute a = 2
x

2
x
= 8 or 2
x
= 2
2
x
= 2
3

x = 3
No real solutions for 2
x
= 2
e 9
x
= 2 3
x
+ 3
(3
x
)
2
2 3
x
+ 3 = 0
Let a = 3
x

a
2
2a 3 = 0
(a 3)(a + 1) = 0
a = 3 or 1
Substitute a = 3
x

3
x
= 3 3
x
= 1
x = 1
No real solutions for 3
x
= 1
5 a 25
x
+ 4 5
x
5 = 0
5
2x
+ 4 5
x
5 = 0
(5
x
)
2
+ 4 5
x
5 = 0
Let a = 5
x

a
2
+ 4a 5 = 0
(a + 5)(a 1) = 0
a = 5 or a = 1
Substitute a = 5
x

5
x
= 5 or 5
x
= 1
No real solutions for 5
x
= 5
5
x
= 5
0

x = 0
b 4
2x
20 4
x
= 64
(4
x
)
2
20 4
x
+ 64 = 0
Let a = 4
x

a
2
20a + 64 = 0
(a 16)(a 4) = 0
a = 16 or 4
Substitute a = 4
x

4
x
= 16 or 4
x
= 4
4
x
= 4
2
4
x
= 4
1

x = 2 x = 1
6 a 2
x
= 5
x log
10
(2) = log
10
(5)
x =
10
10
log (5)
log (2)

x = 2.322
b (0.3)
x 1
= 10
(x 1) log
10
(0.3) = log
10
(10)
(x 1) log
10
(0.3) = 1
x 1 =
10
1
log (0.3)

x 1 = 1.912 489 289
x = 0.912
c (1.4)
2 x
= 6
(2 x) log
10
(1.4) = log
10
(6)
2 x =
10
10
log (6)
log (1.4)

2 x = 5.325 13
x = 3.3251
x = 3.325
d 3 5
x
= 27
5
x
= 9
x log
10
(5) = log
10
(9)
x =
10
10
log (9)
log (5)

x = 1.365
e 5 7
x
= 1
7
x
=
1
5

x log
10
(7) =
10
1
log
5




x =
10
10
1
log
5
log (7)




x = 0.827
f 2
x
3
x + 1
= 10
2
x
3
x
3
1
= 10
2
x
3
x
=
10
3

6
x
=
10
3

x log
10
(6) = log
10
10
3




x =
10
10
10
log
3
log (6)




x = 0.672
7 a 3
x
> 5
x log
10
(3) > log
10
(5)
x >
10
10
log (5)
log (3)

x > 1.465
b 2
2x
7
2x log
10
(2) log
10
(7)
2x
10
10
log (7)
log (2)

2x 2.807 354 922
x 1.404
c (0.2)
x
> 3
x log
10
(0.2) > log
10
(3)
x <
10
10
log (3)
log (0.2)

x < 0.683
d 7
x
0.5
x log
10
(7) log
10
(0.5)
x
10
10
log (0.5)
log (7)

x 0.356
e (0.4)
x
> 0.2
x log
10
(0.4) > log
10
(0.2)
x <
10
10
log (0.2)
log (0.4)

x < 1.756
8 5 2
x
= 1255
2
x
= 251
x log
10
(2) = log
10
(251)
x = 7.972
The answer is D.
9 10
2x
= 3 10
x
+ 4
10
2x
3 10
x
4 = 0
(10
x
)
2
3 10
x
4 = 0
Let a = 10
x

a
2
3a 4 = 0
MM1 2 - 3 58 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

(a 4)(a + 1) = 0
a = 4 or 1
Substitute a = 10
x

10
x
= 4 or 10
x
= 1
10
x
= 4
x log
10
(10) = log
10
(4)
x = log
10
(4)
The answer is E.
Exercise 3D Logarithmic
equations using any base
1 a i log
5
(x) = 2
x = 5
2

= 25
ii log
2
(x) = 3
x = 2
3

=
3
1
2

=
1
8

iii log
10
(x
2
) = 4
x
2
= 10
4

= (10
2
)
2
or (10
2
)
2

x = 10
2
= 100 or 100
iv log
3
(x + 1) = 3
x + 1 = 3
3

= 27
x = 26
v log
4
(2x 3) = 0
4
0
= 2x 3
1 = 2x 3
4 = 2x
x = 2
vi log
2
(x) = 5
2
5
= x

5
1
2
= x

1
32
= x
x =
1
32

vii log
5
(1 x) = 4
5
4
= 1 x
625 = 1 x
x = 624
b i log
3
(x) = 4
x = 3
4

= 81
ii log
4
(x) = 2
x = 4
2

=
2
1
4

=
1
16

iii log
2
(x
3
) = 12
x
3
= 2
12

= (2
4
)
3

x = 2
4

= 16
iv log
5
(x 2) = 3
5
3
= x 2
125 = x 2
127 = x
v log
10
(2x + 1) = 0
10
0
= 2x + 1
1 = 2x + 1
0 = 2x
x = 0
vi log
3
(x) = 2
3
2
= x

1
9
= x
x =
1
9

vii log
10
(5 2x) = 1
10
1
= 5 2x
2x = 5
x =
5
2


2 a i log
x
(9) = 2
x
2
= 9
x
2
9 = 0
(x 3)(x + 3) = 0
x = 3
x = 3 as you cant have a
logarithm to a negative base.
ii log
x
(25) =
2
3


2
3
x = 25
x
2
= 25
3

x =
3
( 25)
= 5
3

= 125
iii log
x
1
8



= 3
x
3
=
1
8

x
3
=
3
1
2

x
3
= 2
3

x = 2
iv log
x
(6
2
) = 2
x
2
= 6
2

x = 6
b i log
x
(16) = 4
x
4
= 16
x
4
16 = 0
x
4
2
4
= 0
(x
2
2
2
)(x
2
+ 2
2
) = 0
x = 2
x = 2
ii log
x
(125) =
3
4


3
4
x = 125
x
3
= 125
4

x =
4 3
( 125)
= 5
4

= 625
iii
1
log
64
x



= 2
x
2
=
1
64

x
2
=
2
1
8

x
2
= 8
2

x = 8
iv log
x
(4
3
) = 3
x
3
= 4
3

x = 4
3 a i log
2
(8) = x
2
x
= 8
2
x
= 2
3

x = 3
ii
5
1
log
5



= x
5
x
=
1
5

5
x
= 5
1

x = 1
iii log
4
(2) = x
4
x
= 2
2
2x
= 2
1

2x = 1
x =
1
2

iv log
6
(1) = x
6
x
= 1 = 6
0

x = 0
v
1
2
log (2) = x

1
2
x
= 2
2
x
= 2
1

x = 1
x = 1
b i log
3
(9) = x
3
x
= 9
3
x
= 3
2

x = 2
ii
4
1
log
16



= x
4
x
=
1
16

4
x
= 4
2

x = 2
iii log
8
(2) = x
8
x
= 2
2
3x
= 2
1

3x = 1
x =
1
3

iv log
8
(1) = x
8
x
= 1 = 8
0

x = 0
v
1
3
log (9) = x

1
3
x



= 9
3
x
= 3
2

x = 2
x = 2
4 a i log
2
(x) + log
2
(4) = log
2
(20)
log
2
(4x) = log
2
(20)
4x = 20
x = 5
ii log
5
(3) + log
5
(x) = log
5
(18)
log
5
(3x) = log
5
(18)
3x = 18
x = 6
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 59
iii log
3
(x) log
3
(2) = log
3
(5)

3
log
2
x


= log
3
(5)

2
x
= 5
x = 10
iv log
10
(x) log
10
(4) = log
10
(2)

10
log
4
x


= log
10
(2)

4
x
= 2
x = 8
v log
4
(8) log
4
(x) = log
4
(2)

4
8
log
x



= log
4
(2)

8
x
= 2
x = 4
b i log
3
(10) log
3
(x) = log
3
(5)

3
10
log
x



= log
3
(5)

10
x
= 5
x = 2
ii log
6
(4) + log
6
(x) = 2
log
6
(4x) = 2
4x = 6
2

= 36
x = 9
iii log
2
(x) + log
2
(5) = 1
log
2
(5x) = 1
5x = 2
1

x =
2
5

iv 3 log
10
(x) = log
10
(2)
3 = log
10
(2) + log
10
(x)
3 = log
10
(2x)
2x = 10
3

x = 500
v 5 log
4
(8) = log
4
(x)
5 = log
4
(x) + log
4
(8)
5 = log
4
(8x)
8x = 4
5

= 1024
x = 128
5 a i log
2
(x) + log
2
(6) log
2
(3) = log
2
(10)

2
6
log
3
x


= log
2
(10)
log
2
(2x) = log
2
(10)
2x = 10
x = 5
ii log
2
(x) + log
2
(5) log
2
(10) = log
2
(3)

2
5
log
10
x


= log
2
(3)

2
x
= 3
x = 6
iii log
3
(5) log
3
(x) + log
3
(2) = log
3
(10)

3
5
log 2
x



= log
3
(10)

10
x
= 10
1 = x
iv log
5
(4) log
5
(x) + log
5
(3) = log
5
(6)

5
4
log 3
x



= log
5
(6)

12
x
= 6
x = 2
v log
5
(x) + log
5
(x 2) = log
5
(3)
log
5
(x(x 2)) = log
5
(3)
x(x 2) = 3
x
2
2x = 3
x
2
2x 3 = 0
(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x = 3 or 1
x = 3 is the only solution as the logarithm of a
negative number is undefined.
b i log
3
(x) + log
3
(x + 2) = log
3
(8)
log
3
(x(x + 2)) = log
3
(8)
x(x + 2) = 8
x
2
+ 2x = 8
x
2
+ 2x 8 = 0
(x + 4)(x 2) = 0
x = 4 or 2
x = 2 is the only solution possible.
ii log
4
(x) + log
4
(x 6) = 2
log
4
(x(x 6)) = 2
log
4
(x
2
6x) = 2 = log
4
(4
2
)
4
2
= x
2
6x
16 = x
2
6x
0 = x
2
6x 16
0 = (x 8)(x + 2)
x = 8 or 2
x = 8 is the only solution possible.
iii log
5
(x) + log
5
(x + 20) = 3
log
5
(x(x + 20)) = 3
log
5
(x
2
+ 20x) = 3 = log
5
(5
3
)
5
3
= x
2
+ 20x
125 = x
2
+ 20x
0 = x
2
+ 20x 125
0 = (x 5)(x + 25)
x = 5 or 25
x = 5 is the only solution possible.
iv log
5
(x + 1) + log
5
(x 3) = 1
log
5
(x + 1)(x 3) = 1
log
5
(x
2
2x 3) = 1
= log
5
(5)
5 = x
2
2x 3
0 = x
2
2x 8
0 = (x 4)(x + 2)
x = 4 or 2
x = 4 is the only solution possible as x > 1.
v log
6
(x 2) + log
6
(x + 3) = 1
log
6
(x 2)(x + 3) = 1
= log
6
(6)
6 = x
2
+ x 6
0 = x
2
+ x 12
0 = (x + 4)(x 3)
x = 4 or 3
x = 3 is the only solution possible as x > 2.
6 2 log
a
(x) = log
a
(x
2
)
2 0.7 = log
a
(x
2
)
1.4 = log
a
(x
2
)
The answer is B.
7 If log
10
(x) = a
Then (log
10
(x)
2
) + log
10
(x) 6 becomes
a
2
+ a 6 = (a + 3)(a 2)
The answer is D.
MM1 2 - 3 60 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

8 a (log
10
(x))
2
+ log
10
(x) 2 = 0
Let a = log
10
(x)
a
2
+ a 2 = 0
(a + 2)(a 1) = 0
a = 2 or 1
Since a = log
10
(x)
log
10
(x) = 2 or log
10
(x) = 1
10
2
= x or 10
1
= x
x =
1
100
or 10
b (log
10
(x))
2
2 log
10
(x) 3 = 0
Let a = log
10
(x)
a
2
2a 3 = 0
(a 3)(a + 1) = 0
a = 3 or 1
Since a = log
10
(x)
log
10
(x) = 3 or log
10
(x) = 1
10
3
= x or 10
1
= x
x = 1000 or
1
10

c (log
2
(x))
2
2 log
2
(x) 8 = 0
Let a = log
2
(x)
a
2
2a 8 = 0
(a 4)(a + 2) = 0
a = 4 or 2
Since a = log
2
(x)
log
2
(x) = 4 or log
2
(x) = 2
2
4
= x or 2
2
= x
x = 16 or
1
4

d (log
2
(x))
2
+ 3 log
2
(x) 4 = 0
Let a = log
2
(x)
a
2
+ 3a 4 = 0
(a + 4)(a 1) = 0
a = 4 or 1
Since a = log
2
(x)
log
2
(x) = 4 or log
2
(x) = 1
2
4
= x or 2
1
= x
x =
1
16
or 2
e (log
3
(x))
2
log
3
(x
4
)

+ 3 = 0
Let a = log
3
(x)
a
2
4a + 3 = 0
(a 3)(a 1) = 0
a = 3 or 1
Since a = log
3
(x)
log
3
(x) = 3 or log
3
(x) = 1
3
3
= x or 3
1
= x
x = 27 or 3
f (log
5
(x))
2
log
5
(x
3
)

+ 2 = 0
Let a = log
5
(x)
a
2
3a + 2 = 0
as log
5
(x
3
) = 3log
5
(x)
(a 2)(a 1) = 0
a = 2 or 1
Since a = log
5
(x)
log
5
(x) = 2 or log
5
(x) = 1
5
2
= x or 5
1
= x
x = 25 or 5
g log
2
(x
4
) = (log
2
(x))
2

0 = (log
2
(x))
2
log
2
(x
4
)
Let a = log
2
(x)
0 = a
2
4a
0 = a(a 4)
a = 0 or 4
Since a = log
2
(x)
log
2
(x) = 0 or log
2
(x) = 4
2
0
= x or 2
4
= x
x = 1 or 16
h log
3
(x
3
) = (log
3
(x))
2

0 = (log
3
(x))
2
log
3
(x
3
)
Let a = log
3
( x)
0 = a
2
3a
0 = a(a 3)
a = 0 or 3
Since a = log
3
(x)
log
3
(x) = 0 or log
3
(x) = 3
3
0
= x or 3
3
= x
x = 1 or 27
i log
10
(x
2
+ 2x 5) = 1
10
1
= x
2
+ 2x 5
0 = x
2
+ 2x 15
0 = (x + 5)(x 3)
x = 5 or 3
j log
3
(x
2
3x 7) = 1
3
1
= x
2
3x 7
0 = x
2
3x 10
0 = (x 5)(x + 2)
x = 5 or 2
9 If
10
10
log ( )
log (2)
x
= 4
log
10
(x) = 4 log
10
(2)
= log
10
(2
4
)
= log
10
(16)
x = 16
Exercise 3E Exponential equations (base e)
1 a e
2
= 7.389
b e
4
= 54.598
c
1
2
e = 1.649
d
1
3
e = 1.396
e
4
e = 1.284
f
5
e = 1.221
g ln (4) = 1.386
h ln (5) = 1.609
i log
e
(1.5) = 0.405
j log
e
(3.6) = 1.281
2 a e
x
= e
1

x = 1
b e
x
= e
2

x = 2
c e
x 2
= e
4

x 2 = 4
x = 6
d e
2x
= e
1

2x = 1
x =
1
2

e e
x + 1
=
1
e

e
x + 1
= e
1

x + 1 = 1
x = 2
x = 2
f e
x 2
=
2
1
e

e
x 2
= e
2

x 2 = 2
x = 0
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 61
g e
3x + 6
= e
e
3x + 6
=
1
2
e
3x + 6 =
1
2

6x + 12 = 1
6x = 11
x =
11
6

h e
2x 1
=
3
e
e
2x 1
=
3
2
e
2x 1 =
3
2

4x 2 = 3
4x = 5
x =
5
4

3 a e
x
= 2
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2)
x = 0.693
b e
x
= 5
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(5)
x = 1.609
c e
x
=
1
2

x log
e
(e) =
1
log
2
e




x = 0.693
d e
x
=
1
4

x log
e
(e) =
1
log
4
e




x = 1.386
e e
x
= 1.3
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(1.3)
x = 0.262
f e
x
= 2.6
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2.6)
x = 0.956
g 2e
x
= 6
e
x
= 3
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(3)
x = log
e
(3)
x = 1.099 to 3 decimal places
h 3e
x
= 12
e
x
= 4
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(4)
x = log
e
(4)
x = 1.386 to 3 decimal places
4 a (e
x
1)(e
x
+ 2) = 0
e
x
= 1 or e
x
= 2
No real solutions for e
x
= 2
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(1)
x = log
e
(1)
x = 0
b (e
x
2)(e
2x
3) = 0
e
x
= 2 or e
2x
= 3
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2) or 2x log
e
(e)
= log
e
(3)
x = 0.693 or 2x = 1.0986
x = 0.693 or 0.549
c (3e
x
2)(2e
x
1) = 0
3e
x
= 2 or 2e
x
= 1
e
x
=
2
3
or e
x
=
1
2

x log
e
(e) =
2
log
3
e



or x log
e
(e) =
1
log
2
e




x =
2
log
3
e



or x = 0.693
x = + 0.405 or 0.693
d (e
x
)
2
e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

a
2
a = 0
a(a 1) = 0
a = 0 or a = 1
Since a = e
x

e
x
= 0 or e
x
= 1
No real solutions for e
x
= 0
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(1)
x = 0
e (e
x
)
2
e e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

a
2
ea = 0
a(a e) = 0
a = 0 or a = e
Since a = e
x

e
x
= 0 or e
x
= e
No real solutions for e
x
= 0
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(e)
x = 1
f (e
x
)
2
7e
x
+ 10 = 0
Let a = e
x

a
2
7a + 10 = 0
(a 5)(a 2) = 0
Since a = e
x

e
x
= 5 or e
x
= 2
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(5) or x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2)
x = log
e
(5) or x = log
e
(2)
x = 1.609 or 0.693
g 6 11e
x
+ 3e
2x
= 0
6 11e
x
+ 3(e
x
)
2
= 0
Let a = e
x

6 11a + 3a
2
= 0
3a
2
11a + 6 = 0
(3a 2)(a 3) = 0
Since a = e
x

3e
x
= 2 or e
x
= 3
e
x
=
2
3
or x log
e
(e) =
2
log
3
e




x log
e
(e) = log
e
(3) or x = 1.099
x = 0.405 or 1.099
h 18 23e
x
+ 7e
2x
= 0
7(e
x
)
2
23e
x
+ 18 = 0
Let a = e
x

7a
2
23a + 18 = 0
(7a 9)(a 2) = 0
Since a = e
x

7e
x
= 9 or e
x
= 2
e
x
=
9
7
or x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2).
x log
e
(e) =
9
log
7
e



or x = 0.693.
x = 0.251 or 0.693
5 a e
x
4e
x
= 0
e
x

4
x
e
= 0
(e
x
)
2
4 = 0
MM1 2 - 3 62 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

Let a = e
x

a
2
4 = 0
(a 2)(a + 2) = 0
Since a = e
x

e
x
= 2 or e
x
= 2
No real solutions for e
x
= 2
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2)
x = 0.693
b e
x
15e
x
2 = 0
e
x

15
x
e
2 = 0
(e
x
)
2
15 2e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

a
2
2a 15 = 0
(a 5)(a + 3) = 0
Since a = e
x

e
x
= 5 or e
x
= 3
No real solutions e
x
= 3
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(5)
x = 1.609
c 5e
x
12e
x
11 = 0
5(e
x
)
2
12 11e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

5a
2
11a 12 = 0
(5a + 4)(a 3) = 0
Since a = e
x

5e
x
= 4 or e
x
= 3
No real solutions for 5e
x
= 4
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(3)
x = 1.099
d 3e
x
+ 6e
x
11 = 0
3(e
x
)
2
+ 6 11e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

3a
2
11a + 6 = 0
(3a 2)(a 3) = 0
Since a = e
x

3e
x
= 2 or e
x
= 3
e
x
=
2
3

x log
e
(e) = log
e
(3)
x = 1.099
x log
e
(e) =
2
log
3
e




x = 0.405
x = 0.405 or 1.099
e 4e
x
+ 6e
x
11 = 0
4(e
x
)
2
+ 6 11e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

4a
2
11a + 6 = 0
(4a 3)(a 2) = 0
Since a = e
x

4e
x
= 3 or e
x
= 2
e
x
=
3
4

x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2) or
x log
e
(e) =
3
log
4
e




x = 0.288 or 0.693
f e
x
+ 2e
x
= 3
(e
x
)
2
+ 2 3e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

a
2
3a + 2 = 0
(a 2)(a 1) = 0
Since a = e
x

e
x
= 2 or e
x
= 1
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(2) or
x log
e
(e) = log
e
(1)
x = 0.693 or 0
6 a e
x
> 1
x log
e
(e) > log
e
(1)
x > 0
b e
x
< e
x log
e
(e) < log
e
(e)
x < 1
c e
x
< 2
x log
e
(e) < log
e
(2)
x < 0.693
d 2x log
e
(e) log
e
(4)
2x 1.386
x 0.693
e e
x + 1
6
(x + 1)log
e
(e) log
e
(6)
x + 1 1.7917
x 0.792
f e
1 x
10
(1 x)log
e
(e) log
e
(10)
1 x 2.3025
x 1.30 258
x 1.303
g e
x
> 0.75
x log
e
(e) > log
e
(0.75)
x > 0.287 682
x < 0.288
7 If y = Ae
kt

y = 19.6 when t = 2
y = 19.02 when t = 5
19.6 = Ae
2k
[1]
19.02 = Ae
5k
[2]
Divide [1] by [2]

19.6
19.02
=
2
5
k
k
Ae
Ae


1.0305 = e
3k

log
e
(1.0305) = 3 log ( )
e
k e

0.03 004 = 3k
k = 0.01
When k = 0.01 A = ?
Substituting into [1]
19.6 = Ae
0.02

A =
0.02
19.6
e


= 19.6e
0.02

= 19.9959
= 20 to 2 decimal places
8 =
0
e
kt


0
= 90 18
= 72
= 72e
kt

When t = 10, = 65 18 = 47
47 = 72e
10k

e
10k
=
47
72

10k =
47
log
72
e




k =
1
10

47
log
72
e




= 0.04
Exercise 3F Equations with
natural (base e) logarithms
1 a log
e
(x) = 1
x = e
1

= e
b log
e
(x) = 2
x = e
2

c log
e
(x) = 2
x = e
2

=
2
1
e

d log
e
(x) = 1
x = e
1

=
1
e

2 a log
e
(2x) = 2
2x = e
2

x =
2
2
e

3.695
b log
e
(3x) = 1
3x = e
1

x =
3
e

0.906
c log
e
(x
3
) = 3
3 log
e
(x) = 3
log
e
(x) = 1
x = e
d log
e
(x
2
) = 2
2 log
e
(x) = 2
log
e
(x) = 1
(x) = e
e log
e
(x
2
) = 0.4
2 log
e
(x) = 0.4
log
e
(x) = 0.2
x = e
0.2

1.221
f log
e
(x
3
) = 0.9
3 log
e
(x) = 0.9
log
e
(x) = 0.3
x = e
0.3

1.350
g log
e
(x 1) = 1
x 1 = e
1

x 1 = 0.3678
1.368
h log
e
(2x + 1) = 2
2x + 1 = e
2

2x = e
2
1
= 0.86 466
x 0.432
3 a log
e
(x) = log
e
(2)
x = 2
b log
e
(x) = log
e
(5)
x = 5
c log
e
(x) + log
e
(3) = log
e
(9)
log
e
(3x) = log
e
(9)
3x = 9
x = 3
d log
e
(x) + log
e
(2) = log
e
(8)
log
e
(2x) = log
e
(8)
2x = 8
x = 4
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 63
e log
e
(x) log
e
(5) = log
e
(2)
log
5
e
x


= log
e
(2)

2
x
= 2
x = 10
f 1 + log
e
(x) = log
e
(6)
log
e
(x) = log
e
(6) 1
= log
e
(6) log
e
(e)
=
6
log
e
e




x =
6
e

2.207
4 a log
e
(x) + log
e
(5) log
e
(10) = log
e
(3)

5
log
10
e
x


= log
e
(3)

5
10
x
= 3
5x = 30
x = 6
b 2 log
e
(3) + log
e
(x) log
e
(2) = log
e
(3)

9
log
2
e
x


= log
e
(3)

9
2
x
= 3
9x = 6
x =
6
9

x =
2
3

c 3 log
e
(2) + log
e
(x) log
e
(4) = log
e
(5)

3
2
log
4
e
x




= log
e
(5)
2x = 5
x = 2.5
d log
e
(4) + log
e
(3) log
e
(x) = log
e
(2)

4 3
log
e
x



= log
e
(2)

12
x
= 2
12 = 2x
6 = x
e log
e
(x) + log
e
(x + 1) = log
e
(2)
log
e
(x(x + 1)) = log
e
(2)
x
2
+ x = 2
x
2
+ x 2 = 0
(x + 2)(x 1) = 0
x = 2 or 1
No real solution unless x + 1 > 0
So x = 1
f log
e
(x + 1) + log
e
(2x 1) = log
e
(5)
log
e
((x + 1)(2x 1)) = log
e
(5)
2x
2
+ x 1 = 5
2x
2
+ x 6 = 0
(2x 3)(x + 2) = 0
x =
3
2
or 2
No real solution unless x + 1 > 0.
So x =
3
2

5 ln (y) = ln (x) + ln (a)
ln (y) = ln (xa)
y = xa
The answer is B.
6 2 log
e
(x) log
e
(3x) = a

2
log
3
e
x
x




= a

3
x
= e
a

x = 3e
a

The answer is A.
7 2 log
e
(x) + 1 = log
e
(y)
log
e
(x
2
)

log
e
(y) = 1

2
log
e
x
y




= 1

2
x
y
= e
1

y =
2
1
x
e


= ex
2

8 log
e
(x) = a
e
a
= x
But y = e
a
and so y = x.
9 e
ln(x)
= 2
In(x) = log
e
(2)
x = 2
10 A = 5e
kt

a If an amount of 5 grams is halved, then 2.5 grams is the
new amount.
b 2.5 = 5e
kt


1
2
= e
kt

c
1
log
2
e



= kt log
e
(e)

1
log
2
e



= kt

1
log
2
e
k


= t

1
log (2 )
e
k

= t

log (2)
e
k
= t
d
log (2)
0.005
e
= t
138.6 = t
139 days
Exercise 3G Inverses
1 a y = 2e
x

x = 2e
y


2
x
= e
y

log
2
e
x


= y
b y = e
x + 1

x = e
y + 1

log
e
(x) = y + 1
log
e
(x) 1 = y
c y = e
x 1

x = e
y 1

MM1 2 - 3 64 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

log
e
(x) = y 1
log
e
(x) + 1 = y
d y = e
2x 1

x = e
2y 1

log
e
(x) = 2y 1
1 + log
e
(x) = 2y

1 log ( )
2
e
x +
= y
e y = e
2 x

x = e
2 y

log
e
(x) = 2 y
y = 2 log
e
(x)
f y = e
2 3x

x = e
2 3y

log
e
(x) = 2 3y
3y = 2 log
e
(x)
y =
2 log ( )
3
e
x

2 a y = 2 + e
x

x = 2 + e
y

x 2 = e
y

log
e
(x 2) = y
b y = 2 e
x

x = 2 e
y

e
y
= 2 x
y = log
e
(2 x)
c y = 1 2e
x

x = 1 2e
y

2e
y
= 1 x
e
y
=
1
2
x

y =
1
log
2
e
x



d y = 2 + e
x + 1

x = 2 + e
y + 1

x 2 = e
y + 1

log
e
(x 2) = y + 1
log
e
(x 2) 1 = y
e y = 3 2e
x 2

x = 3 2e
y 2

2e
y 2
= 3 x
e
y 2
=
3
2
x

y 2 =
3
log
2
e
x



y =
3
log
2
e
x


+ 2
f y = 2 3e
x+ 1

x = 2 3e
y+ 1

3e
y + 1
= 2 x
e
y + 1
=
2
3
x

y + 1 =
2
log
3
e
x



y =
2
log
3
e
x


1
3 a y = 2 log
e
(x)
x = 2 log
e
(y)
x = log
e
(y
2
)
y
2
= e
x

y =
x
e
y =
2
x
e
b y = log
e
(x + 1)
x = log
e
(y + 1)
y + 1 = e
x

y = e
x
1
c y = log
e
(x 1)
x = log
e
(y 1)
y 1 = e
x

y = e
x
+ 1
d y = log
e
(2x 1)
x = log
e
(2y 1)
2y 1 = e
x

2y = e
x
+ 1
y =
1
2
x
e +

e y = log
e
(2 x)
x = log
e
(2 y)
2 y = e
x

y = e
x
2
y = 2 e
x

f y = log
e
(2 3x)
x = log
e
(2 3y)
2 3y = e
x

3y = e
x
2
y =
2
3
x
e

4 a y = 2 + log
e
(x)
x = 2 + log
e
(y)
x 2 = log
e
(y)
y = e
x 2

b y = 2 log
e
(x)
x = 2 log
e
(y)
log
e
(y) = 2 x
e
2 x
= y
c y = 2 + 3 log
e
(x)
x = 2 + 3 log
e
(y)
x 2 = 3 log
e
(y)

2
3
x
= log
e
(y)

2
3
x
e

= y
d y = 2 log
e
(x 1)
x = 2 log
e
(y 1)
log
e
(y 1) = 2 x
e
2 x
= y 1
e
2 x
+ 1 = y
e y = 3 + 2 log
e
(x 1)
x = 3 + 2 log
e
(y 1)

3
2
x
= log
e
(y 1)
y 1 =
3
2
x
e


y =
3
2
x
e

+ 1
f y = 1 3 log
e
(x + 2)
x = 1 3 log
e
(y + 2)
3 log
e
(y + 2) = 1 x
log
e
(y + 2) =
1
3
x


1
3
x
e

2 = y
5 If y = 5 log
e
(3x 2) + 1
x = 5 log
e
(3y 2) + 1

1
5
x
= log
e
(3y 2)
3y 2 =
1
5
x
e


E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 65
3y =
1
5
x
e


+ 2
y =
1
5
2
3
x
e

+

The answer is C.
6 If y = 5e
2x + 1
1
x = 5e
2y + 1
1

1
5
x +
= e
2y + 1


1
log
5
e
x +


= 2y + 1

1
log 1
5
2
e
x +



= y

1
2
ln
1
5
x +



1
2
= y
The answer is E.
7
log (2 )
e
x
e = y
y = 2x
D
Exercise 3H Literal equations
1 5e
2x
= a, a R
+

e
2x
=
5
a

log
e
e
2x
= log
5
e
a



2x = log
5
e
a



x =
1
log
2 5
e
a



2 log
3
(D) = cy + log
3
Z
log
3
(D) = cylog
3
(3) + log
3
Z
log
3
(D) = log
3
(3
cy
) + log
3
Z
= log
3
(3
cy
Z)
D = Z 3
cy

3 e
mx + n
= 3k
log
e
(e
mx + n
) = log
e
(3k)
mx + n = log
e
(3k)
mx = log
e
(3k) n
x =
log (3 )
e
k n
m


4 2 log
3
(p + 5q)= 4
log
3
(p+5q) = 2
3
2
= p + 5q
5q = q p
q =
5
q p

5
2 4 2 5
10 10 10 10
3 3 3 3 4 4
log log log log
x y y z x
y z z x z x z


+






=
2 4 2 5
10 10 10
3 2 3 3 4 4
log log log
x y y z x
y z z x z x z









=
2 5
10 10 10
5 3 4 4
log log log
xy y z x
z z x z









=
3 4 2 5
10 10
5 4
log log
xy z x z x
y z z






=
5 5
10 10
2 2
log log
x x
z z





=
5 2
10
2 5
log
x z
z x





= log
10
(1)
= 0
6 9
xb
27
3a
= 81
a (3
2
)
xb
(3
3
)
3a
= 3
4

3
2xb
3
9a
= 3
4

2xb + 9a = 4
2xb = 4 9a
x =
4 9
2
a
b


b a = 2, 3 b =
x =
4 9 2
2 3



=
4 18
6


=
14
6


=
7
3

7 4
2x b
= 20
log
e
(4
2x b
) = log
e
(20)
(2 ) log (4)
e
x b = log (20)
e

2x b =
log (20)
log (4)
e
e

2x =
log (20)
log (4)
e
e
b +
x =
log (20)
2log (4) 2
e
e
b
+
=
log (20) log (4)
2log (4)
e e
e
b +

=
log (20) 2 log (2)
4log (2)
e e
e
b +

8 2
x 1
= 3
x + a

log
e
(2
x 1
) = log
e
(3
x + a
)
( 1)log (2)
e
x = ( ) log (3)
e
x a +
log (2) log (2)
e e
x = log (3) log (3)
e e
x a +
log (2) log (3)
e e
x x = log (3) log (2)
e e
a +
(log (2) log (3))
e e
x = log (3) log (2)
e e
a +

2
log
3
e
x



= log (3) log (2)
e e
a +
x =
log (3) log (2)
2
log
3
e e
e
a +




9 y = m + Re
bx

Re
bx
= y m
e
bx
=
y m
R


log
e
(e
bx
) =
log
e
y m
R




bx =
log
e
y m
R




x =
log
e
y m
R
b




or
x =
1
log
e
y m
b R




MM1 2 - 3 66 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

10 (log
2
(5a))
2
= 16b
2

log
2
(5a) = 4b
5a = 2
4b
or 5a = 2
4b

5a = 16
b
or 5a =
1
16
b

a =
16
5
b
or a =
1
5 16
b


11
4 4
1
log ( ) 3log ( )
2
x y = log
4
(3)

1
2
log
4
(x) =
4 4
log (3) 3log ( ) y +

1
2
4
log x




=
3
4 4
log (3) log ( ) y +

1
2
4
log x




= log
4
(3y
3
)

1
2
x = 3y
3


2
1
2
x




= (3y
3
)
2

x = 9y
6

12 2 log
e
(a) 5 log
e
(b) 2 = 0
2 log
e
(a) 2 = 5 log
e
(b)
log
e
(a
2
) 2 log
e
(e) = log
e
(b
5
)
log
e
(a
2
) log
e
(e
2
) = log
e
(b
5
)

2
2
log
e
a
e




= log
e
(b
5
)

2
2
a
e
= b
5

b =
2
5
2
a
e

13 a e
x
= 3x
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (e
x
= 3x, x)
Write the solution as:
Solving e
x
= 3x for x gives
x = 0.619, 1.512
b x + 2 = e
x

On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (x + 2 = e
x
, x)
Write the solution as:
Solving x + 2 = e
x
for x gives
x = 0.443
c x
2
1 = e
2x

On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (x
2
1 = e
2x
, x)
Write the solution as solving x
2
1 = e
2x
for x gives
x = 1.058
14 a log
e
(x) = 2 x
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (log
e
(x) = 2 x, x)
Write the solution as:
Solving log
e
(x) = 2 x for x gives:
x = 1.557
b log
e
(x 2) = x 4
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (log
e
(x 2) = x 4, x)
Write the solution as:
Solving log
e
(x 2) = x 4 for x gives
x = 2.159, 5.146
c x
2
1 = log
e
(2x)
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (x
2
1 = log
e
(2x), x)
Write the solution as:
Solving x
2
1 = log
e
(2x) for x gives:
x = 0.191, 1.433
15 log
7
(x) = log
4
(p)
x =
4
log ( )
7
p

or x =
log ( )
log (4)
7
e
e
p

16 e
kx
=
3
kx
a
e
+

(e
kx
)
2
= 3 e
kx
+ a
0 = (e
kx
)
2
3e
kx
a
Let e
kx
= c
0 = c
2
3c a
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (0 = c
2
3c a, c)
Solving 0 = c
2
3c a for c gives
c =
3 4 9
2
a + +
or c =
3 4 9
2
a +

Substitute back in for c = e
kx

e
kx
=
3 4 9
2
a + +
or e
kx
=
3 4 9
2
a +

log
e
(e
kx
) =
3 4 9
log
2
e
a

+ +




kx =
3 4 9
log
2
e
a

+ +




x =
1 3 4 9
log
2
e
a
k

+ +




Exercise 3I Exponential and logarithmic
modelling
1 y = y
0
e
0.6t

a y
0
is the initial amount of -gluconolactone. So y
0
= 200
b y = 200 e
0.6t

c y = 200 e
0.6

= 109.76
110 grams of -gluconolactone will be present after 1 hour.
d 200 e
0.6t
= 50
e
0.6t
=
1
4

0.6t =
1
log
4
e




t =
1
log
4
0.6
e



t = 2.310
It will take 2 hours and 15 minutes to reduce the amount
of -gluconolactone to 50 grams.
2 y = y
0
e
0.18t

a y
0
is the initial value when t = 0, so y
0
= 10
b y = 10e
0.18t

c y = 10e
0.18 1

y = 8.353
Approximately 8 grams of radon-222 gas remains.
d 10e
0.18t
= 1
e
0.18t
=
1
10

0.18t = log (0.1)
e

t =
log (0.1)
0.18
e


t = 12.792
It will take approximately 13 days for the radon-222 gas
to decay to 1 gram.
Solution not valid as e
kx

cant be negative.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 67
3 a y = A + B log
e
(x)
3 = A + B log
e
(1)(1)
4.386 = A + B log
e
(2)(2)
Solve eq (1) 3 = A + B 0
3 = A
Substitute A value into (2)
4.386 = 3 + B log
e
(2)
4.386 = 3 + B 0.6931
1.999 = B
2 B
b y = 3 + 2 log
e
(x)
c m = 3 + 2 log
e
(3)
= 5.197
d If y = 7.6, x = ?
7.6 = 3 + 2log
e
(x)

7.6 3
2

= log
e
(x)
2.3 = log
e
(x)
x = e
2.3

x = 9.974
Therefore x is approximately 10 days.
4 A = A
0
e
rt

a A
0
is the initial value = 1000
r is the rate =
5
100
or 0.05
b A = 1000e
0.05t

c i 1 year
A = 1000e
0.05 1

A = $1051.27
A $1051
ii 10 years
A = 1000e
0.05 10

A = $1648.72
A $1649
After 1 year the investment will be $1051 and after
10 years $1649.
d A = 2000
1000e
0.05t
= 2000
e
0.05t
= 2
0.05 t log
e
(e) = log
e
(2)
t =
log (2)
0.05
e

t = 13.863
t 14
It will take approximately 14 years for the investment to
double.
5 P = P
0
e
kt

a P
0
is the initial value = 500
b P = 500e
kt

After 10 years the number of people is 675.
500e
10k
= 675
e
10k
= 1.35
10k = log
e
(1.35)
k =
log (1.35)
10
e

k = 0.03
c P = 500e
0.03t

d 1850 to 1900 = 50 years
P = 500e
0.03 50

P = 2240.8
P 2240
Approximately 2240 people will be present.
e 500e
0.03 t
= 2000
e
0.03t
= 4
0.03t = log
e
(4)
t =
log (4)
0.03
e

t = 46.20.
It will take approximately 46 years, so in 1896 the
population reaches 2000.
6 T T
s
= (T
0
T
s
)e
kt

T = 70C
t = 6 T
s
= 15.
a T
0
is the initial value = 90C
T
s
is the room air temperature = 15C
70 15 = (90 15)e
k 6

55 = 75e
6k

0.73

= e
6k

log (0.73)
e

= 6k

log(0.73)
6

= k
0.05 = k
b T 15 = (90 15)e
0.05t

T 15 = 75e
0.05t

T = 15 + 75e
0.05t

c T = 15 + 75e
0.05 10

T = 60.48
The soup will be approximately 60C.
d 40 = 15 + 75e
0.05 t


40 15
75

= e
0.05t

log (0.3)
e

= 0.05t

log (0.3)
0.05
e

= t
21.97 = t
It will take approximately 22 minutes to cool to 40C.
e T
s
= 2C, T
0
= 90, T = 40
40 2 = (90 2)e
0.05t

38 = 88e
0.05t

log
e
(0.4318) = 0.05t

log (0.4318)
0.05
e

= t
16.79 = t
It will take approximately 17 minutes to cool to 40C.
7 D = D
0
e
kt

a D
0
= 50 cm (initial value)
60 = 50e
2k

log
e
(1.2) = 2k

log (1.2)
2
e
= k
0.09 = k
b D = 50e
0.09t

c D = 50e
0.09 5

D = 78.416
The diameter of the tree will be approximately 78 cm
after 5 years.
d 100 = 50e
0.09t

log
e
(2) = 0.09t

log (2)
0.09
e
= t
7.702 = t
It will take approximately 8 years for the diameter of the
tree to double.
8 M = M
0
e
kt

a When t = 10, M = 98
98 = M
0
e
10k
(i)
When t = 20, M = 96
96 = M
0
e
20k
(ii)
MM1 2 - 3 68 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s


(i) 98
(ii) 96
=
0
M
10
0
k
e
M

20k
e


1.02083 = e
10k

10k = log
e
(1.020 83)
k = 0.002 to 3 decimal places.
Substitute k into (i):
98 = M
0
e
0.020 619 287

M
0
= 100.04
To the nearest gram, M
0
= 100.
b k = 0.002 from above.
c M = 100e
0.002t

d M = 100e
0.002 50

M = 90.48
Mass is approximately 90 grams in 50 years.
e 100e
0.002t
= 50
0.002t =
1
log
2
e




t =
1
log
2
0.002
e



= 346.574
To halve will take approximately 347 years.
9 N = N
0
e
kt

a Take initial value to be N
0
, so double is 2N
0
in 3 hours.
2N
0
= N
0
e
3k

2 = e
3k

log
e
(2) = 3k

log (2)
3
e
= k
0.23 = k
b N = N
0
e
0.23t

c 2500 = N
0
e
0.23 4


2500
2.509 290 39
= N
0

996.3 = N
0

Initial value was approximately 1000.
d N = 1000e
0.23t

e N = 1000e
0.23 8

N = 6296.54
Approximately 6000 bacteria will be present after
8 hours.
10 I = I
0
e
kd

a Let the initial intensity be I
0
. Therefore when d = 5 the
new intensity is
1
2
I
0
.

1
2
I
0
= I
0
e
5k


1
log
2
e



= 5k

1
log
2
5
e


= k
0.1386 = k
b I = I
0
e
0.1386d

c If halved 50% at 5 metres
Let I
0
be initial intensity.
I = ? when d = 10
I = I
0
e
0.1386 10

I = 0.25 I
0

25% of light is available.
d Let I = 0.1I
0
. Find d.
0.1I
0
= I
0
e
0.1386d

0.1 = e
0.1386d

0.1386d = log
e
(0.1)
d =
log (0.1)
0.1386
e


= 16.613
A diver can go approximately 16.6 m before artificial
light is necessary.
Chapter review
Short answer
1
3 2 8
2 6
5 3 5
4 2 x y x y

=
3 2 8
6
5 3 5
4
4
x y
+

=
33
5
14
15
x
y

2
2
5
log
9



=
2 2
log (5) log (9)
= 2.321 3.17
= 0.849
3 3 2
x
7 = 17
3 2
x
= 24
2
x
= 8
2
x
= 2
3

x = 3
4
2
2
log (32)
log (8)
=
5
2
3
2
log (2 )
log (2 )

=
2
2
5log (2)
3log (2)

=
5
3

5 log
x
(2) =
1
3


1
3
x = 2

3
1
3
x




=
3
2
x = 8
6
2
4
x
e

= 128

2 x
e

= 32

2
log ( )
x
e
e

= log (32)
e

2 x = log
e
(32)
x = 2 log (32)
e

= 2 5log (2)
e

7 log
e
5 + log
e
x log
e
2 = log
e
10

5
log
2
e
x
= log
e
10

5
2
x
= 10
5x = 20
x = 4
8 y = 3e
2x
a
x = 3e
2y
a
x + a = 3e
2y


3
x a +
= e
2y

log
3
e
x a +


= 2y

1
log
2 3
e
x a +


= y
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 69
9 y = log
e
(1 x) + 3
Swap x and y
x = log
e
(1 y) + 3
x 3 = log
e
(1 y)
1 y = e
x 3
y = 1 e
x 3

10 log
e
(3x + 5) log
e
(2) = 2
log
e
3 5
2
x +


= 2
e
2
=
3 5
2
x +

2e
2
= 3x + 5
3x = 2e
2
5
x =
2
2 5
3
e

11 6e
3x
= k
e
3x
=
6
k

log
e
(e
3x
) = log
e
6
k



3x = log
e
6
k



x =
1
log
3 6
e
k



12 3e
ax + b
6k = 0
e
ax + b
2k = 0
e
ax + b
= 2k
log
e
(e
ax + b
) = log
e
(2k)
ax + b = log
e
(2k)
ax = log
e
(2k) b
x =
log (2 )
e
k b
a

, a R\{0}, k > 0, b R
13 4 log
2
(ax + b) = 12
log
2
(ax + b) = 3
2
3
= ax + b
8 = ax + b
ax = 8 b
x =
8
,
b
a

a 0
14 log
2
(x) = y + log
2
(z), x R
+
, z R
+
, y R
log
2
(x) = ylog
2
(2) + log
2
(z)
= log
2
(2
y
) + log
2
(z)
log
2
(x) = log
2
(z 2
y
)
x = z 2
y

Multiple choice
1 If a > 1, solution of x for the equation x = a
2
is a positive
number greater than 1
The answer is E.
2 2 log
3
(x) + 4 log
3
(

x) log
3
(

x
6
)
= log
3
2 1
6
x x
x





= log
3
6
6
x
x





= log
3
(x
0
)
= log
3
(1)
= 0
The answer is A.
3 3e
2x
= 4
e
2x
=
4
3

log
e
(e
2x
) = log
e
4
3




2x = log
e
4
3




x =
4
log
3
2
e




= 0.144
D.
4 log
3
(24)
=
10
10
log (24)
log (3)

=
1.380
0.477

= 2.893
The answer is B.
5 (2
x
1)(2
2x
4) = 0
2
x
= 1 or 2
2x
= 4
2
x
= 2
0
or 2
2x
= 2
2

x = 0 or 2x = 2
x = 0 or 1
The answer is A.
6 e
x
12e
x
+ 4 = 0
(e
x
)
2
12 + 4e
x
= 0
Let a = e
x

a
2
+ 4a 12 = 0
(a + 6)(a 2) = 0
Since a = e
x

e
x
= 6 or e
x
= 2
e
x
= 6 has no real solutions.
e
x
= 2 means x = log
e
(2)
The answer is D.
7 If log
e
(x) = a then e
a
= x
Then e
2a
+ 3e
a
2e
a
= x
2
+ 3x
2
x

The answer is B.
8 If log
e
(2x) = a
e
a
= 2x

2
a
e
= x
The answer is C.
9 If e
x + 4
= e
2x 1

x + 4 = 2x 1
5 = x
The answer is B.
10 2 log
e
(x) = log
e
(x + 4) + log
e
(2)
log
e
(x
2
) = log
e
(2x + 8)
x
2
= 2x + 8
x
2
2x 8 = 0
(x 4)(x + 2) = 0
x = 4 or 2
But the domain of the equation is x > 0.
So x = 4 is the only answer.
The answer is E.
11 If 2
a
=
2
x
y

2
a
=
x
y

2
a
y = x
y =
2
a
x

y =
2
2
a
x



The answer is B.
MM1 2 - 3 70 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s

12 y = e
x
1
x = e
y
1
x + 1 = e
y

log
e
(x + 1) = y
The answer is D.
13 P = 50e
0.2h

P = 50e
0.2 1

P = 40.94
Air pressure is now approximately 41 cm so it has
decreased by approximately 9 cm.
The answer is B.
14 y = log
a
(7x b) + 3
y 3 = log
a
(7x b)
7x b = a
y 3

7x = a
y 3
+ b
x =
3
7
y
a b

+

C
15 2 log
e
(x) log
e
(x + 2) = 1 + log
e
(y)
log
e
(x
2
) log
e
(x + 2) 1 = log
e
(y)
log
e
2
2
x
x



+

log
e
(e) = log
e
(y)
log
e
2
( 2)
x
e x



+

= log
e
(y)
y =
2
( 2)
x
e x +

E
16
3
log ( 4)
3
x+
= y
y = x + 4
B
17 e
4x
5e
2x
+ 4 = 0

2 2 2
( ) 5 4
x x
e e + = 0
Let a = e
2x

a
2
5a + 4 = 0
(a 4)(a 1) = 0
a = 4 or a = 1
substitute back in for a = e
2x

e
2x
= 4 or e
2x
= 1
log
e
e
2x
= log
e
(4) e
2x
= e
0

2x = log
e
(4) 2x = 0
x =
1
log (4)
2
e
x = 0
x =
1
log (4)
2
e
, 0
= log
e
(2), 0
E
Extended response
1 x = log
3
e
a



= log
e
(a) log
e
(3)
= 0.6932 1.0986
= 0.41
2 a
4 5 6
4! 5! 6!
x x x
+ +
b e
1
= 1 +
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 6 24 120 720
+ + + + +
c e = 1 + 1 + 0.5 + 0.16 + 0.0416 + 0.0083 + 0.001 31
2.718 06
3 B = 6 2.5log
10
(A)
= 6 2.5log
10
(3.16)
= 6 2.5 0.500
= 4.75
4 M = log
10
a
T



+ B
a = 10, T = 1, B = 6.8
M = log
10
10
1



+ 6.8
M = log
10
10 + 6.8
M = 1 + 6.8
M = 7.8
5 A = 5e
kt

a The initial amount is 5 g so when halved, A = 2.5 g.
b 2.5 = 5e
kt


1
2
= e
kt

c log
e
1
2



= log ( )
kt
e
e


kt =
1
log
2
e




t =
1
log
2
e
k



=
1
log (2 )
e
k


=
log (2)
e
k


=
log (2)
e
k

d k = 0.005
t =
log (2)
0.005
e

= 138.6
= 139 days.
6 N = N
0
e
kt

30 students in 1995
45 students in 1996
a N
0
is the initial value = 30
45 = 30e
k 1

1.5 = e
k

log
e
1.5 = k
0.4055 = k
b N = 30e
0.4055t

c N = 30e
0.4055 5

N = 227.8
There will be 228 students (to the nearest whole number).
d 30e
0.4055t
= 1000
0.4055t =
1000
log
30
e

t =
1000
log
30
0.4055
e

= 8.648
It will take approximately 9 years.
e E = E
0
e
rt

1000 students in 1995
900 students in 1996
E
0
= 1000
900 = 1000e
r 1

log
e
0.9 = r
0.1054 = r
0.1054 = r
f E = 1000e
0.1054t

g E = 1000e
0.1054 5

E = 590.37
There will be 590 students enrolled after 5 years.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c e q u a t i o n s MM1 2 - 3 71
h 30e
0.4055t
= 1000e
0.1054t

e
0.4055t
=
0.1054
1000
30
t
e



0.4055
0.1054
t
t
e
e

=
1000
30

e
0.4055t + 0.1054t
=
100
3

e
0.5109t
=
100
3

0.5109t =
100
log
3
e




t =
100
log
3
0.5109
e

= 6.863
Approximately 7 years
i N = 30e
0.4055 6.863

= 485.09
Approximately 485 students.
7 e
kx
= 4 + ke
-kx


2
( )
kx
e = 4
kx
e k +

2
( ) 4
kx kx
e e k = 0
Let a = e
kx

a
2
4a k = 0
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (a
2
4a k = 0, a)
Write the solution as:
Solving a
2
4a k = 0 for a gives:
a = 2 4 k + + or a = 2 4 k +
Substitute back in for a = e
kx

e
kx
= 2 4 k + + or e
kx
= 2 4 k + (not valid as e
kx

cant be negative)
log
e
(e
kx
) = log (2 4)
e
k + +
kx = log (2 4)
e
k + +
x =
log (2 4) e k
k
+ +

=
1
log (2 4)
e
k
k
+ +
MM1 2 - 4 72 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

Exercise 4A Graphs of
exponential functions with
any base
1 a f(x) = 2
x

If x = 0, then y = 2
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
b f(x) = 10
x

If x = 0, then y = 10
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
c f(x) = 2 10
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 10
x

If x = 0, y = 2 10
0

= 2 1
y = 2 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
d f(x) = 3 2
x
An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 2
x
.
If x = 0, y = 3 2
0

= 3 1
y = 3 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
e f(x) = 0.3 2
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 2
x
.
If x = 0, then y = 0.3 2
0

= 0.3 1
y = 0.3 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
f f(x) = 0.5 10
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 10
x
.
If x = 0, then y = 0.5 10
0

= 0.5 1
y = 0.5 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
g f(x) = 2
3x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 2
x

If x = 0, then y = 2
3 0

= 2
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
h f(x) = 10
2x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 10
x

If x = 0, then y = 10
2 0

= 10
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
i f(x) = 5 3
2x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 3
x
.
If x = 0, then y = 5 3
2 0

= 5 3
0

= 5 1
y = 5 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 73
j f(x) = 4 2
3x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 2
x

If x = 0, then y = 4 2
3 0

= 4 2
0

= 4 1
y = 4 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
k f(x) = 2
2
10
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 10
x
.
If x = 0, then y = 2
0
2
10
= 2 10
0

= 2 1
y = 2 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
l f(x) = 2
3
2
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 2
x
.
If x = 0, then y = 2
0
3
2
= 2 2
0

= 2 1
y = 2 is the y-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
2 a f(x) = 2
x
+ 1
An exponential curve with the
same shape as f(x) = 2
x
.
Vertical translation of 1 unit up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1
If x = 0, then y = 2
0
+ 1
= 1 + 1
y = 2 is the y-intercept.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
(1, ).
b f(x) = 3
x
+ 2
An exponential curve with the
same shape as f(x) = 3
x

Vertical translation of 2 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
If x = 0, then y = 3
0
+ 2
= 1 + 2
y = 3
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
(2, ).
c f(x) = 3
x
3
An exponential curve with the
same shape as y = 3
x
.
Vertical translation is 3 units
down.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 3
If x = 0, then y = 3
0
3
= 1 3
y = 2 is the y-intercept.
If y = 0, then 3
x
3 = 0
3
x
= 3
1

x = 1 is the x-intercept.


Domain is R and range is (3, ).
d f(x) = 2
x
4
An exponential curve with the
same shape as y = 2
x
.
Vertical translation is 4 units
down.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 4
If x = 0, then y = 2
0
4
= 1 4
y = 3 is the y-intercept.
If y = 0, then 2
x
4 = 0
2
x
= 4
2
x
= 2
2

x = 2 is the x-intercept


The domain is R and range is (4, )
e f(x) = 2
x + 2

An exponential curve with the
same basic shape as f(x) = 2
x
.
Horizontal translation of 2 units
to the left.
Horizontal asymptote is the x-axis
or y = 0.
If x = 0, then y = 2
0 + 2

= 2
2

y = 4 is the y-intercept.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
f f(x) = 10
x + 1

An exponential curve with the
same basic shape as f(x) = 10
x
.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
Horizontal translation is 1 unit
left.
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, then y = 10
0 + 1

= 10
1

y = 10 is the y-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
MM1 2 - 4 74 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

g f(x) = 3
x 4

An exponential curve with the
same basic shape as f(x) = 3
x
.
Horizontal translation is 4 units to
the right.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
If x = 0, then y = 3
0 4

= 3
4

y =
1
81
is the y-intercept.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
h f(x) = 2
x 3

An exponential curve with the
same basic shape of f(x) = 2
x
.
Horizontal translation is 3 units to
the right.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, y = 2
0 3

= 2
3

y =
1
8
is the y-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
i f(x) = 2
x + 1
8
An exponential curve with the
same basic shape as f(x) = 2
x
.
Horizontal translation of 1 unit left.
Vertical translation of 8 units down.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 8.
If x = 0, then y = 2
0 + 1
8
= 2
1
8
= 2 8.
y = 6 is the y-intercept.
If y = 0, then 2
x + 1
8 = 0
2
x + 1
= 8
2
x + 1
= 2
3

x + 1 = 3
x = 2 is the x-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
(8, )
j f(x) = 10
x 2
+ 1
An exponential curve with the
same basic shape as f(x) = 10
x

Horizontal translation of 2 units
right.
Vertical translation of 1 unit up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, then y = 10
0 2
+ 1
= 10
2
+ 1
=
1
100
+ 1
y = 1.01 is the y-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
(1, ).
3 a f(x) = 2
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 2
x
.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
If x = 0, y = 2
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.
No x-intercepts.


The domain is R and the range is
R

.
b f(x) = 10
x

An exponential curve with same
basic shape as f(x) = 10
x
.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, then y = 10
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept


The domain is R and the range is
R

.
c f(x) = 10
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 10
x
.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, y = 10
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
d f(x) = 2
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 2
x
.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, y = 2
0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
R
+
.
e f(x) = 1 3
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 3
x
.
Vertical translation is 1 unit up.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
If x = 0, y = 1 3
0

= 1 1
y = 0 is the y-intercept.
Therefore x = 0 is the x-intercept.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 75


The domain is R and the range is
(, 1).
f f(x) = 10 10
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 10
x

Vertical translation is 10 units up.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 10.
If x = 0, y = 10 10
0

= 10 1
y = 9 is the y-intercept.
If y = 0, 10 10
x
= 0
10
x
= 10
1

x = 1 is the x-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
(, 10).
g f(x) = 2 + 10
x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 10
x
.
Vertical translation is 2 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
Reflection in the y-axis.
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, y = 2 + 10
0

= 2 + 1
y = 3 is the y-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
(2, )
h f(x) = 1 + 2
x

An exponential curve with same
shape of f(x) = 2
x
.
Vertical translation is 1 unit up.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
No x-intercepts.
If x = 0, y = 1 + 2
0

= 1 + 1
y = 2 is the y-intercept.


The domain is R and range is
(1, )
i f(x) = 2 2
1 x

An exponential curve with same
shape as f(x) = 2
x

Horizontal translation is 1 unit
right.
Vertical translation is 2 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Reflection in the y-axis.
If x = 0, y = 2 2
1 0

= 2 2
1

y = 0 is the y-intercept.
Therefore the x-intercept is x = 0.


The domain is R and the range is
(, 2).
j f(x) = 1 3
2 x

An exponential curve with basic
shape f(x) = 3
x
.
Horizontal translation is 2 units
right.
Vertical translation is 1 unit up.
Reflection in the x-axis
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1
If x = 0, y = 1 3
2 0

= 1 3
2

= 1 9
y = 8 is the y-intercept.
If y = 0, 1 3
2 x
= 0
3
2 x
= 1
3
2 x
= 3
0

2 x = 0
x = 2 is the x-intercept.


The domain is R and the range is
(, 1).
4 f(x) = 2 3
1 x

Exponential curve with basic shape
f(x) = 3
x
.
Dilation of 2 units parallel to the
y-axis.
Horizontal translation of 1 unit right.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.
x = 0, f(x) = 2 3
1 0

= 6
The y-intercept is 6.
No x-intercepts.


Domain is R and range is R
+
.

5 f(x) = 3 2
x 1

Exponential curve with basic shape
f(x) = 2
x
.
Dilation of 3 units parallel to y-axis.
Horizontal translation of 1 unit right.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
No x-intercepts.
x = 0, f(x) = 3 2
1

=
3
2


The y-intercept is
3
2
.


Domain is R and range is R

6 f(x) = 5 4 3
1 x

Exponential curve with basic shape
f(x) = 3
x
.
Dilation of 4 units parallel to y-axis.
Horizontal translation of 1 unit right.
Vertical translation of 5 units up.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 5
x = 0, f (x) = 5 4 3
1

= 5 12
= 7
The y-intercept is 7.
y = 0, 5 4 3
1 x
= 0
4 3
1 x
= 5
3
1 x
= 1.25
ln(3
1 x
) = ln(1.25)
(1 x)ln(3) = ln(1.25)
MM1 2 - 4 76 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

1 x =
ln(1.25)
ln(3)

1 x = 0.2
x = 0.8
The x-intercept is 0.8.


The domain is R and range is (, 5)
7 a y = 2
3x

Dilation by factor
1
3
from the
y-axis
b y = 2
4x

Dilation by factor
1
4
from y-axis
c y = 2 2
x

Dilation by factor 2 from x-axis
d y = 3 2
x

Dilation by factor 3 from x-axis
e y = 2
x

Reflection in x-axis
f y = 2
x

Reflection in y-axis
g y = 2
x
+ 1
Translation of 1 unit up
h y = 2
x
3
Translation of 3 units down
i y = 2
x 1

Translation of 1 unit right
j y = 2
x + 5

Translation 5 units left
8 a f(x) = 10
x
+ 4
Vertical translation of 4 units up.
b f(x) = 10
x
2
Vertical translation of 2 units
down.
c f(x) = 10
x + 2

Horizontal translation of 2 units
left.
d f(x) = 10x 3
Horizontal translation of 3 units
right.
e f(x) = 10
x
3
Vertical translation of 3 units
down.
f f(x) = 2 + 10
x

Vertical translation of 2 units up.
g f(x) = 10
x 1

Horizontal translation of 1 unit
right.
h f(x) = 10
2 + x

Horizontal translation of 2 units
left.
i f(x) = 5 + 10
x + 1

Vertical translation of 5 units up.
Horizontal translation of 1 unit
left.
j f (x) = 10
x 4
+ 2
Vertical translation of 2 units up.
Horizontal translation of 4 units
right.
k f(x) = 10
x 3
4
Vertical translation of 4 units
down.
Horizontal translation of 3 units
right.
l f(x) = 10
x + 2
3
Vertical translation of 3 units
down.
Horizontal translation of 2 units
left.
9 a Domain is R and range is R
+
.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
b Domain is R and range is (1, ).
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
c Domain is R and range is (3, ).
Horizontal asymptote is y = 3.
d Domain is R and range is (, 1).
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
e Domain is R and range is (2, ).
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
f Domain is R and range is (, 1).
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
10 f(x) = 1 2
x

11 f(x) = 1 3 2
x + 1

12 f(x) = 10
2x 1
+ 3
Domain is R and range is (3, ).
The answer is E.
13 f(x) = 10
x
+ 1
x = 0, f(x) = 10
0
+ 1
= 1 + 1
= 2
y-intercept is 2
The answer is B.
14 f(x) = 2
x 1
4
Translated 3 units down and 2 units
left becomes:
f(x) = 2
x + 1
7
The answer is C.
15 a P = 50 2
t

t = 0, P = 50 2
0

= 50 1
= 50
When t = 0 there are 50 bacteria.
b t = 3, P = 50 2
3

= 50 8
= 400
When t = 3 there are 400 bacteria.
c


Exercise 4B Logarithmic
graphs to any base
1 a f(x) = log
2
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
b f(x) = log
10
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
c f(x) = 2log
10
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
d f(x) = 5log
2
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
e f(x) = log
2
(3x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
f f(x) = log
10
(4x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
g f(x) = 3log
10
(2x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
h f(x) = 2log
2
(3x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
2 a f(x) = log
2
(x)
y = 0, log
2
(x) = 0
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
No y-intercepts.
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
b f(x) = log
10
(x)
y = 0, log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
No y-intercepts
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
c f(x) = 2 log
10
(x)
y = 0, 2 log
10
(x) = 0
log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
No y-intercepts.
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 77
d f(x) = 5 log
2
(x)
y = 0, 5 log
2
(x) = 0
log
2
(x) = 0
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
No y-intercept.
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
e f(x) = log
2
(3x)
y = 0, log
2
(3x) = 0
3x = 1
x =
1
3

The x-intercept is
1
3
.
No y-intercept.
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
f f(x) = log
10
(4x)
y = 0, log
10
(4x) = 0
4x = 1
x =
1
4

The x-intercept is
1
4
.
No y-intercept.
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
g f(x) = 3 log
10
(2x)
y = 0, 3 log
10
(2x) = 0
log
10
(2x) = 0
2x = 1
x =
1
2

The x-intercept is
1
2
.
No y-intercept.
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
h f(x) = 2 log
2
(3x)
y = 0, 2 log
2
(3x) = 0
log
2
(3x) = 0
3x = 1
x =
1
3

The x-intercept is
1
3
.
No y-intercept.
The vertical asymptote is the
y-axis.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
3 a 2 units left.
b 1 unit left.
c 3 units right.
d 4 units right.
e 5 units right and 1 unit up.
f 3 units right and 2 units up.
g 1 unit left and 2 units up.
h 1 unit left and 3 units up.
i 3 units left and 2 units down.
j 1 unit left and 2 units down.
4 a f(x) = log
2
(x + 2)
Vertical asymptote is x = 2.
y = 0, log
2
(x + 2) = 0
x + 2 = 1
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
x = 0, f(x) = log
2
(2)
= 1
The y-intercept is 1.


Domain is (2, ) and range is R.
b f(x) = log
2
(x + 1)
Vertical asymptote is x = 1
y = 0, log
2
(x + 1) = 0
x + 1 = 1
x = 0
The x-intercept is 0
Therefore the y-intercept is 0.


Domain is (1, ) and range is R.
c f(x) = log
2
(x 3)
Vertical asymptote is x = 3.
y = 0, log
2
(x 3) = 0
x 3 = 1
x = 4
The x-intercept is 4.
No y-intercept.


Domain is (3, ) and range is R.
d f(x) = log
2
(x 4)
Vertical asymptote is x = 4
y = 0, log
2
(x 4) = 0
x 4 = 1
x = 5
The x-intercept is 5.
No y-intercept.


Domain is (4, ) and range is R.
MM1 2 - 4 78 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

e f(x) = 1 + log
2
(x 5)
Vertical asymptote is x = 5
y = 0, 1 + log
2
(x 5) = 0
log
2
(x 5) = 1
x 5 = 2
1

x 5 =
1
2

x = 5
1
2

The x-intercept is 5
1
2
.
No y-intercept.


Domain is (5, ) and range is R.
f f(x) = log
2
(x 3) + 2
Vertical asymptote is x = 3
y = 0, log
2
(x 3) + 2 = 0
log
2
(x 3) = 2
x 3 = 2
2

x 3 =
1
4

x = 3
1
4

The x-intercept is 3
1
4
.
No y-intercept.


Domain is (3, ) and range is R.
g f(x) = 2 + log
2
(x + 1)
Vertical asymptote is x = 1.
y = 0, 2 + log
2
(x + 1) = 0
log
2
(x + 1) = 2
x + 1 = 2
2

=
1
4

x =
3
4

The x-intercept is
3
4
.
x = 0, y = 2 + log
2
(1)
= 2 + 0
= 2
The y-intercept is 2.


Domain is (1, ) and range is R.
h f(x) = 3 + log
2
(x + 1)
Vertical asymptote is x = 1.
y = 0, 3 + log
2
(x + 1) = 0
log
2
(x + 1) = 3
x + 1 = 2
3

=
1
8

x =
7
8

The x-intercept is
7
8

x = 0, y = 3 + log
2
(1)
= 3 + 0
= 3
The y-intercept is 3.


Domain is (1, ) and range is R.
i f(x) = log
2
(x + 3) 2
Vertical asymptote is x = 3.
y = 0, log
2
(x + 3) 2 = 0
log
2
(x + 3) = 2
x + 3 = 4
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
x = 0, y = log
2
(3) 2
1.6 2
y 0.4
The y-intercept is approximately
0.4.


Domain is (3, ) and range is R.
j f(x) = log
2
(x + 1) 2
Vertical asymptote is x = 1.
y = 0, log
2
(x + 1) 2 = 0
log
2
(x + 1) = 2
x + 1 = 4
x = 3
The x-intercept is 3.
x = 0, y = log
2
(1) 2
= 0 2
= 2
The y-intercept is 2.


Domain is (1, ) and range is R.
5 a f(x) = log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as y = log
10
(x)
Reflection in x-axis.
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
y = 0, log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
No y-intercept.


Domain is R
+
, range is R
b f(x) = 2 log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as
f(x) = log
10
(x)
Reflection in x-axis
Vertical asymptote is x = 0.
y = 0, 2 log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
The x-intercept is x = 1.
No y-intercepts.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
c f(x) = log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as
f(x) = log
10
(x)
Reflection in y-axis.
Vertical asymptote is x = 0.
y = 0, log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
No y-intercept.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 79


Domain is R

and range is R.
d f(x) = 3 log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as
f(x) = log
10
(x).
Reflection in y-axis.
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
y = 0, 3 log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
x = 1
The x-intercept is 1.
No y-intercept.


Domain is R

and range is R.
e f(x) = 1 log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as
f(x) = log
10
(x)
Reflection in x-axis.
Vertical Translation of 1 unit up.
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
y = 0, 1 log
10
(x) = 0
log
10
(x) = 1
x = 10
The x-intercept is 10.
No y-intercept.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
f f(x) = 1 + log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as
f(x) = log
10
(x)
Vertical translation of 1 unit up.
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
No y-intercept.
y = 0, 1 + log
10
(x) = 0
log
10
(x) = 1
x = 10
1

x =
1
10

The x-intercept is
1
10
.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
g f(x) = 2 + log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as
f(x) = log
10
(x)
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
Reflection in y-axis.
Vertical translation is 2 units up.
y = 0, 2 + log
10
(x)= 0
log
10
(x) = 2
x = 10
2

x = 10
2

=
1
100

The x-intercept is
1
.
100

No y-intercept.


The domain is R

and range is R.
h f(x) = 2 log
10
(x)
Same basic shape as
f(x) = log
10
(x)
Reflection in y-axis.
Reflection in x-axis.
Vertical translation 2 units up.
y = 0, 2 log
10
(x) = 0
log
10
(x) = 2
x = 10
2

x = 100
The y-axis is the vertical
asymptote.
The x-intercept is 100.
No y-intercept.


Domain is R

and range is R.
6 f(x) = log
2
(2x 1)
Same basic shape as y = log
2
(x).
2x 1 = 0
x =
1
2
is the vertical asymptote.
2x 1 = 1
x = 1 is the x-intercept.
The y-intercept is y = log
2
(1) which
is undefined.
No y-intercept.


Domain is (
1
2
, ) and range is R.
Dilation by factor
1
2
from the
y-axis
Horizontal translation of
1
2
unit
right.
7 a f(x) = 2 log
2
(x) + 3
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
2
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 2 log
2
(x) + 3 = 0
log
2
(x) =
3
2

x =
3
2
2

is the x-intercept. This is


approximately 0.4.
No y-intercept.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
b f(x) = 3 log
10
(x) + 1
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
10
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 3 log
10
(x) + 1 = 0
3 log
10
(x) = 1
log
10
(x) =
1
3

x =
1
3
10


(approximately 0.5)
The x-intercept is
1
3
10 .


No y-intercept.
MM1 2 - 4 80 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s



Domain is R
+
and range is R.
c f(x) = log
10
(1 x)
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
10
(x)
1 x = 0
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
10
(1 x) = 0
1 x = 1
x = 0 is the x-intercept.
The y-intercept is y = 0.


Domain is (, 1) and range is R.
d f(x) = log
10
(3 x)
Logarithmic graph,
f(x) = log
10
(x).
3 x = 0
x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
10
(3 x) = 0
3 x = 1
x = 2 is the x-intercept.
x = 0, y = log
10
(3) is the
y-intercept.


Domain is (, 3) and range is R.
e f(x) = 1 2 log
2
(x)
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
2
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 1 2 log
2
(x) = 0
2 log
2
(x) = 1
log
2
(x) =
1
2

x =
1
2
2 = 2 is the x-intercept.
No y-intercept.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
f f(x) = 2 5 log
10
(x)
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
10
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 2 5 log
10
(x) = 0
5 log
10
(x) = 2
log
10
(x) =
2
5

x =
2
5
10 is the x-intercept
(approximately 2.5).
No y-intercept.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
g f(x) = 3 log
10
(x + 1) 2
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
10
(x)
x + 1 = 0
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0,
3 log
10
(x + 1) 2 = 0
log
10
(x + 1) =
2
3

x + 1 =
2
3
10
x =
2
3
10 1
x-intercept 3.6
x = 0, y = 3 log
10
(1) 2
y-intercept = 2.


Domain is (1, ) and range is R.
h f(x) = 4 log
2
(x 2) 1
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
2
(x).
x 2 = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 4
log
2
(x 2) 1 = 0
log
2
(x 2) =
1
4

x 2 =
1
4
2
x = 2 +
1
4
2
x-intercept 3.2
x = 0, y = 4 log
2
(2) 1
No y-intercept.


Domain is (2, ) and range is R.
i f(x) = 1 + 2 log
2
(3x)
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
2
(x)
3x = 0
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 1 + 2 log
2
(3x) = 0
log
2
(3x) =
1
2

3x =
1
2
2
x =
1
3 2

x-intercept 0.24
No y-intercept as y-axis is the
vertical asymptote.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
j f(x) = 3 4 log
10
(2x)
Logarithmic graph, y = log
10
(x)
2x = 0
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 3 4 log
10
(2x) = 0
log
10
(2x) =
3
4

2x =
3
4
10
x =
1
2

3
4
10
x-intercept 2.8
No y-intercept.


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 81
8 a a = 2
Dilation by factor of 2 from the
x-axis
Translation 3 units up.
b a = 10
Dilation by factor of 3 from the
x-axis
Translation of 1 unit up.
c a = 10
Reflection in the y-axis.
Translation of 1 unit right.
d a = 10
Reflection in the y-axis.
Translation of 3 units right.
e a = 2
Reflection in the x-axis.
Dilation by factor of 2 parallel to
y-axis.
Translation of 1 unit up.
f a = 10
Reflection in the x-axis.
Dilation by factor of 5 from the
x-axis
Translation of 2 units up.
g a = 10
Dilation by factor of 3 from the
x-axis
Translation of 1 unit left and 2
units down.
h a = 2
Dilation by factor of 4 from the
x-axis
Translation of 2 units right and
1 unit down.
i a = 2
Dilation by factor of 2 from the
x-axis
Dilation by factor of
1
3
from the
x-axis
Translation of 1 unit up.
j a = 10
Dilation by factor of 4 from the
x-axis by factor of
1
2
from the
y-axis
Translation of 3 units up.
Reflection in x-axis.
9 f(x) = 3 log
2
(2 x) + 1
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
2
(x).
Dilation by factor of 3 parallel to
y-axis.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Translation of 2 units right and
1 unit up.
2 x = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0,
3 log
2
(2 x) + 1 = 0
log
2
(2 x) =
1
3

2 x =
1
3
2


x = 2
1
3
2


x-intercept 1.2
x = 0, y = 3 log
2
(2) + 1
= 3 + 1
y = 4 is the y-intercept.


Domain is (, 2) and range is R.
10 f(x) = 3 log
10
(x + 1) 2
Logarithmic graph, f(x) = log
10
(x)
Dilation by factor of 3 parallel to
y-axis.
Translation of 1 unit left and 2 units
down.
x + 1 = 0
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 3 log
10
(x + 1) 2 = 0
log
10
(x + 1) =
2
3

x + 1 =
2
3
10
x = 1 +
2
3
10
x-intercept 3.6
x = 0, y = 3 log
10
(1) 2
y-intercept = 2.
x = 10, y = 3 log
10
(11) 2
= 1.1


Domain is [0, 10] and range is
approximately [2, 1.1]
11 f(x) = log
2
(x + 2)
Translated 2 units up and 3 units left
becomes:
f(x) = log
2
(x + 5) + 2
The answer is B.
Exercise 4C Graphs of
exponential functions with
base e
1 a f(x) = e
3x

Dilation is by a factor of
1
3
from
the y-axis
b f(x) = e
2x

Dilation is by a factor of
1
2
from
the y-axis
c f(x) =
2
4
x
e
Dilation is by a factor 4 from the
x-axis
Dilation is by a factor 2 from the
y-axis
d f(x) =
3
2
x
e
Dilation is by a factor 2 from the
x-axis
Dilation is by a factor 3 from the
y-axis
e f(x) = 1 + e
x 2

Translation of 2 units right and
1 unit up.
f f(x) = 2 + e
x + 5

Translation of 5 units left and
2 units up.
g f(x) = 3 e
2x

Dilation by a factor of
1
2
from
the y-axis
Reflection in the x-axis.
Translation of 3 units up.
h f(x) = 1 e
3x

Dilation by a factor of
1
3
from
the y-axis
Reflection in the x-axis.
Translation of 1 unit up.
i f(x) = 3e
2 + x
1
Dilation by a factor of 3 from the
x-axis
Translation of 2 units left and
1 unit down.
2 a f(x) = e
x 1

Translation of 1 unit right.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0 1

= e
1

=
1
e

0.368


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
b f(x) = e
x 3

Translation of 3 units right.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0 3

= e
3

=
3
1
e

0.050


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
MM1 2 - 4 82 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

c f(x) = 2e
x

Dilation by a factor of 2 from the
x-axis
Horizontal asymptote is x-axis.
x = 0, y = 2e
0

= 2 1
= 2


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
d f(x) = 3e
x

Dilation is by a factor of 3 from
the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.
x = 0, y = 3e
0

= 3 1
= 3


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
e f(x) = 1 + e
x

Translation of 1 unit up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = 1 + e
0

= 1 + 1
= 2


Domain is R and range is (1, ).
f f(x) = e
x
2
Translation of 2 units down.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
x = 0, y = e
0
2
= 1 2
= 1


Domain is R and range is (2, ).
g f(x) = e
2 x

Translation of 2 units right.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
x = 0, y = e
2 0

= e
2

7.389


Domain is R and range is R
+
.

h f(x) = e
1 x

Translation of 1 unit right.
Reflection in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
x = 0, y = e
1 0

= e
2.718


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
i f(x) = 3 e
x

Translated 3 units up.
Reflection in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 3.
x = 0, y = 3 e
0

= 3 1
= 2
y = 0, 0 = 3 e
x

x = ln 3


Domain is R and range is (, 3).
3 a f(x) = e
3x

Dilation is by a factor of
1
3
from
the y-axis. Horizontal asymptote
is the x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
3 0

= e
0

= 1


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
b f(x) = e
2x

Dilation is by a factor of
1
2
from
the y-axis. Horizontal asymptote
is the x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
2 0

= e
0

= 1


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
c f(x) = 4e
x

Dilation is by a factor of 4 from
the x-axis. Horizontal asymptote
is the axis.
x = 0, y = 4e
0

= 4 1
= 4


Domain is R and range is R
+
.

d f(x) = 2e
x

Dilation by a factor 2 from the
x-axis. Horizontal asymptote is
the x-axis.
x = 0, y = 2 e
0

= 2 1
= 2


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 83
e f(x) =
4
1
2
x
e
Dilation is by a factor of
1
2
from
the x-axis and by a factor of
1
4

from the y-axis.
x = 0, y =
1
2
e
4 0

=
1
2
e
0

=
1
2
1
=
1
2

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.


Domain is R and range is R
+
.

f f(x) =
2
1
4
x
e
Dilation is by a factor of
1
4
from
the x-axis and by a factor of
1
2

from the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y =
1
4
e
2 0

=
1
4
e
0

=
1
4
1
=
1
4



Domain is R and range is R
+
.
g f(x) = 2e
3x

Dilation is by a factor of 2 from
the x-axis and by a factor of
1
3

from the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = 2e
3 0

= 2e
0

= 2 1
= 2


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
h f(x) = 3e
4x

Dilation is by a factor of 3 from
the x-axis and by a factor of
1
4

from the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = 3 e
4 0

= 3 e
0

= 3 1
y = 3


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
4 a f(x) = e
x + 3

f(x) = e
x
is translated 3 units left.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y= e
0 + 3

= e
3


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
b f(x) = e
x 3

f(x) = e
x
is translated 3 units right.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0 3

= e
3


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
c f(x) = e
x
+ 1
f(x) = e
x
is translated 1 unit up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = e
0
+ 1
= 1 + 1
= 2


Domain is R and range is (1, ).
d f(x) = e
x
+ 2
f(x) = e
x
is translated 2 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2
x = 0, y = e
0
+ 2
= 1 + 2
= 3


Domain is R and range is (2, ).
e f(x) = e
x + 1
+ 2
f(x) = e
x
is translated 1 unit left
and 2 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
x = 0, y = e
0 + 1
+ 2
= e
1
+ 2


Domain is R and range is (2, )
f f(x) = e
x + 2
+ 1
f(x) = e
x
is translated 2 units left
and 1 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
MM1 2 - 4 84 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

x = 0, y = e
0 + 2
+ 1
= e
2
+ 1


Domain is R and range is (1, ).
g f(x) = e
x 1
+ 3
f(x) = e
x
is translated 1 unit right
and 3 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 3.
x = 0, y = e
0 1
+ 3
= e
1
+ 3


Domain is R and range is (3, ).
h f(x) = e
x

2
+ 5
f(x) = e
x
is translated 2 units right
and 5 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 5
x = 0, y = e
0 2
+ 5
= e
2
+ 5


Domain is R and range is (5, ).
i f(x) = e
x + 2
1
f(x) = e
x
is translated 2 units left
and 1 unit down.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = e
2
1
y = 0, e
x + 2
1 = 0
e
x + 2
= 1
e
x + 2
= e
0

x + 2 = 0
x = 2


Domain is R and range is (1, ).
5 a f(x) = e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0

= 1
No x-intercept.


Domain is R and range is R
+
.
b f(x) = e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0

= 1
No x-intercept.


Domain is R and range is R

.

c f(x) = 1 e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the x-axis
and translated 1 unit up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = 1 e
0

= 1 1
= 0


Domain is R and range is (, 1).
d f(x) = 2 + e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the y-axis
and translated 2 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
x = 0, y = 2 + e
0

= 2 + 1
= 3
No x-intercept.


Domain is R and range is (2, ).
e f(x) = 1 + e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the y-axis
and translated 1 unit up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = 1 + e
0

= 1 + 1
= 2
No x-intercept.


Domain is R and range is (1, ).
f f(x) = 1 + e
x

f(x) = e
x
is translated 1 unit up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = 1 + e
0

= 1 + 1
= 2
No x-intercept.


Domain is R and range is (1, ).
g f(x) = 3 e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the y-axis,
reflected in the x-axis and
translated 3 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 3.
x = 0, y = 3 e
0

= 3 1
= 2
y = 0, 3 e
x
= 0
e
x
= 3
x = log
e
(3)
x = log
e
(3)
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 85


Domain is R and range is (, 3).
h f(x) = 5 e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the y-axis,
reflected in the x-axis and
translated 5 units up.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 5
x = 0, y = 5 e
0

= 5 1
= 4
y = 0, 5 e
x
= 0
e
x
= 5
x = log
e
(5)
x = log
e
(5)
1.6


Domain is R and range is (, 5).
i f(x) = 2e
x

f(x) = e
x
is reflected in the y-axis,
reflected in the x-axis and dilated
by a factor of 2 from the x-axis
Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis
x = 0, y = 2e
0

= 2 1
= 2
No x-intercept.


Domain is R and range is R

.
6 f(x) = e
2x 3
1
=
3
2
2
x
e
| |

|
\ .

1
f(x) = e
x
is translated
3
2
units right
and 1 unit down and dilated by a
factor of
1
2
parallel to the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = e
0 3
1
= e
3
1
0.95
y = 0, e
2x 3
1 = 0
e
2x 3
= 1
2x 3 = log
e
(1)
2x 3 = 0
2x = 3
x =
3
2



Domain is R and range is (1, ).
7 f:[0, )R, f(x) = e
x 2
1
f(x) = e
x
is translated 2 units right
and 1 unit down.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = e
0 2
1
= e
2
1
0.86
y = 0, e
x 2
1 = 0
e
x 2
= 1
x 2 = log
e
(1)
= 0
x = 2


Domain is [0, ) and range is
[0.86, ).
8 a f(x) = e
x
+ 1
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = e
0
+ 1
= 1 + 1
= 2
No x-intercept.


b f(x) = e
x
2
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
x = 0, y = e
0
2
= 1 2
= 1
y = 0, e
x
2 = 0
e
x
= 2
x = log
e
(2)
0.69


c f(x) = 2e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = 2e
0

= 2 1
= 2
No x-intercept.


d y =
1
2
e
x

Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
x = 0, y =
1
2
e
0

=
1
2
1
=
1
2

No x-intercept.


e y = 1 e
x

Reflection in the x-axis
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = 1 e
0

= 1 1
= 0


MM1 2 - 4 86 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

f y = 2 e
x

Reflection in the x-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 2.
x = 0, y = 2 e
0

= 2 1
= 1
y = 0, 2 e
x
= 0
e
x
= 2
x = log
e
(2)
0.69


g y = e
x + 1

Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
x = 0, y = e
0 + 1

= e
1

= 2.72
No x-intercept.


h y = e
x 2

Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
x = 0, y = e
0 2

= e
2

0.14
No x-intercept.


i y = e
x

Reflected in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
x = 0, y = e
0

= 1
No x-intercept.


j y = 1 + e
x

Reflected in the y-axis.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
x = 0, y = 1 + e
0

= 1 + 1
= 2
No x-intercept.


9 y = e
2x
+ 3
Horizontal asymptote is y = 3.
If horizontal asymptote becomes
y = 1 then there has been a
translation of 4 units down.
The answer is D.
10 Horizontal asymptote of y = 2
Either answer B or E.
x = 0, B: y= e
0
+ 2
= 3
E: y = 2e
0
+ 2
= 2 + 2
= 4
The answer is E.
11 a y = 2e
x b
+ B
If horizontal asymptote is
y = 1 then B = 1.
y = 2e
x b
+ 1
(3, 3): 3 = 2e
3 b
+ 1
2e
3 b
= 2
e
3 b
= 1
= e
0

3 b = 0
b = 3
y = 2e
x 3
+ 1
b Translated down 1 unit, 3 units
left and dilated by a factor of
1
2

parallel to the y-axis implies:
y =
1
2
2e
(x 3 + 3)
+ 1 1
= e
x

Exercise 4D Logarithmic
graphs to base e
1 a f(x) = 5 log
e
(2x)
Dilation is by a factor of 5 from
the x-axis and a factor
1
2
from
the y-axis
b f(x) = 2 log
e
(4x)
Dilation is by a factor of 2 from
the x-axis and a factor
1
4
from
the y-axis
c f(x) = log
e
(x + 1) 3
Translation of 1 unit left and 3
units down.
d f(x) = log
e
(x 2) + 1
Translation of 2 units right and
1 unit up.
e f(x) = log
e
(x)
Reflection in both the y-axis and
the x-axis.
f f(x) = log
e
(2x)
Reflection in the x-axis and
dilation by a factor of
1
2
from the
y-axis
g f(x) = 1 log
e
(x 2)
Translation of 2 units right and
1 unit up and reflection in the
x-axis.
h f(x) = 2 log
e
(x + 3)
Translation of 3 units left and 2
units up and reflection in the
x-axis.
i f(x) = 3 log
e
(x + 4) 1
Translation of 4 units left and
1 unit down and dilation by a
factor of 3 from the x-axis
j f(x) = 1 log
e
(x 4)
Translation of 4 units right and
1 unit up and reflection in the
x-axis.
k f(x) = 2 log
e
(1 x) + 3
Translation of 1 unit right and
3 units up and dilation by a factor
of 2 from the x-axis and reflection
in the y-axis.
l f(x) = 3 log
e
(2 x) 1
Translation of 2 units right and
1 unit down and dilation by a
factor of 3 from the x-axis and
reflection in the y-axis.
2 a f(x) = log
e
(2x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
y = 0, log
e
(2x) = 0
2x = e
0

2x = 1
x =
1
2



Domain is R
+
and range is R.
b f(x) = log
e
(3x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
y = 0, log
e
(3x) = 0
3x = e
0

= 1
x =
1
3

E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 87


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
c f(x) = 3 log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
y = 0, 3 log
e
(x) = 0
log
e
(x) = 0
x = e
0

= 1


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
d f(x) = 2 log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
y = 0, 2 log
e
(x) = 0
log
e
(x) = 0
x = e
0

= 1


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
e f(x) = 2 log
e
3
x | |
|
\ .

Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
y = 0, 2 log
e
3
x | |
|
\ .
= 0
log
e
3
x | |
|
\ .
= 0

3
x
= e
0

= 1
x = 3


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
f f(x) = 3 log
e
(2x)
Vertical asymptote is x = 0.
y = 0, 3 log
e
(2x) = 0
log
e
(2x) = 0
2x = e
0

= 1
x =
1
2



Domain is R
+
and range is R.
3 a f(x) = 1 + log
e
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 1 + log
e
(x) = 0
log
e
(x) = 1
x = e
1


b f(x) = 2 + log
e
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 2 + log
e
(x) = 0
log
e
(x) = 2
x = e
2


c f(x) = log
e
(x 1)
x 1 = 0
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
e
(x 1) = 0
x 1 = e
0

= 1
x = 2


d f(x) = log
e
(x 2)
x 2 = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
e
(x 2) = 0
x 2 = e
0

= 1
x = 3


e f(x) = log
e
(x + 2)
x + 2 = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(2)
y = 0, log
e
(x + 2) = 0
x + 2 = e
0

= 1
x = 1


f f(x) = log
e
(x + 3)
x + 3 = 0
x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(3)
y = 0, log
e
(x + 3) = 0
x + 3 = e
0

= 1
x = 2


g f(x) = log
e
(x 3) + 2
x 3 = 0
x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
e
(x 3) + 2 = 0
log
e
(x 3) = 2
x 3 = e
2

x = 3 + e
2

3.1
MM1 2 - 4 88 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s



h f(x) = log
e
(x 1) + 1
x 1 = 0
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
e
(x 1) + 1 = 0
log
e
(x 1) = 1
x 1 = e
1

x = 1 + e
1

1.4


i f(x) = log
e
(x + 3) 2
x + 3 = 0
x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(3) 2
0.9
y = 0, log
e
(x + 3) 2 = 0
log
e
(x + 3) = 2
x + 3 = e
2

x = e
2
3
4.4


j f(x) = log
e
(x + 1) 2
x + 1 = 0
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(1) 2
= 2
y = 0, log
e
(x + 1) 2 = 0
log
e
(x + 1) = 2
x + 1 = e
2

x = e
2
1
6.4


4 a f(x) = log
e
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
e
(x) = 0
x = e
0

= 1
x = 1


Domain is R

and range is R
b f(x) = log
e
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
e
(x) = 0
log
e
(x) = 0
x = e
0

= 1


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
c f(x) = 2 log
e
(x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 2 log
e
(x) = 0
log
e
(x) = 0
x = 1


Domain is R
+
and range is R
d f(x) = log
e
(2x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, log
e
(2x) = 0
2x = 1
x =
1
2



Domain is R

and range is R.
e f(x) = 3 log
e
(2x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 3 log
e
(2x) = 0
2x = 1
x =
1
2



Domain is R

and range is R.
f f(x) = 2 log
e
(4x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 2 log
e
(4x) = 0
log
e
(4x) = 0
4x = 1
x =
1
4



Domain is R

and range is R.
g f(x) = log
e
(1 x)
1 x = 0
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(1)
= 0


Domain is (, 1) and range is R.
h f(x) = log
e
(2 x)
2 x = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(2) 0.69
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 89
y = 0, log
e
(2 x) = 0
2 x = 1
x = 1


Domain is (, 2) and range is R.
i f(x) = log
e
(2 x)
2 x = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(2) 0.69
y = 0, log
e
(2 x) = 0
2 x = 1
x = 1


Domain (, 2) and range is R.
j f(x) = log
e
(3 x)
3 x = 0
x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = log
e
(3) 1.1
y = 0, log
e
(3 x) = 0
3 x = 1
x = 2


Domain is (, 3) and range is R.
5 f(x) = ln (x)
a f(x) = ln (x 1)
b f(x) = ln (x) 2
c f(x) = 5 ln (x)
d f(x) = ln
3
x | |
|
\ .

e f(x) = ln (x)
f f(x) = ln (x)
g f(x) = ln (x + 3)
h f(x) = ln
4
x | |
|
\ .
+ 1
i f(x) = 2 ln (x) 3
6 a f(x) = ln (x 1)
x 1 = 0 for vertical asymptote
x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, ln (x 1) = 0
x 1 = 1
x = 2


Domain is (1, ) and range is R.
b f(x) = ln (x) 2
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, ln (x) 2 = 0
ln (x) = 2
x = e
2
7.39


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
c f(x) = 5 ln (x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote
y = 0, 5 ln (x) = 0
ln (x) = 0
x = 1


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
d f(x) = ln
3
x | |
|
\ .

x = 0 is the vertical asymptote
y = 0, ln
3
x | |
|
\ .
= 0

3
x
= 1
x = 3


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
e f(x) = ln (x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, ln (x) = 0
x = 1


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
f f(x) = ln (x)
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, ln (x) = 0
x = 1
x = 1


Domain is R

and range is R.
g f(x) = ln (x + 3)
x + 3 = 0
x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = ln (3)
1.1
y = 0, ln (x + 3) = 0
x + 3 = 1
x = 2


Domain is (3, ) and range is R.
h f(x) = ln
4
x | |
|
\ .
+ 1
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, ln
4
x | |
|
\ .
+ 1 = 0
ln
4
x | |
|
\ .
= 1

4
x
= e
1

x = 4e
1
1.47
MM1 2 - 4 90 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s



Domain is R
+
and range is R.
i f(x) = 2 ln (x) 3
x = 0 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 2 ln (x) 3 = 0
2 ln (x) = 3
ln (x) =
3
2

x =
3
2
e

0.22


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
7 f(x) = 2 log
e
(3x + 6) 1
= 2 log
e
3(x + 2) 1
Dilation by a factor of 2 from the
x-axis and
1
3
from the y-axis.
Translation of 2 units left and 1 unit
down.
3(x + 2) = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = 2 log
e
(6) 1
2.58
y = 0, 2 log
e
3(x + 2) 1 = 0
2 log
e
3(x + 2) = 1
log
e
3(x + 2) =
1
2

3(x + 2) =
1
2
e
x + 2 =
1
2
1
3
e
x =
1
2
1
3
e 2
1.45


Domain is (2, ) and range is R.
8 f: (, 1]R, f(x) = 3 log
e
(2 x)
2 x = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
x = 0, y = 3 log
e
(2) 2.08
y = 0, 3 log
e
(2 x) = 0
2 x = 1
x = 1


9 y = log
e
(x) is transformed to
y = 5 log
e
(2x) by dilations of factor
of 5 from the x-axis and by factor of
1
2
from the y-axis.
The answer is D.
10 y = 3 log
e
(x 2)
x 2 = 0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.
y = 0, 3 log
e
(x 2) = 0
x 2 = 1
x = 3
x-intercept is (3, 0)
The answer is B.
11 f: [0.5, 6]R, f(x) =
log ( )
e
a
x
is
undefined if x = 1 as log
e
(1) = 0.
The answer is C.
12 a g(x) = f(x 2)
= a b log
e
(x 2)
b Domain is x 2 > 0
x > 2
Range is R.
g: (2, )R,
g(x) = a b log
e
(x 2)
c h(x) = 4g(x)
h(x) = 4a 4b log
e
(x 2)
= 4a + 4b log
e
(x + 2)
Exercise 4E Finding
equations for graphs of
exponential and logarithmic
functions
1 f(x) = Ae
x
+ B
Substitute (0, 3) into f(x):
3 = Ae
0
+ B
3 = A + B 1
Substitute (1, 4) into f(x):
4 = Ae
1
+ B 2
2 1 1 = Ae A
= A(e 1)
A =
1
1 e
0.58
Substitute A = 0.58 into 1
3 = 0.58 + B
B = 2.42
f(x) = 0.58e
x
+ 2.42
2 y = e
x

+

b
+ B
Substitute (0, 2):
2 = e
b
+ B 1
Substitute (1, 6):
6 = e
1 + b
+ B 2
2 1 4 = e
1 + b
e
b

= e
b
(e 1)
e
b
=
4
1 e

b = log
e
4
1 e
| |
|

\ .
0.84
Substitute b = 0.84 into1
2 = e
0.84
+ B
B = 2 e
0.84

= 0.33
f(x) = e
x

+

0.84
0.33
b = 0.84, B = 0.33
3 y = Ae
kx

Substitute (1, 4):
4 = Ae
k
1
Substitute (2, 10):
10 = Ae
2k
2
2 1

10
4

= Ae
2k
Ae
k

2.5 = e
k

k = log
e
(2.5)
k = log
e
(2.5)
= 0.9163
Substitute k = 0.9163 into 1
4 = Ae
0.9163

A =
0.9163
4
e

= 1.60
A = 1.60 and k = 0.92.
4 y = A 2
x
+ B
Substitute (1, 3):
3 = A 2 + B 1
Substitute (3, 1):
1 = A 2
3
+ B 2
2 1
4 = A 2
3
A 2
=
1
2
8
A
| |

|
\ .

=
15
8
A
A = 4
8
15


A =
32
15

Substitute A =
32
15
into 1
3 = 2
32
15
+ B
=
64
15
+ B
B = 3
64
15

=
19
15

E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 91
5 f(x) = a 2
x
+ b
Since asymptote is y = 1 then b = 1.
f(x) = a 2
x
+ 1
Substitute
3
0,
2
| |
|
\ .
:

3
2
= a 2
0
+ 1
= a + 1
a =
1
2

Therefore a =
1
2
and b = 1.
f(x) =
1
2
2
x
+ 1
6 y = e
x + b
+ B
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1
y = e
x + b
+ 1
y-intercept is 2
2 = e
b
+ 1
e
b
= 1 + 2
= 3
b = log
e
(3) 1.1
y = e
x + 1.1
+ 1
The answer is E.
7 y = e
x + b
+ B
B = 3 since horizontal asymptote is
y = 3
y = e
x + b
+ 3
(2, 4): 4 = e
2 + b
+ 3
1 = e
2 + b

e
0
= e
2 + b

0 = 2 + b
b = 2
So B = 3 and b = 2
8 y = Ae
x
+ B
B = 1 since horizontal asymptote is
y = 1
y = Ae
x
1
(0, 3): 3 = Ae
0
1
= A 1
A = 4
So A = 4 and B = 1
9 y = A log
e
(x + b) + B
b = 2 since vertical asymptote is
x = 2
y = A log
e
(x + 2) + B
(0, 4): 4 = A log
e
(2) + B 1
(2, 6): 6 = A log
e
(4) + B 2
2 1
2 = A log
e
(4) A log
e
(2)
= A (log
e
(4) log
e
(2))
= 0.693 A
A = 2.885
Substitute A = 2.885 into 1
4 = 2.885 log
e
(2) + B
B = 4 2.885 log
e
(2)
= 4 2
= 2
b = 2.0, A = 2.9 and B = 2.0
y = 2.9 log
e
(x + 2.0) + 2.0
10 y = A log
10
(kx)
(1, 1): 1 = A log
10
(k) 1
(3, 2): 2 = A log
10
(3k) 2
2 1

2
1
=
10
10
log (3 )
log ( )
A k
A k

2 =
10
10
log (3 )
log ( )
k
k

2 log
10
(k)= log
10
(3k)
= log
10
(k) + log
10
(3)
log
10
(k) = log
10
(3)
k = 3
Substitute k = 3 into
1

1 = A log
10
(3)
A =
10
1
log (3)

= 2.0959 to 4 decimal places.
A = 2.0959 and k = 3.
11 y = A log
2
(x + b) + B
b = 2 since the horizontal translation
is 2 units left and B = 3 since the
vertical translation is 3.
y = A log
2
(x + 2) + 3
(2, 6): 6 = A log
2
(4) + 3
3 = A log
2
(4)
A =
2
3
log (4)

=
3
2

= 1.5
A = 1.5, b = 2 and B = 3.
Exercise 4F Addition of
ordinates
1 a Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = x and p(x) =
1
x
.
Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = R\{0}
Domain f(x) = R R\{0}
= R\{0}
b Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = 3 x and p(x) = x
Domain g(x) = R
+
{0}
Domain p(x) = R
Domain f(x) = R
+
{0} R
= R
+
{0} or
[0, )
c Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = x
2
1 and p(x) =
1
2
x
Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = [0, )
Domain f(x) = R [0, )
= [0, )
d Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x), where
g(x) = 2 x + and p(x) = x
Domain g(x) = [2, )
Domain p(x) = R
Domain f(x) = [2, ) R
= [2, )
e Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x), where
g(x) = x
2
and p(x) = 3x
3

Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = R
Domain f(x) = R R
= R
f Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x), where
g(x) = 2x
3
and p(x) =
1
3 x


Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = R\{3}
Domain f(x) = R R\{3}
= R\{3}
g Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x), where
g(x) =
2
2
( 1) x +
and p(x) = x
2

Domain g(x) = R\{1}
Domain p(x) = R
Domain f(x) = R\{1} R
= R\{1}
h Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x), where
g(x) = 3x and p(x) = 2 1 x
Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = (, 1]
Domain f(x) = R (, 1]
= (, 1]
i Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x), where
g(x) = 3(2 x)
2
and p(x) =
2
3x

Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = R\{0}
Domain f(x) = R R\{0}
= R\{0}
j Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x), where
g(x) = 2 3 x and
p(x) = 3 ( 1) x +
Domain g(x) = (, 3]
Domain p(x) = [1, )
Domain f(x) = (, 3] [1, )
= [1, 3]
2 Domain g(x) = (, 7]
Domain f(x) = [2, 7]
Maximum domain p(x) = [2, )
and minimum domain p(x) = [2, 7]
The answer is C.
3 a y
1
= 2e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = 2e
0

= 2 1
= 2
y
2
= 2e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = 2e
0

= 2 1
= 2


MM1 2 - 4 92 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

y = y
1
+ y
2

When x = 1, y = 2e
1
+ 2e
1

= 6.2
When x = 0, y = 2 + 2
= 4
When x = 1, y = 2e + 2e
1

= 6.2


b y
1
= 3e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = 3e
0

= 3
y
2
= 3e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = 3e
0

= 3
y = y
1
+ y
2
When x = 1, y = 3e
1
+ 3e
1

= 9.3
When x = 0, y = 3 + 3
= 6
When x = 1, y = 3e
1
+ 3e
1

= 9.3


c y
1
= e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0

= 1
y
2
= x
x = 0, y = 0
x = 2, y = 2
x = 2, y = 2
y = y
1
+ y
2
When x = 2, y = e
2
2
= 5.4
When x = 0, y = e
0
+ 0
= 1
When x = 2, y = e
2
+ 2
= 2.1


d y
1
= e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0

= 1
y
2
= x
x = 0, y = 0
x = 2, y = 2
x = 2, y = 2
y = y
1
+ y
2
When x = 2, y = e
2
2
= 1.9
When x = 0, y = e
0
+ 0
= 1
When x = 2, y = e
2
+ 2
= 9.4


e y
1
= e
x

Horizontal asymptote is the
x-axis.
x = 0, y = e
0

= 1
y
2
= x
2

Parabola: x = 2, y
2
= 4
x = 0, y
2
= 0
x = 2, y
2
= 4
y = y
1
+ y
2
x = 2, y = e
2
+ (2)
2

= 4.1
x = 0, y = e
0
+ 0
= 1
x = 2, y = e
2
+ 2
2

= 11.4


f y
1
= e
x

Horizontal asymptote is x-axis
x = 0, y = e
0

= 1
y
2
= x
2

x = 2, y
2
= (2)
2

= 4
x = 0, y
2
= 0
x = 3, y
2
= 3
2

= 9
y = y
1
+ y
2
x = 2, y = e
2
+ 4
= 11.4
x = 0, y = e
0
+ 0
= 1
x = 3, y = e
3
+ 9
= 9.0
y = e
x
+ x
2



4 a f(x) = 2 log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis
y = 0, x = 1
Domain of f(x) is (0, )
g(x) = x
x = 0, y = 0
x = 1, y = 1
Domain of g(x) is R
h(x) = f(x) + g(x)
Domain h(x) is (0, ) R = (0, )
Substituting x = 0.1, x = 1 and
x = 2 respectively into h(x):
h(x) = log
e
(0.1) + 0.1 2.2
h(x) = log
e
(1) + 1 = 1
h(x) = log
e
(2) + 2 2.7


Domain is (0, ) and range is R.
b f(x) = 3 log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
y = 0, x = 1
Domain of f(x) is (0, )
g(x) = x
x = 0, g(x) = 0
x = 1, g(x) = 1
Domain of g(x) is R
h(x) = f(x) + g(x)
Domain h(x) = (0, )
Substituting x = 0.1, x = 1 and
x = 2 respectively into h(x):
h(x) = 3 log
e
(0.1) + 0.1 6.8
h(x) = 3 log
e
(1) + 1 = 1
h(x) = 3 log
e
(2) + 2 4.1


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 93
c f(x) = log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
y = 0, x = 1
Domain of f(x) is (0, )
g(x) = 2x
x = 0, g(x) = 0
x = 1, g(x) = 2
Domain of g(x) is R
h(x) = f(x) + g(x)
Domain of h(x) is (0, )
Substituting x = 0.1, x = 1 and
x = 2 into h(x) respectively:
h(x) = log
e
(0.1) + 2(0.1) 2.1
h(x) = log
e
(1) + 2(1) = 2
h(x) = log
e
(2) + 2(2) 4.7


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
d f(x) = log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis
y = 0, x = 1
Domain of f(x) is (0, )
g(x) =
1
2
x
Domain of g(x) is R.
h(x) = f(x) + g(x)
Domain of h(x) is (0, )
Substituting x = 0.1, x = 1 and
x = 2 into h(x) respectively:
h(x) = log
e
(0.1) +
1
2
0.1 2.3
h(x) = log
e
(1) +
1
2
1 = 0.5
h(x) = log
e
(2) +
1
2
2 1.7


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
e f(x) = log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
log
e
(x) is reflected in the x-axis.
y = 0, x = 1
Domain of f(x) is (0, )
g(x) = x
x = 0, g(x) = 0
x = 1, g(x) = 1
Domain of g(x) is R
h(x) = f(x) + g(x)
Domain of h(x) is (0, ).
Substituting x = 0.1, x = 1 and
x = 2 respectively into h(x):
h(x) = log
e
(0.1) + 0.1 2.4
h(x) = log
e
(1) + 1 = 1
h(x) = log
e
(2) + 2 1.3


Domain is R
+
and range is [1, )
since minimum is (1, 1).
f f(x) = 2 log
e
(x)
Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
log
e
x is reflected in the x-axis.
y = 0, x = 1
Domain of f(x) is (0, )
g(x) = x
x = 0, g(x) = 0
x = 1, g(x) = 1
Domain of g(x) is R
h(x) = f(x) + g(x)
Domain of h(x) is (0, )
Substituting x = 0.1, x = 1 and
x = 2 respectively into h(x):
h(x) = 2 log
e
(0.1) + 0.1 4.7
h(x) = 2 log
e
(1) + 1 = 1
h(x) = 2 log
e
(2) + 2 0.6


Domain is R
+
and range is
(0.6, ) since minimum is (2, 0.6)
5 f(x) =
1
2
e
x
+
1
2
e
x

If y
1
=
1
2
e
x
, the
horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.
x = 0, y =
1
2
e
0

=
1
2

If y
2
=
1
2
e
x
, the horizontal
asymptote is the x-axis.
x = 0, y =
1
2
e
0

=
1
2

Substituting x = 2, x = 0 and x = 2
respectively:
f(x) =
1
2
e
2
+
1
2
e
2
= 3.76
f(x) =
1
2
+
1
2
= 1
f(x) =
1
2
e
2
+
1
2
e
2
= 3.76


Domain is [2, 2] and range is [1, 3.76]
6 Domain of y
1
is (2, 2] and domain
of y
2
is (0, )
Dom of y = y
1
+ y
2
is (2, 2] (0, )
= (0, 2]
The answer is E.
7 a


b


c


d


MM1 2 - 4 94 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

e



f


8 f(x) = x
2

A positive parabola with turning
point (0, 0)
g(x) = 5x + 6
A straight line with x-intercept
6
5

and y-intercept 6.


9 f(x) = x
3

A positive cubic with stationary
point of inflection (0, 0)
g(x) = x
2
1
A positive parabola with turning
point (0, 1)
x-intercepts: 1 and 1
y-intercept: 1


10 a Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = x and p(x) = 2 x
Domain g(x) = [0, )
Domain p(x) = (, 2]
Domain f(x) = [0, ) (, 2]
= [0, 2]


b Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = 2x and p(x) = x
Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = [0, )
Domain f(x) = R [0, )
= [0, )


c Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = 3 x
and p(x) = x
2

Domain g(x) = [3, )
Domain p(x) = R
Domain f(x) = [3, ) R
= [3, )

d Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = 5 x + and p(x) = 5 x
Domain g(x) = [5, )
Domain p(x) = (, 5]
Domain f(x) = [5, ) (, 5]
= [5, 5]

11 The 2 graphs need to be confined to
quadrants 1 and 3.
The answer is E.
12 Let f(x) = g(x) + p(x) where
g(x) = log
e
x and p(x) = x
Domain g(x) = (0, )
Domain p(x) = [0, )
Domain f(x) = (0, ) [0, )
= (0, )


13 f(x) = 3x 3
g(x) = log
e
(x)
Domain f(x) = R
Domain g(x) = (0, )
Domain (f + g)(x) = R (0, )
= (0, )


14 a y = x
2
e
2x


Domain: x R
Range: y = [0, )
Asymptote: x = 0
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 95
b y = x
2
e
x



Domain: x R
Range: y = [0, )
Asymptote: x = 0
c y =
2
x
e


Domain: x R
Range: y = [1, )
y-intercept (0,1)
15 a y =
2
log ( )
e
x x


Domain: x = (0, )
Range: y =
1
,
2e
|

|
.

x-intercept (1, 0)
b y =
2
log (3 )
e
x x


Domain: x = (0, )
Range: y =
1
,
18e
| (

(
\

x-intercept
1
, 0
3
| |
|
\ .

c y = log ( )
e
x x


Domain: x = (0, )
Range: y =
1
,
e
|

|
.

x-intercept (1, 0)
Exercise 4G Exponential
and logarithmic functions with
absolute values
1 a y = 3log 2 3
e
x +
x-intercepts, y = 0
3 ln|x 2| + 3 = 0
3 ln|x 2| = 3
3 ln|x 2| = 1
3 ln(x 2) = 1 for x > 2
3 ln((x 2)) = 1 for x < 2
x 2 = e
1
or (x 2) = e
1

x = 2 + e
1
x = 2 e
1

y -intercept, x = 0
y = 3 ln|0 2| + 3
y = 3 ln| 2| + 3
y = 3 ln(2) + 3


Domain: x R\{2}
Range: y R
b y = log 1 2
e
x +
x-intercepts, y = 0
ln|x + 1| 2 = 0
ln|x + 1| = 2
ln|x + 1| = 2
ln(x + 1) = 2 for x > 1
ln((x + 1)) = 2 for x < 1
x + 1 = e
2
or (x + 1) = e
2

x = 1 + e
2
or x = 1 e
2

x = 0.86 x = 1.14
y intercept, x = 0
y = ln|0 + 1| 2
y = ln|1| 2
y = ln(1) 2
y = 2
(0, 2)


Domain: x R\{1}
Range: y R
c y =
10
log 3 1 x +
x-intercepts, y = 0
log
10
|3 x| + 1 = 0
log
10
|3 x| = 1
log
10
| (x 3)| = 1
log
10
|x 3| = 1
log
10
(x 3) = 1 for x > 3
log
10
((x 3)) = 1 for x < 3
x 3 = 10
1
or (x 3) = 10
1

x = 3 + 10
1
or x = 3 10
1

y -intercept, x = 0
y =
10
log 3 0 1 +
y =
10
log 3 1 +
y =
10
log (3) 1 +
y = 1.48


Domain: x R\{3}
Range: y R
2 a y = log ( 2)
e
x
x-intercepts, y = 0
|ln(x 2)| = 0
ln(x 2) = 0
x 2 = e
0

x = 2 + 1
x = 3
y -intercept, x = 0
y = |ln(0 2)|
y = |ln( 2)| which is not defined
no y-intercept


Domain: x (2, )
Range: y [0, )
b y = log (1 ) 2
e
x
x-intercepts, y = 0

ln(1 ) 2 0 x =

ln(1 ) 2 0 x =

ln(1 ) 2 x =

2
1 x e

=

2
1 x e

=
x-intercepts, y = 0
y = ln(1 0) 2
y = ln(1) 2
y = 0 2
y = 2
y = 2
(0, 2)
MM1 2 - 4 96 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s



Domain: x (, 1)
Range: y [0, )
c y =
10
log ( 3) 1 x + +
x-intercepts, y = 0
log
10
(x + 3)| + 1 = 0
log
10
(x + 3)| = 1
This is false no x-intercepts
y-intercept, x = 0
y = |log
10
(0 + 3)| + 1
y = |log
10
(3)| + 1
y = log
10
(03) + 1


Domain: x (3, )
Range:y [1, )
3 a y =
1
4
x
e

+
x-intercepts, y = 0

1
4
x
e

+ = 0

1 x
e

= 4
Cannot be solved as e
a
> 0
no x-intercepts
y-intercept, x = 0
y =
0 1
4 e

+
y =
1
4 e

+
y =
1
4 e +


Domain: x R
Range: y [5, )
b y =
4
3
x
e


x-intercepts, y = 0

4
3
x
e

= 0

4 x
e

= 3

4 x
e

= 3 or
(4 ) x
e

= 3
4 x = ln(3) (4 x) = ln(3)
x = 4 ln(3) x = 4 + ln(3)
y-intercept, x = 0
y =
4 0
4 e

+
y =
4
4 e +


Domain: x R
Range: y [2, )
c y =
1
2
x
e

+
x-intercepts, y = 0

1
2
x
e

+ = 0

1 x
e

= 2

1 x
e

= 2

1 x
e

= 2 or
( 1) x
e

= 2
x 1 = ln(2) (x 1) = ln(2)
x = ln(2) 1 x = ln(2) 1
y-intercept, x = 0
y =
0 1
2 e

+
y =
1
2 e

+
y =
1
2 e +


Domain: x R
Range: y (, 1]
4 a y = |e
x
3|
x-intercepts, y = 0
3
x
e = 0
e
x
3 = 0
e
x
= 3
x = ln(3)
y-intercept, x = 0
y = |e
0
3|
y = |1 3|
y = | 2|
y = 2
(0, 2)


Domain: x R
Range: y [0, )
b y = 2 4
x
e +
x-intercepts, y = 0
2 4
x
e + = 0
2
x
e = 4
e
x
2 = 4 or (e
x
2) = 4
e
x
= 6 e
x
= 2
x = ln(6) No solution
y-intercept, x = 0
y =
0
2 4 e +
y = |1 2| + 4
y = 1 | 1| + 4
y = 1 1 + 4
y = 3


Domain: x R
Range: y (, 4]
c y = 1 2
x
e

+
x-intercepts, y = 0
y = 1 2
x
e

+
1 2
x
e

+ = 0
1
x
e

= 2
No x-intercepts as 0 a
y-intercept, x = 0

0
1 2 y e = +
y = |1 1| + 2
y = 0 + 2
y = 2
(0, 2)


Domain: x R
Range: y [2, )
Exercise 4H Exponential
and logarithmic modelling
using graphs
1 a K = 50e
0.04t

t = 0, K = 50e
0

= 50
The initial population is 50.
b t = 2, K = 50e
0.04 2

= 50e
0.08

= 54
After 2 years, the population is 54.
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 97
t = 10, K = 50e
0.04 10

= 50e
0.4

= 74.6
The population after 10 years is 75
c

d From the graph when t = 15, K 92
The population is approximately
92 after 15 years.
2 a W = 150 1.08
t

t = 0, W = 150 1.08
0

= 150
The initial population is 150.
b t = 1, W = 150 1.08
1

= 162
After 1 year the population is 162.
t = 5, W = 150 1.08
5

= 220
The population after 5 years is 220.
c

d The population after 15 years is
approximately 475 from the graph.
e W = 300 when t = 9 from the graph
The population doubles after
9 years.
3 A = A
0
e
rt

a A
0
= $500, r = 6% = 0.06
b A = 500e
0.06t

t = 1, A = 500e
0.06

= 530.92
After 1 year, the student had
$530.90
c t = 5, A = 500e
0.06 5

= 500e
0.3

= 674.93
Interest = 674.95 500
= 174.95
After 5 years the student had
$174.95 interest.
d

e From the graph when t = 8,
A = 810
After 8 years the student has $810.
4 a E = E
0
e
kt

t = 0, E = E
0
= 200
t = 10, E = 200e
10k
= 33
e
10k
= 0.165
10k = log
e
(0.165)
k =
1
10
log
e
(0.165)
k = 0.18
b E = 200e
0.18t

t = 1, E = 200e
0.18

= 167
After 1 day there are 167
radioactive nuclei.
t = 5, E = 200e
0.18 5

= 200e
0.9

= 81
After 5 days there are 81
radioactive nuclei.
c
d From the graph 50 radioactive
nuclei are left after 7 days.
e No, there would never be no
radioactive nuclei as the graph is
always above E = 0 (a horizontal
asymptote).
f From the graph the half-life
(E = 100) occurs after 4 days.
5 a T T
1
= (T
0
T
1
) e
kt

T
0
= 98
T
1
= 18
T 18 = (98 18) e
kt

= 80e
kt

T = 18 + 80e
kt

b t = 5, T = 38
38 = 18 + 80e
5k

20 = 80e
5k

e
5k
= 0.25
5k = log
e
(0.25)
k =
1
5
log
e
(0.25)
k = 0.277
c T = 18 + 80e
0.277t

d T = 25
25 = 18 + 80e
0.277t

7 = 80e
0.277t

e
0.277t
= 0.0875
0.277t = log
e
(0.0875)
t =
1
0.277
log
e
(0.0875)
= 8.8
It takes approximately 9 minutes
for the temperature to reach 25C.
e


f From the graph after 15 minutes
the temperature is 19C.
g The egg will never reach the
temperature of the water (18C)
since T = 18 is a horizontal
asymptote and T > 18 for all t.
6 a P = A log
e
(t) + B
t = 1, P = 10 000
10 000 = A log
e
(1) + B
= B
B = 10 000
t = 5, P = 8000
8000 = A log
e
(5) + 10 000
2000 = A log
e
(5)
A =
2000
log (5)
e


= 1242.67
b P = 1242.67 log
e
(t) + 10 000
t = 10,
P = 1242.67 log
e
(10) + 10 000
= 7138.6
The population after 10 weeks is
7139.
c P = 3000
3000 = 1242.67 log
e
(t) + 10 000
7000 = 1242.67 log
e
(t)
log
e
(t) =
7000
1242.67


= 5.633
t = e
5.633

t = 279.4
The population is 3000 after
279 weeks.
d

e From the graph, after 20 weeks the
population is approximately 6300.
7 m = log
10
(an + b)
(1, 0): 0 = log
10
(a + b)
a + b = 1 (i)
(4, 1): 1 = log
10
(4a + b)
4a + b = 10 (ii)
Take (i) from (ii): 3a = 9
a = 3
If a = 3, b = 2.
The answer is C.
MM1 2 - 4 98 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

8 a C = 20n
b R(n) = 2000(1 e
0.1n
)
R(0) = 2000(1 e
0
)
= 2000 (1 1)
= 0
c R = 2000
Revenues plateau at $2000.
d and e
n 0 20 55
C 0 400 1100
R 0 1729 1992

P 0 1329 892


The graph of R is becoming steeper
and steeper until at some point the
graph becomes less steep. C has
the same gradient all the way. The
maximum turning point of P is
where the gradient of R begins to
decrease.
P and C intersect at some point
before n = 55.
f P = 2000(1 e
0.1n
) 20n.
g 23 jackets must be sold to
maximise profits. They would have
a profit of $1339.
h When profit = 0 or
when revenue = costs.
When 100 jackets were made, the
company would begin to make a
loss.
i It is not a reasonable model unless
the jackets were hand made
because not enough jackets are
made before the profits begin to
decrease.
Chapter review
Short answer
1 f(x) = 2
(x + 1)
4
Horizontal asymptote is y = 4
x = 0, y = 2
1
4
= 2
y = 0, 2
x + 1
4 = 0
2
x + 1
= 4
= 2
2

x + 1 = 2
x = 1


Domain is R and range is (4, )
2 f(x) = 3 log
10
(2x)
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
y = 0, 3 log
10
(2x) = 0
2x = 1
x =
1
2



Domain is R
+
and range is R.
3 f(x) = Ae
x
+ B
Horizontal asymptote is y = 4
B = 4
f(x) = Ae
x
4
(0, 1): 1 = Ae
0
4
= A 4
A = 3
f(x) = 3e
x
4
4 Choose suitable points in each graph
in which to add ordinates. For
example,
the end points of each graph
the points of intersection of each
graph
any x-intercepts.
a


b


5 a f(x) = log
10
(x
2
)
= 2 log
10
(x) if x > 0 or
2 log
10
(x) if x < 0.
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
y = 0, 2 log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
or
2 log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
x = 1
b


6 P = P
0
e
t

t = 0, P = 120
120 = P
0
e
0

P
0
= 120
P = 120e
t

When t = 20, P = 120e
20

7 a g(x) = 2e
x + 1
4
Asymptote is at y = 4.
x-intercept when y = 0
0 = 2e
x + 1
4

4
2
= e
x + 1

2 = e
x + 1

log
e
(2) = x + 1
x = log
e
(2) 1
y-intercept when x = 0
y = 2e
1
4

b x = 2e
y + 1
4
x + 4 = 2e
y + 1


4
2
x +
= e
y + 1

log
e
4
2
x + | |
|
\ .
= y + 1
y = g
1
(x) = log
e
4
2
x + | |
|
\ .
1
Domain is (4, )
(Range of g(x))
Range is R
(Domain of g(x))
8 f(x) = x
2
+ 1 Domain is R
g(x) = log
e
(x) Domain is R
+

h(x) = x
2
+ 1 + log
e
(x) Domain is R
+

Range is R


E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 99
9 y = 2f(3 x) + 5
Dilation by a factor of 2 parallel to
the y-axis, reflection in the y-axis
and translations of 3 units to the
right and 5 units up.
10 a T = 50 1
= 50
E = 400 1
= 400
There were 50 tigers and 400
elephants on January 1, 2006.
b April 1 2007, t = 15
T = 50 2
0.4 15

= 50 2
6

= 50 64
= 3200
E = 400 4
0.1 15

= 400 4
1.5

= 50
There is a higher population of
tigers on 1 April 2007.
c T(t) = E(t)
50 2
0.4t
= 400 4
0.1t

2
0.4t
= 8 4
0.1t

2
0.4t
= 8 (2
2
)
0.1t

= 2
3
(2
2
)
0.1t

= 2
3 0.2t

0.4t = 3 0.2t
0.6t = 3
t =
3
0.6

= 5
t = 5 on 1 June 2006.
d E(t) = 400 4
0.1t

25 = 400 4
0.1t


25
400
= 4
0.1t


1
16
= 4
0.1t

4
2
= 4
0.1t

2 = 0.1t
t = 20
t = 20 on 1 September 2007.
11 y = log ( 3)
e
x +
x-intercepts, y = 0
log ( 3)
e
x + = 0
log ( 3)
e
x + = 0
x + 3 = e
0

x = 1 3
x = 2
y-intercept, x = 0
y = log (0 3)
e
+
y = log (3)
e

y = log (3)
e



Domain: x (3, )
Range: y (, 0]
12 : , ( ) f D R f x = 2log 3 1
e
x + +
a As there is an asymptote at
x = 3, therefore the maximal
domain is:
R\{3}
b x-intercepts, y = 0
2log
e
(|x + 3|) + 1 = 0
log
e
(|x + 3|) =
1
2

log
e
(x + 3) =
1
2
or
log((x + 3)) =
1
2

x + 3 =
1
2
e

or (x + 3) =
1
2
e


x = 3 +
1
2
e

or x = 3
1
2
e



1
2
3 , 0 e
| |
+ |
|
\ .
,
1
2
3 , 0 e
| |
|
|
\ .

y-intercept, x = 0
f(0) = 2log
e
(|0 + 3|) + 1
= 2log
e
(3) + 1
(0, 2 log
e
(3) + 1)
c

Multiple choice
1 f(x) = 2
x
1
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
The answer is D.
2 f(x) = 3 10
x
+ 1
Domain is R.
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1.
Range is (1, ).
The answer is B.
3 f(x) = 1 2
x

x = 0, y = 1 2
0

= 1 1
= 0
The answer is A.
4 New rule for f(x) is:
log
10
(x 1 + 1) + 2
= log
10
(x) + 2
The answer is C.
5 f(x) = log
2
(x + 1)
Vertical asymptote is x = 1
Domain is (1, )
The answer is C.
6 f(x) = log
10
(x 2) + 1
Vertical asymptote is x = 2.
x = 4, f(x) = log
10
(2) + 1
1.3
The answer is D.
7 f(x) = 2e
x + 1

The graph of f(x) = e
x
is translated
1 unit left and dilated by a factor of
2 parallel to the y-axis.
The answer is C.
8 The graph has horizontal asymptote
y = 2 and y-intercept 1.
The answer is B.
9 For horizontal asymptote y = 2
A or E are the only possibilities.
y-intercept is 1.
A: x = 0, y = e
0
+ 2
= 3 No.
E: y = 2 e
0

= 2 1
= 1 Yes.
The answer is E.
10 f(x) = 3 log
e
(x 2) + 1 has vertical
asymptote: x 2 = 0
x = 2.
The answer is D.
11 f:[1, ) R, f(x) = 3 log
e
(x + 2)
Domain is [1, )
x = 1, f(x) = 3 log
e
(1)
= 0
Range is [0, )
The answer is D.
12 f(x) = log
e
(x + 1)
2f(x) + 3 = 2 log
e
(x + 1) + 3
x = 0, y = 2 log
e
(1) + 3
= 0 + 3
= 3
The answer is D.
13 y = Ae
x
+ B
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1
B = 1.
y = Ae
x
1
(0, 3): 3 = Ae
0
1
= A 1
A = 4
The answer is C.
14 f(x) = log
e
(x + 2) + 1
f(1) = log
e
(3) + 1
2.10
f(0) = log
e
(2) + 1
1.69
The answer is A.
15 Domain of {f(x) + g(x)} is
dom f(x) dom g(x)
The answer is B.
16 f(x) = g(x) + p(x)
dom g(x) = (, 5]
dom p(x) = (2, )
Domain of f(x) = dom g(x) dom p(x)
= (, 5] (2, )
= (2, 5]
The answer is A.
MM1 2 - 4 100 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

17 y = 4 x + + 4 x
let g(x) = 4 x +
dom g(x) = (4, )
let p(x) = 4 x
dom p(x) = (, 4)
Domain of y is (4, 4)
when x = 4, y = 0 + 8
= 2 2
when x = 0, y = 4 + 4
= 4
when x = 4, y = 8 + 0
= 2 2
The answer is B.
18 u = u
0
e
kt

t = 0, u = 1000
1000 = u
0
e
0

u
0
= 1000
u = 1000e
kt

t = 100, u = 907
907 = 1000e
100k

0.907 = e
100k

100k = log
e
(0.907)
k =
1
100
log
e
(0.907)
= 0.000 976
The answer is B.
19 g(x) = log
e
|x b|
Maximal domain = R\{b} as there is an asymptote at x = b.
B.
20 f(x) = log
e
(|x 3|) + 6
Maximal domain = R\{3} as there is an asymptote at x = 3
A.
21
2
x y
f
+ | |
|
\ .
=
( ) ( )
2
f x f y +

f(x) = log
e
|x| log
2
e
x y + | |
|
\ .

log log
2
e e
x y +

LHS RHS
f(x) =
1
x

1
2
x y + | |
|
\ .
=
1 1
2
x y
+


2
x y +
=
2
y x
xy
+


2
x y +

2
x y
xy
+

LHS RHS
f(x) = 2
x

2
2
x y +

2 2
2
x y
+

LHS RHS
f(x) = 2x 2
2
x y + | |
|
\ .
=
2 2
2
x y +

x + y = x + y
LHS = RHS
D.
22 f(x) + f(y) = (x + y) f(xy)
f(x) = 2x 2x + 2y = (x + y) 2xy
2x + 2y 2x
2
y + 2xy
2

LHS RHS
f(x) = 5 2x 5 2x + 5 2y = (x + y)(5 2xy)
10 2x 2y 5x 2x
2
y + 5y 2xy
2

LHS RHS
f(x) =
1
x

1 1
x y
+ = (x + y)
1
xy
| |
|
\ .


x y
xy
+
=
x y
xy
+

LHS = RHS
C.
23 f(x) = e
x

f(x + y) = e
x + y

f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)
e
x +y
e
x
+ e
y

LHS RHS
f(x + y) = f(x) f(y)
e
x+y
= e
x
e
y

= e
x + y

LHS = RHS.
B.
Extended response
1 f(x) = 2e
x 1
+ 1
Horizontal asymptote is y = 1
x = 0, y = 2e
1
+ 1
1.74


Domain is R and range is (1, ).
2 f(x) = 1 log
e
(2 x)
Vertical asymptote is: 2 x = 0
x = 2
x = 0, y = 1 log
e
(2) 0.31
y = 0, 1 log
e
(2 k) = 0
log
e
(2 x) = 1
2 x = e
1

x = 2 e
0.72


Domain is (, 2) and range is R.
3 y
1
= log
10
(2x)
Vertical asymptote is x = 0
y = 0, log
10
(2x) = 0
2x = 1
x =
1
2

Domain of y
1
is (0, )
E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s MM1 2 - 4 101
y
2
= log
10
(x)
Vertical asymptote is x = 0.
y = 0, log
10
(x) = 0
x = 1
Domain of y
2
is (0, )
f(x) = y
1
+ y
2

Domain of f(x) is (0, )
When x = 0.1,
f(x) = log
10
(0.2) + log
10
(0.1)
= 1.70
x = 1, f(x) = log
10
(2) + log
10
(1)
= 0.30
x = 4, f(x) = log
10
(8) + log
10
(4)
= 1.51


Domain is R
+
and range is R.
4 a N = 10 000e
0.04t

t = 0, N = 10 000e
0

= 10 000
The initial number is 10 000.
b t = 10, N = 10 000e
0.4

= 14 918.2
The number of bacteria after 10 hours is approximately
15 000.
5 y = 4 |e
x
1|
x-intercepts, y = 0
4 |e
x
1| = 0
e
x
1 = 4 or (e
x
1) = 4
e
x
= 5 e
x
= 3
x = ln(5) No solution
y-intercept, x = 0
y = 4 |e
0
1|
y = 4 |1 1|
y = 4 |0|
y = 4


Domain: x R
Range: y (, 4]
6 f : R R, f(x) = a + be
x

a a =1 because it is where the horizontal asymptote cuts
the y-axis.
(0, 0) satisfies the equation, so
0 = 1 + be
0

b = 1
b h:[0, 2] R, h(x) = 1 e
x
.
h(0) = 1 e
0
h(2) = 1 e
2

= 1 1
= 0
Range: y [0, 1 e
2
]
c Let y = 1 e
x

Interchange x and y.
x = 1 e
y

x 1 = e
y

1 x = e
y

log
e
(1 x ) = y
y = log
e
(1 x )
h
1
:[0, 1 e
2
] R, where h
1
(x) = log
e
(1 x).
7 f(x) = log
e
(5 x) + 1
a x-intercepts, y = 0 y-intercept, x = 0
log
e
(5 x) + 1 = 0 f(x) = log
e
(5 0) + 1
= log
e
(5) + 1
log
e
(5 x) = 1 (0, log
e
(5) + 1)
5 x = e
1

x = 5 e
1


1
(5 , 0) e




b Let y = log
e
(5 x) + 1
Interchange x and y to find inverse function
x = log
e
(5 y) + 1
x 1 = log
e
(5 y)
e
x 1
= 5 y
y = 5 e
x 1

f
1
(x) = 5 e
x 1

8 a Kerri first invests $5000.
A = A
0
e
kt

t = 0, A = A
0
e
0

= A
0

= 5000
A = 5000e
rt

r = 0.05
A = 5000e
0.05t

b t = 1, A = 5000e
0.05

= 5256.35
After 1 year Kerri has $5256.35.
c t = 5, A = 5000e
0.05 5

= 5000e
0.25

= 6420.3
After 5 years Kerri has $6420.15.
d A = 5000
4
0.05
1
4
t

+



= 5000(1.0125)
4t

t = 5, A = 5000(1.0125)
20

= 6410.20
After 5 years Kerri has $6410.20.
e A = 10 000
10 000 = 5000(1.0125)
4t

2 = 1.0125
4t

log
e
(2) = log
e
(1.0125)
4t

= 4t log
e
(1.0125)
4t =
log (2)
log (1.0125)
e
e

t =
log (2)
4log (1.0125)
e
e

= 13.95
It takes 13.95 years to double the investment.
MM1 2 - 4 102 E x p o n e n t i a l a n d l o g a r i t h mi c g r a p h s

f The first investment is better since the interest is
compounded continuously.
g After 5 years the difference is
6420.15 6410.20 = $9.95
h Continuous interest:
t = 50, A = 10 000e
0.05 5

= 5000e
0.25

= 12 840.25
Quarterly interest:
t = 5, A = 10 000(1.0125)
20

= 12 820.35
The difference after 10 years is
$2840.25 12820.35 = $19.90
9 a Using coordinates of the bridge, (5.5, 5):
5 = 2 log
10
(11 a) + 3
log
10
(11 a) =
5 3
2


log
10
(11 a) = 1
10 = 11 a
a = 1
b y = 2 log
10
(2x 1) + 3
x-intercept:
2 log
10
(2x 1) + 3 = 0
2 log
10
(2x 1) = 3
log
10
(2x 1) = 1.5
2x 1 = 10
1.5

2x = 1 + 10
1.5

x =
1.5
(1 10 )
2

+

0.516
The x-coordinate where the road begins is approximately
0.52. From the vertical axis it is
0.516 km or 516 metres.
c Shortest distance is 516 500 = 16 metres.
d It is in line with the ship when
x = 1.5
y = 2 log
10
(2 1.5 1) + 3
= 2 log
10
(2) + 3
3.6
The road is 3.6 kilometres from the main highway when
it is in line with the ship.
10 a P = ae
bx

b is between 0.1 and 0.2.
When x = 0, P = 101.3
101.3 = ae
b 0

= ae
0

= a
P = 101.3e
bx

When x = 1, P = 89.4.
89.4 = 101.3e
b 1

= 101.3e
b

e
b
=
89.4
101.3

b = log
e
89.4
101.3
| |
|
\ .

= 0.125
P = 101.3e
0.125x

b Height of Mount Kosciuszko is 2.228 km
P = 101.3e
0.125 2.228

= 76.7 kPa.
11 a f(x) = e
2x
be
x
+ c
Horizontal asymptote at y = 6, so c = 6.
f(x) = e
2x
be
x
+ 6
y-intercept is 2.
2 = e
0
be
0
+ 6
2 = 1 b + 6
b = 1 2 + 6
= 5
b f(x) = e
2x
5e
x
+ 6
Let e
x
= a
f(x) = a
2
5a + 6
= (a 2)(a 3)
0 = (a 2)(a 3)
a = 2 or a = 3
e
x
= 2 or e
x
= 3
x = log
e
(2) or log
e
(3)
c From the CAS calculator, the turning point is
(0.92, 0.25)
d e
2x
5e
x
+ 6 = 6
e
2x
5e
x
= 0
e
x
(e
x
5) = 0
e
x
= 0 or e
x
= 5
x = log
e
5
Point of intersection (log
e
5, 6).
e g(x) = f(x)
= e
2x
+ 5e
x
6
g: R R, g(x) = e
2x
+ 5e
x
6
f h(x) = f(x)
= e
2x
5e
x
+ 6
h: R R, h(x) = e
2x
5e
x
+ 6
g k(x) = f(x)
= e
2x
+ 5e
x
6
Domain of k(x) is R, range is (, 0.25)
k: R R, k(x) = e
2x
+ 5e
x
6


h f (2 x) + 1
f(x) = e
2x
5e
x
+ 6
f(2 x) = e
2(2 x)
5e
2 x
+ 6
= e
4 2x
5e
2 x
+ 6
f (2 x) + 1 = e
4 2x
5e
2 x
+ 7
From the CAS calculator, the turning point is
(1.08, 0.75) (This can also be obtained by applying the
appropriate transformations to the turning point obtained
in part c, that is, reflect in y-axis, translate 2 units right,
then 1 unit up.)
Domain is R and the range is (0.75, )
I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 103
Exercise 5A Relations and
their inverses
1 a


Domain = {0, 1, 3}
Range = {1, 2, 5}
b


Domain = {8, 5, 2, 1}
Range = {1, 1, 2, 7}
c


Domain = R
Range = R
d


Domain = R
Range = R
e


Domain = R
Range = R
f


Domain = R
Range = [4, )
g


Domain = R
Range = [1, )
h


Domain = R
Range = [0, )
i


Domain = [2, 2]
Range = [2, 2]
j


Domain = R\{0}
Range = R\{0}
k


Domain = R
Range = {2}
l


Domain = {4}
Range = R
m


Domain = R
Range = R
2 a (0, 1), (1, 2), (3, 2), (3, 5)
The inverse is
(1, 0), (2, 1), (2, 3), (5, 3)


Domain = {1, 2, 5}
Range = {0, 1, 3}
b {(8, 7), (5, 2), (2, 1),
(1, 1)}
The inverse is
{(7, 8), (2, 5), (1, 2),
(1, 1)}
Chapter 5 Inverse functions
MM1 2 - 5 104 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s


Domain = {1, 1, 2, 7}
Range = {8, 5, 2, 1}
c y = x
The inverse is
x = y
y = x


Domain = R
Range = R
d y = 2x 5
The inverse is
x = 2y 5
x + 5 = 2y
y =
5
2
x +

y =
1 5
2 2
x +


Domain = R
Range = R
e 2x + 4y = 8
The inverse is
2y + 4x = 8
y = 2x + 4


Domain = R
Range = R
f y = x
2
+ 4x
The inverse is
x = y
2
+ 4y
x = (y + 2)
2
4
(y + 2)
2
= x + 4
y + 2 = 4 x +
y = 2 4 x +


Domain = [4, )
Range = R
g y = x
2
1
The inverse is
x = y
2
1
x + 1 = y
2

y = 1 x +


Domain = [1, )
Range = R
h y = (x + 1)
2

The inverse is
x = (y + 1)
2

y + 1 = x
y = 1 x


Domain = [0, )
Range = R
i x
2
+ y
2
= 4
The inverse is
x
2
+ y
2
= 4


Domain = [2, 2]
Range = [2, 2]
j y =
3
x

The inverse is
x =
3
y

xy = 3
y =
3
x



Domain = R\{0}
Range = R\{0}
k y = 2
The inverse is
x = 2


Domain = {2}
Range = R
l x = 4
The inverse is
y = 4


Domain = R
Range = {4}
m y = 2x
3

The inverse is
x = 2y
3

y
3
=
2
x

y =
3
2
x



I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 105
Domain = R
Range = R
3 {(0, 1), (1, 2), (3, 3)}
Inverse is
{(1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 3)}
The answer is A.
4 To find the inverse, swap x and y.
x-intercepts of relation = y-intercepts
of inverse
The answer is C.
5 a


b


c


d


e


f


g


h


i


j


k


l


m


n


o


p


Exercise 5B Functions and
their inverses
1 a


MM1 2 - 5 106 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
b


c


d


e


f


g


h


2 a


Domain = {4, 2, 0, 2, 3}
Range = {2, 0, 1, 4, 6}
b


Domain = R
Range = R
c


Domain = R
Range = R
d


Domain = R
Range = [9, )
e


Domain = R
Range = [0, )
f


Domain = R\{0}
Range = R\{0}
g


Domain = R
Range = [16, )
h


Domain = R
Range = R
I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 107
i


Domain = R
Range = R
+

j


Domain = R
+

Range = R
k


Domain = [2, 2]
Range = [0, 2]
3 a


{(2, 4), (0, 2)(1, 0)(4, 2) (6, 3)}
Domain = {2, 0, 1, 4, 6}
Range = {4, 2, 0, 2, 3}
b 3x + 4y = 12
The inverse is
3y + 4x = 12 or 4x + 3y = 12


Domain = R
Range = R
c f(x) = 5 2x
The inverse is
x = 5 2y
2y = x 5
2y = 5 x
y =
5
2
x

y =
1 1
2
2 2
x +


Domain = R
Range = R
d f(x) = x
2
9
The inverse is
x = y
2
9
y
2
= x + 9
y = 9 x +
The inverse is y = 9 x +


Domain = [9, )
Range = R
e f(x) = (x + 2)
2

The inverse is
x = (y + 2)
2

y + 2 = x
y = 2 x


Domain [0, )
Range R
f f(x) =
4
x

The inverse is
x =
4
y

y =
4
x



Domain = R\{0}
Range = R\{0}
g f(x) = x
2
+ 8x
The inverse is
x = y
2
+ 8y
x = y
2
+ 8y + 16 16
x = (y + 4)
2
16
x + 16 = (y + 4)
2

y + 4 = 16 x +
y = 4 16 x +


Domain = [16, )
Range = R
h f(x) =
3
2
x

The inverse is
x =
3
2
y

2x = y
3

y =
3
2x
f
1
(x) =
3
2x


Domain = R
Range = R
i f(x) = 2e
x

The inverse is
x = 2e
y


2
x
= e
y

y = log
2
e
x | |
|
\ .

f
1
(x) = log
2
e
x | |
|
\ .

MM1 2 - 5 108 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s


Domain = R
+

Range = R
j f(x) = log
e
(2x)
The inverse is
x = log
e
(2y)
e
x
= 2y
y =
1
2
x
e
f
1
(x) =
1
2
x
e


Domain = R
Range = R
+

k f(x) =
2
4 x
x =
2
4 y
x
2
= 4 y
y
2
= 4 x
2

y =
2
4 x


Domain [0, 2]
Range [2, 2]
4 a i


ii Domain = R
Range = R
iii Domain = R
Range = R
b i


ii Domain = R


Range = R
+

iii Domain = R
+

Range = R


c i


ii Domain = R
Range = [4, ]
iii Domain = [4, )
Range = R
d i


ii Domain = R
Range = R
+

iii Domain = R
+

Range = R
e i


ii Domain = [3, 3]
Range = [0, 3]
iii Domain = [0, 3]
Range = [3, 3]
f i


ii Domain = (1, )
Range = R
iii Domain = R
Range = (1, )
g i


ii Domain = R
Range = R
iii Domain = R
Range = R
h i


ii Domain = R
Range = [1, )
iii Domain = [1, )
Range = R
i i


ii Domain = [5, 5]
Range = [5, 0]
iii Domain = [5, 0]
Range = [5, 5]
I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 109
j i


ii Domain = [2, 6]
Range = [2, 0]
iii Domain = [2, 0]
Range = [2, 6]
k i


ii Domain = (3, )
Range = R
iii Domain = R
Range = (3, )
l i


ii Domain = [2, 3)
Range = [0, 4)
iii Domain = [0, 4)
Range = [2, 3)
5 Range of f(x) = (, 0)
The answer is D.
6 Domain of the inverse = (, 0)
The answer is A.
7 Range of the inverse = (0, )
The answer is E.
8 f (x) = x
The inverse has the rule
x = y
x = y
y = (x)
2

y = x
2

Function f(x) has
Domain = R
+

Range = R


Hence the inverse function has
Domain = R


Range = R
+

The answer is B.
9 a f(x) = (x 2)
2
3
domain [2, ), range [3, )
x = (y 2)
2
3
x + 3 = (y 2)
2

y 2 = 3 x +
y = 2 3 x +
f
1
: [3, ) R,
where f
1
(x) = 2 3 x +
b y = 3e
x 1
+ 2 domain R, range (2, )
x = 3e
y 1
+ 2

2
3
x
= e
y 1


2
log
3
e
x | |
|
\ .
= y 1
y =
2
1 log
3
e
x | |
+
|
\ .

f
1
: (2, ) R,
f
1
=
2
1 log
3
e
x | |
+
|
\ .

Exercise 5C Inverse
functions
1 a f(x) = 4x + 1
i f(x) is a straight line, so it is a
one-to-one function. Its inverse
is also a function.
ii


iii 4x + 1 =
1 1
4 4
x
From the CAS calculator, the
point of intersection is

1 1
3 3
| |

|
\ .

iv Domain = R
Range = R
v Domain = R
Range = R
b f(x) = 6x
i f(x) is a straight line, so it is a
one-to-one function. Its inverse
is also a function.
ii


iii 6x =
1
6
x
From the CAS calculator, the
point of intersection is (0, 0)
iv Domain = R
Range = R
v Domain = R
Range = R
c f(x) = 5
i f(x) is a horizontal line, so it is
not a one-to-one function.
f
1
(x) does not exist.
d f(x) = x
2
+ 2
i f(x) is a parabola. It is not a one-
to-one function as a horizontal
line cuts the parabola twice.
f
1
(x) does not exist.
e f(x) = (x 3)
2

i f(x) is a parabola. It is not a one-
to-one function as a horizontal
line cuts the parabola twice.
f
1
(x) does not exist.
f f(x) = (x + 1)
3

i f(x) is a cubic graph with a point
of inflection at (1, 0). It is a
one-to-one function so its
inverse is also a function.
ii


iii (x + 1)
3
=
3
1 x
From the CAS calculator, the
point of intersection is
(2.3, 2.3).
iv Domain = R
Range = R
v Domain = R
Range = R
g f(x) =
2
x

i A hyperbola is a one-to-one
function, so its inverse is also a
function.
ii

MM1 2 - 5 110 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
iii There is no point of intersection.
iv Domain = R\{0}
Range = R\{0}
v Domain = R\{0}
Range = R\{0}
h f(x) =
2
16 x
i f(x) is a semicircle [4, 4] and is not a one-to-one
function, so its inverse is not a function.
i f(x) = x
2
6x + 3
i f(x) is a parabola and is not a one-to-one function, so its
inverse is not a function.
j f(x) = e
4x
2
i f(x) is an exponential graph that is a one-to-one
function. Its inverse exists as a function.
ii


iii e
4x
2 =
1
log ( 2)
4
e
x +
From the CAS calculator, the point of intersections are
(0.2, 0.2) and (1.99, 1.99)
iv Domain = R
Range = (2, )
v Domain = (2, )
Range = R
k f(x) = 2log
e
(x 1)
i f(x) is a logarithmic graph that is a one-to-one function.
Its inverse exists as a function.
ii


iii 2log ( 1)
e
x =
2
1
x
e +
There are no points of intersection.
iv Domain = (1, )
Range = R
v Domain = R
Range = (1, )
2 a f(x) = 4x is a straight line. It is one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
f(x) = 4x
Its inverse is
x = 4y
y =
4
x

f
1
(x) =
4
x

b f(x) =
2
1
2
x



The graph shows that f(x) is not one-to-one, so f
1
(x) does
not exist.
c f(x) is a parabola reflected in the x-axis and translated 5
units up. It is not a one-to one function and so f
1
(x) does
not exist.
d f(x) = (x 1)
2
is a parabola. Not one-to-one, so f
1
(x) does
not exist.
e f(x) =
3
2
x
is a cubic. One-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is x =
3
2
y

2x = y
3

y =
3
2x
f
1
(x) =
3
2x
f f(x) = x
2
+ 10x 3 is a parabola. Not one-to-one, so f
1
(x)
does not exist.
g f(x) = 2 x is one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is x = 2 y
x
2
= y 2
y = x
2
+ 2
f
1
(x) = x
2
+ 2, x [0, )
h f(x) =
2
16 x
Semicircle. Not one-to-one, so f
1
(x) does not exist.
i f(x) = 2e
x
+ 1
Exponential function. One-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is x = 2e
y
+ 1

1
2
x
= e
y

y =
1
log
2
e
x | |
|
\ .

f
1
(x) =
1
log
2
e
x | |
|
\ .
, x > 1
j f(x) = 5 e
x 2

Exponential function, reflected in the x-axis and translated
2 units to the right and 5 units up.
Hence one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists
The inverse is x = 5 e
y 2

e
y 2
= 5 x
y 2 = log
e
(5 x)
y = log
e
(5 x) + 2
f
1
(x) = log
e
(5 x) + 2, x < 5
k f(x) = 3e
x
2
Exponential function, so one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is x = 3e
y
2

2
3
x +
= e
y

y =
2
log
3
e
x + | |
|
\ .

f
1
(x) =
2
log
3
e
x + | |

|
\ .
, x > 2
I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 111
l f(x) = log
e
(3x)
Logarithmic function. So one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is x = log
e
(3y)
e
x
= 3y
f
1
(x) =
1
3
x
e , x R
m f(x) = 2log
e
(x 4)
Logarithmic function. So one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is x = 2 log
e
(y 4)

2
x
= log
e
(y 4)
y 4 =
2
x
e
f
1
(x) =
2
x
e + 4, x R
n f(x) = 1 + 2log
e
(x)
Logarithmic function. So one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is:
x = 1 + 2 log
e
(y)

1
2
x
= log
e
(y)
f
1
(x) =
1
2
x
e
| |
|
\ .
, x R
o f(x) = 3 log
e
(2x + 3)
Logarithmic function. So one-to-one, so f
1
(x) exists.
The inverse is
x = 3 log
e
(2y + 3)
x + 3 = log
e
(2y + 3)
2y + 3 = e
(x + 3)

2y = e
x + 3
3
f
1
(x) =
3
3
2
x
e

, x R
3
Function Inverse of function
Domain Range Domain Range
dom f = ran f
1
ran f = dom f
1
dom f
1
= ran f ran f
1
= dom f
a R R

R
b [1, ) R R [1, )
c [3, 3] [0, 3] [0, 3] [3, 3]
d R R
+
R
+
R
e R [10, ) [10, ) R
f R

(0, ) (0, ) R


g [5, 5] [0, 8] [0, 8] [5, 5]
h R
+
R R R
+

4 a The function can be divided into two one-to-one functions
over the domains (, 2] and [2, ). Any one-to-one
function would need its domain to be contained in one of
these.
The answer is B.
b Using the above logic, the answer is (, 2] or [2, )
The answer is E.
5 a f(x) =
2
2
1
( 3) x
+




Domain restricted to (3, )
The answer is C.
b Domain restricted to [0, 3)
The answer is D.
6 The graph of the function f(x) = x
2
+ 1 is as follows:
It is not a one-to-one function but could be made one-to-one
by splitting the domain into either R
+
{0} or R

{0}, the
right and left arms of the parabola respectively.
a The answer is D.
b The positive set above is R
+
{0} and so [0, ) satisfies.
The answer is C.
7 a Select either the right half of the parabola or the left half.
These will both form one-to-one functions, So f
1
exists.
The largest domain is (, 0] or [0, ).
b Right half of parabola has domain [3, ]. Left half has
domain (, 3]. Solution [3, ).
c Divide the graph into three sections with vertical lines
through x = 3 and x = 1. Each section is one-to-one,
therefore has an inverse function f
1
.
The largest domain is [1, ).
d The function is one-to-one, with domain (0, ). So f
1

exists over the whole domain (0, ), or R
+
.
e The function is one-to-one, with domain R. So f
1
exists
over the entire domain R.
f The function can be split into two one-to-one functions
each with an inverse. So f
1
exists over the domains
[9, 0] or [0, 9].
g The function can be split into two one-to-one functions by
a vertical line through x = 5. So f
1
exists over the
domains [1, 5] or [5, 9].
h The y-axis divides f(x) into two one-to-one functions. So
f
1
exists over (, 0) or (0, ).
i The vertical line x = 5 divides f(x) into two one-to-one
functions, so f
1
exists over the domain (, 5) or (5, ).
Exercise 5D Restricting functions
1 a


f is one-to-one over (, 0] and [0, ). Largest possible
domain for f
1
to exist is (, 0] or [0, ).
b


f is one-to-one over (, 0] and [0, ). The largest
possible domain for f
1
to exist is (, 0] or [0, ).
MM1 2 - 5 112 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
c


f is one-to-one over (, 3] and [3, ). The largest
possible domain for f
1
to exist is [3, ).
d


f is one-to-one over (, 0) and (0, ). The largest
possible domain for f
1
to exist is (, 0) or (0, ).
e


f is one-to-one over (, 4) and (4, ). The largest
possible domain for f
1
to exist is (, 4) or (4, ).
f


f is one-to-one over (, 2) and (2, ). The largest
possible domain for f
1
to exist is R\{2}.
g


f is one-to-one over [5, 0] and [0, 5]. The largest
possible domain for f
1
to exist is [5, 0] or [0, 5].
h


f is one-to-one over [1, 0] and [0, 1]. The largest
possible domain for f
1
to exist is [1, 0] or [0, 1].
i


f is one-to-one over its domain [4, ). Hence the inverse
f
1
exists over its entire domain [4, ).
j f(x) = x
2
2x + 5
= (x 1)
2
+ 4


f is one-to-one over (, 1] and [1, ). Hence the largest
domain for the inverse f
1
to exist is (, 1].
k


f is one-to-one over its entire domain. Hence f
1
exists
over R.
l


f is one-to-one over its entire domain. Hence f
1
exists
over (5, ).
I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 113
2 a Choose f(x) to have domain [0, ).
Range of f(x) = [3, )
dom f
1
= [3, )
ran f
1
= [0, )
y = x
2
+ 3
Rule for f
1
:
x = y
2
+ 3
y = 3 x
As ran f
1
= [0, ), we choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) = 3 x
Hence f
1
: [3, ) R, f
1
(x) = 3 x
b Choose f(x) to have domain [0, ).
Range of f(x) = [1, )
dom f
1
= [1, )
ran f
1
= [0, )
y = 3x
2
1
Rule for f
1
:
x = 3y
2
1
y
2
=
1
3
x +

y =
1
3
x +

As ran f
1
= [0, ), choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) =
1
3
x +

Hence f
1
: [1, ) R, f
1
(x) =
1
3
x +

c f(x) has a domain [3, ).
Range of f(x) = [2, )
dom f
1
= [2, )
ran f
1
= [3, )
y = (x + 3)
2
2
Rule for f
1
:
x = (y + 3)
2
2
y + 3 = 2 x +
y = 3 2 x +
As ran f
1
= [3, ), we choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) = 3 2 x + +
Hence f
1
: [2, )R, f
1
(x) = 3 2 x + +
d Choose f(x) to have domain (0, ).
Ran f = (3, )
dom f
1
= (3, )
ran f
1
= (0, )
y =
2
1
3
x

Rule for f
1
:
x =
2
1
3
y

x + 3 =
2
1
y

y =
1
3 x

+

As ran f
1
= (0, ), choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) =
1
3 x +

Hence f
1
: (3, ) R, f
1
(x) =
1
3 x +

e Choose f(x) to have domain (4, ).
Ran f = (1, )
dom f
1
= (1, )
ran f
1
= (4, )
y =
2
1
1
( 4) x
+


Rule for f
1
:
x =
2
1
1
( 4) y
+


x 1 =
2
1
( 4) y

(y 4)
2
=
1
1 x

y 4 =
1
1 x


y =
1
4
1 x


As ran f
1
= (4, ), choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) =
1
4
1 x
+


Hence f
1
: (1, ) R, f
1
(x) =
1
4
1 x
+


f f(x) has a domain R\{2}.
dom f
1
= R\{0}
ran f
1
= R\{2}
f(x) =
1
:
2 x
find f
1
(x)
x =
1
2 y

y 2 =
1
x

y =
1
2
x
+
f
1
(x) =
1
2
x
+
Hence f
1
: R\{0} R, f
1
(x) =
1
2
x
+
g Choose f(x) to have domain [0, 5].
Ran f = [5, 0]
dom f
1
= [5, 0]
ran f
1
= [0, 5]
f(x) =
2
25 : x find f
1
(x)
x =
2
25 y
x
2
= 25 y
2

y
2
= 25 x
2

y =
2
25 x
As ran f
1
= [0, 5], choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) =
2
25 x
Hence f
1
: [5, 0] R, f
1
(x) =
2
25 x
h Choose f(x) to have domain [0, 1].
Ran f = [0, 1]
dom f
1
= [0, 1]
ran f
1
= [0, 1]
f(x) =
2
1 : x find f
1
(x)
x =
2
1 y
x
2
= 1 y
2

y
2
= 1 x
2

y =
2
1 x
As ran f
1
= [0, 1], choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) =
2
1 x
Hence f
1
: [0, 1] R, f
1
(x) =
2
1 x
MM1 2 - 5 114 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
i dom f = [4, )
ran f = [0, )
dom f
1
= [0, )
ran f
1
= [4, )
f(x) = 4: x find f
1
(x)
x = 4 y
x
2
= y 4
y = x
2
+ 4
f
1
(x) = x
2
+ 4
Hence f
1
: [0, ) R, f
1
(x) = x
2
+ 4
j f(x) = x
2
2x + 5
= (x 1)
2
+ 4
Choose dom f = [1, )
Ran f = [4, )
dom f
1
= [4, )
ran f
1
= [1, )
f(x) = (x 1)
2
+ 4: find f
1
(x)
x = (y 1)
2
+ 4
(y 1)
2
= x 4
y 1 = 4 x
y = 1 4 x
As ran f
1
= [1, ), choose the positive square root.
f
1
(x) = 1 4 x +
Hence f
1
: [4, ) R, f
1
(x) = 1 4 x +
k dom f = R
ran f = (0, )
dom f
1
= (0, )
ran f
1
= R
f(x) = e
x

+

2
: find f
1
(x)
x = e
y + 2

y + 2 = log
e
(x)
y = log
e
(x) 2
f
1
(x) = log
e
(x) 2
Hence f
1
: (0, ) R, f
1
(x) = log
e
(x) 2
l dom f = (5, )
ran f = R
dom f
1
= R
ran f
1
= (5, )
f(x) = 2 log
e
(x 5): find f
1
(x)
x = 2 log
e
(y 5)
y 5 =
2
x
e
y =
2
5
x
e +
f
1
(x) =
2
5
x
e +
Hence f
1
: R R, f
1
(x) =
2
5
x
e +
3 a


A function and its inverse can only intersect on the line
y = x.
The answer is B.
b Domain of function [0, )
f(x) = x
2
: find rule for f
1
(x).
x = y
2

y = x
f
1
(x) = x
dom f = [0, ), then ran f
1
= [0, ) so we take the
positive square root. Hence f
1
(x) = x , x [0, )
The answer is C.
c From solution for b above, [0, ].
The answer is D.
d Intersect at f(x) = f
1
(x)
x
2
= x
x
4
= x
x
4
x = 0
x(x
3
1) = 0
x = 0 or 1.
x = 0 f(x) = 0 (0, 0)
x = 1 f(x) = 1 (1, 1)
The answer is A.
4 a


b


c


d


I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 115
e


f


g


h


5 a f(x) = 3 1 x +
Graph of f(x) = , x translated 1 unit right and 3 units
up.


Hence f(x) is a one-to-one function over its domain.
S = [1, )
b Graph is sketched using dotted line on axes above.
f(x) = 3 1: x + find f
1
(x)
x = 3 1 y +
1 y = x 3
y = (x 3)
2
+ 1
ran f = [3, )
dom f
1
= [3, )
Hence f
1
: [3, ) R, f
1
(x) = (x 3)
2
+ 1
6 a f(x) = (x 4)
2
5


Graph is one-to-one over [2, 4] and so a = 4.
b dom f = [2, 4]
x = 2 f(x) = 31
x = 4 f(x) = 5
ran f = [5, 31]
Hence
dom f
1
= [5, 31],
ran f = [2, 4]
f(x) = (x 4)
2
5: find f
1
(x)
x = (y 4)
2
5
x + 5 = (y 4)
2

y 4 = 5 x +
y = 4 5 x +
As ran f
1
= [2, 4] we take the negative square root.
y = 4 5 x +
Hence f
1
: [5, 31] R,
f
1
(x) = 4 5 x +
7 a


From the graph dom f = R
+

ran f
1
= dom f = R
+

f(x) =
1
:
x
find f
1
(x)
x =
1
y

x
2
=
2
1
y
| |
|
|
\ .

=
1
y

y =
2
1
x

Hence f
1
(x) =
2
1
x
, x R


Range is R
+
.
b f [f
1
(x)]
=
2
1
f
x
(
(


=
2
1
1
x

MM1 2 - 5 116 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
Now
2
1
x
=
1
x
if x > 0 or
1
x

if x < 0.
The domain of f
1
(x) is R

and so
1
x

is taken.
f [f
1
(x)] =
1
1
x


= x for x R


c f
1
[f(x)]
= f
1
1
x
(

(


=
2
1
1
x
| |

|
\ .

=
1
1
x

= 1
1
x

= x for x > 0.
d Both equate to x.
8 a


b f
1
exists if f(x) is one-to-one. Choose either the left half,
or the right half, that is, domain is (, 0] or [0, ).
c


d Find f
1
(x), given f(x) =
2
1
2 x +

x =
2
1
2 y +

y
2
+ 2 =
1
x

y
2
=
1
2
x

y =
1
2
x

Choose the positive square root, as the graph shows
f
1
(x) is positive.
f
1
(x) =
1
2
x

Find f [f
1
(x)]
f [f
1
(x)] =
1
2 f
x
| |
|
|
\ .

=
2
1
1
2 2
x
| |
+
|
|
\ .

=
1
1
2 2
x
| |
+
|
\ .

=
1
1
x

= 1
1
x

= x for x > 0
Find f
1
[f(x)]
f
1
[f(x)] =
1
2
1
2
f
x

| |
|
+ \ .

=
2
1
2
1
2 x

+

=
2
2
1 2
1
x +

=
2
2 2 x +
=
2
x
= x for x > 0.
Hence they are both equivalent and equal to x.
9 a


g(x) is an inverted parabola translated upwards 9 units.
For g
1
(x) to exist, we must restrict the domain of g so
that g(x) is a one-to-one function. Choose the left or right
half of the parabola, that is, domains (, 0] or [0, ).
Given the domain is [b, 8], we have a section of the right
half of the parabola. The smallest value of b is 0.
b Find g
1
, given g(x) = 9 x
2

x = 9 y
2

y
2
= 9 x
y = 9 x
Now
Dom g = [0, 8]
x = 0 g(x) = 9
x = 8 g(x) = 55
Ran g = [55, 9]
Hence
dom g
1
= [55, 9]
ran g
1
= [0, 8]
As ran g
1
is positive, we take the positive square root.
Hence g
1
: [55, 9] R, g
1
(x) = 9 x
c ran g
1
= dom g = [0, 8].
I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 117
10 g(x) =
2
3 4 x + defines a circle, radius 2 units,
translated 3 units upwards.


The two maximal domains are [2, 0] and [0, 2]
Choose the domain [2, 0] range = [3, 5]
dom g
1
= [3, 5]
ran g
1
= [2, 0]
Find the rule for g
1
(x):
x =
2
3 4 y +
x 3 =
2
4 y
4 y
2
= (x 3)
2

y
2
= 4 (x 3)
2

y =
2
4 ( 3) x
As ran g
1
is negative, choose the negative square root.
Hence g
1
: [3, 5] R,
g
1
(x) =
2
4 ( 3) x
Now choose the domain [0, 2] range = [3, 5]
dom g
1
= [3, 5]
ran g
1
= [0, 2]
Find the rule for g
1
(x): y =
2
4 ( 3) , x as before.
As ran g
1
is positive, choose the positive square root.
Hence g
1
: [3, 5] R,
g
1
(x) =
2
4 ( 3) x
The two inverse functions g
1
are:
g
1
: [3, 5] R, g
1
(x) =
2
4 ( 3) x
g
1
: [3, 5] R, g
1
(x) =
2
4 ( 3) . x
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a


b


2 a Bottom half of a semicircle, radius 6.


Domain = [6, 6]
Range = [6, 0]
b Exponential graph, dilated by a factor of 2 parallel to the
y-axis, translated 2 units to the right. The x-axis is an
asymptote.
At x = 0, y = 2e
2

y-intercept (0, 2e
2
)


Domain = R
Range = R
+

3 a


b


c


MM1 2 - 5 118 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
4 a f(x) = 3 log
e
(x + 4) is a log function reflected in the
x-axis and translated (4, 3). Hence its domain is (4, ).
As the log function is one-to-one, f(x) is defined over its
entire domain.
Domain = (4, )
b g(x) = (x 2)
2
is a parabola. A vertical line at x = 2
divides g(x) into two one-to-one functions. Hence g(x) is
one-to-one over (, 2] or [2, ).
c f(x) =
2
1
5
x



This graph shows that f(x) is one-to-one over R

or R
+
.
5 a f(x) = 2x 1
i


f(x) is a 1:1 function.
iii Let f(x) = y
inverse swap x and y
x = 2y 1
x + 1 = 2y
y =
1
2
x +

b f(x) = 2(x 1)
3
+ 1
i


f(x) is a 1:1 function
iii Let f(x) = y
inverse swap x and y
x = 2(y 1)
3
+ 1
x 1 = 2(y 1)
3

(y 1)
3
=
1
2
x

y 1 =
3
1
2
x

y =
3
1
1
2
x
+
c f(x) =
2
x x +
i


f(x) is a many: 1 function
ii cusps: (1, 0) and (0, 0)
restrict domain to [0, )
iii For the domain [0, ), f(x) = x
2
+ x
Let f(x) = y
inverse swap x and y
x = y
2
+ y
x = y
2
+ y +
1
4

1
4

x = (y +
1
2
)
2

1
4

x +
1
4
= (y +
1
2
)
2

(y +
1
2
)
2
= x +
1
4

y +
1
2
=
1
4
x +
y =
1 1
4 2
x +
y =
1 1
4 2
x + as dom f(x) = [0, )
d f(x) = 2 3 x
i


f(x) is a 1:1 function
iii Let f(x) = y
inverse swap x and y
x = 2 3 y
x + 3 = 2 y
2 y = (x + 3)
2

y = 2 (x + 3)
2

= 2 (x
2
+ 6x + 9)
= x
2
6x 7
The whole parabola is not needed, ran f(x) = [3, )
domain of inverse = [3, )
y = x
2
6x 7, x [3, )
e f(x) = 3e
x
+ 1
i


f(x) is a 1:1 function
iii Let f(x) = y
inverse swap x and y
I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 119
x = 3e
y
+ 1
x 1 = 3e
y

e
y
=
1
3
x

y =
1
log
3
e
x | |
|
\ .

f f(x) =
2
1
3( 2) x


i


f(x) is a 1:1 function
iii Let f(x) = y
inverse swap x and y
x =
2
1
3( 2) y


x + 1 =
2
3( 2) y

3(y 2) =
2
1 x +

y 2 =
2
3( 1) x +

y =
2
2
3( 1) x
+
+

g f(x) =
2
1
1
( 3) x
+
+

i


f(x) is a many:1 function
ii asymptote: x = 3 domain f(x) = (3, )
iii Let f(x) = y
inverse swap x and y
x =
2
1
1
( 3) y
+
+

x 1 =
2
1
( 3) y +

(y + 3)
2
=
1
1 x

y + 3 =
1
1 x


y + 3 =
1
1 x
(discard negative because
dom f(x) = (3, ))
y =
1
3
1 x


6 a f(x) = log
e
(x 2) + 1 is a log graph with an asymptote at
x = 2.
x-intercept (y = 0):
log
e
(x 2) + 1 = 0
log
e
(x 2) = 1
x 2 = e
1

x = 2 + e
1

y-intercept (x = 0):
There is no y-intercept.


Domain = (2, )
Range = R
b f(x) = log
e
(x 2) + 1: find f
1
(x)
x = log
e
(y 2) + 1
y 2 = e
x 1

y = 2 + e
x 1

Inverse function
f
1
(x) = 2 + e
x 1
, x R
c f
1
(m) = 3
2 + e
m 1
= 3
e
m 1
= 1
e
m 1
= e
0

m 1 = 0
m = 1
d


f
1
: Domain R; Range (2, )
e Mark (3, 1) on graph of f(x)
7 g(x) = x
2
+ 5x 1
=
2
5 25
1
2 4
x
| |
+
|
\ .

=
2
5 29
2 4
x
| |
+
|
\ .

g(x) is a parabola. A vertical line at x =
5
2
divides g(x) into
two one-to-one functions. Hence g(x) is one-to-one over
(,
5
2
]
b =
5
2

8 a a = 1 for horizontal asymptote using (0, 0)
1 + be
0
= 0
1 + b = 0
b = 1
b range h(x) =
2
1
0, 1
e
(

(


c let h(x) = y for inverse interchange x and y
x = 1 e
y

e
y
= 1 x
y = log
e
(1 x)
y = log
e
(1 x)
h
1
:
2
1
0, 1
e
(

(

R, h
1
(x) = log
e
(1 x)
MM1 2 - 5 120 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
d


9 f(x) = e
2x
1
a let f(x) = y for inverse interchange x and y
x = e
2y
1
e
2y
= x + 1
2y = log
e
(x + 1)
y =
1
log ( 1)
2
e
x +
f
1
: (1, ) R, f
1
(x) =
1
log ( 1)
2
e
x +
b


c f(f
1
(2x)) =
1
2 log (2 1)
2
1
e
x
e
| |
+
|
\ .

=
log (2 1)
1
e
x
e
+

=
1
log (2 1)
1
e
x
e

+

=
1
1
2 1 x

+

=
1 (2 1)
2 1
x
x
+
+

=
2
2 1
x
x

+

Multiple choice
1 Relation has coordinates (4, 0) and (0, 2)
Inverse relation has coordinates (0, 4) and (2, 0)
The answer is B.
2


The answer is E.
3 f(x) has an asymptote at y = 1.
f
1
(x) will have an asymptote at x = 1. The mirror image
of f(x) through y = x is graph C.
C
4 x
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 16 is a circle.
Many-to-many relation. Therefore the inverse will also
be a many-to-many relation
C
5 The x-intercept of f
1
(x) = y-intercept of f(x)
f(x) = 3 3 x
f(0) = 3 3
1.27
D
6 The y-intercept of f
1
(x) = x-intercept of f(x).
f(x) =
2
3
( 2) x
+


0 =
2
3
2 x
+


3 =
2
2 x

x 2 =
2
3


x =
2
2
3

+
=
4
3

A.
7 f(x) =
2
3
2 x
+


asymptotes: x = 2 and y = 3
For f
1
(x), asymptotes: x = 3 and y = 2
C
8 y =
2
4
:
x
find the inverse
x =
2
4
y

y
2
=
4
x

y =
2
x

The answer is A.
9 dom f
1
= ran f = R
+

The answer is C.
10


The function is defined except where the denominator is 0.
This occurs at x
2
1 = 0.
(x 1)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1, 1
Hence dom f = R\{1, 1}
The answer is D.
11 f(x) is a log graph, dilated by a factor of 4 parallel to the
y-axis, and translated 3 units left and 2 units down.
dom f = (3, )
The answer is D.
12 dom f
1
= ran f = R
The answer is C.
13 f(x) = 4 log
e
(x + 3) 2: find f
1
(x)
x = 4 log
e
(y + 3) 2

2
4
x +
= log
e
(y + 3)
y + 3 =
2
4
x
e
+ | |
|
\ .

I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 5 121
y =
2
4
3
x
e
+ | |
|
\ .

Dom f
1
= R (from question 7)
Hence f
1
: R R, f
1
(x) =
2
4
3
x
e
+ | |
|
\ .

The answer is B.
14 A function and its inverse must intersect on the line y = x
The answer is A.
15 f [f
1
(x)] = x

1
1
3
f f

( | |

| (
\ .
=
1
3

The answer is D.
16 Vertical lines as shown divide f(x) into three one-to-one
functions.


The right part has domain [2, ).
The answer is A.
17 f(x) = x
2
10x + 18
= (x 5)
2
7


The function is one-to-one, and hence has an inverse
function, over (, 5] or [5, ).
The answer is E.
Extended response
1 f(x) = 0.213x
2
+ 1.127x 2.124
a Let y = f(x)
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
Solve (0.213y
2
+ 1.127y 2.124 = x, y)
Write the solution as:
Solving 0.123y
2
+ 1.127y 2.124 = x for y gives:
y =
852 000 3 079 777 1127
426
x +

b Inverse is a one-to-many relation (doesnt pass vertical
line test)
c TP = (2.65, 3.61)
a = 2.65
d domain f
1
(x) = range f(x) = [3.61, )
range f
1
(x) = domain f(x) = [2.65, )
e Find intersection of f(x) and line y = x within domain
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
Solve (0.213x
2
+ 1.127x 2.124 = x, x)
Write the solution as:
Solving 0.213x
2
+ 1.127x 2.124 = x for x gives:
x = 2.87
2 a f(x) is an inverted parabola with turning point (0, 4)
f(x) = ax
2
+ 4
To find a, substitute the point (2, 2).
2 = a(2)
2
+ 4
2 = 4a + 4
6 = 4a
a =
3
2

Hence f(x) =
2
3
4
2
x +
b A lies on the line y = x
f(x) = x

2
3
4
2
x + = x

2
3
4
2
x x + = 0
3x
2
+ 2x 8 = 0
(3x 4)(x + 2) = 0
x =
4
3
, x = 2
We want the solution in the first quadrant, so choose
x =
4
3
.
Hence A =
4 4
,
3 3
| |
|
\ .

c dom f =
4
2,
3
(

(


ran f = [2, 4]
d

e Heart-shaped graph
f i To make f
1
(x) a function, we need to cut out the part of
f
1
(x) which lies on or right of x =
4
3
.
Required domain is
4
[ 2, )
3
.

4
3
is not included because f
1
has two points with this
x-coordinate.
ii f(x) =
2
3
4:
2
x + find f
1
(x)
x =
2
3
4
2
y +

2
( 4)
3
x = y
2

y =
2
( 4)
3
x
From the graph of f
1
, we can see that over
4
[ 2, )
3
,
y is negative
f
1
(x) =
2
( 4)
3
x
Hence f
1
:
4
[ 2, )
3
R, f
1
(x) =
2
( 4).
3
x
g i The inverse of f(x) is not a function over
4
, 4
3
(
(

.
MM1 2 - 5 122 I n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s
ii Using the same method as in part f, we obtain
y =
2
( 4)
3
x
In this region we require both the positive and negative
square roots. Hence the inverse relation here can be
called g(x), where
g:
4
, 2
3
(
(

R, g(x) =
2
( 4)
3
x .
3 a (2, 0.54) and (0, 0)
b Domain f(x) = R, Range f(x) = [0, )
c

d Domain f
1
(x) = [0, ), range f
1
(x) = R.
e (0.57, 0.57)
f (, 2]
g [0, 0.54]
4 a y = 6log 3
e
x


b horizontal asymptote at x = 3
a = 3
c Find intersection of g(x) and line y = x
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (6log 3 , )
e
x x x =
Write the solution as:
Solving 6log 3
e
x x = for x gives:
x = 5.50
d The graph of f(x) and its inverse must both touch the line
y = x at the same point. This means this line is a tangent to
both curves and therefore at this point, the gradient of
each is 1.

3
a
x
= 1
a = x 3
x = a + 3 [1]
and

1
x
a
e
a
= 1 [2]

x
a
e = a
e
x
= a
a

x = log
e
(a
a
)
[2] [1] gives log
e
(a
a
) a 3 = 0
On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (log
e
(a
a
) a 3 = 0, a)
Write the solution as:
Solving log
e
(a
a
) a 3 = 0, a for a gives:
a = 4.97
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 123
Exercise 6A Revision of
radians and the unit circle
1 a 3
c
=
180
3

| |

|
\ .

=
540

| |
|
\ .

= 171.89
b 5
c
=
5 180

| |
|
\ .

=
900

| |
|
\ .

= 286.48
c 4.8
c
=
4.8 180

| |
|
\ .

=
864

| |
|
\ .

= 275.02
d 2.56
c
=
180
2.56

| |

|
\ .

=
460.8

| |
|
\ .

= 146.68
e
c
7
20
| |
|
\ .
=
7 180
20

| |

|
\ .

= 63
f
c
3
10
| |
|
\ .
=
3 180
10

| |

|
\ .

= 54
g
c
5
6
| |
|
\ .
=
5 180
6

| |

|
\ .

= 150
h
c
5
4
| |
|
\ .
=
5 180
4

| |

|
\ .

= 225
2 a 5 =
c
5
180
| |

|
\ .

=
c
5
180


=
c
36


b 15 =
c
15
180
| |

|
\ .

=
15
180


=
c
12


c 120 =
c
120
180
| |

|
\ .

=
120
180


=
c
2
3


d 130 =
c
130
180
| |

|
\ .

=
130
180


=
c
13
18


e 63.9 =
c
63.9
180
| |

|
\ .

= 1.12
c

f 78.82 =
c
78.82
180
| |

|
\ .

= 1.38
c

g 235 =
c
235
180
| |

|
\ .

= 4.10
c

h 260 =
c
260
180
| |

|
\ .

= 4.54
c

i 310 =
c
310
180
| |

|
\ .

= 5.41
c

j 350 =
c
350
180
| |

|
\ .

= 6.11
c

3 a sin(0.4) = 0.389
b sin(0.8) = 0.717
c cos(1.4) = 0.170
d cos(1.7) = 0.129
e tan(2.9) = 0.246
f tan(2.4) = 0.916
g sin(75) = 0.966
h sin(68) = 0.927
i cos(160) = 0.940
j cos(185) = 0.996
k tan(265) = 11.430
l tan(240) = 1.732
4 a sin(0) = 0
b sin() = 0
c cos(2) = 1
d cos() = 1
e tan
2
| |
|
\ .
is undefined.
f
3
tan
2
| |
|
\ .
is undefined.
g sin(90) = 1
h sin(360) = 0
i cos(180) = 1
j cos(0) = 1
k tan(270) is undefined.
l tan(720) = 0
5 a sin
2
(20) + cos
2
(20) = 1
b cos
2
(50) + sin
2
(50) = 1
c sin
2
() + cos
2
() = 1
d sin
2
(2.5) + cos
2
(2.5) = 1
e
2
sin
2
| |
|
\ .
+
2
cos
2
| |
|
\ .
= 1
f
2
sin
2
| |
|
\ .
+
2
cos
2
| |
|
\ .
= 1
g 2 sin
2
() + 2 cos
2
()
= 2(sin
2
() + cos
2
())
= 2 1
= 2
h 5 sin
2
() + 5 cos
2
()
= 5(sin
2
() + cos
2
())
= 5 1
= 5
6 a sin(35) = 0.574
sin(70) = 0.940
sin(120) = 0.866
sin(150) = 0.500
sin(240) = 0.866
ORDER: sin(240), sin(150),
sin(35), sin(120), sin(70).
b cos(0.2) = 0.980
cos(1.5) = 0.071
cos(3.34) = 0.980
cos(5.3) = 0.554
cos(6.3) = 1.000
ORDER: cos(3.34), cos(1.5),
cos(5.3), cos(0.2), cos(6.3).
7 tan( ) =
sin( )
cos( )


=
8
17
15
17

=
8
15

8 tan(A) =
sin( )
cos( )
A
A

=
0.6
0.8

= 0.75 or
3
4



9
c
3

=
180
3

| |

|
\ .

=
180
3


= 60
The answer is D.
10 cos
2
() + sin
2
() = 1
cos
2
() = 1 sin
2
()
The answer is B.
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions
MM1 2 - 6 124 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

11 T = 15
4
3cos
12
| |
|
\ .

= 15 3cos
3
| |
|
\ .

= 15 3 0.5
= 15 1.5
= 13.5
The temperature after 4 hours is
13.5C.
t = 7, T = 15
7
3cos
12
| |
|
\ .

= 15 3cos(1.833)
= 15 3 0.26
= 15 + 0.78
= 15.78
The temperature at 9.00 am is
approximately 15.8C.
Exercise 6B Symmetry and
exact values
1 a sin (120) = sin(180 60)
= sin(60)
=
3
2

b cos (135) = cos(180 45)
= cos(45)
=
2
2

c tan (330) = tan(360 30)
= tan(30)
=
1
3

=
3
3

d cos (225) = cos(180 + 45)
= cos(45)
=
2
2

e sin (210) = sin(180 + 30)
= sin(30)
=
1
2

f tan (150) = tan(180 30)
= tan(30)
=
3
3

g sin (315) = sin(360 45)
= sin(45)
=
2
2

h cos (300) = cos(360 60)
= cos(60)
=
1
2

i tan (225) = tan(180 + 45)
= tan(45)
= 1
j cos (390) = cos(360 + 30)
= cos(30)
=
3
2

k sin(405) = sin(360 + 45)
= sin(45)
=
2
2

l tan(420) = tan(360 + 60)
= tan(60)
= 3
2 a
3
sin
4
| |
|
\ .
= sin
4

| |

|
\ .

= sin
4
| |
|
\ .

=
2
2

b
5
cos
6
| |
|
\ .
= cos
6

| |

|
\ .

= cos
6
| |
|
\ .

=
3
2

c
2
tan
3
| |
|
\ .
= tan
3

| |

|
\ .

= tan
3
| |
|
\ .

= 3
d
4
cos
3
| |
|
\ .
= cos
3

| |
+
|
\ .

= cos
3
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

e
5
sin
4
| |
|
\ .
= sin
4

| |
+
|
\ .

= sin
4
| |
|
\ .

=
2
2

f
7
tan
6
| |
|
\ .
= tan
6

| |
+
|
\ .

= tan
6
| |
|
\ .

=
3
3

g
11
sin
6
| |
|
\ .
= sin 2
6

| |

|
\ .

= sin
6
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

h
5
cos
3
| |
|
\ .
= cos 2
3

| |

|
\ .

= cos
3
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

i
7
tan tan 2
4 4

| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

= tan
4
| |
|
\ .

= 1
j
9
cos cos 2
4 4

| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .


cos
4
| |
=
|
\ .


2
2
=

k
13
sin
6
| |
|
\ .
= sin 2
6

| |
+
|
\ .

= sin
6
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

l
7
tan
6
| |
|
\ .
= tan
6

| |
+
|
\ .

= tan
6
| |
|
\ .

=
3
3

3 a sin( x) = sin(x)
= 0.3
b cos( a) = cos(a)
= 0.5
c tan(2 b) = tan(b)
= 2.4
d cos( x) = cos(x)
=
2
1 sin x
=
2
1 (0.3)
= 1 0.09
= 0.91
=
91
100

=
91
10

e sin( a) = sin(a)
=
2
1 cos a
=
2
1 0.5
= 1 0.25
= 0.75
=
3
4

=
3
2

f tan( + b) = tan(b)
= 2.4
g sin(2 x) = sin(x)
= 0.3
h cos(2 a) = cos(a)
= 0.5
i tan( b) = tan(b)
= 2.4
j cos(2 + x) = cos(x)
=
91
10
(from part d)
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 125
k sin(2 + a) = sin(a)
=
3
2
(from part e)
l tan(2 + b) = tan(b)
= 2.4
m sin(3 x) = sin( x)
= sin(x)
= 0.3
n cos(3 + a) = cos( + a)
= cos(a)
= 0.5
o tan(3 b) = tan( b)
= tan(b)
= 2.4
4 tan() = sin() cos()
=
7
25

24
25

=
7
25

25
24

=
7
24

sin
2
() =
2
7
25
| |
|
\ .

=
49
625

cos
2
() =
2
24
25
| |
|
\ .

=
576
625

sin
2
() + cos
2
() =
49
625
+
576
625

=
625
625

= 1
5 a
2

< x < and so both cos(x) and


tan(x) are negative.
cos(x) =
3
2

tan(x) =
1
3

=
3
3



b < x <
3
2

, 3rd quadrant
sin(x) =
1
2

tan(x) = 1


c
3
2

< x < 2, 4th quadrant


cos(x) =
1
2

tan(x) = 3


d < x <
3
2

, 3rd quadrant
sin(x) =
3
2

cos(x) =
1
2



6 a sin(30) = sin(30)
=
1
2

b cos(45) = cos(45)
=
2
2

c tan(60) = tan(60)
= 3
d cos(150) = cos(150)
= cos(180 30)
= cos(30)
=
3
2

e sin(120) = sin(120)
= sin(180 60)
= sin(60)
=
3
2

f tan(135) = tan(135)
= tan(180 45)
= (tan 45)
= tan(45)
= 1
g sin(225) = sin(225)
= sin(180 + 45)
= (sin 45)
= sin(45)
=
2
2

h cos(210) = cos(210)
= cos(180 + 30)
= cos(30)
=
3
2

i tan(240) = tan(240)
= tan(180 + 60)
= tan(60)
=
3

j cos(330) = cos(330)
= cos(360 30)
= cos(30)
=
3
2

k sin(315) = sin(315)
= sin(360 45)
= (sin 45)
= sin(45)
=
2
2

l tan(300) = tan(300)
= tan(360 60)
= (tan 60)
= tan(60)
=
3

m sin(420) = sin(420)
= sin(360 + 60)
= sin(60)
=
3
2

n cos(390) = cos(390)
= cos(360 + 30)
= cos(30)
=
3
2

o tan(405) = tan(405)
= tan(360 + 45)
= tan(45)
= 1
7 (sin() + cos())
2
+ (sin() cos())
2

= sin
2
() + 2 sin() cos() + cos
2
()
+ sin
2
() 2 sin() cos() + cos
2
()
= 2 sin
2
() + 2 cos
2
()
= 2(sin
2
() + cos
2
())
= 2 1
= 2
8 a sin
3
| |

|
\ .
= sin
3
| |
|
\ .

=
3
2

b cos
6
| |

|
\ .
= cos
6
| |
|
\ .

=
3
2

c tan
4
| |
|
\ .
= tan
4
| |
|
\ .

= 1
d cos
3
4
| |

|
\ .
= cos
3
4
| |
|
\ .

= cos
4

| |

|
\ .

= cos
4
| |
|
\ .

=
2
2

MM1 2 - 6 126 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

e sin
2
3
| |

|
\ .
= sin
2
3
| |
|
\ .

= sin
3

| |

|
\ .

= sin
3
| |
|
\ .

=
3
2

f tan
5
6
| |

|
\ .
= tan
5
6
| |
|
\ .

= tan
6

| |

|
\ .

= tan
6
| |

|
\ .

= tan
6
| |
|
\ .

=
3
3

g sin
7
6
| |

|
\ .
= sin
7
6
| |
|
\ .

= sin
6

| |
+
|
\ .

= sin
6
| |

|
\ .

= sin
6
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

h cos
5
4
| |
|
\ .
= cos
5
4
| |
|
\ .

= cos
4

| |
+
|
\ .

= cos
4
| |
|
\ .

=
2
2

i tan
4
3
| |

|
\ .
= tan
4
3
| |
|
\ .

= tan
3

| |
+
|
\ .

= tan
3
| |
|
\ .

= 3
j cos
5
3
| |

|
\ .
= cos
5
3
| |
|
\ .

= cos 2
3

| |

|
\ .

= cos
3
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

k sin
13
6
| |

|
\ .
= sin
13
6
| |
|
\ .

= sin 2
6

| |
+
|
\ .

= sin
6
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

l tan
9
4
| |

|
\ .
= tan
9
4
| |
|
\ .

= tan 2
4

| |
+
|
\ .

= tan
4
| |
|
\ .

= 1
9 cos
2
4
| |

|
\ .
+ sin
2
4
| |

|
\ .

=
2
cos
4
| |
|
\ .
+
2
sin
4
| |

|
\ .

=
2
2
2
| |
|
|
\ .
+
2
2
2
| |

|
|
\ .

=
2
4
+
2
4

=
4
4

= 1
10 a sin
2
x
| |

|
\ .
= cos(x)
= 0.7
b cos
3
2

| |
+
|
\ .
= sin( )
= 0.3
c tan
2

| |

|
\ .
= cot()
=
1
tan ( )

=
1
0.4

= 2.5
d cos
2

| |
+
|
\ .
= sin( )
= 0.3
e sin
3
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .
= cos(x)
= 0.7
f tan
2

| |
+
|
\ .
= cot()
=
1
tan( )


=
1
0.4


= 2.5
g sin
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .
= cos(x)
= 0.7
h cos
3
2

| |

|
\ .
= sin()
= 0.3
i tan
3
2

| |

|
\ .
= cot()
=
1
tan( )

=
1
0.4

= 2.5
j cos
3
2

| |
+
|
\ .
= sin()
= 0.3
k sin
3
2
x
| |

|
\ .
= cos(x)
= 0.7
l tan
3
2

| |
+
|
\ .
= cot()
= 2.5
11 3 sin 2
12
| |

|
\ .

= 3 sin
6
| |
|
\ .

= 3 0.5
= 1.5
3
or
2
| |
|
\ .

The answer is C.
12 1 sin
2
2

| |

|
\ .

= cos
2
2

| |

|
\ .

The answer is D.
13 a v(0) = 10 + 2 sin(0)
= 10 cm/s
b v(5) = 10 + 2 sin
5
6
| |
|
\ .

= 10 + 2 sin
6

| |

|
\ .

= 10 + 2 sin
6
| |
|
\ .

= 10 + 2 0.5
= 10 + 1
= 11 cm/s
c Maximum value of sin
6
t | |
|
\ .
is 1
Max v = 10 + 2 1
= 10 + 2
= 12 cm/s
14 H = 0.4 cos
12
t | |
|
\ .
+ 0.5
a t = 0 so H = 0.4 cos(0) + 0.5
= 0.4 + 0.5
= 0.9 m
b t = 8 so H = 0.4 cos
8
12
| |
|
\ .
+ 0.5
= 0.4 cos
2
3
| |
|
\ .
+ 0.5
= 0.4 cos
3

| |

|
\ .
+ 0.5
= 0.4 cos
3
| |
|
\ .
+ 0.5
=
0.4
2
+ 0.5
= 0.3 m
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 127
c t = 20 so H = 0.4 cos
20
12
| |
|
\ .
+ 0.5
H = 0.4 cos 2
3

| |

|
\ .
+ 0.5
= 0.4 cos
3
| |
|
\ .
+ 0.5
= 0.7 m
Exercise 6C Trigonometric
equations
1 a cos( ) = 0
=
2

,
3
2


b sin( ) =
1
2

Basic angle is
4


sin is negative in 3rd and 4th
quadrants.
= +
4

, 2
4


=
5
4

,
7
4


c cos( ) =
1
2

Basic angle is
4


cos is positive in 1st and 4th
quadrants.
=
4

, 2
4


=
4

,
7
4


d sin( ) = 1
=
3
2


e cos( ) =
3
2

Basic angle is
6


cos is negative in 2nd and 3rd
quadrants.
=
6

, +
6


=
5
6

,
7
6


2 a sin( ) = 1
= 90
b cos( ) =
1
2

Basic angle is 60
cos is positive in 1st and 4th
quadrants.
= 60, (360 60)
= 60, 300
c sin() =
3
2

Basic angle is 60
sin is positive in the 1st and 2nd
quadrants.
= 60, (180 60)
= 60, 120
d cos() = 1
= 180
e sin() =
1
2

Basic angle is 45
sin is positive in 1st and 2nd
quadrants.
= 45, (180 45)
= 45, 135
3 a cos(x) = 0.6591
Basic angle is 0.8512
cos(x) is negative is 2nd and 3rd
quadrants.
x = 0.8512, + 0.8512
= 2.2904, 3.9928
x = 2.2904, 3.9928, 2.2904 + 2,
3.9928 + 2
x = 2.2904, 3.9928, 8.5736,
10.2760
b sin(x) = 0.9104
Basic angle is 1.1442
sin(x) is positive in 1st and 2nd
quadrants.
x = 1.1442, 1.1442
= 1.1442, 1.9973
x = 1.1442, 1.9973, 1.1442 + 2,
1.9973 + 2
x = 1.1442, 1.9973, 7.4274,
8.2805
c cos(x) = 0.48
Basic angle is 1.0701
cos(x) is positive in 1st and 4th
quadrants.
x = 1.0701, 2 1.0701
= 1.0701, 5.2130
x = 1.0701, 5.2130, 1.0701 + 2,
5.2130 + 2
x = 1.0701, 5.2130, 7.3533,
11.4962
d sin(x) = 0.371
Basic angle is 0.3801
sin(x) is negative in 3rd and 4th
quadrants.
x = + 0.3801, 2 0.3801
= 3.5217, 5.9031
x = 3.5217, 5.9031, 3.5217 + 2,
5.9031 + 2
= 3.5217, 5.9031, 9.8049,
12.1863
4 a sin(x) = 0.2686
Basic angle is 15.58
sin(x) is positive in 1st and 2nd
quadrants.
x = 15.58, (180 15.58)
= 15.58, 164.42
b cos(x) = 0.7421
Basic angle is 42.09
cos(x) is negative is 2nd and 3rd
quadrants.
x = (180 42.09),
(180 + 42.09)
= 137.91, 222.09
c sin(x) = 0.5 + 32
Basic angle is 32.90
sin(x) is negative in 3rd and 4th
quadrants.
x = (180 + 32.90),
(360 32.90)
= 212.90, 327.10
d cos(x) = 0.1937
Basic angle is 78.83
cos(x) is positive in 1st and 4th
quadrants.
x = 78.83, (360 78.83)
= 78.83, 281.17
5 a 2 sin(x) = 1
sin(x) =
1
2

Basic angle is
6


sin(x) > 0 in quadrants 1 and 2.
x =
6

,
6


=
6

,
5
6


b 3 cos(x) = 0
cos(x) = 0
x =
2

,
3
2


c 2 sin(x) = 3
sin(x) =
3
2

Basic angle is
3


sin(x) < 0 in quadrants 3 and 4.
x = +
3

, 2
3


=
4
3

,
5
3


d 2 cos(x)= 1
cos(x) =
1
2

Basic angle is
4


cos(x) > 0 in quadrants 1 and 4.
x =
4

, 2
4


=
4

,
7
4


6 a cos(2x) = 1, 0 2x 720
Basic angle is 0
2x = 0, 360, 720
x = 0, 180, 360
b 2 sin(2x) = 1,
0 2x 720
sin(2x) =
1
2

Basic angle is 30
Sine is negative in the 3rd and 4th
quadrants.
2x = 180 + 30, 360 30, 360
+ 180 + 30, 360 + 360
30
= 210, 330, 570, 690
x = 105, 165, 285, 345
c 2 cos(3x) = 2 , 0 3x 1080
cos(3x) =
2
2

MM1 2 - 6 128 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

Basic angle is 45
Cosine is negative in 2nd and 3rd
quadrants.
3x = 180 45, 180 + 45, 360
+ 180 45, 360 + 180
+ 45, 720 + 180 45,
720 + 180 + 45
= 135, 225, 495, 585,
855, 945
x = 45, 75, 165, 195, 285,
315
d 2 sin(3x) = 3 , 0 3x 1080
sin(3x) =
3
2

Basic angle is 60
Sine is positive in the 1st and 2nd
quadrants.
3x = 60, 180 60, 360 + 60,
360 + 120, 720 + 60,
720 + 120
= 60, 120, 420, 480, 780,
840
x = 20, 40, 140, 160, 260,
280
e sin(3x) = 0.1254,
0 3x 1080
Basic angle is 7.20
Sine is negative in the 3rd and 4th
quadrants.
3x = 180 + 7.20, 360 7.20,
360 + 187.20, 360 +
352.80, 720 + 187.20,
720 + 352.80
= 187.20, 352.80, 547.20,
712.80, 907.20, 1072.80
x = 62.40, 117.60, 182.40,
237.60, 302.40, 357.60
f 3 cos(2x) = 0.5787,
0 2x 720
cos(2x) = 0.1929
Basic angle is 78.88
Cosine is positive in the 1st and
4th quadrants.
2x = 78.88, 360 78.88, 360
+ 78.88, 360 + 281.12
= 78.88, 281.12, 438.88,
641.12
x = 39.44, 140.56, 219.44,
320.56
g 4 sin
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
= 0.913,
0
1
2
x 180
sin
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
= 0.228 25
Basic angle is 13.194

1
2
x = 13.194, 180 13.194
= 13.194, 166.806
x = 26.39, 333.61
h 2 cos(x) = 0.2751,
0 x 360
cos(x) = 0.1945
Basic angle is 78.78
Cosine is negative in the 2nd and
3rd quadrants.
x = 180 78.78, 180 + 78.78
= 101.22, 258.78
7 a 4 sin(x) + 2 = 6
4 sin(x) = 4
sin(x) = 1
x =
2


b 3 cos(x) 3 = 0
3 cos(x) = 3
cos(x) = 1
x = 0, 2
c cos
2
x | |
|
\ .
+ 4 = 4.21, 0
2
x

cos
2
x | |
|
\ .
= 0.21

2
x
= 1.3592
x = 2.7184
d sin
3
x | |
|
\ .
+ 5 = 5.32, 0
3
x

2
3


sin
3
x | |
|
\ .
= 0.32

3
x
= 0.325 73
x = 0.9772
e 2 sin(3x) 5 = 4, 0 3x 6
2 sin(3x) = 1
sin(3x) =
1
2

Basic angle =
6


Sine is positive in the 1st and 2nd
quadrants.
3x =
6

,
6

, 2 +
6

,
2 +
6

, 4 +
6

,
4 +
6


=
6

,
5
6

,
13
6

,
17
6

,
25
6

,
29
6


x =
18

,
5
18

,
13
18

,
17
18

,
25
18

,
29
18

.
f 2 cos(3x) + 2 = 3, 0 3x 6
2 cos(3x) = 1
cos(3x) =
1
2

Basic angle is
4


Cosine is positive in 1st and 4th
quadrants.
3x =
4

, 2
4

, 2 +
4

, 2 + 2

4

, 4 +
4

, 4 + 2
4


=
4

,
7
4

,
9
4

,
15
4

,
17
4

,
23
4


x =
12

,
7
12

,
9
12

,
15
12

,
17
12

,
23
12


g 2 cos(2x) + 3 = 0, 0 2x 4
2 cos(2x) = 3
cos(2x) =
3
2

Basic angle is
6


Cosine is negative in 2nd and 3rd
quadrants.
2x =
6

, +
6

, 2 +
6

,
2 + +
6


=
5
6

,
7
6

,
17
6

,
19
6


x =
5
12

,
7
12

,
17
12

,
19
12


h
1
3
sin
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
1 = 0.8039,
0
1
2
x

1
3
sin
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
= 0.1961
sin
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
= 0.5883

1
2
x = 0.628 95, 0.628 95
= 0.628 95, 2.512 64
= 1.2579, 5.0253
8 a sin(x) = cos(x), 0 x 2
tan(x) = 1
Basic angle =
4


x =
4

, +
4


=
4

,
5
4


Sum =
4

+
5
4


=
3
2


b sin(2x) = cos(2x), 0 x 2
tan(2x) = 1, 0 2x 4
Basic angle =
4


2x =
4

, +
4

, 2 +
4

, 3 +
4


=
4

,
5
4

,
9
4

,
13
4


x =
8

,
5
8

,
9
8

,
13
8


Sum =
8

+
5
8

+
9
8

+
13
8


=
28
8


=
7
2


Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 129
c sin(2x) = 3 cos(2x), 0 x 2
tan(2x) = 3 , 0 2x 4
Basic angle =
3


2x =
3

, +
3

, 2 +
3

, 3 +
3


=
3

,
4
3

,
7
3

,
10
3


x =
6

,
2
3

,
7
6

,
5
3


Sum =
6

+
2
3

+
7
6

+
5
3


=
22
6


=
11
3


d 3 sin(3x) = cos(3x), 0 x 2
3 tan(3x) = 1, 0 3x 6
tan(3x) =
1
3

Basic angle =
6


3x =
6

, +
6

, 2 +
6

, 3 +
6

,
4 +
6

, 5 +
6


=
6

,
7
6

,
13
6

,
19
6

,
25
6

,

31
6


x =
18

,
7
18

,
13
18

,
19
18

,
25
18

,

31
18


Sum =
18

+
7
18

+
13
18

+
19
18


+
25
18

+
31
18


=
96
18

=
16
3


e sin 3x + 2 cos 3x = 0, 0 x 2
tan 3x + 2 = 0, 0 3x 6
tan 3x = 2
Basic angle = 1.107 15
3x = 1.107 15, 2 1.107 15,
3 1.107 15, 4 1.107 15,
5 1.107 15, 6 1.107 15
= 2.0344, 5.1760, 8.3176,
11.4592, 14.6008, 17.7424
x = 0.6781, 1.7253, 2.7725,
3.8197, 4.8669, 5.9141
Sum = 19.7766
f sin(x) + 3 cos(x) = 0, 0 x 2
tan(x) + 3 = 0
tan(x) = 3
Basic angle = 1.24905
Tan is negative in the 2nd and 4th
quadrants.
x = 1.24905, 2 1.24905
= 1.8925, 5.0341
Sum = 6.9266
9 a t = 0, x = 3 + 4 sin 0
= 3 + 0
= 3 m.
The particle is 3 metres from O
when it begins to move.
b x = 0, 3 + 4 sin(2t) = 0
4 sin(2t) = 3
sin(2t) =
3
4
= 0.75
2t = + 0.848
= 3.990
t = 1.99 seconds
The particle first reaches O after
1.99 seconds.
10 a 2cos(x) 3 = 0
cos(x) =
3
2

x = 2 , 2
6 6
n n

+ +
x =
1 12 12 1
,
6 6
n n

+ | | | |
| |
\ . \ .

n = 1, x =
11
6


n = 0, x = ,
6 6


n = 1, x =
11
6


solutions for 2 x 2 are:
x =
11 11
, , ,
6 6 6 6


b tan(x) =
1
3

x =
6
n

+
n = 2, x =
11
6


n = 1, x =
5
6


n = 0, x =
6


n = 1, x =
7
6


solutions for 2 x 2 are:
x =
11 5 7
, , ,
6 6 6 6


c 2sin( ) x = 1
sin(x) =
1
2

x =
3
2 , 2
4 4
nx n

+ +
x =
8 1 8 3
,
4 4
n n

+ + | | | |
|
\ . \ .

n = 1, x =
7 5
,
4 4


n = 0, x =
4



n = 1, x =
3
4


solution for 2 x 2 are:
x =
7 5 3
, , ,
4 4 4 4


11 2 sin(2x) 1 = 0
sin(2x) =
1
2

2x =
5
2 , 2
6 6
n n

+ +
x =
12 1 12 5
,
12 12
n n

+ + | | | |
| |
\ . \ .

n = 1
x =
11 7
,
12 12


n = 0
x =
5
,
12 12


solution for n x are:
x =
11 7 5
, , ,
12 12 12 12


12 2cos(3x) 1 = 0
cos(3x) =
1
2

3x = 2 , 2 ,
3 3
n n

+ +
x =
2 2
,
3 9 9 3
n n
+
x =
6 1 6 1
,
9 9
n n

+ | | | |
| |
\ . \ .

n = 1
x =
7 5
,
9 9


n = 0
x = ,
9 9


n = 1
x =
5 7
,
9 9


solution for x are:
x =
7 5 5 7
, , , , ,
9 9 9 9 9 9


13 a 3sin( ) x = cos(x)
3 tan( ) x = 1
tan(x) =
1
3

x =
6
n

+
n = 0
x =
6


n = 1
x =
7
6


solutions for 0 x 2 are:
x =
7
,
6 6


b sin(2x) = cos(2x)
tan(2x) = 1
2x =
4
n

+
MM1 2 - 6 130 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

x =
8 2
n
+
x =
1 4
8
n

+ | |
|
\ .

n = 0, x =
8


n = 1, x =
5
8


n = 2, x =
9
8


n = 3, x =
13
8


solutions for 0 x 2 are:
x =
5 9 13
, , ,
8 8 8 8


c 3sin(3 ) x = cos(3x)
3 tan(3 ) x = 1
tan(3x) =
1
3


3x =
6
n

+
x =
18 3
n
+
x =
6 1
18
n

| |
|
\ .

n = 1, x =
5
18


n = 2, x =
11
18


n = 3, x =
17
18


n = 4, x =
25
18


n = 5, x =
29
18


n = 6, x =
35
18


solutions for 0 x 2 are:
x =
5 11 17 25 29 35
, , , , ,
18 18 18 18 18 18


14 sin(2x) + sin(3x) =
3
2

On a calculator page, complete the
entry line as:
Solve (sin(2x) + sin(3x) =
3
, )
2
x

Write the solution as:
Solving sin(2x) + sin(3x) =
3
2
for
x gives
x = 2.0944, 1.5116, 0.1799,
1.0472
Exercise 6D Trigonometric
graphs
1 a y = cos(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
b y = sin(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
c y = 4 sin(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 4
d y =
1
3
cos(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude =
1
3

e y = 2 cos(3x)
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 2
f y = 3 sin(2x)
Period =
2
2

=
Amplitude = 3
g y = 3 sin
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .

Period =
2
1
2

= 4
Amplitude = 3
h y = 2 cos
1
3
x
| |
|
\ .

Period =
2
1
3

= 6
Amplitude = 2
i y =
1
3
cos(2x)
Period =
2
2

=
Amplitude =
1
3

j y = 4 sin(3x)
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 4
2 a y =
2
3
cos()
Period = 2
Amplitude =
2
3


Range =
2 2
,
3 3
(

(


b y = 4 sin()
Period = 2
Amplitude = 4

Range = [4, 4]
c y = 3 sin(2)
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude = 3

Range = [3, 3]
d y = 2 cos(3)
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 2

Range = [2, 2]
e y =
1
2
cos(3)
Period =
2
3


Amplitude =
1
2


Range =
1 1
,
2 2
(

(


f y =
1
3
sin(2 )
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude =
1
3

Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 131

Range =
1 1
,
3 3
(

(


g y = 4 sin
1
2

| |
|
\ .

Period =
2
1
2


= 4
Amplitude = 4

Range = [4, 4]
h y = 3 cos
1
3

| |
|
\ .

Period =
2
1
3


= 6
Amplitude = 3

Range = [3, 3]
3 f(x) = 4 cos(3), 0 2
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 4


Range = [4, 4]
4 y = 2 sin(2x), x
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude = 2


Range = [2, 2]
5 a 5 sin
3
x
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 3

3

left, up 3
b y = cos
2
x
| |

|
\ .
+ 1

2

right, up 1
c y = 3 cos
4
x
| |

|
\ .
2

4

right, down 2
d y = 2 sin
3
x
| |
+
|
\ .
1

3

left, down 1.
6 a y = sin(x) + 1
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
Translation: up 1

Range = [0, 2]
b y = cos(x) 1
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
Translation: 1 down

Range = [2, 0]
c y = 2 cos(x) 2
Period = 2
Amplitude = 2
Translation: 2 down.

Range = [4, 0]
d y = 2 sin(x) + 3
Period = 2
Amplitude = 2
Translation: up 3.

Range = [1, 5]
e y = sin(3x) 1
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 1
Translation: down 1

Range = [2, 0]
f y = cos(2x) + 1
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude = 1
Translation: up 1

Range = [0, 2]
MM1 2 - 6 132 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

g y = 3 cos(3x) 2
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 3
Translation: 2 down

Range = [5, 1]
h y =
1
2
sin(2x) + 3
Period =
2
2

=
Amplitude =
1
2

Translation: up 3

Range = [2.5, 3.5]
i y = 3 sin
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 4
Period =
2
1
2


= 4
Amplitude = 3
Translation: up 4

Range = [1, 7]
j y = 2 cos
1
3
x
| |
|
\ .
1
Period =
2
1
3


= 6
Amplitude = 2
Translation: down 1

Range = [3, 1]
7 a y = sin(
4

)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1





b y = cos( +
2

)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
Translation: left
2





c y = 3 cos(
3

)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 3
Translation: right
3



d y = 2 sin(
4

)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 2
Translation: Right
4





e y = 2 sin 2( +
2

)
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude = 2
Translation: Left
2

.

f y = 3 cos 3
3

| |
+
|
\ .

Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 3
Translation: Left
3



Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 133
g y = cos 3
6

| |

|
\ .
+ 1
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 1
Translation: Right
6

, up 1.



h y = 2 sin 2
2

| |

|
\ .
2
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude = 2
Translation: Right
2

, down 2.



i y = 2 sin
4

| |

|
\ .
1
Period = 2
Amplitude = 2
Translation:
4

right, 1 down.





j y = cos
1
2
( ) + 1
Period =
2
1
2


= 4
Amplitude = 1
Translation: Right , up 1.





8 a Period =
Amplitude = 4
Range = [4, 4]
b Period = 4
Amplitude = 3
Range = [3, 3]
c Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 2
Range = [2, 2]
d Period = 6
Amplitude = 1
Range = [1, 1]
e Period =
Amplitude = 3
Range = [2, 4]
f Period =
2


Amplitude = 5
Range = [7, 3]
g Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
Range = [1, 1]
h Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
Range = [1, 1]
9 a Max = 1
Min = 1
b Max = 1
Min = 1
c Max = 3
Min = 3
d Max = 2
Min = 2
e Max = 2
Min = 2
f Max = 3
Min = 3
g Max = 1 + 4
= 5
Min = 1 4
= 3
h Max = 1 2
= 1
MM1 2 - 6 134 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

Min = 1 2
= 3
i Max = 2 3
= 1
Min = 2 3
= 5
j Max = 4 + 1
= 5
Min = 4 + 1
= 3
k Max =
1
2
+ 2
= 2
1
2

Min =
1
2
+ 2
= 1
1
2

l Max =
1
3
4
= 3
2
3

Min =
1
3
4
= 4
1
3

10 a y = cos(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1

Range = [1, 1]
b y = sin(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1

Range = [1, 1]
c y = 2 sin(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 2

Range = [2, 2]
d y = 3 cos(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 3

Range = [3, 3]
e y = 3 cos(2x)
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude = 3

Range = [3, 3]
f y = sin(3x)
Period =
2
3


Amplitude = 1

Range = [1, 1]
g y = 1 4 sin(x)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 4



Range = [3, 5]
h y = 2 cos(2x) 2
Period =
2
2


=
Amplitude = 2



Range = [4, 0]
i y =
1
2
cos 3(x + ) + 1
Period =
2
3


Amplitude =
1
2


y =
1
2
cos 3(x + ) + 1
Translation: Left , up 1.


Range =
1 1
, 1
2 2
(
(


j y = 2 sin(x 2)
Period = 2
Amplitude = 1
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 135

Translation: Right 2 (No effect),
up 2.

Range = [1, 3]
11 y = sin
3
x
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 1
12 y = 2 cos 3
4
x
| |

|
\ .
2 + 3
= 2 cos 3
4
x
| |

|
\ .
+ 1
13 y = 3 sin
3
x

| |
+
|
\ .
+ 1 3
= 3 sin
2
3
x
| |

|
\ .
2
14 a Amplitude = 1
b Period = 12
c Max = 3 metres
d Min = 1 metre
e Max at 3 am, 3 pm.
f Min at 9 am, 9 pm.
g A = 1

2
a

= 12
12a = 2
a =
6


B = 2
Rule is y = sin
6
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 2
Exercise 6E Graphs of the
tangent function
1 a y = 4 tan(x)
n = 1; Period =
n


=
Asymptote is at
2




b y = tan(2x)
n = 2; Period =
n


=
2


Asymptote is at
4




c y = tan(3x)
n = 3; Period =
n


=
3


Asymptote is at
6


Graph is reflected in the x-axis


d y = 2 tan(4x)
n = 4; Period =
n


=
4


Asymptote is at
8




e y = tan
1
4
x
| |
|
\ .

n =
1
4
; Period =
n


=
1
4


= 4
Asymptote is at 2
Graph is reflected in the x-axis


f y = 2 tan
3
x | |
|
\ .

n =
1
3
; Period =
n


=
1
3


= 3
Asymptote is at
3
2


Graph is reflected in the x-axis


g y = 3 tan
2
x | |
|
\ .

n =
1
2
; Period =
n


=
1
2


= 2
Asymptote is at


h y = 5 tan(2x)
n = 2; Period =
n


=
2


Asymptote is at
4


Graph is reflected in the x-axis


i y =
1
2
tan(4x)
n = 4; Period =
n


=
4


Asymptote is at
8


Graph is reflected in the x-axis


j y =
1
3
tan
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .

n =
1
2
; Period =
n


=
1
2


= 2
Asymptote is at
MM1 2 - 6 136 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s



2 a y = 2 tan(3x)
i n = 3; Period =
n


=
3


ii Dilated by a factor of 2 parallel
to the y-axis and by a factor of
1
3
parallel to the x-axis.
b y = tan(4x) + 1
i n = 4; Period =
n


=
4


ii Reflected in the x-axis, dilated
by a factor of
1
4
parallel to the
x-axis and translated 1 unit up.
c y = 3 tan(2x) 4
i n = 2; Period =
n


=
2


ii Dilated by a factor of 3 parallel
to the y-axis and by a factor of
1
2
parallel to the x-axis.
Translated 4 units down.
d y = tan
1
2
x
| |
|
\ .
2
i n =
1
2
; Period =
n


= 2
ii Dilated by a factor of 2 parallel to
the x-axis, reflected in the x-axis
and translated 2 units down.
e y = 5 tan
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .

i n = 1; Period =
n


=
ii Dilated by a factor of 5 parallel
to the y-axis, reflected in the
x-axis and translated
2

units left.
f y = tan 2
4
x
| |

|
\ .

i n = 2; Period =
n


=
2


ii Dilated by a factor of
1
2
parallel
to the x-axis and translated
4


units right.
g y =
1
4
tan 3
6
x
| |
+
|
\ .

i n = 3; Period =
n


=
3


ii Dilated by a factor of
1
4
parallel
to the y-axis, dilated by a factor
of
1
3
parallel to the x-axis and
translated
6

units to the left.


h y = 6
1
2
tan
3
x | |
|
\ .

i n =
1
3
; Period =
n


=
1
3


= 3
ii Dilated by a factor of
1
2
parallel
to the y-axis, dilated by a factor
of 3 parallel to the x-axis and
reflected in the x-axis.
Translated 6 units up.
i y = tan 4
12
x
| |

|
\ .

1
3

i n = 4; Period =
n


=
4


ii Dilated by a factor of
1
4
parallel
to the x-axis. Translated
12


units to the right and
1
3
units
down.
j y = 2 tan
3
x
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 5
i n = 1; Period =
n


=
ii Dilated by a factor of 2 parallel
to the y-axis. Translated
3


units to the left and 5 units up.
3 a y = tan(x) + 2, 0 x
n = 1; Period =
Translation 2 units up


b y = tan(2x) 3, 0 x
n = 2; Period =
2


Translation 3 units down


c y = tan
4
x
| |
+
|
\ .
, 0 x
n = 1; Period =
Reflection in the x-axis.
Translation
4

units to the left.


Asymptote is at
2


=
4




d y = 2 tan
2
x
| |

|
\ .
, 0 x
n = 1; Period =
Dilation by a factor of 2 parallel to
the y-axis. Translation
2

units to
the right.
Asymptotes at 0 and


e y = tan
1
4
(x ), 0 x
n =
1
4
; Period = 4
Dilation by a factor of 4 parallel to
the x-axis, reflection in the x-axis
and translation units to the right.
There are no asymptotes in this
domain.


f y = 3 tan
6
x | |
|
\ .
+ 1
1
2
, 0 x
n =
1
6
; Period = 6
Dilation by a factor of 3 parallel to
the y-axis and by a factor of 6
parallel to the x-axis. Reflection in
the x-axis and translated 1
1
2
units
up. There are no asymptotes in this
domain.
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 137


g y =
1
2
tan
2
x | |
|
\ .
1, 0 x
n =
1
2
; Period = 2
Asymptote at
Dilation by a factor of
1
2
parallel
to the y-axis and a factor of 2
parallel to the x-axis. Translation 1
unit down.


h y = 2 tan 2
8
x
| |
+
|
\ .
, 0 x
n = 2; Period =
2


Asymptotes at

4

and 3
4


=
8

and 5
8


Dilated by a factor of 2 parallel to
the y-axis and by a factor of
1
2

parallel to the x-axis. Reflected in
the x-axis and translated
8

units
to the left.


i y =
3
4
tan 4
12
x
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 1,
0 x
n = 4; Period =
4


Asymptotes at
8


12

,

3
8


12

,
5
8


12

,
7
8


12


=
24

,
7
24

,
13
24

,
19
24


Dilation by a factor of
3
4
parallel
to the y-axis and
1
4
parallel to the
x-axis.
Reflection in the x-axis, translation
12

units left and 1 unit up.




j y =
1
3
tan
1
2 2
x
| |

|
\ .
2,
0 x
n =
1
2
; Period 2
No asymptotes in this domain.
Dilation by a factor of
1
3
parallel
to the y-axis and by 2 parallel to
the x-axis.
Translation
2

units to the right


and 2 units down.


Exercise 6F Finding
equations of trigonometric
graphs
1 a a =
1
2
(3 + 3) = 3

2
n

=
n = 2
y = 3 sin(2x)
b a =
1
2
(2 + 2) = 2

2
n

= 12
12n = 2
n =
6


y = 2 sin
6
x
| |
|
\ .

2 a a =
1
2
(2 + 2) = 2

2
n

=
2


n = 4
y = 2 cos(4x)
b a =
1
2
(2 + 2) = 2

2
n

= 6
6n = 2
n =
3


y = 2 cos
3
x
| |
|
\ .

3 a a =
1
2
(0.5 + 0.5) = 0.5

2
n

= 2
n = 1
c = 1
y = 0.5 sin(x) + 1
b a =
1
2
(1 + 5) = 3

2
n

= 8
8n = 2
n =
4


c = 2
y = 3 sin
4
x
| |
|
\ .
2
4 a a =
1
2
(4 + 4) = 4

2
n

=
n = 2
=
2


y = 4 cos 2
2
x
| |

|
\ .

b a =
1
2
(5 + 5) = 5

2
n

=
n = 2
=
4


y = 5 cos 2
4
x
| |

|
\ .

5 a a =
1
2
(1 + 3) = 2

2
n

= 2
n = 1
c = 1
=
3


y = 2 sin
3
x
| |
+
|
\ .
1
b a =
1
2
(5 + 1) = 3

2
n

= 2
n = 1
c = 2
=
2


y = 3 sin
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 2
MM1 2 - 6 138 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

6 a a =
1
2
(1 + 1) = 1

2
n

= 12
12n = 2
n =
6


c = 3
y = cos
6
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 3
b a =
1
2
(3 1) = 1

2
n

= 8
8n = 2
n =
4


c = 2
y = cos
4
x
| |
|
\ .
+ 2
7 a = 2

2
n

= 6
6n = 2
n =
3


b = 2
y = 2 sin
3
x
| |
|
\ .
2
The answer is D.
8 a =
1
2
(4 + 2) = 3

2
n

=
n = 2
=
4


c =
1
2
(2 + 4) = 1
y = 3 cos 2(x
4

) + 1
The answer is E.
Exercise 6G Trigonometric
modelling
1 a d = 6 + 2.5 sin
6
t | |
|
\ .

Max. d = 6 + 2.5 1
= 8.5 m
It occurs when
6
t
=
2


t =
2


= 3 hours
Therefore the maximum depth is
8.5 m at 3 pm.
b Period =
2
6


= 12
Next maximum depth is in 12
hours after 3 pm.
c Min. d = 6 + 2.5 1
= 3.5
Least amount of water is 3.5 m
deep.
d

e 6 + 2.5 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
= 7.25
2.5 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
= 1.25
sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
= 0.5

6

t =
6

,
5
6

,
13
6

,
17
6


t = 1, 5, 13, 17
From the graph Fred can enter
between 1 pm and 5 pm and 1 am
and 5 am.
2 a d = 7 + 3 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .

Max. d = 7 + 3 1
= 10
Min. d = 7 + 3 1
= 4
The minimum depth is 4 m and the
maximum depth is 10 m.
b Period =
2
6


= 12
Midnight on Friday to midday on
Sunday = 36 hours.


c Max. when
6
t
| |
|
\ .
=
2


t = 3
First at maximum depth at 3 am on
Saturday.
d 7 + 3 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
= 8.5
3 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
= 1.5
sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
= 0.5
6

t =
6

,
5
6

,
13
6

,
17
6

,
25
6

,
29
6


t = 1, 5, 13, 17, 25, 29
From the graph the student should
fish between 1 am and 5 am on
Saturday, 1 pm and 5 pm on
Saturday and 1 am and 5 am on
Sunday.
e 2 hours prior to 5 am on Sunday, that
is, from 3 am to 5 am on Sunday.
3 a T = 18 + 7 cos
6
m
| |
|
\ .

m = 3, T = 18 + 7 cos
3
6
| |
|
\ .

= 18 + 7 cos
2
| |
|
\ .

= 18 + 7 0
= 18
The mean average temperature in
March is 18C.
m = 8, T = 18 + 7 cos
8
6
| |
|
\ .

= 18 + 7 cos
4
3
| |
|
\ .

= 18 + 7 0.5
= 18 3.5
= 14.5
The mean average temperature in
August is 14.5C.
b Max. T, when m = 0
m = 0, T = 18 + 7 cos(0)
= 18 + 7
= 25
Period,
6
m
| |
|
\ .
= 2
m = 12
Next maximum when m = 12
Therefore the maximum average
temperature is 25C and it occurs
in January and December.
c m = 2, T = 18 + 7 cos
2
6
| |
|
\ .

= 18 + 7 cos
3
| |
|
\ .

= 18 + 7 0.5
= 21.5
The maximum average temperature
in February is 21.5C.
d If
6

m =
5
3


m = 10
It will also be a maximum of
21.5C in October or 8 months
from February.
4 a h = a sin(nt) + c
c =
1
2
(0 + 1.8) = 0.9

2
n

= 2
n =
c =
1
2
(1.8 0) = 0.9
h = 0.9 sin(t) + 0.9
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 139
b
c 0.9 sin(t) + 0.9 = 0.25
0.9 sin(t) = 0.65
sin(t) = 0.722
Basic angle = 0.807
sin (t) is first negative in the 3rd
quadrant
t = + 0.807
= 3.95
t = 1.3
The rope will be 25 cm above the
ground after approximately 1.3
seconds.
5 a Height = 2 m
a =
1
2
(2 + 0) = 1
b Distance = 8 m since the period
is 8.
6 a b =
1
2
(34 2) = 16

2
n

= 3
3n = 2
n =
2
3


a =
1
2
(34 + 2) = 18
b h = 18 16 cos
2
3
t
| |
|
\ .

c 5 times at a height of 34 metres.
d t = 0, h = 18 16 cos(0)
= 18 16 1
= 2 metres.
e Period = 3
At this height after another
3 minutes.
f t = 1, h = 18 16 cos
2
3
| |
|
\ .

= 18 16 0.5
= 18 + 8
= 26 m
g Translate: Left 1 unit
h = 18 16 cos
2
3

(t + 1)
h

7 a a =
1
2
(30 10) = 10
b Period = 2 12 = 24
c Middle =
1
2
(30 + 10) = 20
d 20 units
e Max. at 3 pm and min. at 3 am.
f T = c + a cos n(t + )
Since maximum first occurs at
3 pm or t = 15
= 15
c = 20
a = 10

2
n

= 24
24n = 2
n =
12


T = 20 + 10 cos
12

(t 15) or
T = 20 + 10 cos
12

(t + 9)
(since period = 24)
g t = 3, T = 20 + 10 cos()
= 20 10
= 10C (correct)
t = 9, T = 20 + 10 cos
2
| |
|
\ .

= 20 + 0
= 20C (correct)
t = 15, T = 20 + 10 cos(0)
= 20 + 10
= 30C (correct)
t = 21, T = 20 + 10 cos
2
| |
|
\ .

= 20 + 0
= 20C (correct)
Note: if one took
T = c a cos n (t + )
Min. first occurs at 3 am or t = 3
= 3
a, c, n as above
T = 20 10 cos
12

(t 3) or
T = 20 10 cos
12

(t + 21)
(since period = 24)
h t = 0, T = 20 + 10 cos
5
4
| |

|
\ .

= 20 + 10
2
2
| |
|
|
\ .

= 20 5 2
12.93C
The temperature at midnight is
approximately 13C.
This makes sense, since it is just
above the minimum temperature of
10C.
Exercise 6H Further graphs
1 a

y = sin(x) + cos(2x)
x = 0, y = 0 + 1 = 1
x =
4

, y = sin
4
| |
|
\ .
+ cos
2
| |
|
\ .

=
2
2
+ 0 = 0.707
x =
2

, y = 1 + 1 = 0
x = , y = 0 + 1 = 1
x =
3
2

, y = 1 1 = 2
x = 2, y = 0 + 1 = 1


b y = cos(x) + sin(2x)
x = 0, y = 1 + 0 = 1
x =
4

, y =
2
2
+ 1 = 1.707
x =
2

, y = 0 + 0 = 0
x = , y = 1 + 0 = 1
x =
3
2

, y = 0 + 0 = 0
x = 2, y = 1 + 0 = 1


c y = 2 sin(x) + cos(x)
x = 0, y = 0 + 1 = 1
x =
4

, y = 2 +
2
2
= 2.12
x =
2

, y = 2 + 0 = 0
x = , y = 0 1 = 1
x =
3
2

, y = 2 + 0 = 2
x = 2, y = 0 + 1 = 1
MM1 2 - 6 140 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s



d y = 2 cos(x) + sin(x)
x = 0, y = 2 + 0 = 2
x =
4

, y = 2 +
2
2

= 2.12
x =
2

, y = 0 + 1 = 1
x = , y = 2 + 0 = 2
x =
3
2

, y = 0 1 = 1
x = 2, y = 2 + 0 = 2


e y = 2 sin(x) + cos(2x)
x = 0, y = 0 + 1 = 1
x =
4

, y = 2 + 0 = 1.414
x =
2

, y = 2 + 1 = 1
x = , y = 0 + 1 = 1
x =
3
2

, y = 2 1 = 3
x = 2, y = 0 + 1 = 1


f y = 2 cos(x) + sin(2x)
x = 0, y = 2 + 0 = 2
x =
4

, y = 2 + 1 = 2.414
x =
2

, y = 0 + 0 = 0
x = , y = 2 + 0 = 2
x =
3
2

, y = 0 + 0 = 0
x = 2, y = 2 + 0 = 2


g y = 2 sin(2x) + cos(x)
x = 0, y = 0 + 1 = 1
x =
4

, y = 2 +
2
2
= 2.707
x =
2

, y = 0 + 0 = 0
x = , y = 0 + 1 = 1
x =
3
2

, y = 0 + 0 = 0
x = 2, y = 0 + 1 = 1


h y = 2 cos(2x) + sin(x)
x = 0, y = 2 + 0 = 2
x =
4

, y = 0 +
2
2
= 0.707
x =
2

, y = 2 + 1 = 1
x = , y = 2 + 0 = 2
x =
3
2

, y = 2 1 = 3
x = 2, y = 2 + 0 = 2


2 a y = sin(x) + x


b y = cos(x) x


c y = 3sin(x) 2x


d y = cos(2x) +
1
4
x
2



e y = 2sin(4x)
1
8
x
3


f y = tan(x) 2x
2


g y = 4sin(8x) 5log
e
(x + 1)

Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 141
h y = 3cos(2x)
2
20
( 2) x +




3 a


b


c


d


e


f


g


h

4 a


b


c

5 a y = 0.5x sin(x)
Let f(x) = 0.5x and g(x) = sin(x)
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = R
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


b y = (x 1) cos(x)
Let f(x) = x 1 and g(x) = cos(x)
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = R
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


c y = 3sin(x) log
e
(x)
Let f(x) = 3sin(x) and g(x) = log
e
(x)
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = (0, )
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= (0, )


d y = 2cos(x) x
Let f(x) = 2cos(x) and g(x) = x
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = [0, )
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= [0, )
MM1 2 - 6 142 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s



e y = 8cos(x) sin(x)
Let f(x) = 8cos(x) and g(x) = sin(x)
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = R
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


f y = (4 2x) sin(2x)
Let f(x) = 4 2x and g(x) = sin(2x)
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = R
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


g y = 1.2
x
cos(x)
Let f(x) = 1.2
x
and g(x) = cos(x)
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = R
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


h y = 2
2
x
x
Let f(x) =
2
x
and g(x) = 2 x
Domain of f(x) = R
Domain of g(x) = (, 2]
dom f(x)g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= (, 2]


6 a dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= [2, )


b dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


c dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= (0, )


d dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


e dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= [2, )


f dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= R


g dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= [0, ) (, 1]
= [0, 1]


Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 143
h dom f(x) g(x) = dom f(x) dom g(x)
= (0, )


7 a f(x) = cos(x) and g(x) = log
e
(x)
i Domain of f(x) = R
Range of g(x) = R
Range of g(x) domain of f(x)
so, f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = cos log
e
(x)
Domain is the same as g(x), that is, (0, )
iii

b f(x) = sin(2x) and g(x) = x
i Domain of f(x) = R
Range of g(x) = [0, )
Range of g(x) domain of f(x)
so, f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = sin(2 x )
Domain is the same as the domain of g(x), that is, [0, )
iii

c f(x) = 2sin(x) and g(x) =
2
4
x

i Domain of f(x) = R
Range of g(x) = [0, )
Range of g(x) domain of f(x)
so, f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = 2sin
2
4
x
| |
|
|
\ .
, domain = R
iii

d f(x) = 2 x + and g(x) = 2cos(x)
i Domain of f(x) = [2, )
Range of g(x) = [2, 2]
Range of g(x) domain of f(x)
so, f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = 2cos( ) 2 x +
The domain is the same as g(x), that is, R
iii

e f(x) = x
2
and g(x) = sin(x)
i Domain of f(x) = R
Range of g(x) = [1, 1]
Range of g(x) domain of f(x), so f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = (sin(x))
2
, domain is R
iii

f f(x) = 2
x
and g(x) = cos(2x)
i Domain of f(x) = R
Range of g(x) = [1, 1]
Range of g(x) domain of f(x), so f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = 2
cos(2x)
, domain is R
iii

g f(x) = cos
4
x | |
|
\ .
and g(x) =
1
2
x
2

i Domain of f(x) = R
Range of g(x) = [0, )
Range of g(x) domain of f(x), so f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = cos
2
1
2
4
x
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .

= cos
2
8
x
| |
|
|
\ .
, domain is R
iii

h f(x) = 2sin(x) +1 and g(x) = x 3
i Domain of f(x) = R
Range of g(x) is [3, )
Range of g(x) domain of f(x), so f(g(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = 2sin( x 3) + 1
Domain is equal to domain of g(x), that is, [0, )
iii

8 a f(x) = x 2, g(x) = e
x

i f(g(x)): Domain of f(x) is R
Range of g(x) is (0, ).
Since Range g(x) dom f(x)
f(g(x)) is defined.
g(f(x)): Domain of g(x) is R
Range of f(x) is R
Since Range f(x) dom of g(x) g(f(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = e
x
2
Domain is R, range is (2, )
g(f(x)) = e
x 2

Domain is R, range is (0, )
iii Sketch f(g(x)).
when x = 0, y = 1
when y = 0, 0 = e
x
2
2 = e
x

x = 0.69
MM1 2 - 6 144 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s



Sketch g(f(x))
when x = 0, y = e
2

when y = 0 0 = e
x 2

no x-intercepts.


b f(x) = |x|, g(x) = x
2
1
i f(g(x)): Domain f(x) is R and the
range of g(x) is (1, ). Since
range g(x) dom f(x) f(g(x)) is
defined.
g(f(x)): Domain g(x) is R and the
range of f(x) is [0, ) so, range
f(x) dom g(x) g(f(x)) is
defined.
ii f(g(x)) = |x
2
1|
Domain is R
Range is [0, )
g(f(x)) = |x
2
| 1
Domain is R
Range is [1, )
iii Sketch f(g(x))
when x = 0 y = 1
when y = 0 x = 1


Sketch g(f(x))
when x = 0 y = 1
when y = 0 x = 1


c f(x) = 1 x
2
, g(x) = e
x

i f(g(x)): Domain f(x) is R and the
range of g(x) is (0, ). Range
g(x) dom f(x), so f(g(x)) is
defined.
g(f(x)): Domain of f(x) is R and
the range of f(x) is (, 1].
Range f(x) dom g(x), so
g(f(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = 1 (e
x
)
2

= 1 e
2x

Domain is R
Range is (, 1)
g(f(x)) = e
1 x
2

Domain is R
Range is (0, e
1
)
iii Sketch f(g(x)):
When x = 0 y = 0
Asymptote at y = 1


Sketch g(f(x))
when x = 0 y = e
1

when y = 0, 0 = e
1 x
2

No x-intercepts


d f(x) = , x g(x) = sin(x)
i f(g(x)): Domain of f(x) = [0, ),
range of g(x) = [1, 1] f(g(x)) is
not defined as range of g(x)
/

of domain of f(x)
g(f(x)): Domain of g(x) is R and
the range of f(x) is [0, ). Range
f(x) domain g(x) so g(f(x)) is
defined.
ii f(g(x)) is not defined.
g(f(x)) = sin( x )
Domain is [0, )
Range is [1, 1]
iii Sketch g(f(x)):
when x = 0, y = 0
when y = 0, 0 = sin ( ) x
x = , 2
x =
2
, 4
2
,


e f(x) = e
x
, g(x) = cos(x)
i Domain of f(x) = R, range of
g(x) = [1, 1] range g(x) dom
f(x), so f(g(x)) is defined.
Domain of g(x) = R, range of
f(x) = (0, ) range f(x) dom
f(x), so g(f(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) = e
cos(x)

Domain is R
Range is [e
1
, e
1
] or
1
, e
e
(
(


g(f(x)) = cos(e
x
)
Domain is R
Range is [1, 1]
iii Sketch f(g(x))
when x = 0 y = e
1

when y = 0 0 = e
cos(x)

No x-intercepts


Sketch g(f(x))
when x = 0 y = cos(1)
when y = 0 0 = cos(e
x
)
cos(e
x
) =
2

,
3
2

,
5
2

,
e
x
=
2

,
3
2

,
5
2


x = ln
2
| |
|
\ .
, ln
3
2
| |
|
\ .
,
ln
5
2
| |
|
\ .
,


f f(x) = log
e
(x), g(x) = sin(x)
i Domain f(x) = (0, ) range of
g(x) = [1, 1]
f(g(x)) is not defined as range of
g(x)
/
of domain f(x).
Domain of g(x) = R, range of
f(x) = R
Range f(x) domain g(x), so
g(f(x)) is defined.
ii f(g(x)) is not defined
g(f(x)) = sin(log
e
(x))
Domain is (0, )
Range is [1, 1]
iii Sketch g(f(x))
When x = 0 y = undefined
When y = 0, 0 = sin(log
e
(x))
log
e
(x) = 0, , 2,
e
0
= x, e

= x, e
2
= x,
x = 1, e

, e
2
,


Exercise 6I Trigonometric
functions with an increasing
trend
1 T(m) = 12 + 0.2 m + 5 cos
6
m
| |
|
\ .

a

Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 145
b Dec 2009 m = 23
T(23) = 12 + 0.2 23 + 5 cos 23
6
| |

|
\ .

= 20.9301
= 20.9
c 18 = 12 + 0.2m + 5 cos
6
m
| |
|
\ .

On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (18 12 0.2 5 cos , )
6
m m m
| |
= + +
|
\ .

Write the solution as:
Solving 18 = 12 + 0.2m + 5 cos
6
m
| |
|
\ .
for m gives
m = 10.68 i.e. during the 11th month
December 2008
2 M = 15 000 + 100t 4000 cos
6
t
| |
|
\ .

a 100 mice are added each month
b

c Dec 2008 t = 5
M = 15 000 + 100 5 4000 cos 5
6
| |

|
\ .

= 15 500 + 4000
3
2

= 15 500 + 2000 3
= 18 964.102
18 964 mice are present in Dec 2008
d 20 000 = 15 000 +100t 4000 cos
6
t
| |
|
\ .

On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (20 000 15 000 100 4000 cos , )
6
t t t
| |
= +
|
\ .

Write the solution as:
Solving 20 000 = 150 000 + 100t 4000 cos
6
t
| |
|
\ .

for t gives
t = 16.86 i.e. during the 17th month
December 2009
3 V(t) = 20 + 0.02t + 5 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .

a 0.02 = 2% inflation rate per month
b V(0) = 20 + 0.02 0 + 5 sin 0
6
| |

|
\ .

= $20
c V(6) = 20 + 0.02 6 + 5 sin 6
6
| |

|
\ .

= $ 20.12
d 25.50 = 20 + 0.02t + 5 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .

On a calculator page, complete the entry line as:
solve (25.50 = 20 + 0.02t + 5 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
, t)
Write the solution as:
Solving 25.50 = 20 + 0.02t + 5 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
for t gives
t = 26.77 i.e. during the 27th month
April 2008
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a 60
180


=
3


b 30
180


=
6


c 45
180


=
4


d 90
180


=
2


e 360
180


= 2
f 270
180


=
3
2


g 150
180


=
5
6


h 300
180


=
5
3


i 225
180


=
5
4


j 120
180


=
2
3


k 210
180



=

7
6


l 315
180



=
7
4


MM1 2 - 6 146 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

2 a cos
2
3
| |
|
\ .

= cos
3
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

b sin
4
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2

=
2
2

c tan
7
6
| |
|
\ .

= tan
6
| |
|
\ .

=
1
3

=
3
3

d sin
5
4
| |
|
\ .

= sin
4
| |
|
\ .

=
2
2

e tan(2)
= 0
f sin(120)
= sin(60)
=
3
2

g cos(135)
= cos(45)
=
1
2

=
2
2

h tan(30)
=
1
3

=
3
3

i cos(315)
= cos(45)
=
1
2

=
2
2

j tan(225)
= tan(45)
= 1
3 sin(x) = 0.85
a sin( x)
= sin(x)
= 0.85
b sin( + x)
= sin(x)
= 0.85
c sin(2 + x)
= sin(x)
= 0.85
d sin(4 x)
= sin(x)
= 0.85
4 2 cos(x) 2 = 0
cos(x) =
2
2

x = 2 , 2
4 4
n n

+ +
x =
(8 1) (8 1)
,
4 4
n n +

5 3sin(2 ) x = cos(2x)
3 tan(2 ) x = 1
tan(2x) =
1
3

2x =
6
n

+
x =
12 2
n
+
x =
6
12
n +

x =
(6 1)
12
n +

n = 0, x =
12


n = 1, x =
7
12


n = 2, x =
13
12


n = 3, x =
19
12


solutions for 0 x 2 are:
x =
7 13 19
, , ,
12 12 12 12


6 a Dilation by a factor of 3 parallel
to the y-axis, translation
4

units
to the right and 2 units up.
b y = 3sin
4
x
| |

|
\ .
+ 2
amplitude is 3, period is
2
1

= 2.
c

7 y = tan(2x) + 2
period is
2




8 y = a sin(nx) + b
Period = 4

2
n

= 4
n =
2
4


=
1
2

Amplitude is 3
a = 3
Graph is translated down 1
so b = 1
y = 3 sin
2
x | |
|
\ .
1
9 a


Period is
2
6

= 12, a = 3
b 6.5 = 5 + 3 sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .


1.5
3
= sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .

sin
6
t
| |
|
\ .
=
1
2

= sin
6
| |
|
\ .
, sin
6

| |

|
\ .
,
sin 2
6

| |
+
|
\ .
,
sin 3
6

| |

|
\ .


6

t =
6

,
5
6

,
13
6

,
17
6


t = 1, 5, 13, 17 hours after 9 am.
t = 10 am, 2 pm, 10 pm, 2 am
(next day)
c Water sports may run between
10 am and 2 pm.
10 Sketch the graph of y = 2 sin(2x),
then reflect any part below the x-axis
in the x-axis.


Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 147
11 a, b and c


12 a, b and c


13 f(x) = sin x and g(x) = x
2
+ 2
a Domain of f(x) is R
Range of g(x) is [2, )
Since range of g(x) is of
domain of f(x), f(g(x)) is defined.
b f(g(x)) = sin(x
2
+ 2)
c Domain of f(g(x)) is R (same as
domain of g(x))
Range of f(g(x)) is [1, 1]
14 f: [, ] R, f(x)
= 5 cos 2
3
x
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

a amplitude = 5
period =
2
n

=
2
2

=
b First sketch the graph of
f(x) = 5 cos(2x)
x-intercept, y = 0
0 = 5 cos(2x) 2 2x 2
0 = cos(2x)
2x =
3 3
, , ,
2 2 2 2


x =
3 3
, , ,
4 4 4 4


Translating the graph left
3


units gives x-intercepts of:
x =
7 5 11
, , ,
12 12 12 12


To find the y intercept let x = 0
f(0) = 5 cos 2 0
3
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= 5 cos
2
3
| |
|
\ .

= 5 cos
3
| |
|
\ .

= 5
1
2

=
5
2



Multiple choice
1 320
180


=
32
18


=
16
9


The answer is E.
2
13
6


180


= 13 30
= 390
The answer is A.
3 sin
5
3
| |
|
\ .
= sin 2
3

| |

|
\ .

= sin
3
| |
|
\ .

=
3
2

The answer is D.
4 a = 3,
Period =
2
2


=
Range = [3 1, 3 1]
= [4, 2]
The answer is C.
5 Period =
2
1
2


= 4
sin
1
2
(x + ) =
1
2

1 solution, over [0, 2]
The answer is B.
6 sin(2x) + cos(2x) = 0, x
tan(2x) + 1 = 0 2 2x 2
tan(2x) = 1
Basic angle is
4


tan(2x) < 0 in quadrants 2 and 4.
2x =
4

, 2
4

, 2 +
4

,
2 + 2
4


=
3
4

,
7
4

,
5
4

,
4


x =
8

,
5
8

,
3
8

,
7
8


The answer is D.
7 4 sin(x) = 2 3
sin(x) =
3
2

In 3rd quadrant, basic angle
3

:
x =
3

+
=
4
3


The answer is C.
8 Domain = [0, ]
Period =
2
3


A full cycle is completed.
Range = [4 + 2, 4 + 2]
= [2, 6]
The answer is B.
9 x =
3

, y = 2 cos
3
| |
|
\ .
3 sin
3
| |
|
\ .

= 2
1
2
3
3
2

= 1
3 3
2

=
2 3 3
2


The answer is E.
10 Period =
1
3


= 3
The answer is D.
11 Amplitude =
3.5 1.5
2


= 2.5
b = 2.5
Period = 3
=
2
n


n =
2
3

a =
3.5 1.5
2


= 1
The answer is A.
12 bsin(x c) = 0
sin(x c) = 0
x c = 0, , 2
x = c, + c, 2 + c
Over [0, 2] x = c, + c only since
0 c
The answer is E.
13 2 2 sin(t) = 0
2 sin(t) = 2
sin(t) = 1
t =
2


t = 0.5
The answer is C.
MM1 2 - 6 148 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

14 tan(2x) = 1
Basic angle =
4


1
st
quadrant: 2x =
4


x =
8


B
Extended response
1 a a =
1
2
(10 + 0)
= 5
b =
1
2
(10 0)
= 5

2
n

= 24
24n = 2
n =
12


D = 5 5 sin ( )
12
t c
| |
+
|
\ .

When D = 5, t = 6
5 = 5 5 sin (6 )
12
c
| |
+
|
\ .

sin (6 )
12
c
| |
+
|
\ .
= 0

12

(6 + c) = 6 or
c = 6, or
12

(6 + c) =
6 + c = 12
c = 6
c = 6 since it is positive.
Hence D(t) = 5 5 sin ( 6)
12
t
| |
+
|
\ .

b t = 6, D = 5 5 sin()
= 5
The angle at 6 am is 5.
t = 21, D = 5 5 sin
27
12
| |
|
\ .

= 5 5 sin
4
| |
|
\ .

= 5
5 2
2

= 1.46
The angle at 9 pm is 1.46.
c From the graph, D = 8 when
t = 8.5 and 15.5.
That is, at 8.30 am and 3.30 pm
and again at 8.30 am the next day.
d 5 5 sin ( 6)
12
t
| |
+
|
\ .
= 8
5 sin ( 6)
12
t
| |
+
|
\ .
= 3
sin ( 6)
12
t
| |
+
|
\ .
= 0.6

( 6)
12
t

+
= + 0.6435,
2 0.6435 = 3.7851, 5.6397
t + 6 = 14.458, 21.542
t = 8.458, 15.542
= 8 hours and 28 minutes,
15 hours and 32 minutes.
The actual times are 8.28 am and
3.32 pm. Differences occur due to
inaccuracy of graphical answers.
e At t = 0, D = 5
Translate D(t) up 5 units
G(t) = 5 5 sin ( 6)
12
t
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 5
= 10 5 sin ( 6)
12
t
| |
+
|
\ .

2 d = 10.5 9 cos
30
t
| |
|
\ .

a t = 0
d = 10.5 9 cos
0
30
| |
|
\ .

= 10.5 9
= 1.5 m
b Maximum distance is 10.5 9
= 19.5 m
c 9 9
= 18 m
d 1 full circle is the period.
Period =
2
n

; n =
30


=
2
30


= 60 seconds
e i Time for 1 full circle is
60 seconds.
Circle circumference is 18
Average speed =
18
60


=
3
10

m/s
ii
3
10

= 0.94 m/s
f 2.5 minutes = 2.5 cycles of the
graph


g Translation 6 units
d = 10.5 9 cos ( 6)
30
t
| |

|
\ .

h t = 2.5 minutes (150 seconds)
d = 10.5 9 cos (150 6)
30
| |

|
\ .

= 10.5 7.28
= 17.78 m (correct to 2 decimal
places.)
3 C(t) = 1000
2
( 8)
cos 2
2
t | | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

1000
a For the function to be continuous,
then m = C(8) or C(16)
C(8) = 1000(cos(0) + 2)
2
1000
C(8) = 1000(1 + 2)
2
1000
C(8) = 9000 1000
C(8) = 8000
Hence, for the function to be
continuous, m = 8000
b


c Minimum concentration occurs
when
cos
( 8)
2
t | |
|
\ .
= 1
hence
C(t) = 1000(

1 + 2)
2
1000
C(t) = 0
this occurs at t = 10 and t = 14
d 1250 = 1000
2
( 8)
cos 2
2
t | | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

1000
On a calculator page, complete the
entry line as:
Solve
(1250 = 1000
2
( 8)
cos 2
2
t | | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

1000, t)
Write the solution as:
Solving 1250 =
1000
2
( 8)
cos 2
2
t | | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .
1000
for t gives
t =
28
3
, hence 9:20 am
e All values of t within the domain
are
28 32 40 44
, , ,
3 3 3 3

From graph at can be seen that the
concentration is less than 1250
from

28
3

32
3

4
3
hrs

40
3

44
3

4
3
hrs
Hence, total time the concentration
is less than 1250:
2
4
3
=
8
3
hrs
= 2 hours 40 minutes
Exam practice 2
Short answer
1 log
2
(2x 3) log
2
(3) = 1
log
2
2 3
3
x | |
|
\ .
= 1
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 149

2 3
3
x
= 2
2x 3 = 6
2x = 9
x =
1
4
2

2 3
2x + 3
3
3
= 9
3
2x + 6
= 3
2

2x + 6 = 2
x = 2
3 a Reflected in y-axis f(x) = e
x

Translated 2 units left so x x + 2
f(x) = e
(x + 2)
= e
x 2

Translated 3 units up
f(x) = e
x 2
+ 3
b f(2) = e
0
+ 3
= 4
f(0) = e
2
+ 3
=
2
1
3
e
+
So the range is
2
1
3, 4
e
| |
+
|
\ .
.
4 a Dilation of from the x-axis, dilation of
1
2
from the y-axis. Translation of
3

left.
b Dilation of from the x-axis
y =
1
sin( )
2
x
Dilation of from the y-axis
y =
1
sin(2 )
2
x
Translation of
3

left y =
1
sin 2
2 3
x
| |
+
|
\ .

5 sin(3x) cos(3x) = 0 domain: [0, ]
sin(3x) = cos(3x) domain: [0, 3]
tan(3x) = 1
basic angle:
4


3x =
4

, +
4

, 2 +
4


3x =
5 9
, ,
4 4 4


x =
5 3
, ,
12 12 4


6 f: [ ,
4 8

) R, f(x) = 2 tan 2 1
4
x
| |
+
|
\ .

We need a sketch of tan 2
4
x
| |

|
\ .
in order to determine any discontinuity or areas where f is not defined.
tan 2
4
x
| |

|
\ .
= tan 2
8
x
| |

|
\ .
so the period is
2

and is translated
8

to the right.


MM1 2 - 6 150 Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s

The interval [ , )
4 8

corresponds to [0.25, 0.125).
tan 2
4
x
| |

|
\ .
is continuous in that interval and is positive so tan 2
4
x
| |

|
\ .
is defined.

4
f
| |

|
\ .
= 2
3
tan 1.
4
| |
+
|
\ .

= 2 1 + 1
= 3

8
f
| |

|
\ .
=
So the range is [3, )
7 e
2x
e
x
= 2
Let a = e
x

a
2
a = 2
a
2
a 2 = 0
(a 2)(a + 1) = 0
a = 2 or a = 1
Substitute back in for a = e
x

e
x
= 2 or e
x
= 1
x = log
e
(2) no real solution
x = log
e
(2)
8 a f: [1, 3] R where f(x) = x sin(x)


b Minimum value is 0.
c Maximum value between 1 and 2. We need some specific values to help here.
When x =
2

, sin(x) = 1 and x sin(x) =


2

1.6
When x =
2
3

, sin(x) =
3
2
and x sin(x) =
3
3

1.7
When x =
3
4

, sin(x) =
2
2
and x sin(x) =
3 2
8

1.5
The maximum is at least 1.7. Best estimate to one decimal place would be 1.8.
Multiple choice
1 y = 2a
bx 1
+ 5
a
bx 1
=
5
2
y

bx 1 = log
a
5
2
y | |
|
\ .

x =
5
log 1
2
a
y
b
| |
+
|
\ .

The answer is E.
2 e
2x
3e
x
= 4
Let a = e
x

a
2
3a = 4
a
2
3a 4 = 0
(a 4)(a + 1) = 0
a = 4 or a = 1
Substitute back in for a = e
x

e
x
= 4 or e
x
= 1
x = log
e
(4) or no real solution
x = log
e
(4)
The answer is C.
Ci r c u l a r ( t r i g o n o me t r i c ) f u n c t i o n s MM1 2 - 6 151
3 f: [2, 5] R where f(x) = log
e
(x)
Reflection in the y-axis domain is [5, 2].
Translating 2 units left domain is [7, 4].
The vertical translation of 3 has no effect on the domain.
The answer is C.
4 f: [1, ) R where f(x) = x
2
+ 1
Let y = x
2
+ 1.
For the rule of the inverse function, interchange x and y
x = y
2
+ 1.
y
2
= x 1
y = 1 x
Since the domain of the function is [1, ) the appropriate
choice is y = 1. x The range of the function is [2, ) so
this will be the domain of the inverse function.
The answer is B.
5 a sin(3 ) b = 0
sin(3 ) =
b
a

3 = sin
1
b
a
| |
|
\ .
or sin
1
b
a
| |
|
\ .
.
If = 2 then 3 = 6
so 3 = 6 is also a possibility. Hence = 2
3

could
be a solution.
The corresponding general solutions would be
3 = sin
1
b
a
| |
|
\ .
= sin
1
b
a
| |
|
\ .
+ 2n
=
1 2
6
3 3
n
+
= 2 +
2
3
n

or =
1 2
( 6)
3 3
n
+
= 2 +
(2 1)
3
n +

If n = 1 then 2 +
2
3

is a solution.
The answer is D.
6 Basic graph is sine or cosine.
Period is T, so A and E are eliminated.
Amplitude is 2a so C is eliminated.
Check B amplitude of 2a produces reflected cosine
graph with no horizontal translation.
This fits
Check D Need a sine graph translated
2

to the right.
In this case the translation has to be a function of T so D
cannot be correct.
The answer is B.
7 If x = a is one solution to an equation of the form
cos(2x) = k, then x = a will also be a solution. The third
solution will be a period beyond x = a at x = a + .
So the two adjacent solutions are x = a and x = a + . The
difference between them will be (a + ) a = 2a
The answer is E.
Extended response
1 a
500 100
2

= 200 birds
b takes 6 months from maximum to minimum. period
is 12 months.
c mean population
500 100
2
+
= 300 birds
d Population is a minimum after 7 months
e P(t) = a sin(b(t + c)) + d
a is the amplitude so is 200
b is related to the period by T =
2
b

12 =
2
b


b =
6


c is the horizontal translation which is two months left
so c = 2
d is the vertical translation so d = 300
So P(t) = 200 sin ( 2)
6
t
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 300
f Initial population: P(0) = 200 sin
3
| |
|
\ .
+ 300
= 200
3
2
+ 300
= 473 birds
g Q(t) = Ae
kt

(0, 500) 500 = Ae
k


0

A = 500
(60, 370) 370 = 500e
k


60

370 = 500e
60

e
60
=
370
500

= 0.74
60k = log
e
(0.74)
k =
log (0.74)
60
e


k = 0.005018
So Q(t) = 500e
0.005018t

h Population =
( ) ( )
500
P x Q x

=
200sin ( 2) 300 500
6
t
( | |
+ +
| (
\ .
0.005018
500
t
e


=
0.005018
200sin ( 2) 300
6
t
e t

( | |
+ +
| (
\ .

t = 0 Population = 1 [200 sin
3
| |
|
\ .
+ 300]
= 200
3
2
+ 300
= 473
This value is consistent with the sine model and close to
the exponential model.
t = 7 population = 96.5
This is consistent with the sine model
t = 60 population = 350
This is consistent with the exponential model.
t = 120 population = 259
This is consistent with the exponential model.
MM1 2 - 7 152 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
Exercise 7A Review
gradient and rates of change
1 a m =
rise
run

=
1
1

= 1
gradient function
y = 1


b m =
rise
run

=
3
1

= 3
gradient function
y = 3


c m =
rise
run

=
1
2

=
1
2

gradient function
y =
1
2



d m =
rise
run

=
5
2
or 2.5
gradient function
y =
5
2



e m = 0


2 a m =
rise
run

=
2
1

= 2
The answer is B.
b The graph of the gradient
function is given by f (x) = 2.
The answer is C.
3 a g(x) < 0 if x < 0
g(x) = 0 if x = 0
g(x) > 0 if x > 0


b g(x) > 0 if x < 0
g(x) = 0 if x = 0
g(x) < 0 if x > 0


c g(x) < 0 if x < 0
g(x) = 0 if x = 0
g(x) > 0 if x > 0


d g(x) < 0 if x < 3
g(x) = 0 if x = 3
g(x) > 0 if x > 3


e g(x) > 0 if x < 2
g(x) = 0 if x = 2
g(x) < 0 if x > 2


4 a f (x) > 0 if x < 0 and the graph is
becoming less sleep
f (x) = 0 if x = 0
f (x) < 0 if x > 0
Hence f (x) is always decreasing.
The answer is B.
b f (x) > 0 if x < 0
f (x) = 0 if x = 0
f (x) < 0 if x > 0
The answer is A.
5 a f (x) > 0 for 3 < x < 2
f (x) = 0 for x = 3 and x = 2
f (x) < 0 for x < 3 and x > 2
Since f (x) is cubic, f (x) is
quadratic (parabola).


Chapter 7 Differentiation
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 153
b f (x) > 0 for x < 1 and x > 4
f (x) = 0 for x = 1 and x = 4
f (x) < 0 for 1 < x < 4
Since f (x) is cubic, f (x) is
quadratic (parabola).


c f (x) > 0 for 0 < x < 5
f (x) = 0 for x = 0 and x = 5
f (x) < 0 for x < 0 and x > 5
Since f (x) is cubic, f (x) is
quadratic (parabola).


d f (x) > 0 for x < 0 and x > 0
f (x) = 0 for x = 0
Since f (x) is cubic, f (x) is
quadratic (parabola).


e f (x) < 0 for x < 0 and x > 0
f (x) = 0 for x = 0
Since f (x) is cubic, f (x) is
quadratic (parabola).


f f (x) > 0 for 3 < x < 0
f (x) = 0 for x = 3 and x = 0
f (x) < 0 for x < 3 and x > 0
Since f (x) is cubic, f (x) is
quadratic (parabola).


g f (x) > 0 for x < 0 and x > 0
f (x) = 0 for x = 0
Since f (x) is cubic, f (x) is
quadratic (parabola)


6 a Positive gradient occurs when f (x)
slopes upward from left to right,
that is x < 1 and x > 2.
The answer is D.
b Negative gradient occurs when f (x)
slopes downward from left to right
that is 1 < x < 2.
The answer is C.
c f (x) > 0 for x < 1 and x > 2
f (x) < 0 for 1 < x < 2
Gradient function has a unique
value throughout its domain (no
sharp points)
since f (x) is smooth and
continuous.
The answer is E.
7 a i n/a since f (x) has no stationary
points.
ii R since gradient is always
positive.
iii n/a since gradient is always
positive.
iv n/a since f (x) is smooth and
continuous.
b i n/a since f (x) has no stationary
points.
ii n/a since gradient is always
negative.
iii R since gradient is always
negative.
iv n/a since f (x) is smooth and
continuous.
c i x = 1 since local maximum
ii (, 1)
iii (1, )
iv n/a since g(x) is smooth and
continuous
d i x = 4 since local minimum
ii (4, )
iii (, 4)
iv n/a since g(x) is smooth and
continuous.
e i x = 0 since stationary point of
inflection
ii n/a since gradient is negative
either side of x = 0
iii R\{0}
iv n/a since g(x) is smooth and
continuous.
f i x = 2 and x = 3 since local
minimum and local
maximum respectively.
ii (2, 3) since f (x) slopes
upward from left to right.
iii (, 2) (3, ) since f (x)
slopes downward for x < 2
and x > 3 moving left to right.
iv n/a since f (x) is smooth and
continuous.
g i x = 2 since stationary point of
inflection.
ii R\{2} since gradient is
positive either side of x = 2.
iii n/a since f (x) slopes upward
from left to right.
iv n/a since f (x) is smooth and
continuous.
h i x = 1 and x = 2 since local
maximum and local
minimum respectively.
ii (, 1) (2, ) since g(x)
slopes upward for x < 1 and
x > 2 moving left to right.
iii (1, 2) since g(x) slopes
downward for 1 < x < 2
moving left to right.
iv n/a since g(x) is smooth and
continuous.
i i n/a since no stationary points
exist
ii (, 0) as f (x) slopes upward
for x < 0 moving left to right
iii (0, ) as f (x) slopes downward
for x > 0 moving left to right.
iv x = 0 since f (x) is discontinuous
at x = 0.
j i n/a since no stationary points
exist
ii (, 0) as f (x) slopes upward
for x < 0 moving left to right.
iii (0, ) as f (x) slopes downward
for x > 0 moving left to right.
iv x = 0 since f (x) is discontinuous
at x = 0.
8 a


b


MM1 2 - 7 154 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
c


d


e


f


g


h


i


j


9 a R\{2} since f(x) discontinuous at
x = 2.
b R\{0} since f(x) discontinuous at
x = 0.
c R since f(x) smooth and
continuous.
d R\{1, 2} since f(x) discontinuous
at x = 1, not smooth or
continuous at x = 2.
e R\{3} since f(x) not smooth at
x = 3.
f R\{0} since f(x) discontinuous at
x = 0.
g R\{2} since f(x) discontinuous at
x = 2.
h R\{2} since f(x) discontinuous at
x = 2.
i R\{5} since f(x) not smooth at
x = 5.
j R\{5, 4} since f(x) discontinuous
at x = 5, not smooth at x = 4.
Exercise 7B Limits and
differentiation from first
principles
1 a
2
lim( 4)
x
x

+
= 2 + 4
= 6
b
2
lim (2 3)
p
p


= 2(2) 3
= 7
c
0
lim(8 3 )
h
h


= 8 3(0)
= 8
d
2
3
lim( 5)
x
x


= (3)
2
5
= 4
e
2
1
lim( 4 3)
x
x x

+
= (1)
2
+ 4(1) 3
= 6
f
3
3
lim( 5 2)
x
x x

+
= (3)
3
5(3) + 2
= 14
g
2 3
2
lim (10 )
x
x x x

+
= 10 (2) + (2)
2
(2)
3

= 24
h
2
0
5 6
lim
2
x
x x
x

+ +
+

=
2
(0) 5(0) 6
0 2
+ +
+

=
6
2

= 3
i
2
1
2 3
lim
3
x
x x
x


=
2
(1) 2(1) 3
1 3


=
4
2


= 2
2 a
2
0
3
lim
x
x x
x

+

=
0
( 3)
lim
x
x x
x

+

=
0
lim( 3),
x
x

+ x 0
= 0 + 3
= 3
b
2
1
3 3
lim
1
x
x x
x


=
1
3 ( 1)
lim
( 1)
x
x x
x


=
1
lim3 ,
x
x

x 1
= 3(1)
= 3
c
2
1
2 2
lim
1
x
x x
x

+
+

=
1
2 ( 1)
lim
1
x
x x
x

+
+

=
1
lim 2 ,
x
x


x 1
= 2(1)
= 2
d
2
2
4
lim
2
x
x
x


=
2
( 2)( 2)
lim
( 2)
x
x x
x


=
2
lim( 2),
x
x

+ x 2
= 2 + 2
= 4
e
2
1
3 2
lim
1
x
x x
x

+ +
+

=
1
( 2)( 1)
lim
( 1)
x
x x
x

+ +
+

=
1
lim( 2),
x
x

+ x 1
= 1 + 2
= 1
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 155
f
2
6
5 6
lim
6
x
x x
x


=
6
( 1)( 6)
lim
( 6)
x
x x
x


=
6
lim( 1)
x
x

+ x 6
= 6 + 1
= 7
g
3
2
8
lim
2
h
h
h


=
2
2
( 2)( 2 4)
lim
( 2)
h
h h h
h

+ +


=
2
2
lim( 2 4),
h
h h

+ + h 2
= (2)
2
+ 2(2) + 4
= 12
h
3
3
27
lim
3
x
x
x

+
+

=
2
3
( 3)( 3 9)
lim
( 3)
x
x x x
x

+ +
+

=
2
3
lim ( 3 9),
x
x x

+ x 3
= (3)
2
3(3) + 9
= 27
i
2
5
4 5
lim
5
x
x x
x

+
+

=
5
( 5)( 1)
lim
( 5)
x
x x
x

+
+

=
5
lim ( 1),
x
x

x 5
= 5 1
= 6
3 a
3
lim3 4
x
x


= 3(3) 4
= 5
b
2
3
9
lim
3
x
x
x

+

=
3
( 3)( 3)
lim
( 3)
x
x x
x

+
+

=
3
lim 3,
x
x

x 3
= 3 3
= 6
c
2
2
6
lim
2
x
x x
x


=
2
( 3)( 2)
lim
( 2)
x
x x
x


=
2
lim( 3),
x
x

+ x 2
= 2 + 3
= 5
d
3
1
4
lim
2
x
x
x

+
+

=
3
(1) 4
1 2
+
+

=
5
3

e
3
4
( 64)
lim
( 4)
h
h
h


=
2
4
( 4)( 4 16)
lim
( 4)
h
h h h
h

+ +


=
2
4
lim 4 16,
h
h h

+ + h 4
= (4)
2
+ 4(4) + 16
= 48
f
3 2
2
lim 6
x
x x

+

= (2)
3
+ (2)
2
6
= 8 + 4 6
= 10
g
2
3
3
lim
1
x
x x
x


=
3(3 3)
3 1
+


=
18
2

= 9
h
3
1
1
lim
1
x
x
x


=
3
( 1) 1
1 1
+


=
0
2

= 0
i
2
4
7 12
lim
4
x
x x
x

+ +
+

=
4
( 4)( 3)
lim
( 4)
x
x x
x

+ +
+

=
4
lim ( 3),
x
x

+ x 4
= 4 + 3
= 1
4 Gradient
=
( ) ( ) f x h f x
h
+

=
(2 ) (2) f h f
h
+

=
2 2
(2 ) 1 (2 1) h
h
+ + +

=
2
4 4 1 5 h h
h
+ + +

=
2
4h h
h
+

=
(4 ) h h
h
+

= 4 + h, h 0
5 Gradient of tangent
=
0
(( ) )( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
0
lim(4 )
h
h

+
= 4
The answer is E.
MM1 2 - 7 156 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
6


a Gradient chord PQ
=
( 1 ) ( 1)
( 1 ) ( 1)
f h f
h
+
+

=
( 1 )( 1 2) ( 1)( 1 2)
1 1
h h
h
+ + + +
+ +

=
( 1)( 1) ( 1)(1) h h
h
+

=
2
1 1 h
h
+

=
2
h
h

= h, h 0
b f (x) =
0
lim( )
h
h


= 0
Gradient at x = P is given by f (1) = 0.
7 Gradient of the chord is
(1 ) (1) f h f
h
+

=
2
(1 ) 2(1 ) 3 (1 2 3) h h
h
+ + + + + +

=
2
1 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 h h h
h
+ + + + +

=
2
4h h
h
+

= 4 + h
If h is very small, the gradient of the curve at the point
when x = 1, is approximately 4.
8


a Gradient =
rise
run

Gradient at x = 2 is approximately
16
4
= 4
b f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2 2
0
4 ( ) (4 )
lim
h
x h x
h

+

=
2 2 2
0
4 ( 2 ) 4
lim
h
x xh h x
h

+ + +

=
2 2 2
0
4 2 4
lim
h
x xh h x
h

+

=
2
0
2
lim
h
xh h
h



=
0
( 2 )
lim
h
h x h
h



=
0
lim( 2 )
h
x h

h 0
= 2x
f (2) = 2(2)
= 4
9


a Gradient =
rise
run

Gradient at x = 1 is approximately
30
3
= 10
b f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2 2
0
2( ) 6( ) (2 6 )
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ +

=
2 2 2
0
2( 2 ) 6 6 2 6
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + +

=
2 2 2
0
2 4 2 6 6 2 6
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + +

=
2
0
2 4 6
lim
h
h xh h
h

+

=
0
(2 4 6)
lim
h
h h x
h

+

=
0
lim(2 4 6),
h
h x

+ h 0
= 4x 6
f (1) = 4(1) 6
= 4 6
= 10.
10 Gradient =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

Gradient at x = 3
=
0
(3 ) (3)
lim
h
f h f
h

+

The answer is C.
11 a f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
0
3( ) 5 (3 5)
lim
h
x h x
h

+ + +

=
0
3 3 5 3 5
lim
h
x h x
h

+ +

=
0
3
lim
h
h
h


=
0
lim3,
h
h 0
= 3
b f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2 2
0
( ) 3 ( 3)
lim
h
x h x
h

+

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 157
=
2 2 2
0
2 3 3
lim
h
x xh h x
h

+ + +

=
2
0
2
lim
h
xh h
h

+

=
0
(2 )
lim
h
h x h
h

+

=
0
lim(2 ),
h
x h

+ h 0
= 2x
c f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2 2
0
( ) 6( ) ( 6 )
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2 2 2
0
2 6 6 6
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2
0
2 6
lim
h
xh h h
h

+ +

=
0
(2 6)
lim
h
h x h
h

+ +

=
0
lim(2 6),
h
x h

+ + h 0
= 2x + 6
d f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
0
( 4)( 2) ( 4)( 2)
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2 2
0
( ) 2( ) 8 ( 2 8)
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ +

=
2 2 2
0
2 2 2 8 2 8
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2
0
2 2
lim
h
xh h h
h

+

=
0
(2 2)
lim
h
h x h
h

+

=
0
lim(2 2),
h
x h

+ h 0
= 2x 2
e f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2 2
0
8 3( ) (8 3 )
lim
h
x h x
h

+

=
2 2 2
0
8 3( 2 ) 8 3
lim
h
x xh h x
h

+ + +

=
2 2 2
0
8 3 6 3 8 3
lim
h
x xh h x
h

+

=
2
0
6 3
lim
h
xh h
h



=
0
( 6 3 )
lim
h
h x h
h



=
0
lim( 6 3 ),
h
x h

h 0
= 6x
f f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
3 3
0
( ) 2 ( 2)
lim
h
x h x
h

+ + +

=
3 2 2 3 3
0
3 3 2 2
lim
h
x x h xh h x
h

+ + + +

=
2 2 3
0
3 3
lim
h
x h xh h
h

+ +

=
2 2
0
(3 3 )
lim
h
h x xh h
h

+ +

=
2 2
0
lim(3 3 ),
h
x xh h

+ + h 0
= 3x
2

12 a Let y = f(x)

d
d
y
x
= f (x)
=
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
0
9 4( ) (9 4 )
lim
h
x h x
h

+

=
0
9 4 4 9 4
lim
h
x h x
h

+

=
0
4
lim
h
h
h


=
0
lim( 4),
h
h 0
= 4
b Let y = f(x)

d
d
y
x
= f (x)
=
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2 2
0
( ) 3( ) ( 3 )
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2 2 2
0
2 3 3 3
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2
0
2 3
lim
h
xh h h
h

+ +

=
0
(2 3)
lim
h
h x h
h

+ +

=
0
lim(2 3),
h
x h

+ + h 0
= 2x + 3
c Let y = f(x)

d
d
y
x
= f (x)
=
0
(( ) )( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2 2
0
3( ) 8( ) 5 (3 8 5)
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2 2 2
0
3( 2 ) 8 8 5 3 8 5
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + + + +

=
2 2 2
0
3 6 3 8 8 5 3 8 5
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + + + +

=
2
0
6 3 8
lim
h
xh h h
h

+ +

=
0
(6 3 8)
lim
h
h x h
h

+ +

=
0
lim(6 3 8),
h
x h

+ + h 0
= 6x + 8
d Let y = f(x)

d
d
y
x
= f (x)
=
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

MM1 2 - 7 158 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
=
3 3
0
( ) 4( ) ( 4 )
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ +

=
3 2 2 3 3
0
3 3 4 4 4
lim
h
x x h xh h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2 2 3
0
3 3 4
lim
h
x h xh h h
h

+ +

=
2 2
0
(3 3 4)
lim
h
h x xh h
h

+ +

=
2 2
0
lim(3 3 4),
h
x xh h

+ + h 0
= 3x
2
4
e Let y = f (x)

d
d
y
x
= f (x)
=
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
3 3
0
5( ) 2( ) (5 2 )
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ +

=
3 2 2 3 3
0
5 5 2( 3 3 ) 5 2
lim
h
x h x x h xh h x x
h

+ + + + +

=
3 2 2 3 3
0
5 5 2 6 6 2 5 2
lim
h
x h x x h xh h x x
h

+ +

=
2 2 3
0
5 6 6 2
lim
h
h x h xh h
h



=
2 2
0
(5 6 6 2 )
lim
h
h x xh h
h



=
2 2
0
lim(5 6 6 2 ),
h
x xh h

h 0
= 5 6x
2

f Let y = f(x)

d
d
y
x
= f (x)
=
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
2
0
( )2 2( ) ( 2 )
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ +

=
2 2 2
0
( 2 ) 2 2 2
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
2 2 2
0
2 2 2 2
lim
h
x xh h x h x x
h

+ +

=
2
0
2 2
lim
h
xh h h
h



=
0
( 2 2)
lim
h
h x h
h



=
0
lim( 2 2),
h
x h

h 0
= 2x 2
Exercise 7C The derivative of x
n

1 a y = x
6


d
d
y
x
= 6x
6 1

= 6x
5

b y = 3x
2


d
d
y
x
= 3(2)x
2 1

= 6x
c y = 5x
4


d
d
y
x
= 5(4)x
4 1

= 20x
3

d y = x
20


d
d
y
x
= 20x
20 1

= 20x
19

e y = 4x
3


d
d
y
x
= 4(3)x
3 1

= 12x
2

f y = 5x

d
d
y
x
= 5(1)x
1 1

= 5x
0

= 5
g y =
1
2
x
3


d
d
y
x
=
1
2
(3)x
3 1

=
3
2
x
2

h y =
4
3
x


d
d
y
x
=
4 1
(4)
3
x


=
4
3
x
3

i y = 10

d
d
y
x
= 0
j y = 8x
5


d
d
y
x
= 8(5)x
5 1

= 40x
4

2 a f(x) = 4x
3
+ 5x
f (x) = 4(3)x
3 1
+ 5(1)x
1 1

= 12x
2
+ 5
b g(x) = 5x
2
+ 6x + 1
g(x) = 5(2)x
2 1
+ 6(1)x
1 1

= 10x + 6
c h(x) = 9 +
3
5
x

h(x) = 0 +
3 1
3
5
x


=
3
5
x
2

d h(x) = 4 3x + 6x
2
+ x
3

h(x) = 0 3(1)x
1 1
+ 6(2)x
2 1
+ 3x
3 1

= 3 + 12x + 3x
2

e g(x) = 7x
11
+ 6x
5
8
g(x) = 7(11)x
11 1
+ 6(5)x
5 1
0
= 77x
10
+ 30x
4

f f(x) =
5
2
5
x
+
3
3
x
+ 10
f (x) =
2(5)
5
x
5 1
+
3 1
3
3
x

+ 0
= 2x
4
+ x
2

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 159
g f(x) = 6x + 3x
2
4x
3

f (x) = 6(1)x
1 1
+ 3(2)x
2 1

4(3)x
3 1

= 6x
0
+ 6x 12x
2

= 6 + 6x 12x
2

h g(x) = 7x
2
4x +
2
3

g(x) = 7(2)x
2 1
4(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 14x 4x
0

= 14x 4
i h(x) = (x + 4)(x 1)
= x
2
+ 4x x 4
= x
2
+ 3x 4
h(x) = 2x
2 1
+ 3(1)x
1 1
0
= 2x + 3x
0

= 2x + 3
j f(x) = (x
2
+ 2x)(3x 6)
= 3x
3
+ 6x
2
6x
2
12x
= 3x
3
12x
f (x) = 3(3)x
3 1
12(1)x
1 1

= 9x
2
12x
0

= 9x
2
12
3 a Let y =
3
2
x

y = 2x
3


d
d
y
x
= 2(3)x
3 1

= 6x
4

=
4
6
x


b Let y = 3 x
y =
1
2
3x

d
d
y
x
=
1
1
2
1
3
2
x

| |
|
\ .

=
1
2
3
2
x


=
1
2
3
2x

=
3
2 x

c Let y =
1
3
x

d
d
y
x
=
1
1
3
1
3
x


=
2
3
1
3
x


=
2
3
1
3x

d Let y =
5
4
4x

d
d
y
x
=
5
1
4
5
4
4
x

| |
|
\ .

=
1
4
5x
e Let y = x 2x
2

=
1
2
2
2 x x

d
d
y
x
=
1
1
2 1
2
1
2(2)
2
x x


=
1
2
1
4
2
x x


=
1
4
2
x
x


f Let y =
1
x
+ x
2

= x
1
+ x
2


d
d
y
x
= 1x
1 1
+ 2x
2 1

= x
2
+ 2x
=
2
1
x
+ 2x
g Let y =
2 1
3 2
x x

+

d
d
y
x
=
2 1
1 1
3 2
1 2
2 3
x x

+
=
1 3
3 2
1 2
2 3
x x

+
h Let y =
3 x
x
+

= 1 +
3
x

= 1 + 3x
1


d
d
y
x
= 0 + 3(1)x
1 1

= 3x
2

=
2
3
x


i Let y =
2 3
x x
x
+

= x + x
2


d
d
y
x
= 1x
1 1
+ 2x
2 1

= x
0
+ 2x
= 1 + 2x
j Let y =
3
4x

=
1
3
4
x



d
d
y
x
=
3
4
(1)x
2

=
2
3
4x


k Let y =
2
2
5x

=
2
5
x
2


d
d
y
x
=
2
5
(2)x
2 1

=
4
5

x
3

=
3
4
5x


l Let y =
2
x
+ 3x
2

=
1
2
2
x
+ 3x
2

=
1
2
2
2 3 x x

+

d
d
y
x
=
1
1
2 1
2
1
2 3( 2)
2
x x


| |
+
|
\ .

=
3
3
2
6 x x


=
3 3
2
1 6
x
x

m Let y =
3
1
3
x 4x + x
3


d
d
y
x
=
1
3
(3)x
3 1
4(1)x
1 1

3x
3 1

= x
2
4x
0
3x
4

= x
2
4 3x
4

n Let y =
1
4
x x
x
+

=
1
4
1
2
x x
x
+

=
1
4
1 1
2 2
x x
x x
+
=
1 1
2 4
x x +

d
d
y
x
=
1 1
1 1
2 4
1 1
2 4
x x


=
1 5
2 4
1 1
2 4
x x


=
1 5
2 4
1 1
2 4 x x


=
5
4
1 1
2
4
x
x

4 a f(x) = 2x
5
10x + 5
f (x) = 2(5)x
5 1
10(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 10x
4
10x
0

= 10x
4
10
b f (2) = 10(2)
4
10
= 160 10
= 150
5 f(x) = x
2
6x
f (x) = 2x
2 1
6(1)x
1 1

= 2x 6
f (4) = 2(4) 6
= 2
The answer is D.
6 f(x) = x
2
+
3
2
10 x x
f (x) = 2x
2 1
+
3
1
1 1
2
3
10(1)
2
x x


= 2x +
1
2
3
10
2
x

(9) f = 2(9) +
1
2
3
(9) 10
2


= 18 +
3
2
(3) 10
MM1 2 - 7 160 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
= 18 +
9
2
10
= 12
1
2

The answer is C.
7 g(x) =
2
1
x
+ 3x 8
= x
2
+ 3x 8
g(x) = 2x
2 1
+ 3(1) x
1 1
0
= 2x
3
+ 3x
0

= 2x
3
+ 3
=
3
2
x

+ 3
g(2) =
3
2
( 2)

+ 3
=
2
8

+ 3
=
1
4
+ 3
= 3
1
4

8 y =
4
5
x

= 5x
4

Gradient =
d
d
y
x
= 5(4)x
4 1

= 20x
5

=
5
20
x


a Gradient at x = 2 is
5
20
2


=
20
32


=
5
8

b Gradient at x = 0 is
5
20
0


=
20
0


Undefined
9 f(x) = 2x
3
x
2
+
1
x

= 2x
3
x
2
+
1
2
x


f (x) = 2(3)x
3 1
2x
2 1
1
1
2
1
2
x


= 6x
2
2x
3
2
1
2
x


= 6x
2
2x
3
2
1
2x

a f (1) = 6(1)
2
2(1)
3
2
1
2(1)


= 6 2
1
2

=
1
3
2

b f (4) = 6(4)
2
2(4)
3
2
1
2(4)

= 96 8
1
16

=
15
87
16

c f (9) = 6(9)
2
2(9)
3
2
1
2(9)

= 486 18
1
54

= 467
53
54

10 a g(x) = 3 x + 4x
=
1
3
x + 4x
g(x) =
1
1
1 1
3
1
4(1)
3
x x

+
=
2
0
3
1
4
3
x x

+
=
2
3
1
4
3x
+
b g(1) =
2
3
1
4
3(1)
+
=
1
3
+ 4
= 4
1
3

c g(8) =
2
3
1
4
3(8)
+
=
1
12
+ 4
= 4
1
12

d g(8) =
2
3
1
4
3( 8)
+


=
1
12
+ 4
= 4
1
12

11 y = k
= k 1
= kx
0


d
d
y
x
= k(0)x
0 1

= 0x
1

= 0
12 a i Let y = (x + 1)
2

= x
2
+ 2x + 1
ii
d
d
y
x
= 2x
2 1
+ 2(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 2x + 2x
0

= 2x + 2
iii 2x + 2 = 2(x + 1)
b i Let y = (x + 1)
3

= x
3
+ 3x
2
(1) + 3(1)
2
x + 1
3

= x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 3x + 1
ii
d
d
y
x
= 3x
3 1
+ 3(2)x
2 1
+
3(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 3x
2
+ 6x + 3x
0

= 3x
2
+ 6x + 3
iii 3x
2
+ 6x + 3
= 3(x
2
+ 2x + 1)
= 3(x + 1)
2

c i Let y = (2x + 1)
2

= 4x
2
+ 4x + 1
ii
d
d
y
x
= 4(2)x
2 1
4(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 8x + 4x
0

= 8x + 4
iii 8x + 4 = 4(2x + 1)
d i Let y = (2x + 1)
3

= (2x)
3
+ 3(2x)
2
(1) +
3(2x)(1)
2
+ 1
= 8x
3
+ 12x
2
+ 6x + 1
ii
d
d
y
x
= 8(3)x
3 1
+ 12(2)x
2 1
+
6(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 24x
2
+ 24x + 6x
0

= 24x
2
+ 24x + 6
iii 24x
2
+ 24x + 6
= 6(4x
2
+ 4x + 1)
= 6(2x + 1)
2

e i Let y = (3x + 1)
2

= 9x
2
+ 6x + 1
ii
d
d
y
x
= 9(2)x
2 1
+ 6(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 18x + 6x
0

= 18x + 6
iii 18x + 6 = 6(3x + 1)
f i Let y = (3x + 1)
3

= (3x)
3
+ 3(3x)
2
(1) +
3(3x)(1)
2
+ 1
3

= 27x
3
+ 27x
2
+ 9x + 1
ii
d
d
y
x
= 27(3)x
3 1
+ 27(2)x
2 1
+
9(1)x
1 1
+ 0
= 81x
2
+ 54x + 9x
0

= 81x
2
+ 54x + 9
iii 81x
2
+ 54x + 9
= 9(9x
2
+ 6x + 1)
= 9(3x + 1)
2

13 Let y = (ax + b)
n


d
d
y
x
= na(ax + b)
n 1

Exercise 7D The chain rule
1 a i 5x 4 ii 3
b i 3x + 1 ii
1
2

c i 2x + 3 ii 4
d i 7 4x ii 1
e i 5x + 3 ii 6
f i 4 3x ii
4
3

2 y = (x + 3)
5

y = u
5

u = x + 3
The answer is B.
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 161
3 a y = (3x + 2)
2

i Let u = 3x + 2
y = u
2


d
d
y
u
= 2u
ii u = 3x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 3
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2u 3
= 6u
= 6(3x + 2)
b y = (7 x)
3

i Let u = 7 x
y = u
3


d
d
y
u
= 3u
2

ii u = 7 x

d
d
u
x
= 1
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3u
2
1
= 3(7 x)
2

c y =
1
2 5 x
= (2x 5)
1

i Let u = 2x 5
y = u
1


d
d
y
u
= u
2

=
2
1
u


ii u = 2x 5

d
d
u
x
= 2
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
1
u
2
=
2
2
u

=
2
2
(2 5) x


d y =
4
1
(4 2 ) x
= (4 2x)
4

i Let u = 4 2x
y = u
4


d
d
y
u
= 4u
5

=
5
4
u


ii u = 4 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
5
4
u

2
=
5
8
u

=
5
8
(4 2 ) x

e y = 5 2 x + =
1
2
(5 2) x +
i Let u = 5x + 2
y =
1
2
u


d
d
y
u
=
1
2
1
2
u


=
1
2
1
2u
=
1
2 u

ii u = 5x + 2

d
d
y
x
= 5
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2 u
5
=
5
2 u

=
5
2 5 2 x +

f i y =
3
3 2 x

=
1
2
3
(3 2) x

=
1
2
3(3 2) x


Let u = 3x 2
y =
1
2
3u



d
d
y
u
=
3
2
3
2
u


=
3
2
3
2u


ii u = 3x 2

d
d
u
x
= 3
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
3
2
3
3
2u


=
3
2
9
2u


=
3
2
9
2(3 2) x


g i y = 3(2x
2
+ 5x)
5

Let u = 2x
2
+ 5x
y = 3u
5


d
d
y
u
= 15u
4

ii u = 2x
2
+ 5x

d
d
u
x
= 4x + 5
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 15u
4
(4x + 5)
= 15(4x + 5)(2x
2
+ 5x)
4

h i y = (4x 3x
2
)
2

Let u = 4x 3x
2

y = u
2


d
d
y
u
= 2u
3

ii u = 4x 3x
2


d
d
u
x
= 4 6x
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2u
3
(4 6x)
= 2(4 6x)(4x 3x
2
)
3

= 4(2 3x)(4x 3x
2
)
3

i i y =
6
1
x
x
| |
+
|
\ .

Let u = x +
1
x

= x + x
1

y = u
6


d
d
y
u
= 6u
5

ii u = x + x
1


d
d
u
x
= 1 x
2

= 1
2
1
x

=
2
2
1 x
x


iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6u
5

2
1
1
x
(

(


= 6
5
2
2
1 1 x
x
x x
| |
(
+
|
( |

\ .

j i y = 4(5 6x)
4

u = 5 6x
y = 4u
4


d
d
y
u
= 16u
5

ii u = 5 6x

d
d
u
x
= 6
iii
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 16u
5
6
= 96u
5

= 96(5 6x)
5

4 y =
1
2
u

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
1
2
u


=
1
2
1
2u

=
1
2 u

The answer is C.
MM1 2 - 7 162 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
5 y =
2
3 2 x x +
y =
1
2
2
( 3 2) x x +
If u = x
2
3x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 2x 3
The answer is A.
6
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2 u
(2x 3)
=
2 3
2
x
u


=
2
2 3
2 3 2
x
x x

+

The answer is B.
7 a y = (8x + 3)
4

Let u = 8x + 3
y = u
4


d
d
y
u
= 4u
3


d
d
u
x
= 8

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4u
3
8
= 32u
3

= 32(8x + 3)
3

b y = (2x 5)
3

Let u = 2x 5
y = u
3


d
d
y
u
= 3u
2


d
d
u
x
= 2

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3u
2
2
= 6u
2

= 6(2x 5)
2

c f(x) = (4 3x)
5
= y
Let u = 4 3x
y = u
5


d
d
y
u
= 5u
4


d
d
u
x
= 3

d
d
y
x
= f (x) =
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5u
4
3
= 15u
4

= 15(4 3x)
4

d y =
2
(3 4) x
=
1
2
2
(3 4) x

Let u = 3x
2
4
y =
1
2
u

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
1
2
u


=
1
2 u


d
d
u
x
= 6x

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2 u
6x
=
3x
u

=
2
3
3 4
x
x

e f(x) =
1
2
3
( 4 ) x x
= y
Let u = x
2
4x
y =
1
3
u

d
d
y
u
=
2
3
1
3
u


=
2
3
1
3u


d
d
u
x
= 2x 4

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
3
1
3u
(2x 4)
=
2
2
3
2 4
3( 4 )
x
x x


=
2
2
3
2
( 2)( 4 )
3
x x x



f g(x) = (2x
3
+ x)
2
= y
Let u = 2x
3
+ x
y = u
2


d
d
y
u
= 2u
3


d
d
u
x
= 6x
2
+ 1
g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2u
3
(6x
2
+ 1)
= 2(6x
2
+ 1)(2x
3
+ x)
3

g g(x) =
6
1
x
x
| |

|
\ .
= y
Let u = x
1
x

= x x
1

y = u
6


d
d
y
u
= 6u
5


d
d
u
x
= 1 + x
2

= 1 +
2
1
x

g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6u
5

2
1
1
x
| |
+
|
\ .

= 6
5
1
1
x
| |

|
\ .
2
1
1
x
| |
+
|
\ .

or 6
2
1
1
x
| |
+
|
\ .
5
1
1
x
| |

|
\ .

h y = (x
2
3x)
1

Let u = x
2
3x
y = u
1


d
d
y
u
= u
2


d
d
u
x
= 2x 3

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= u
2
(2x 3)
= (2x 3)(x
2
3x)
2

8 f(x) =
1
4 7 x +

y =
1
2
(4 7) x

+
Let u = 4x + 7
y =
1
2
u



d
d
y
u
=
3
2
1
2
u



d
d
u
x
= 4

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
3
2
1
2
u

4
=
3
2
2u


= 2
3
2
(4 7) x

+
=
3
2
2
(4 7) x

+

=
3
2
(4 7) x

+

9 a y =
6 5
6 5
x
x


=
1
2
(6 5)
(6 5)
x
x


=
1
2
(6 5) x


Let u = 6x 5
y =
1
2
u



d
d
y
u
=
3
2
1
2
u



d
d
u
x
= 6

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
3
2
1
6
2
u


=
3
2
3u


=
3
2
3
(6 5) x


Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 163
b f(x) =
2 2
2
( 2)
2
x
x
+
+

=
2 2
1
2
2
( 2)
( 2)
x
x
+
+

=
3
2
2
( 2) x +

Let u = x
2
+ 2
y =
3
2
u

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
3
2
u


d
d
u
x
= 2x

d
d
y
x
=
1
2
3
2
2
u x

=
1
2
3xu

= 3x
2
2 x +

10 a f(x) = (x
2
+ 5x)
8

Let y = (x
2
+ 5x)
8

Let u = x
2
+ 5x
y = u
8


d
d
y
u
= 8u
7


d
d
u
x
= 2x + 5

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 8u
7
(2x + 5)
= 8(2x + 5)(x
2
+ 5x)
7

= 8x
7
(2x + 5)(x + 5)
7

b y = (x
3
2x)
2

Let u = x
3
2x
y = u
2


d
d
y
u
= 2u

d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
2

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2u(3x
2
2)
= 2(3x
2
2)(x
3
2x)
= 2x(3x
2
2)(x
2
2)
c f(x) =
1
3 2
5
( 2 7) x x +
Let u = x
3
+ 2x
2
7

d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
+ 4x
y =
1
5
u

d
d
y
u
=
4
5
1
5
u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
4
3 2 2
5
1
( 2 7) (3 4 )
5
x x x x

+ +

=

2
4
3 2
5
3 4
5( 2 7)
x x
x x
+
+

d y =
3
4 2
2
(2 3 1) x x +
u = 2x
4
3x
2
+ 1
y =
3
2
u

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
3
2
u

d
d
u
x
= 8x
3
6x

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x


d
d
y
x
=
1
3
2
3
(8 6 )
2
u x x
=
4 2
3 2 3 1
2
x x +
2x(4x
2
3)
= 3x(4x
2
3)
4 2
2 3 1 x x +
11 f(x) = (2x 1)
6

Let g(x) = 2x 1
g(x) = 2
f (x) = 6(2x 1)
6 1
(2)
= 12(2x 1)
5

f (3) = 12(6 1)
5

= 12(5)
5

= 37 500
12 g(x) = (x
2
3x)
2

Let h(x) = x
2
3x
h(x) = 2x 3
g(x) = 2(x
2
3x)
3
(2x 3)
=
2 3
2(2 3)
( 3 )
x
x x


g(2) =
3
2( 4 3)
(4 6)

+

=
14
1000

=
7
500
or 0.014
13 f(x) =
2
2 1 x x +
a f(3) =
2
3 2(3) 1 +
= 4
= 2
b f(x) =
1
2
2
( 2 1) x x +
Let u = x
2
2x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 2x 2
f (x) =
1
1
2
2
1
( 2 1) (2 2)
2
x x x

+

=

2
1
2 1
x
x x

+

c f (3)
=

3 1
9 6 1

+

=
2
4

=
2
2

= 1
d When x = 2
f (x) = f (2)

=

2 1
4 4 1

+

= 1
MM1 2 - 7 164 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
14 h(x) =
2
(3 2 ) x x +


=

1
2
2
(3 2 ) x x +


h(x) =

1
1
2
2
1
(3 2 ) (6 2)
2
x x x

+ +

=
2
3 1
(3 2 )
x
x x
+
+

When x = 2
h(x) = h(2)
=
3(2) 1
3(4) 2(2)
+
+

=
7
16

=
7
4

15 f(x) =
3
5 4x

=
1
2
3(5 4 ) x


Let g(x) = 5 4x
g(x) = 4
f (x) =
1
1
2
1
3(5 4 ) ( 4)
2
x


= 6
3
2
(5 4 ) x


=
3
6
(5 4 ) x

f (1) =
3
6
(5 4( 1))

=
3
6
(9)

=
6
729

=
6
27

=
2
9

16 f(x) = (2x 1)
5

f (x) = 5(2x 1)
4
2
= 10(2x 1)
4

n = 4
17 f(x) = (3x + 2)
7

f (x) = 7(3x + 2)
6
3
a = 7
18 If f(x) = (5x 3)
10

f (x) = 10(5x 3)
9
5
= 10 5(5x 3)
9

m = 5
Exercise 7E The derivative
of e
x

1 a y = e
10x

Let u = 10x
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
u
x
= 10

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
10
= 10e
u

= 10e
10x

b y =
1
3
x
e
Let u =
1
3
x

d
d
u
x
=
1
3

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u

1
3

=
3
1
3
x
e
c y =
4
x
e
Let u =
4
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
4

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u

1
4

=
4
1
4
x
e
d y = e
x

Let u = x

d
d
u
x
= 1
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
1
= e
x

e y = 2e
3x

Let u = 3x

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = 2e
u


d
d
y
u
= 2e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2e
u
3
= 6e
3x

f y = 4e
5x

Let u = 5x

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = 4e
u


d
d
y
u
= 4e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4e
u
5
= 20e
5x

g y = 6e
2x

Let u = 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = 6e
u


d
d
y
u
= 6e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6e
u
2
= 12e
2x

h y = 5e
0.2x

Let u = 0.2x

d
d
u
x
= 0.2
y = 5e
u


d
d
y
u
= 5e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5e
u
0.2
= e
u

= e
0.2x

i y = 2e
11x

Let u = 11x

d
d
u
x
= 11
y = 2e
u


d
d
y
u
= 2e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2e
u
11
= 22e
11x

2 a y = e
6x 2

Let u = 6x 2

d
d
u
x
= 6
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
6
= 6e
u

= 6e
6x 2

b y = e
8 6x

Let u = 8 6x

d
d
u
x
= 6
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 165
= e
u
6
= 6e
u

= 6e
8 6x

c y = 2e
5x + 3

Let u = 5x + 3

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = 2e
u


d
d
y
u
= 2e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2e
u
5
= 10e
u

= 10e
5x + 3

d y = 4e
7 2x

Let u = 7 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = 4e
u


d
d
y
u
= 4e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4e
u
2
= 8e
u

= 8e
7 2x

e y = 3e
8x + 1

Let u = 8x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 8
y = 3e
u


d
d
y
u
= 3e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3e
u
8
= 24e
u

= 24e
8x + 1

f y = 2e
6 5x

Let u = 6 5x

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = 2e
u


d
d
y
u
= 2e

u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2e
u
5
= 10e
u

= 10e
6 5x

g y = 10e
6 9x

Let u = 6 9x

d
d
u
x
= 9
y = 10e
u


d
d
y
u
= 10e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 10e
u
9
= 90e
u

= 90e
6 9x

h y = 5e
3x + 4

Let u = 3x + 4

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = 5e
u


d
d
y
u
= 5e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5e
u
3
= 15e
u

= 15e
3x + 4

i y = 6e
7x

Let u = 7x

d
d
u
x
= 7
y = 6e
u


d
d
y
u
= 6e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6e
u
7
= 42e
u

= 42e
7x

j y =
1
2
2
x
e
+

Let u =
2
x
+ 1

d
d
u
x
=
1
2

y = 2e
u


d
d
y
u
= 2e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2e
u

1
2

= e
u

=
1
2
x
e
+

k y =
2
3
3
x
e


Let u = 2
3
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
3

y = 3e
u


d
d
y
u
= 3e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3e
u

1
3

= e
u

=
2
3
x
e


l y =
5
4
4
x
e
+

Let u =
4
x
+ 5

d
d
u
x
=
1
4

y = 4e
u


d
d
y
u
= 4e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4e
u

1
4

= e
u

=
5
4
x
e
+

3 y = e
3x + 2

Let u = 3x + 2
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
u
x
= 3

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3e
u

= 3e
3x + 2

The answer is A.
4 a f(x) = 2(e
x
+ 1)
Let u = e
x
+ 1

d
d
u
x
= e
x

y = 2u

d
d
y
u
= 2

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2e
x

b f(x) = 3e
2x
(e
x
+ 1)
= 3e
2x + x
+ 3e
2x

= 3e
3x
+ 3e
2x

f (x) = 9e
3x
+ 6e
2x

c f(x) = 5(e
4x
+ 2x)
= 5e
4x
+ 10x
f (x) = 20e
4x
+ 10
d f(x) = (e
x
+ 2)(e
x
+ 3)
= e
0
+ 2e
x
+ 3e
x
+ 6
= 1 + 2e
x
+ 3e
x
+ 6
= 3e
x
+ 2e
x
+ 7
f (x) = 3e
x
2e
x

e f(x) =
3 6
3
x x
x
e e
e

+

=
3 6
3
x x
x x
e e
e e

+

= 3e
3x x
+ e
6x x

= 3e
2x
+ e
7x

f (x) = 6e
2x
7e
7x

f f(x) =
7
2
4 2
x x
x
e e
e


=
7
2 2
4 2
x x
x x
e e
e e


= 4e
7x (2x)
2e
x (2x)

= 4e
9x
2e
x

f (x) = 36e
9x
2e
x

g f(x) = e
x
+ e
2

f (x) = e
x
+ 0
= e
x

MM1 2 - 7 166 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
h f(x) = 4e
5x
+ 2x
2
e
3

f (x) = 20e
5x
+ 4x 0
= 20e
5x
+ 4x
5 a y =
2
3 x x
e
+

Let u = x
2
+ 3x

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 3
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
(2x + 3)
= (2x + 3)
2
3 x x
e
+

b y =
2
3 1 x x
e
+

Let u = x
2
3x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 2x 3
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
(2x 3)
= (2x 3)
2
3 1 x x
e
+

c y =
2
2 x x
e


Let u = x
2
2x

d
d
u
x
= 2x 2
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
(2x 2)
= 2(x 1)e
u

= 2(x 1)
2
2 x x
e


d f(x) = e
2 5x

Let y = e
2 5x

Let u = 2 5x

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
5
= 5e
u

= 5e
2 5x

e f(x) =
2
6 3x x
e
+

Let y =
2
6 3x x
e
+

Let u = 6 3x + x
2


d
d
u
x
= 3 + 2x
= 2x 3
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
(2x 3)
= (2x 3)e
u

= (2x 3)
2
6 3x x
e
+

f g(x) =
3
3 2 x x
e
+

Let y =
3
3 2 x x
e
+

Let u = x
3
+ 3x 2

d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
+ 3
= 3(x
2
+ 1)
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
3(x
2
+ 1)
= 3(x
2
+ 1)
3
3 2 x x
e
+

g h(x) =
2
4 7
3
x x
e


Let y =
2
4 7
3
x x
e


Let u = 4x
2
7x

d
d
u
x
= 8x 7
y = 3e
u


d
d
y
u
= 3e
u

h(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3e
u
(8x 7)
= 3(8x 7)
2
4 7 x x
e


h y =
2
1 2 3
5
x x
e


Let u = 1 2x 3x
2


d
d
u
x
= 2 6x
= 2(1 + 3x)
y = 5e
u


d
d
y
u
= 5e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5e
u
2(1 + 3x)
= 10(1 + 3x)e
u

= 10(1 + 3x)
2
1 2 3 x x
e


i y =
3
(2 1) x
e
+

Let u = (2x + 1)
3


d
d
u
x
= 3(2x + 1)
2
(2) chain rule
= 6(2x + 1)
2

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
6(2x + 1)
2

= 6(2x + 1)
2
3
(2 1) x
e
+

j f(x) =
4
(4 ) x
e


Let u = (4 x)
4


d
d
u
x
= 4(4 x)
3
(1) chain rule
= 4(4 x)
3

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
4(4 x)
3

= 4(4 x)
3
4
(4 ) x
e


k g(x) =
2
( 2) x
e

+

Let u = (x + 2)
2


d
d
u
x
= 2(x + 2)
3
(1) chain rule
= 2(x + 2)
3

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
2(x + 2)
3

= 2(x + 2)
3
2
( 2) x
e

+

l y = (3 4) e x +
=
1
2
(3 4) x
e
+

Let u =
1
2
(3 4) x +

d
d
u
x
=
1
2
1
(3 4) (3)
2
x

+
=
1
2
3
(3 4)
2
x

+
=
3
2 (3 4) x +

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u

3
2 (3 4) x +

=
3 (3 4)
2 (3 4)
e x
x
+
+

m f(x) =
1
3
( 1) x
e
+

Let y =
1
3
( 1) x
e
+

Let u =
1
3
( 1) x +

d
d
u
x
=
2
3
1
( 1)
3
x

+ chain rule
=
2
3
1
3( 1) x +

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 167
f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
3
1
3( 1)
u
e
x

+

=
1
3
( 1)
2
3
3( 1)
x
e
x
+
+

n h(x) =
2 2
( 3 ) x x
e
+

Let y =
2 2
( 3 ) x x
e
+

Let u = (x
2
+ 3x)
2


d
d
u
x
= 2(x
2
+ 3x)(2x + 3) chain rule
= 2x(x + 3)(2x + 3)
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

h(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
2x(x + 3)(2x + 3)
= 2x(x + 3)(2x + 3)

2 2
( 3 ) x x
e
+

6 y = 6
3
5 x x
e


Let u = x
3
5x

d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
5
y = 6e
u


d
d
y
u
= 6e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6e
u
(3x
2
5)
= 6(3x
2
5)
3
5 x x
e


The answer is B.
7 f(x) = 5e
9 4x

Let y = 5e
9 4x

Let u = 9 4x

d
d
u
x
= 4
y = 5e
u


d
d
y
u
= 5e
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5e
u
4
= 20e
u

= 20e
9 4x

f (2) = 20e
9 4(2)

= 20e
1

= 20e
8 g(x) =
2
3 2
2
x x
e
+

Let y =
2
3 2
2
x x
e
+

Let u = x
2
3x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 2x 3
y = 2e
u


d
d
y
u
= 2e
u

g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2e
u
(2x 3)
= 2(2x 3)
2
3 2 x x
e
+

g(0) = 2(3)e
2

= 6e
2

9 h(x) =
3
2
5
x x
e
+

Let y =
3
2
5
x x
e
+

Let u = x
3
+ 2x

d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
+ 2
y = 5e
u


d
d
y
u
= 5e
u

h(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5e
u
(3x
2
+ 2)
= 5(3x
2
+ 2)
3
2 x x
e
+

h(1) = 5(3(1)
2
+ 2)

3
( 1) 2( 1)
e
+

= 5(5)e
1 2

= 25e
3

Exercise 7F The derivative
of log
e
(x)
1 a y = log
e
(4x)
y = log
e
(u)
u = 4x
b
d
d
u
x
= 4
c
d
d
y
u
=
1
u

d
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
4
=
4
u

=
4
4x

=
1
x

2 a y = log
e
(10x)
Let u = 10x

d
d
u
x
= 10
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
10
=
10
u

=
10
10x

=
1
x

b y = log
e
(5x)
Let u = 5x

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
5
=
5
u

=
5
5x

=
1
x

c y = log
e
(x)
Let u = x

d
d
u
x
= 1
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
1
=
1
u


=
1
x


=
1
x

d y = log
e
(6x)
Let u = 6x

d
d
u
x
= 6
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
6
=
6
u


=
6
6x


=
1
x

e y = 3 log
e
(4x)
Let u = 4x

d
d
u
x
= 4
y = 3 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
3
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

MM1 2 - 7 168 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
=
3
u
4
=
12
u

=
12
4x

=
3
x

f y = 6 log
e
(9x)
Let u = 9x

d
d
u
x
= 9
y = 6 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
6
u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
6
u

9
=
54
u


=
54
9x


=
6
x


g y = log
e
2
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
2
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
2

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u

1
2

=
1
2u

=
1
x

h y = log
e
3
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
3
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
3

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u

1
3

=
1
3u

=
1
x

i y = 4 log
e
5
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
5
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
5

y = 4 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
4
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
4
u

1
5

=
4
5u

=
4
x

j y = 5 log
e
2
3
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
2
3
x | |
|
\ .


d
d
u
x
=
2
3


y = 5 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
5
u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
5
u


2
3


=
10
3u

=
10
2x

=
5
x


3 Let y = log
e
(8x)
Let u = 8x

d
d
u
x
= 8
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
8
=
8
u

=
8
8x

=
1
x

The answer is D.
4 a y = log
e
(3x + 7)
Let u = 3x + 7
The answer is A.
b y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
u
x
= 3
The answer is D.
c
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
3
=
3
u

=
3
3 7 x +

The answer is C.
5 a y = log
e
(2x + 5)
Let u = 2x + 5

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
2
=
2
u

=
2
2 5 x +

b y = log
e
(6x + 1)
Let u = 6x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 6
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
6
=
6
u

=
6
6 1 x +

c y = log
e
(3x 4)
Let u = 3x 4

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
3
=
3
u

=
3
3 4 x

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 169
d y = log
e
(8x 1)
Let u = 8x 1

d
d
u
x
= 8
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
8
=
8
u

=
8
8 1 x

e y = log
e
(3 5x)
Let u = 3 5x

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
5
=
5
u


=
5
3 5x


or
5
5 3 x

f y = log
e
(2 x)
Let u = (2 x)

d
d
u
x
= 1
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
1
=
1
u


=
1
2 x


or
1
2 x

g y = log
e
(4 7x)
Let u = 4 7x

d
d
u
x
= 7
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
7
=
7
u


=
7
4 7x


or
7
7 4 x

h y = 6 log
e
(5x + 2)
Let u = 5x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = 6 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
6
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
6
u
5
=
30
u

=
30
5 2 x +

i y = 8 log
e
(4x 2)
Let u = 4x 2

d
d
u
x
= 4
y = 8 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
8
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
8
u
4
=
32
u

=
32
4 2 x

=
32
2(2 1) x

=
16
2 1 x

j y = 4 log
e
(12x + 5)
Let u = 12x + 5

d
d
u
x
= 12
y = 4 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
4
u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
4
u

12
=
48
u


=
48
12 5 x

+

k y = 7 log
e
(8 9x)
Let u = 8 9x

d
d
u
x
= 9
y = 7 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
7
u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
7
4

9
=
63
u

=
63
8 9x

6 a y = log
e
(3x
4
)
Let y = 3x
4


d
d
u
x
= 12x
3

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
12x
3

=
3
12x
u

=
3
4
12
3
x
x

=
4
x

b y = log
e
(x
2
+ 3)
Let u = x
2
+ 3

d
d
u
x
= 2x
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
2x
=
2x
u

=
2
2
3
x
x +

c y = log
e
(x
3
+ 2x
2
7x)
Let u = x
3
+ 2x
2
7x

d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
+ 4x 7
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
(3x
2
+ 4x 7)
=
2
3 2
3 4 7
2 7
x x
x x x
+
+

d y = log
e
(x
2
2x
3
+ x
4
)
Let u = x
2
2x
3
+ x
4


d
d
u
x
= 2x 6x
2
+ 4x
3

y = log
e
(u)
MM1 2 - 7 170 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
(2x 6x
2
+ 4x
3
)
=
2 3
2 3 4
2 6 4
2
x x x
x x x
+
+

e y = log
e 2 1 x +

=
1
2
log
e
(2x + 1)
Let u = 2x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 2
y =
1
2
log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
2u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2u

2
1

=
1
u

=
1
2 1 x +

f y = log
e 3 4x

=
1
2
log
e
(3 4x)
Let u = 3 4x

d
d
u
x
= 4
y =
1
2
log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
2u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2u

4
1


=
2
u


=
2
3 4x

or
2
4 3 x

g y =
1
3
log (5 2)
e
x +
=
1
3
log
e
(5x + 2)
Let u = 5x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 5
y =
1
3
log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
3u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
3u

5
1

=
5
3(5 2) x +

h f(x) =
1
5
log (2 3 )
e
x = y
=
1
5
log
e
(2 3x)
Let u = 2 3x

d
d
u
x
= 3
y =
1
5
log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
5u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
5u

3
1


=
3
5(2 3 ) x


or
3
5(3 2) x

i f(x) = log
e
1
3 x
| |
|
+
\ .

Let y = log
e
1
3 x
| |
|
+
\ .

Let u =
1
3 x +

= (x + 3)
1


d
d
u
x
= (x + 3)
2

=
2
1
( 3) x

+

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u

2
1
( 3) x

+

=
2
( 3)
( 3)
x
x
+
+

=
1
( 3) x

+

j f(x) = log
e
(3x 2)
4

Let y = log
e
(3x 2)
4

Let u = (3x 2)
4


d
d
u
x
= 4(3x 2)
3
(3) chain rule
= 12(3x 2)
3

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
12(3x 2)
3

=
3
4
12(3 2)
(3 2)
x
x


=
12
3 2 x

k f(x) = log
e
(5x + 8)
2

Let y = log
e
(5x + 8)
2

Let u = (5x + 8)
2


d
d
u
x
= 2(5x + 8)
3
(5) chain rule
=
3
10
(5 8) x

+

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u

3
10
(5 8) x

+

=
2 3
10
(5 8) (5 8) x x

+ +

=
10
5 8 x

+

l f(x) = log
e
2
4 3x
| |
|
+
\ .

Let y = log
e
2
4 3x
| |
|
+
\ .

Let u =
2
4 3x +

= 2(4 + 3x)
1


d
d
u
x
= 2(4 + 3x)
2
(3) chain rule
=
6
4 3x + ( )
2
---------------------- -

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u

2
6
(4 3 ) x

+

=
(4 3 )
2
x +

2
6
(4 3 ) x

+

=
3
4 3x

+

7 a y = log
e
(x
2
+ 1)
2
y = 2log
e
(x
2
+ 1)
u = x
2
+ 1

d
d
u
x
= 2x
y = 2log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
2
1 x +

2
1
x

=
2
4
1
x
x +

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 171
b y = log
e
(3 x
2
)
2

y = 2log
e
(3 x
2
)
u = 3 x
2


d
d
u
x
= 2x
y = 2log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
2
3 x
2x
=
2
4
3
x
x

c y = log
e
(x
2
2x + 3)
3

= 3log
e
(x
2
2x + 3)
u = x
2
2x + 3

d
d
u
x
= 2x 2
y = 3log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
3
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
3
2 3 x x +
2x 2
=
6( 1)
( 3)( 1)
x
x x

+

d y = log
e
(x
2
+ 4x + 4)
3

y = 3log
e
(x
2
+ 4x + 4)
u = x
2
+ 4x + 4

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 4
y = 3log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
3
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
3
4 4 x x + +
2(x + 2)
=
6( 2)
( 2)( 2)
x
x x
+
+ +

=
6
2 x +

8 f(x) = log
e
(x
2
5x + 2) = y
Let u = x
2
5x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 2x 5
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
y

=
1
u
(2x 5)
=
2 5 x
u


=
2
2 5
5 2
x
x x

+

The answer is E.
9 f(x) = 6 log
e
(4 3x)
Let y = 6 log
e
(4 3x)
Let u = 4 3x

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = 6 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
6
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
6
u
3
=
18
u


=
18
4 3x


f (1) =
18
4 3( 1)



=
18
7


10 g(x) = 3 log
e
(3x + 5)
Let y = 3 log
e
(3x + 5)
Let u = 3x + 5

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = 3 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
3
u

g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
3
u
3
=
9
u

=
9
3 5 x +

g(0) =
9
5

11 f(x) = 3x
2
+ 4 log
e
(x
2
+ x)
Let g(x) = 3x
2

g(x) = 6x
Let h(x) = 4 log
e
(x
2
+ x) = y
Let u = x
2
+ x

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 1
y = 4 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
4
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
4
u
(2x + 1)
=
2
4(2 1) x
x x
+
+

since f(x) = g(x) + h(x)
f (x) = g(x) + h(x)
= 6x +
2
4(2 1) x
x x
+
+

f (2) = 6(2) +
2
4(4 1)
2 2
+
+

= 12 +
20
6

= 15
2
6

= 15
1
3

12 a y = e
log
e(
x)

Let u = log
e
(x)

d
d
u
x
=
1
x

y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u

1
x

=
log ( ) x
e
e
x

Now
log ( ) x
e
e = x
so

d
d
y
x
=
x
x
= 1
b i when x = 1,
d
d
y
x
=
log (1)
1
e
e

= 1
ii when x = 2,
d
d
y
x
=
log (2)
2
e
e

=
2
2
= 1
iii When x = 4,
d
d
y
x
=
log (4)
4
e
e

=
4
4
= 1
iv When x = 10,
d
d
y
x
=
log (10)
10
e
e

=
10
10
= 1
Gradient is always one since
log ( ) x
e
e = x
13 a f(x) =
2
log ( ) x
e
e
Let y =
2
log ( ) x
e
e
Let u = log
e
(x
2
)

d
d
u
x
=
2
1
x
2x chain rule
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u

2
2x
x

=
2
2
u
xe
x

=
2
log ( )
2
2
x
e
xe
x

MM1 2 - 7 172 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
=
2
log ( )
2
x
e
e
x

But
2
log ( ) x
e
e = x
2


d
d
y
x
=
2
2x
x
= 2x
b i f (1) = 2(1)
= 2
ii f (5) = 2(5)
= 10
iii f (2) = 2(2)
= 4
Exercise 7G The derivatives
of sin(x), cos(x) and tan(x)
1 a y = sin(8x)
Let u = 8x

d
d
u
x
= 8
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 8 cos(u)
= 8 cos(8x)
b y = sin (6x)
Let u = 6x

d
d
u
x
= 6
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6 cos(u)
= 6 cos(6x)
c y = sin(x)

d
d
y
x
= cos(x)
d y = sin
3
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
3
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
3

y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
3
cos(u)
=
1
3
cos
3
x | |
|
\ .

e y = sin
2
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
2
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
2


y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2

cos(u)
=
1
2
cos
2
x | |

|
\ .

f y = sin
2
3
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
2
3
x


d
d
u
x
=
2
3

y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
3
cos(u)
=
2
3
cos
2
3
x | |
|
\ .

2 a y = cos(3x)
Let u = 3x

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3 sin(u)
= 3 sin(3x)
b y = cos(2x)
Let u = 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2 sin(u)
= 2 sin(2x)
c y = cos
3
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
3
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
3

y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
3
sin(u)
=
1
3
sin
3
x | |
|
\ .

d y = cos
4
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
4
x


d
d
u
x
=
4


y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
4

sin(u)
=
4

sin
4
x | |
|
\ .

e y = cos
8
x | |

|
\ .

Let u =
8
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
8

y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
8
sin(u)
=
1
8
sin
8
x | |

|
\ .

f y = cos
2
5
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
2
5
x


d
d
u
x
=
2
5

y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
5
sin(u)
=
2
5
sin
2
5
x | |
|
\ .

3 a y = tan(2x)
u = 2x so
d
d
u
x
= 2
y = tan(u), so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u

= sec
2
(u)
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 173

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
2
cos ( ) u
or 2 sec
2
(u)
=
2
2
cos (2 ) x
or 2 sec
2
(2x)
b y = tan(4x)
u = 4x so
d
d
u
x
= 4
y = tan(u), so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u

= sec
2
(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
4
cos ( ) u

or 4 sec
2
(u)
=
2
4
cos ( 4 ) x

or 4 sec
2
(4x)
c y = tan
5
x

u =
5
x
so
d
d
u
x
=
1
5

y = tan(u) so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u

= sec
2
(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
1
5cos ( ) u
or
1
5
sec
2
(u)
=
2
1
5cos
5
x | |
|
\ .
or
2
sec
5
5
x | |
|
\ .

d y = tan
3
4
x | |
|
\ .

u =
3
4
x
so
d
d
u
x
=
3
4

y = tan(u) so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u

= sec
2
(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
3
4cos ( ) u

or
3
4
sec
2
(u)
=
2
3
3
4cos
4
x

| |
|
\ .
or

3
4
sec
2
3
4
x | |
|
\ .

4 a Let y = sin(6x)
Let u = 6x

d
d
u
x
= 6
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6 cos(u)
= 6 cos(6x)
The answer is A.
b Let y = cos(4x)
Let u = 4x

d
d
u
x
= 4
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
x
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4 sin(u)
= 4 sin(4x)
The answer is E.
c Let y = sin (4x)
Let u = 4x

d
d
u
x
= 4
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4 cos(u)
= 4 cos(4x)
The answer is D.
d Let y = cos(8x)
Let u = 8x

d
d
u
x
= 8
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 8 sin(u)
= 8 sin(8x)
The answer is B.
e y = tan(7x)
u = 7x,
d
d
u
x
= 7
y = tan(u), so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u

= sec
2
(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
7
cos ( ) u
= 7 sec
2
(u)
=
2
7
cos (7 ) x
= 7 sec
2
(7x)
The answer is C.
5 a y = sin(4x + 3)
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)
b u = 4x + 3

d
d
u
x
= 4
c
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4 cos(u)
= 4 cos(4x + 3)
6 a y = cos(3x + 1)
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)
b u = 3x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 3
c
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3 sin(u)
= 3 sin(3x + 1)
7 a y = sin(2x + 3)
Let u = 2x + 3

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2 cos(u)
= 2 cos(2x + 3)
b y = sin(6 7x)
Let u = 6 7x

d
d
u
x
= 7
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 7 cos(u)
= 7 cos (6 7x)
c y = sin (5x 4)
Let u = 5x 4

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5 cos(u)
= 5 cos (5x 4)
d y = sin
3 2
4
x + | |
|
\ .

Let u =
3 2
4
x +

=
3
4
x
+
1
2


d
d
u
x
=
3
4

y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

MM1 2 - 7 174 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
=
3
4
cos(u)
=
3
4
cos
3 2
4
x + | |
|
\ .

e y = 5 sin(2x)
Let u = 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = 5 sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= 5 cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= (2)(5 cos(u))
= 10
2
cos(2x)
f y = 4 sin
3
8
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
3
8
x


d
d
u
x
=
3
8

y = 4 sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= 4 cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
3
8
| |
|
\ .
(4cos(u))
=
3
2
cos
3
8
x | |
|
\ .

8 a y = cos(3x 2)
Let u = 3x 2

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3 sin(u)
= 3 sin (3x 2)
b y = cos(4x + 7)
Let u = 4x + 7

d
d
u
x
= 4
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4 sin(u)
= 4 sin(4x + 7)
c y = cos(6 5x)
Let u = 6 5x

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5 sin(u)
= 5 sin(6 5x)
d y = cos
2 3
3
x + | |
|
\ .

Let u =
2 3
3
x +

=
2
3
x + 1

d
d
u
x
=
2
3

y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
3
sin(u)
=
2
3
sin
2 3
3
x + | |
|
\ .

e y = 4 cos(10x)
Let u = 10x

d
d
u
x
= 10
y = 4 cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= 4 sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= (10)(4 cos(u))
= 40
2
sin(10x)
f y = 6 cos(2x)
Let u = 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = 6 cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= 6 sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= (2)(6 sin(u))
= 12 sin(2x)
9 a y = tan(2x + 1)
u = 2x +1 so
d
d
u
x
= 2
y = tan(u) so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
2
cos ( ) u

=
2
2
cos (2 1) x +

b y = tan(8 x)
u = 8 x so
d
d
u
x
= 1
y = tan(u) so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
1
cos ( ) u


=
2
1
cos (8 ) x


c y = tan(5x 2)
u = 5x 2 so
d
d
u
x
= 5
y = tan(u), so
d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
5
cos ( ) u

=
2
5
cos (5 2) x

d y = tan 2(x + 1)
u = 2(x + 1)
= 2x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
5
cos 2( 1) x +

e y = 3 tan(x)
u = x
d
d
u
x
= 1
y = 3 tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
3
cos ( ) u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 1
2
3
cos ( ) u


=
2
3
cos ( ) x

10 a Let y = cos (x
2
4x + 3)
Let u = x
2
4x + 3

d
d
u
x
= 2x 4
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= (2x 4)sin(u)
= (4 2x)sin (x
2
4x + 3)
= 2(2 x)sin (x
2
4x + 3)
b Let y = sin(10 5x + x
2
)
Let u = 10 5x + x
2


d
d
u
x
= 5 + 2x
= 2x 5
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 175
y = sin (u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= (2x 5)cos(u)
= (2x 5)cos(10 5x + x
2
)
c Let y = sin (e
x
)
Let u = e
x


d
d
u
x
= e
x

y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
x
cos(u)
= e
x
cos(e
x
)
d Let y = cos(x
2
+ 7x)
Let u = x
2
+ 7x

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 7
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= (2x + 7)sin(u)
= (2x + 7)sin(x
2
+ 7x)
e y = tan(4x x
2
)
u = 4x x
2


d
d
u
x
= 4 2x
y = tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
4 2
cos ( )
x
u


=
2 2
4 2
cos (4 )
x
x x


f y = tan(x
2
+ 3x)
u = x
2
+ 3x

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 3
y = tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2 2
2 3
cos ( 3 )
x
x x
+
+

g Let y = cos (log
e
(x))
Let u = log
e
(x)

d
d
u
x
=
1
x

y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
x
sin(u)
=
1
x
sin (log
e
(x))
h Let y = sin(e
4x
)
Let u = e
4x


d
d
u
x
= 4e
4x

y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4e
4x
cos(u)
= 4e
4x
cos(e
4x
)
i Let y = cos
1
x
| |
|
\ .

Let u =
1
x

= x
1


d
d
u
x
= x
2

=
2
1
x

y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
1
x
sin(u)
=
2
1
x
sin
1
x
| |
|
\ .

j Let y = sin [log
e
(2x 1)]
Let u = log
e
(2x 1)

d
d
u
x
=
1
(2 1) x
2
=
2
2 1 x

y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
(2 1) x
cos(u)
=
2
(2 1) x
cos [log
e
(2x 1)]
k Let y = cos (2e
3x
)
Let u = 2e
3x


d
d
u
x
= 2e
3x
3
= 6e
3x

y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6e
3x
sin(u)
= 6e
3x
sin(2e
3x
)
l Let y = 3 cos(log
e
10x)
Let u = log
e
10x

d
d
u
x
=
1
10x
10
=
1
x

y = 3 cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= 3 sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
3
x
sin(u)
=
3
x
sin (log
e
10x)
m y = 4 tan(x
3
+ 2x
2
)
u = x
3
+ 2x
2


d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
+ 4x
y = 4 tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
4
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2 3 2
4 (3 4)
cos ( 2 )
x x
x x
+
+

n y = 8 tan
3
5
x | |
|
\ .

u =
3
5
x


d
d
u
x
=
3
5


y = 8 tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
8
cos ( ) u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
24
3
5cos
5
x | |
|
\ .

o Let y = 2 cos
4
x | |
|
\ .

Let u =
4
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
4

y = 2 cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= 2 sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
4
(2 sin(u))
=
1
2
sin
4
x | |
|
\ .

MM1 2 - 7 176 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
p Let y = cos (x
2
+ 2x) + sin (3x 9)

d
d
y
x
= (2x + 2)[ sin(x
2
+ 2x)]
+ 3[cos(3x 9)]
= 2(x + 1)sin(x
2
+ 2x)
+ 3 cos(3x 9)
11 f(x) = 3 sin(x
2
+ x)
Let y = 3 sin(x
2
+ x)
Let u = x
2
+ x

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 1
y = 3 sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= 3 cos(u)
f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3(2x + 1) cos(u)
= 3(2x + 1) cos (x
2
+ x)
f (1) = 9 cos(2)
= 3.745
12 g(x) = 2 cos (x
3
3x)
Let y = 2 cos (x
3
3x)
Let u = x
3
3x

d
d
u
x
= 3x
2
3
y = 2 cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= 2 sin(u)
g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2(3x
2
3) sin(u)
= 6(1 x
2
) sin(x
3
3x)
Gradient at x = 0 is given by g(0).
g(0) = 6 sin(0)
= 0
13 a i f(x) = e
sin(x)

Let y = e
sin(x)

Let u = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= cos(x)
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= cos (x) e
u

= cos (x) e
sin(x)

ii
6
f
| |

|
\ .
=
sin
6
cos
6
e

| |
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2
3
2
e
=
3
2
e
=
(3 )
2
e

b i f(x) = e
cos(x)

Let y = e
cos(x)

Let u = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= sin(x)
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= sin(x)e
cos(x)

ii
6
x
f
| |

|
\ .
=
cos
6
sin
6
e

| |
|
\ .
| |
|

\ .

=
3
2
1
2
e
c i f(x) = log
e
(sin(x))
Let y = log
e
(sin(x))
Let u = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= cos(x)
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
cos(x)
=
cos( )
sin( )
x
x

or cot(x)
ii f
6
| |
|
\ .
=
cos
6
sin
6

| |
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

=
3
2

1
2

=
3
2
2
= 3
d i f(x) = log
e
(cos(x))
Let y = log
e
(cos(x))
Let u = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= sin(x)
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
sin( ) x
u


=
sin( )
cos( )
x
x


or tan(x)
ii f
6
| |
|
\ .
=
sin
6
cos
6

| |

|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

=
1
2


3
2

=
1
2


2
3

=
1
3

Exercise 7H The product
rule
1 a y = (x + 3)(2x
2
5x)
y = u v
u = x + 3, v = 2x
2
5x
b
d
d
u
x
= 1,
d
d
v
x
= 4x 5
c
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= (x + 3)(4x 5) + (1)(2x
2
5x)
= 4x
2
+ 12x 5x 15 + 2x
2
5x
= 6x
2
+ 2x 15
2 a y = 4x
3
log
e
(6x)
y = u v
u = 4x
3
, v = log
e
(6x)

d
d
u
x
= 12x
2
,
d
d
v
x
=
1
6x
6
=
1
x


d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 4x
3

1
x
+ 12x
2
log
e
(6x)
= 4x
2
+ 12x
2
log
e
(6x)
= 4x
2
(1 + 3 log
e
(6x)
b g(x) = (3x 2)log
e
(2x)
g(x) = u(x) v(x)
u(x) = 3x 2
u(x) = 3
v(x) = log
e
(2x)
v(x) =
1
2x
2
=
1
x

g(x) = u(x) v(x) + v(x) u(x)
= (3x 2)
1
x
+ log
e
(2x) 3
=
3 2 x
x

+ 3 log
e
(2x)
3 f(x) = x
2
sin(2x)
Let u = x
2
, v = sin(2x)

d
d
u
x
= 2x,
d
d
v
x
= 2 cos(2x) (chain rule)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 2x
2
cos(2x) + 2x sin(2x)
The answer is D.
4 a y = x cos(x)
Let u = x, v = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= 1,
d
d
v
x
= sin(x)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= x sin(x) + cos(x) 1
= x sin(x) + cos(x)
b y = 3x sin(x)
Let u = 3x, v = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= 3,
d
d
v
x
= cos(x)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 177
= 3x cos(x) + sin(x) 3
= 3x cos(x) + 3 sin(x)
c y = (5x 2)e
x

Let u = 5x 2, v = e
x


d
d
u
x
= 5,
d
d
v
x
= e
x


d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= (5x 2) e
x
+ e
x
5
= 5xe
x
2e
x
+ 5e
x

= 3e
x
+ 5x e
x

d y = e
3x
(2 11x)
Let u = e
3x
, v = 2 11x

d
d
u
x
= 3e
3x
,
d
d
v
x
= 11

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= e
3x
11 + (2 11x) 3e
3x

= 11e
3x
+ 6e
3x
33xe
3x

= 5e
3x
33xe
3x

e y = x
5
cos(3x + 1)
Let u = x
5
, v = cos (3x + 1)

d
d
u
x
= 5x
4
,
d
d
v
x
= 3sin(3x + 1)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= x
5
3 sin(3x + 1) + cos(3x + 1) 5x
4

= 5x
4
cos(3x + 1) 3x
5
sin(3x + 1)
f y = 2x
3
log
e
(7x)
Let u = 2x
3
, v = log
e
(7x)

d
d
u
x
= 6x
2
,
d
d
v
x
=
1
7x
7
=
1
x


d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 2x
3

1
x
+ log
e
(7x) 6x
2

= 6x
2
log
e
(7x) + 2x
2

g y = e
2x
log
e
(2x 5)
Let u = e
2x
, v = log
e
(2x 5)

d
d
u
x
= 2e
2x
,
d
d
v
x
=
2
(2 5) x


d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= e
2x

2
(2 5) x
+ log
e
(2x 5) 2e
2x

= 2e
2x
log
e
(2x 5) +
2
2
2 5
x
e
x


h y = 8 tan(5x) log
e
(5x)
Let u = 8 tan(5x), v = log
e
(5x)

d
d
u
x
=
2
5 8
cos (5 ) x


d
d
v
x
=
1
x


d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

=
8tan(5 ) x
x
+
2
40log (5 )
cos (5 )
e
x
x

i y = 5 cos(2x) sin(x)
Let u = 5 cos(2x), v = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= 5 sin(2x) 2,
d
d
v
x
= cos(x)
= 10 sin(2x)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 5 cos(2x) cos(x) 10 sin(2x) sin(x)
j y = sin
4
3
x | |
|
\ .
cos(x)
Let u = sin
4
3
x | |
|
\ .
, v = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= cos
4
3
x | |
|
\ .

4
3

=
4
3
cos
4
3
x | |
|
\ .


d
d
v
x
= sin(x)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= sin
4
3
x | |
|
\ .
sin(x) + cos(x)
4
3
cos
4
3
x | |
|
\ .

=
4
3
cos
4
3
x | |
|
\ .
cos(x) sin
4
3
x | |
|
\ .
sin(x)
k f(x) = e
4x 3
log
e
(6x)
Let y = e
4x 3
log
e
(6x)
Let u = e
4x 3
, v = log
e
(6x)

d
d
u
x
= 4e
4x 3
,
d
d
v
x
=
6
6x

=
1
x

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= e
4x 3

1
x
+ log
e
(6x) 4e
4x 3

=
4 3 x
e
x

+ 4e
4x 3
log
e
(6x)
l f(x) = 4e
5x
sin(2 x)
Let y = 4e
5x
sin(2 x)
Let u = 4e
5x
, v = sin(2 x)

d
d
u
x
= 4(5)e
5x
,
= 20e
5x


d
d
v
x
= cos(2 x) 1
= cos(2 x)
f (x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 4e
5x
cos(2 x) + sin(2 x) 20e
5x

= 4e
5x
cos(2 x) 20e
5x
sin(2 x)
m f(x) =
1
x
cos(6x)
Let y =
1
x
cos(6x)
Let u =
1
x
, v = cos(6x)
=
1
2
x



d
d
u
x
=
3
2
1
2
x

,
d
d
v
x
= 6 sin(6x)
MM1 2 - 7 178 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
=
3
1
2 x


f (x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

=
1
x
6 sin(6x) + cos(6x)
3
1
2 x


=
6sin(6 ) x
x


3
cos(6 )
2
x
x

n f(x) =
3x
xe


Let y =
3x
xe


Let u = x , v = e
3x


d
d
u
x
=
1
2
1
2
x

,
d
d
v
x
= 3e
3x

=
1
2 x

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= x 3e
3x
+ e
3x

1
2 x

=
3
2
x
e
x

3 x e
3x

o f(x) = 2x
3
sin(2x + 3)
Let y = 2x
3
sin(2x + 3)
Let u = 2x
3
, v = sin(2x + 3)

d
d
u
x
= 6x
4
,

d
d
v
x
= cos(2x + 3) 2
= 2 cos(2x + 3)
f (x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 2x
3
2 cos(2x + 3) + sin(2x + 3) 6x
4

= 4x
3
cos(2x + 3) 6x
4
sin(2x + 3)
p f(x) = e
2x
log
e
(3x
2
+ 5)
Let y = e
2x
log
e
(3x
2
+ 5)
Let u = e
2x
, v = log
e
(3x
2
+ 5)

d
d
u
x
= 2e
2x
,
d
d
v
x
=
2
6
3 5
x
x +

f (x) =
d
d
y
x

= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= e
2x

2
6
3 5
x
x +
+ log
e
(3x
2
+ 5) 2e
2x

=
2
2
6
3 5
x
xe
x

+
2e
2x
log(3x
2
+ 5)
q f(x) = (x
2
+ e
3x
)(4 e
3x
)
Let u = x
2
+ e
3x
, v = 4 e
3x


d
d
u
x
= 2x + 3e
3x
,
d
d
v
x
= 3e
3x

f (x) =
d
d
y
x

= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= (x
2
+ e
3x
) 3e
3x
+ (4 e
3x
) (2x + 3e
3x
)
= 3x
2
e
3x
+ 3e
0
+ 8x 2xe
3x
+ 12e
3x
3e
0

= 3x
2
e
3x
2xe
3x
+ 12e
3x
+ 8x
r f(x) = (x
2
6)(2 + 3x x
2
)
Let y = (x
2
6)(2 + 3x x
2
)
Let u = x
2
6, v = 2 + 3x x
2


d
d
u
x
= 2x,
d
d
v
x
= 3 2x
f (x) =
d
d
y
x

= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= (x
2
6)(3 2x) + (2 + 3x x
2
)(2x)
= 3x
2
18 2x
3
+ 12x + 4x + 6x
2
2x
3

= 4x
3
+ 9x
2
+ 16x 18
5 f(x) = (2x + 1) log
e
(x + 3)
Let y = (2x + 1) log
e
(x + 3)
Let u = 2x + 1, v = log
e
(x + 3)

d
d
u
x
= 2,
d
d
v
x
=
1
3 x +

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= (2x + 1)
1
3 x +
+ 2 log
e
(x + 3)
=
2 1
3
x
x
+
+
+ 2 log
e
(x + 3)
f (1) =
2 1
1 3
+
+
+ 2 log
e
(4)
=
3
4
+ 2 log
e
(4)
6 g(x) = 5e
2x
cos(4x)
Let y = 5e
2x
cos(4x)
Let u = 5e
2x
, v = cos(4x)

d
d
u
x
= 10e
2x
,
d
d
v
x
= 4 sin(4x)
g(x) =
d
d
y
x

= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 5e
2x
4 sin(4x) + 10e
2x
cos(4x)
= 10e
2x
cos(4x) 20e
2x
sin(4x)
g(0) = 10e
0
cos(0) 20e
0
sin(0)
= 10
7 f(x) = (x
2
+ 2) sin(4 3x)
Let y = (x
2
+ 2) sin(4 3x)
Let u = x
2
+ 2, v = sin(4 3x)

d
d
u
x
= 2x,
d
d
v
x
= 3 cos(4 3x)
f (x) =
d
d
y
x

= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= (x
2
+ 2) 3 cos(4 3x) + 2x sin(4 3x)
= 3(x
2
+ 2) cos (4 3x) + 2x sin(4 3x)
f (2) = 3(4 + 2) cos(10) 4 sin(10)
= 18 cos(10) 4 sin(10)
= 17.279
8 g(x) = (6x + x
2
)e
x 3

Let y = (6x + x
2
)e
x 3

Let u = 6x + x
2
, v = e
x 3


d
d
u
x
= 6 + 2x,
d
d
v
x
= e
x 3

g(x) =
d
d
y
x

= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 179
= (6x + x
2
)e
x 3
+ (6 + 2x)e
x 3

= (x
2
+ 6x + 2x + 6)e
x 3

= (x
2
+ 8x + 6)e
x 3

g(2) = (4 + 16 + 6)e
2 3

= 26e
1

=
26
e

9 f(x) = (3 x)(tan(2x))
u(x) = 3 x, v(x) = tan(2x)
u(x) = 1 v(x) =
2
2
cos (2 ) x

f (x) = u(x)v(x) + v(x)u(x)
=
2
2(3 )
cos (2 )
x
x

tan(2x)
f () =
2
2(3 )
cos (2 )

tan(2)
= 2(3 ) 0
= 2(3 )
= 6 2
Exercise 7I The quotient rule
1 a f(x) =
3
7
x
x
+
+

f(x) =
u
v

u = x + 3, v = x + 7
b
d
d
u
x
= 1,
d
d
v
x
= 1
c
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
u
x v
| |
|
\ .

=
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
( 7) ( 3)
( 7)
x x
x
+ +
+

=
2
7 3
( 7)
x x
x
+
+

=
2
4
( 7) x +

2 a f(x) =
2
2
5
x x
x
+


f(x) =
( )
( )
u x
v x

u(x) = x
2
+ 2x, v(x) = 5 x
b u(x) = 2x + 2, v(x) = 1
c f (x) =
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
[ ( )]
v x u x u x v x
v x


=
2
2
(5 )(2 2) ( 2 )
(5 )
x x x x
x
+ + +


=
2 2
2
10 2 10 2 2
(5 )
x x x x x
x
+ + +


=
2
2
10 10
(5 )
x x
x
+ +


3 f(x) = tan(x)
f(x) =
sin( )
cos( )
x
x

u(x) = sin(x) and v(x) = cos(x)
u(x) = cos(x) and v(x) = sin(x)
f (x) =
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
[ ( )]
v x u x u x v x
v x


=
2
cos( )cos( ) sin( )( sin( ))
cos ( )
x x x x
x


=
2 2
2
cos ( ) sin ( )
cos ( )
x x
x
+

= sec
2
(x)
4 a Let f(x) =
2
2
4
x
x x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
v = x
2
4x

d
d
v
x
= 2x 4
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
v v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2 2
2( 4 ) 2 (2 4)
( 4 )
x x x x
x x


=
2 2
2 2
2 8 4 8
( 4)
x x x x
x x
+


=
2
2 2
2
( 4)
x
x x


=
2
2
( 4) x


b Let f(x) =
2
7 6
3 2
x x
x
+ +
+

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = x
2
+ 7x + 6

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 7
v = 3x + 2

d
d
v
x
= 3
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2
(3 2)(2 7) 3( 7 6)
(3 2)
x x x x
x
+ + + +
+

=
2 2
2
6 4 21 14 3 21 18
(3 2)
x x x x x
x
+ + +
+

=
2
2
3 4 4
(3 2)
x x
x
+
+

c Let f(x) =
cos( )
x
x
e

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= sin(x)
v = e
x

MM1 2 - 7 180 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n

d
d
v
x
= e
x

f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
sin( ) cos( )
( )
x x
x
e x e x
e


=
2
sin( ) cos( )
x x
x
e x e x
e


=
2
(sin( ) cos( ))
x
x
e x x
e
+

d Let f(x) =
4 7
10
x
x


Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 4x 7

d
d
u
x
= 4
v = 10 x

d
d
v
x
= 1
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
4(10 ) (4 7)
(10 )
x x
x
+


=
2
40 4 4 7
(10 )
x x
x
+


=
2
33
(10 ) x

e Let f(x) =
2x
e
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = e
2x


d
d
u
x
= 2e
2x

v = x

d
d
v
x
= 1
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2
2
2
x x
xe e
x


=
2
2
(2 1)
x
e x
x


f Let f(x) =
2
3
log (4 )
e
x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 3x
2


d
d
u
x
= 6x

v = log
e
(4x)

d
d
v
x
=
1
4x
4
=
1
x

f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
6 log (4 ) 3
(log (4 ))
e
e
x x x
x


=
2
3 (2log (4 ) 1)
(log (4 ))
e
e
x x
x


g Let f(x) =
sin(2 )
cos(2 )
x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = sin (2x)

d
d
u
x
= 2 cos(2x)
v = cos(2x)

d
d
v
x
= 2 sin (2x)
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2cos(2 )cos(2 ) 2sin(2 )sin(2 )
(cos(2 ))
x x x x
x
+

=
2
2cos(2 )cos(2 ) 2sin(2 )sin(2 )
cos (2 )
x x x x
x
+

=
2 2
2
2cos (2 ) 2sin (2 )
cos (2 )
x x
x
+

=
2 2
2
2(cos (2 ) 2sin (2 ))
cos (2 )
x x
x
+

=
2
2
cos (2 ) x

h Let f(x) =
2
log ( 1)
2
e
x
x
+
+

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = log
e
(x + 1)

d
d
u
x
=
1
1 x +

v = x
2
+ 2

d
d
v
x
= 2x
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2 2
2
2 log ( 1)
1
( 2)
e
x
x x
x
x
+
+
+
+

=
2
2 2
2 2 ( 1) log ( 1)
( 1)( 2)
e
x x x x
x x
+ + +
+ +

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 181
i Let f(x) =
3
2
cos(2 )
x
e
x
+

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = e
3x + 2


d
d
u
x
= 3e
3x + 2

v = cos(2x)

d
d
v
x
= 2 sin(2x)
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
3 2 3 2
2
3 cos(2 ) 2 sin(2 )
cos (2 )
x x
e x e x
x
+ +
+

=
3 2
(3cos(2 ) 2sin(2 ))
cos 2(2 )
x
e x x
x
+
+

j Let f(x) =
2
4
3 2
x
x x +

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 4x

d
d
u
x
= 4
v = x
2
+ 3x 2

d
d
v
x
= 2x + 3
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2 2
4( 3 2) 4 (2 3)
( 3 2)
x x x x
x x
+ +
+

=
2 2
2 2
4 12 8 8 12
( 3 2)
x x x x
x x
+
+

=
2
2 2
4 8
( 3 2)
x
x x

+

=
2
2 2
4( 2)
( 3 2)
x
x x
+
+

k Let f(x) =
3
5
2 7
x
x x
e
+

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 2x
3
+ 7x

d
d
u
x
= 6x
2
+ 7
v = e
5x


d
d
v
x
= 5e
5x

f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
5 2 5 3
5 2
(6 7) 5 (2 7 )
( )
x x
x
e x e x x
e
+ +

=
2 3
5
6 7 5(2 7 )
x
x x x
e
+ +

=
3 2
5
10 6 35 7
x
x x x
e
+ +

l Let f(x) =
2
5 x
x


Let f(x) =
u
v

u = x
2
5

d
d
u
x
= 2x
v = x
=
1
2
x

d
d
v
x
=
1
2
1
2
x


=
1
2 x

f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2
( 5)
2
2
( )
x
x x
x
x


=
2 2
2
4 ( 5)
2 ( )
x x
x x


=
2
3
3 5
2
x
x
+

m Let f(x) =
3
3 8
x
e
x

+

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = e
3x


d
d
u
x
= 3e
3x

v = 3x + 8

d
d
v
x
= 3
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
3 3
2
3 (3 8) 3
(3 8)
x x
e x e
x

+
+

=
3 3 3
2
9 24 3
(3 8)
x x x
xe e e
x


+

=
3 3
2
9 27
(3 8)
x x
xe e
x


+

=
3
2
9( 3)
(3 8)
x
x e
x

+
+

n Let f(x) =
2
4log (8 )
2
e
x
x x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 4 log
e
(8x)

d
d
u
x
= 4
1
8x
8
=
4
x

v = x
2
2x
MM1 2 - 7 182 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n

d
d
v
x
= 2x 2
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2 2
4
( 2 ) (2 2) 4log (8 )
( 2 )
e
x x x x
x
x x


=
2
4( 2) 8( 1)log (8 )
[ ( 2)]
e
x x x
x x


=
2 2
4[ 2 2( 1)log (8 )]
( 2)
e
x x x
x x


o Let f(x) =
sin x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = sin x

d
d
u
x
=
1
2
1
cos
2
x x


=
cos
2
x
x

v = x

d
d
v
x
= 1
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
cos
sin
2
x x
x
x
x


=
2
cos
sin
2
x x
x
x


=
2
cos 2sin
2
x x x
x


p Let f(x) =
2
2cos(3 2 ) x
x


Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 2 cos(3 2x)

d
d
u
x
= 2 sin(3 2x) 2
= 4 sin(3 2x)
v = x
2


d
d
v
x
= 2x
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2 2
4 sin(3 2 ) 4 cos(3 2 )
( )
x x x x
x


=
2
4
4 sin(3 2 ) 4 cos(3 2 ) x x x x
x


=
4
(4 )[ sin(3 2 ) cos(3 2 )] x x x x
x


=
3
4[ sin(3 2 ) cos(3 2 )] x x x
x


q Let f(x) =
2 7
3
3
x
e
x

+

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 3e
2 7x


d
d
u
x
= 3(7)e
2 7x

= 21e
2 7x

v = x + 3

d
d
v
x
= 1
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 7 2 7
2
21( 3) 3
( 3)
x x
x e e
x

+
+

=
2
2
3 7 [7( 3) 1]
( 3)
e x x
x
+ +
+

=
2 7
2
3 (7 22)
( 3)
x
e x
x

+
+

r f(x) =
2
2 3
x
e
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = e
2x
, v = 2x 3

d
d
u
x
= 2e
2x
,
d
d
v
x
= 2
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2
2
(2 3) 2 2
(2 3)
x x
x e e
x


=
2
2
2 [2 3 1]
(2 3)
x
e x
x


=
2
2
2 [2 4]
(2 3)
x
e x
x


=
2
2
2 2[ 2]
(2 3)
x
e x
x


=
2
2
4 ( 2)
(2 3)
x
e x
x


5 h(x) =
2
8 3x
x


Let h(x) =
u
v

u = 8 3x
2


d
d
u
x
= 6x
v = x

d
d
v
x
= 1
h(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2
2
6 (8 3 ) x x
x


=
2 2
2
6 8 3 x x
x
+

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 183
=
2
2
3 8 x
x


The answer is D.
6 f(x) =
sin(4 )
4 1
x
x +

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = sin(4x)

d
d
u
x
= 4 cos(4x)
v = 4x + 1

d
d
v
x
= 4
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
4(4 1) cos(4 ) 4sin(4 )
(4 1)
x x x
x
+
+

The answer is D.
7 g(x) =
cos(3 2)
x
x
e


Let g(x) =
u
v

u = cos(3x 2)

d
d
u
x
= 3sin(3x 2)
v = e
x


d
d
v
x
= e
x

g(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
3 sin(3 2) cos(3 2)
x x
x
e x e x
e


The answer is E.
8 y =
3
cos(2 )
x
x
e

Let u = cos(2x)

d
d
u
x
= 2 sin(2x)
Let v = e
3x


d
d
v
x
= 3e
3x


d
d
y
x
=
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
3 3
3 2
2 sin(2 ) 3 cos(2 )
( )
x x
x
e x e x
e


=
3
3 2
(2sin(2 ) 3cos(2 ))
( )
x
x
e x x
e
+

=
3
(2sin(2 ) 3cos(2 ))
x
x x
e
+

when x = 0,

d
d
y
x
=
0
(2sin(0) 3cos(0))
e
+

=
(0 3)
1
+

= 3
9 f(x) =
2
2 3
log (3 4)
e
x x
x

+

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 2x 3x
2


d
d
u
x
= 2 6x
v = log
e
(3x + 4)

d
d
v
x
=
3
(3 4) x +

f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2
3(2 3 )
(2 6 )log (3 4)
(3 4)
[log (3 4)]
e
e
x x
x x
x
x

+
+
+

When x = 1
f (1) =
2
3( 2 3)
(2 6)log ( 3 4)
3 4
[log ( 3 4)]
e
e

+ +
+
+

=
2
8log (1 15)
[log (1)]
e
e
+

=
2
15
0
which is undefined.
f (x) does not exist at x = 1.
10 g(x) =
4log (2 )
3
e
x
x

Let g(x) =
u
v

u = 4 log
e
(2x)

d
d
u
x
= 4
1
2x
2
=
4
x

v = 3x

d
d
v
x
= 3
g(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
12 12log (2 )
(3 )
e
x
x


=
2
12(1 log (2 ))
9
e
x
x


=
2
4(1 log (2 ))
3
e
x
x


g(5) =
2
4(1 log (10))
3(5)
e


=
4(1 log (10))
75
e


Exercise 7J Mixed problems on differentiation
1 a f(x) = log
e
(8x)
chain rule (C)
b f(x) = 3x sin(x)
product rule (P)
c g(x) =
2
3 7
4
x
x
+

quotient rule (Q)
MM1 2 - 7 184 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
d h(x) =
4
cos( )
x
x

quotient rule (Q)
e g(x) = e
5x
sin(x)
product rule (P)
f g(x) =
2
9 8
log ( )
e
x x
x
+

quotient rule (Q)
g h(x) = cos(x
2
4x)
chain rule (C)
h f(x) = e
x
log
e
(5x)
product rule (P)
i g(x) = log
e
(sin(x))
chain rule (C)
j f(x) = sin
2
(x)
chain rule (C)
k h(x) =
2
x
x
e


quotient rule (Q)
l f(x) = (log ( ))
e
x
chain rule (C)
m g(x) = e
cos(x)

chain rule (C)
n f(x) = tan(x)
quotient rule (Q)
2 a f(x) = log
e
(8x)
Let u = 8x

d
d
u
x
= 8
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

f(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
8
=
8
u

=
8
8x

=
1
x

b f(x) = 3x sin(x)
Let u = 3x

d
d
u
x
= 3
Let v = sin(x)

d
d
v
x
= cos(x)
f (x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 3x cos(x) + 3 sin(x)
= 3(x cos(x) + sin(x))
c g(x) =
2
3 7
4
x
x
+

Let g(x) =
u
v

u = 3x + 7

d
d
u
x
= 3
v = 4x
2


d
d
v
x
= 8x
g(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2 2
12 8 (3 7)
(4 )
x x x
x
+

=
2 2
4
12 24 56
16
x x x
x
+

=
2
4
12 56
16
x x
x


=
3
3 14
4
x
x


d h(x) =
4
cos( )
x
x

Let h(x) =
u
v

u = 4x

d
d
u
x
= 4
v = cos(x)

d
d
v
x
= sin(x)
h(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
4cos( ) 4 sin( )
cos ( )
x x x
x
+

=
2
4(cos( ) sin( ))
cos ( )
x x x
x
+

e g(x) = e
5x
sin(x)
Let u = e
5x


d
d
u
x
= 5e
5x

Let v = sin(x)

d
d
v
x
= cos(x)
g(x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= e
5x
cos(x) + 5e
5x
sin(x)
= e
5x
(cos(x) + 5 sin(x))
f g(x) =
2
9 8
log ( )
e
x x
x
+

Let g(x) =
u
v

u = x
2
+ 9x 8

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 9
v = log
e
(x)

d
d
v
x
=
1
x

g(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2
( 9 8)
(2 9)log ( )
(log ( ))
e
e
x x
x x
x
x
+
+

=
2
2
(2 9) log ( ) 9 8
(log ( ))
e
e
x x x x x
x x
+ +

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 185
g h(x) = cos(x
2
4x)
Let y = cos(x
2
4x)
Let u = x
2
4x

d
d
u
x
= 2x 4
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)
h(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= (2x 4) sin(u)
= (4 2x) sin(x
2
4x)
= 2 (2 x) sin(x
2
4x)
h f(x) = e
x
log
e
(5x)
Let u = e
x


d
d
u
x
= e
x

Let v = log
e
(5x)

d
d
v
x
=
1
5x
5
=
1
x

f (x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= log (5 )
x
x
e
e
e x
x


= e
x
1
log (5 )
e
x
x
| |

|
\ .

i g(x) = log
e
(sin(x))
Let y = log
e
(sin(x))
Let u = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= cos(x)
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
cos(x)
=
cos( )
sin( )
x
x

j f(x) = sin
2
(x)
Let y = sin
2
(x)
Let u = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= cos(x)
y = u
2


d
d
y
u
= 2u
f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2u cos(x)
= 2 sin(x) cos(x)
k h(x) =
2
x
x
e


Let h(x) =
u
v

u = x 2

d
d
u
x
= 1
v = e
x


d
d
v
x
= e
x

h(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
( 2)
( )
x x
x
e e x
e


=
2
[1 ( 2)]
( )
x
x
e x
e


=
1 2
x
x
e
+

=
3
x
x
e


l f(x) = (log ( ))
e
x
Let y = (log ( ))
e
x
Let u = log
e
(x)

d
d
u
x
=
1
x

y = u
=
1
2
u

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
1
2
u


=
1
2 u

f(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2 u

1
x

=
1
2 log ( )
e
x x

m g(x) = e
cos(x)

Let y = e
cos(x)

Let u = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= sin(x)
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u

g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
sin(x)
= e
cos(x)
sin(x)
or sin(x) e
cos(x)

n f(x) = tan(x)
=
sin( )
cos( )
x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= cos(x)
v = cos(x)

d
d
v
x
= sin(x)
MM1 2 - 7 186 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2
2
cos ( ) sin ( )
cos ( )
x x
x
+

=
2
1
cos ( ) x
or sec
2
(x)
3 a y = e
5x
cos(4x 7)
Let u = e
5x


d
d
u
x
= 5e
5x

v = cos(4x 7)

d
d
v
x
= sin(4x 7) 4
= 4 sin(4x 7)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 4e
5x
sin(4x 7) 5e
5x
cos(4x 7)
= e
5x
[4 sin(4x 7) + 5 cos(4x 7)]
b y =
2
3 1
x
x

+

Let u = x 2

d
d
u
x
= 1
Let v = 3 1 x +
=
1
2
(3 1) x +

d
d
v
x
=
1
2
1
(3 1) (3)
2
x

+
=
3
2 3 1 x +


d
d
y
x
=
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
3( 2)
3 1
2 3 1
( 3 1)
x
x
x
x

+
+
+

=
2(3 1) 3( 2)
2 3 1(3 1)
x x
x x
+
+ +

=
3
2
6 2 3 6
2(3 1)
x x
x
+ +
+

=
3
3 8
2 (3 1)
x
x
+
+

c y = log
e
(x + 1)
3

Let u = (x + 1)
3


d
d
u
x
= 3(x + 1)
2

y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
3(x + 1)
2

=
2
3
3( 1)
( 1)
x
x
+
+

=
3
1 x +

d y = cos (x
2
6x)
Let u = x
2
6x

d
d
u
x
= 2x 6
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= sin(u) (2x 6)
= (2x 6) sin(x
2
6x)
= 2(3 x) sin(x
2
6x)
e f(x) = e
x
cos(2x)
Let u = e
x


d
d
u
x
= e
x

Let v = cos(2x)

d
d
v
x
= 2 sin(2x)
f (x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 2e
x
sin(2x) + e
x
cos(2x)
= e
x
(cos(2x) 2 sin(2x))
f f(x) =
sin(2 )
cos(2 )
x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = sin(2x)

d
d
u
x
= 2 cos(2x)
v = cos(2x)

d
d
v
x
= 2 sin(2x)
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2
2
2cos (2 ) 2sin (2 )
cos (2 )
x x
x
+

=
2 2
2
2(sin (2 ) cos (2 ))
cos (2 )
x x
x
+

=
2
2
cos (2 ) x

g f(x) =
1
sin( ) x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = 1

d
d
u
x
= 0
v = sin(x)

d
d
v
x
= cos(x)
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
0 cos( )
sin ( )
x
x


=
2
cos( )
sin ( )
x
x


Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 187
h y = log
e
(sin(3x))
Let u = sin(3x)

d
d
u
x
= 3 cos(3x)
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
3 cos(3x)
=
3cos(3 )
sin(3 )
x
x

i y =
2
3 5 2
4
x x
e
+

Let u = 3x
2
5x + 2

d
d
u
x
= 6x 5
y = 4e
u


d
d
y
u
= 4e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4e
u
(6x 5)
=
2
3 5 2
4
x x
e
+
(6x 5)
= 4(6x 5)
2
3 5 2 x x
e
+

j f(x) = (x 1)(x
2
+ 5x + 3)
Let u = x 1

d
d
u
x
= 1
Let v = x
2
+ 5x + 3

d
d
v
x
= 2x + 5
f (x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= (x 1)(2x + 5) + x
2
+ 5x + 3
= 2x
2
2x + 5x 5 + x
2
+ 5x + 3
= 3x
2
+ 8x 2
k g(x) = e
x
(x
2
+ 3)
Let u = e
x


d
d
u
x
= e
x

Let v = x
2
+ 3

d
d
v
x
= 2x
g(x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 2xe
x
+ (x
2
+ 3) e
x

= e
x
(x
2
+ 2x + 3)
l g(x) =
5
3
(2 3)
5
x
x
+


Let g(x) =
u
v

u = (2x + 3)
5


d
d
u
x
= 5(2x + 3)
4
(2)
= 10(2x + 3)
4

v = x
3
5

d
d
v
x
= 3x
2

g(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
3 4 2 5
3 2
10( 5)(2 3) 3 (2 3)
( 5)
x x x x
x
+ +


=
4 3 2
3 2
(2 3) [10( 5) 3 (2 3)]
( 5)
x x x x
x
+ +


=
4 3 3 2
3 2
(2 3) (10 50 6 9 )
( 5)
x x x x
x
+


=
4 3 2
3 2
(2 3) (4 9 50)
( 5)
x x x
x
+


m f(x) = e
4x
cos(4x 3)
Let u = e
4x


d
d
u
x
= 4e
4x

Let v = cos(4x 3)

d
d
v
x
= 4 sin(4x 3)
f (x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 4e
4x
sin(4x 3) 4e
4x
cos(4x 3)
= 4e
4x
[sin(4x 3) + cos(4x 3)]
n y = cos
2
(3x)
Let u = cos(3x)

d
d
u
x
= 3 sin(3x)
y = u
2


d
d
y
u
= 2u

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2u 3 sin(3x)
= 6 cos(3x) sin(3x)
o y = log
e
(cos 3x)
Let u = cos(3x)

d
d
u
x
= 3 sin(3x)
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
3 sin(3x)
=
3sin(3 )
cos(3 )
x
x


= 3 tan(3x)
p f(x) =
4
2
sin( ) x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = sin(x
4
)

d
d
u
x
= 4x
3
cos(x
4
)
v = x
2


d
d
v
x
= 2x
MM1 2 - 7 188 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
5 4 4
2 2
4 cos( ) 2 sin( )
( )
x x x x
x


=
4 4 4
4
2 (2 cos( ) sin( ) x x x x
x


=
4 4 4
3
2(2 cos( ) sin( ) x x x
x


q f(x) =
cos(2 )
sin(2 )
x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = cos(2x)

d
d
u
x
= 2 sin(2x)
v = sin(2x)

d
d
v
x
= 2 cos(2x)
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2
2
2sin (2 ) 2cos (2 )
sin (2 )
x x
x


=
2 2
2
2(sin (2 ) cos (2 ))
sin (2 )
x x
x
+

=
2
2
sin (2 ) x


r f(x) = [log
e
(5x 1)]
4

Let u = log
e
(5x 1)

d
d
u
x
=
1
5 1 x
5 chain rule
=
5
5 1 x

y = u
4


d
d
y
u
= 4u
3

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4u
3

5
5 1 x

=
3
20[log (5 1)]
5 1
e
x
x


s y =
log
e
x
x

Let u = log
e x

=
1
2
log
x
e

d
d
u
x
=
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
x
x


=
1
2x

Let v = x

d
d
v
x
= 1

d
d
y
x
=
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
log
2
e
x
x
x
x


=
2
1
log
2
e
x
x


=
2
1 2log
(2 )
e
x
x


t y = sin
( 3)
( 2)
x
x
+


Let u =
3
2
x
x
+


Let v = x + 3

d
d
v
x
= 1
Let w = x 2

d
d
w
x
= 1

d
d
u
x
=
2
d d
d d
v w
w v
x x
w


=
2
2 ( 3)
( 2)
x x
x
+


=
2
5
( 2) x


y = sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= cos(u)
2
5
( 2) x


=
2
5
( 2) x

cos
3
2
x
x
+ | |
|

\ .

u f(x) = 3x
5
cos(2x + 1)
Let u = 3x
5


d
d
u
x
= 15x
4

Let v = cos(2x + 1)

d
d
v
x
= 2 sin(2x + 1)
f (x) = u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 6x
5
sin(2x + 1) + 15x
4
cos(2x + 1)
= 3x
4
[5 cos(2x + 1) 2x sin(2x + 1)]
v g(x) =
3
2
2
log
x
e
x

Let g(x) =
u
v

u =
3
2
log
e
x
| |
|
|
\ .


d
d
u
x
=
1
2
3
2
1 3
2
x
x

Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 189
=
3
2x

v = x
2


d
d
v
x
= 2x
g(x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
3
2
2
2 2
3
2 log
2
( )
e
x x x
x
x
| |
|
|
\ .

=
3
2
4
3
2 log
2
e
x
x x
x
| |
|
|
\ .

=
3
2
4
3 4 log
2
e
x x x
x
| |
|
|
\ .

=
3
2
4
3 4log
2
e
x x
x
| | | |
| |
| |
\ . \ .

=
3
2
3
3 4log
2
e
x
x
| |
|
|
\ .

w y = e
x sin(x)

Let u = x sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= x cos(x) + sin(x)
y = e
u


d
d
y
u
= e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
(x cos(x) + sin(x))
= (sin(x) + x cos(x))e
x sin(x)

x f(x) = 3 cos
2
(x) + e
7x
x
3

Let g(x) = 3 cos
2
(x)
Let u = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= sin(x)
y = 3u
2


d
d
y
u
= 6u
g(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6u (sin (x))
= 6 sin(x) cos(x)
h(x) = e
7x

h(x) = 7e
7x

Now let p(x) = x
3

p(x) = 3x
2

f (x) = g(x) + h(x) + p(x)
= 6 sin (x) cos(x) 7e
7x
3x
2

y f(x) = 3 sin(6x) + log
e
(5x
2
)
2
4
x
e
Let g(x) = 3 sin(6x)
g(x) = 18 cos(6x)
Let h(x) = log
e
(5x
2
)
Let u = 5x
2


d
d
u
x
= 10x
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u

h(x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
10x
=
2
10
5
x
x

=
2
x

Let p(x) =
2
4
x
e

Let u =
2
x


d
d
u
x
=
1
2

y = 4e
u


d
d
y
u
= 4e
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 4e
u

1
2

=
2
2
x
e
Now f (x) = g(x) + h(x) + p(x)
= 18 cos(6x) +
2
x

2
2
x
e
z h(x) = cos
3
(x)
Let y = cos
3
(x)
Let u = cos(x)

d
d
u
x
= sin(x)
y = u
3


d
d
y
u
= 3u
2


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 3u
2
sin(x)
= 3 sin(x) cos
2
(x)
4 a f(x) =
2
1 x
i f (x) =
2
2
1 if 1 0
2
1 if 1 0
x
x
x

>

<


f (x) =
2
2
2 if 1 0
2 if 1 0
x x
x x

>

<


f (x) =
2 if 1 or 1
2 if 1 1
x x x
x x
< >

< <


ii


MM1 2 - 7 190 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
b f(x) =
2
2 x x +
i f (x) = 2x + 2
2
2
1 if 2 0
1 if 2 0
x x
x x

+ >

+ <


f (x) =
2
2
2 2 if 2 0
2 2 if 2 0
x x x
x x x

+ + >

+ <


f (x) =
2 2 if 2 or 0
2 2 if 2 0
x x x
x x
+ < >

< <


ii


5 a f(x) = |sin(2x)| for x [0, ]
i f (x) = 2 cos (2x)
1 if sin(2 ) 0
1 if sin(2 ) 0
x
x
>

<


f (x) =
2cos(2 ) if sin(2 ) 0
2cos(2 ) if sin(2 ) 0
x x
x x
>

<


f (x) =
2cos(2 ) if 0
2
2cos(2 ) if
2
x x
x x

< <

< <


ii


b f (x) = |cos(x)| for x [0, 2]
i f (x) = sin(x)
( )
( )
1 if cos 0
1 if cos 0
x
x
>

<


f (x) =
sin( ) if cos( ) 0
sin( ) if cos( ) 0
x x
x x
>

<


f (x) =
3
sin( ) if 0 or 2
2 2
3
sin( ) if
2 2
x x x
x x

< < < <

< <


ii


Chapter review
Short answer
1


f (x) < 0 if x < 1
f (x) > 0 if 1< x < 2
f (x) < 0 if x > 2


2
3 2
0
(2 ) 4
lim
h
h h h
h

+ +

=
2
0
( 2 4)
lim
h
h h h
h

+ +

=
0
lim
h
(h
2
+ 2h + 4) h 0
= 4
3 a f(x) = x
3
+ 2x
f (x) =
0
( ) ( )
lim
h
f x h f x
h

+

=
3 3
0
( ) 2( ) ( 2 )
lim
h
x h x h x x
h

+ + + +

=
3 2 2 3 3
0
( 3 3 2 2 2
lim
h
x x h xh h x h x x
h

+ + + + +

=
2 2 3
0
3 3 2
lim
h
x h xh h h
h

+ + +

=
2 2
0
(3 3 2)
lim
h
h x xh h
h

+ + +

=
0
lim
h
(3x
2
+ 3xh + h
2
+ 2), h 0
= 3x
2
+ 2
b When x = 1
Gradient = f (1)
= 3(1)
2
+ 2
= 5
4 a g(x) =
3
3
x
4x
g(x) = (3)
1
3
x
3 1
4x
1 1
= x
2
4
b When x = 3
g(3) = (3)
2
4
= 5
5 h(x) =
4
3
2
x
+
3
4
x
3x
a h(x) =
3
2
(4)x
4 1
+
1
4
(3)x
3 1
3x
1 1
= 6x
3
+
3
4
x
2
3
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 191
b i h(1) = 6(1)
3
+
3
4
( 1)
2
3
= 6 +
3
4
3
= 8
1
4

ii h(2) = 6(2)
3
+
3
4
(2)
2
3
= 48 + 3 3
= 48
6 a y =
3
2
(4 1) x +
Let u = 4x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 4
y =
3
2
u

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
3
2
u

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2
3
4
2
u
=
1
2
6u
=
1
2
6(4 1) x +
When x = 2,
gradient =
1
2
6(4(2) 1) +
=
1
2
6(9)
= 18
b When x = 1
gradient =
1
2
6(4(1) 1) +
=
1
2
6(5)
= 6 5
7 Let y =
2
( 4) x +
=
1
2
2
( 4) x +
Let u = x
2
+ 4

d
d
u
x
= 2x
y =
1
2
u

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
1
2
u



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
2
1
2
u

2x
=
1
2
x
u

=
1
2
2
( 4)
x
x +

=
2
( 4)
x
x +

8 f(x) = e
2x 1
Let y = e
2x 1
u = 2x 1

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = e
u

d
d
y
u
= e
u

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
2
= 2e
2x 1
9 a f(x) =
2
x
e

= y
Let u = x
2

d
d
u
x
= 2x
y = e
u

d
d
y
u
= e
u

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
(2x)
f (x) =
2
2
x
xe


b f (x) = 0

2
2
x
xe

= 0

2
x
xe

= 0
Either x = 0 or
2
x
e

= 0
Now there are no real solutions when
2
x
e

= 0
x = 0
10 y = log
e
(2x
3
4)

d
d
y
x
=
2
3
6
(2 4)
x
x

=
2
3
6
2( 2)
x
x

=
2
3
3
2
x
x

11 f(x) = log
e
(ax 1)
f (x) =
1
a
ax

When x = 2, f (2) =
2 1
a
a
= 1
a = 2a 1
a = 1
12 f(x) = 3 sin(2x)
f (x) = 6 cos(2x)
f (2) = 6 cos(4)
= 6 1
= 6
13 f(x) = tan(5x)
f (x) =
2
5
cos (5 ) x

14 f(x) = tan(2x
2
3)
Let y = tan(2x
2
3)
Let u = 2x
2
3

d
d
u
x
= 4x
MM1 2 - 7 192 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n
y = tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u

f (x) =
d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
1
cos ( ) u
4x
=
2 2
4
cos (2 3)
x
x

15 y = 3x
2
log
e
(6x)
Let u = 3x
2

d
d
u
x
= 6x
Let u = log
e
(6x)

d
d
v
x
=
1
6x
6
=
1
x


d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 3x
2

1
x
+ 6x log
e
(6x)
= 3x + 6x log
e
(6x)
= 3x(1 + 2 log
e
(6x)
16 f(x) =
2
cos( ) x
x

Let f(x) =
u
v

u = cos(x
2
)

d
d
u
x
= 2x(sin(x
2
))
= 2x sin(x
2
)

v = x

d
d
v
x
= 1
f (x) =
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2 2
2
2 sin( ) cos( ) x x x
x


17 Let y = e
sin(2x)
Let u = sin(2x)

d
d
u
x
= 2 cos(2x)
y = e
u

d
d
y
u
= e
u

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
2 cos(2x)
= 2 cos(2x) e
sin(2x)
18 a


b R\{0, 3}
19 f(x) =
2
2 x x
f (x) = 2x 2
2
2
1 if 2 0
1 if 2 0
x x
x x

>

<


f (x) =
2
2
2 2 if 2 0
2 2 if 2 0
x x x
x x x

>

+ <


f (x) =
2 2 if 0 or 2
2 2 if 0 2
x x x
x x
< >

+ < <


20 f(x) = sin( ) x
f (x) = cos (x)
1 if sin( ) 0
1 if sin( ) 0
x
x
>

<


f (x) =
cos( ) if sin( ) 0
cos( ) if sin( ) 0
x x
x x
>

<


f (x) =
cos( ) if 0
2
cos( ) if 0
2
x x
x x

< <

< <


Multiple choice
1 f (x) < 0 if x < 3
f (x) = 0 if x = 3
f (x) > 0 if x > 3
The answer is B.


2 g(x) is undefined at x = 1 since g(x) is not smooth.
g(x) is undefined at x = 4 since g(x) is not continuous.
The answer is D.
3
2
4
2 8
lim
4
x
x x
x


=
4
( 4)( 2)
lim
4
x
x x
x


=
4
lim
x
(x + 2), x 4
= 6
The answer is E.
4
3
3
5
lim
1
x
x x
x

+

=
3
( 3) 5( 3)
3 1

+

=
27 15
2
+


=
12
2


= 6
The answer is C.
5 f(x) = 4x
3
x
2
+ 3x
f (x) = 4(3)x
3 1
2x
2 1
+ 3x
1 1
= 12x
2
2x + 3
The answer is A.
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 193
6 g(x) =
2
1
2 x
x


= x
2

1
2
2x
g(x) = 2x
2 1

1
1
2
1
2
2
x

| |
|
\ .

= 2x
3

1
2
x


=
3 1
2
2 1
x
x


=
3
2 1
x x


The answer is C.
7 Let y = (2x + 5)
6
Let u = 2x + 5

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = u
6

d
d
y
u
= 6u
5

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 6u
5
2
= 12(2x + 5)
5

The answer is D.
8 Let y =
1
4 9 x

=
1
2
1
(4 9) x

=
1
2
(4 9) x


Let u = 4x 9

d
d
u
x
= 4
y =
1
2
u



d
d
y
u
=
3
2
1
2
u


=
3
2
1
(2 ) u


=
3
1
2 (4 9) x



d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
3
1
2 (4 9) x

4
=
3
2
(4 9) x


The answer is B.
9 y = 5e
6x
Let u = e
6x

d
d
u
x
= 6e
6x
y = 5u

d
d
y
u
= 5

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5 6e
6x
= 30e
6x
The answer is A.
10 y = e
4x + 7
Let u = 4x + 7

d
d
u
x
= 4
y = e
u

d
d
y
u
= e
u

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= e
u
4
= 4e
4x + 7
The answer is D.
11 Let y = log
e
(3x 2)
Let u = 3x 2

d
d
u
x
= 3
y = log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
=
1
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
1
u
3
=
3
u

=
3
3 2 x

The answer is E.
12 Let y = 2 log
e
(x
2
+ x)
Let u = x
2
+ x

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 1
y = 2 log
e
(u)

d
d
y
u
= 2
1
u

=
2
u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
u
(2x + 1)
=
2
2(2 1) x
x x
+
+

The answer is A.
13 y = cos(8x)
Let u = 8x

d
d
u
x
= 8
y = cos(u)

d
d
y
u
= sin(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= sin(u) 8
= 8 sin(8x)
The answer is C.
14 y = 2sin(2x + 3)
Let u = 2x + 3
MM1 2 - 7 194 Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n

d
d
u
x
= 2
y = 2sin(u)

d
d
y
u
= 2cos(u)

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 2cos(u) 2
= 4cos(2x + 3)
The answer is C.
15 y = tan(6 5x)
Let u = 6 5x

d
d
u
x
= 5
y = tan(u)

d
d
y
u
=
2
1
cos ( ) u


d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

=
2
1
cos ( ) u
5
=
2
5
cos (6 5 ) x


The answer is A.
16 f(x) = x
2
e
2x
Let u = x
2

d
d
u
x
= 2x
Let v = e
2x

d
d
v
x
= 2e
2x
f (x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= x
2
2e
2x
+ e
2x
2x
= 2x
2
e
2x
+ 2x e
2x
The answer is A.
17 g(x) = 2x log
e
(3x)
Let u = 2x

d
d
u
x
= 2
Let v = log
e
(3x)

d
d
v
x
=
1
3x
3
=
1
x

g(x) =
d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ v
d
d
u
x

= 2x
1
x
+ log
e
(3x) 2
= 2 + 2log
e
(3x)
The answer is B.
18 Let y =
2 1
2
x
x
+


Let u = 2x + 1

d
d
u
x
= 2
Let v = x 2

d
d
v
x
= 1

d
d
y
x
=
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2
2( 2) (2 1)
( 2)
x x
x
+


=
2
2 4 2 1
( 2)
x x
x


=
2
5
( 2) x


The answer is E.
19 Let y =
4
2
x
e
x

Let u = e
4x

d
d
u
x
= 4e
4x
Let v = x
2

d
d
v
x
= 2x

d
d
y
x
=
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 4 4
2 2
4 2
( )
x x
x e xe
x


=
2 4
4
(4 2 )
x
x x e
x


=
4
4
2 (2 1)
x
x x e
x


=
4
3
2(2 1)
x
x e
x


The answer is C.
20 g(x) = (x
2
+ 3x 7)
5
Let y = (x
2
+ 3x 7)
5
Let u = x
2
+ 3x 7

d
d
u
x
= 2x + 3
y = u
5

d
d
y
u
= 5u
4

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x

= 5u
4
(2x + 3)
= 5(2x + 3)(x
2
+ 3x 7)
4
The answer is D.
21 Let y = sin(x) cos(x)
Let u = sin(x)

d
d
u
x
= cos(x)
Let v = cos(x)

d
d
v
x
= sin(x)

d
d
y
x
= u
d
d
v
x
+ u
d
d
u
x

= sin(x) sin(x) + cos(x) cos(x)
= cos
2
(x) sin
2
(x)
The answer is D.
22 f (x) = 2 for all x < 2
f (x) = 2 for all x > 2
Hence, the derivative function jumps at x = 2
Di f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 7 195
Therefore f (x) is discontinuous at x = 2
B
23 y = |cos(x)|
For
3
,
2 2
x

< < |cos(x)| = cos(x)
y = cos(x)

d
d
y
x
= sin(x)
x = k
Hence the rate of change of y is sin(k)
B
24 Let y = f (e
2x
)
By Chain Rule, where u = e
2x
and y = f (u):

d
d
y
x
=
d
d
y
u

d
d
u
x


d
d
y
x
=
2
( ) 2
x
f u e

d
d
y
x
=
2 2
2 ( )
x x
e f e
C
Extended response
1 a i Gradient is zero at stationary points.
x = 20, x = 0
ii Gradient is positive when y is increasing.
(28, 20) (0, 12)
iii Gradient is negative when y is decreasing.
(20, 0)
b


c For the domain [25, 10], the gradient appears to be
steepest at x = 10 since graph is symmetrical about
x = 10. (That is x = 10 is further from axis of symmetry).
d y =
1
200
(x
3
+ 30x
2
)

d
d
y
x
=
1
200
(3x
2
+ 60x)
=
3
200
x
(x + 20)
e i When x = 25,

d
d
y
x
=
3( 25)
200

[25 + 20]
=
3
8

5
=
15
8
or 1.875
ii When x = 10,

d
d
y
x
=
3( 10)
200

[10 + 20]
=
3
2

or 1.5
iii When x = 10,

d
d
y
x
=
3(10)
200
[10 + 20]
=
900
200
or 4.5
f Yes, the largest numerical value of the gradient over the
domain [25, 10] is 4.5, that is, the steepest section.
g Evaluate function at turning points and end points which
are likely maxima.
f(20) =
1
200
[(20)
3
+ 30(20)
2
]
= 20 m
f(12) =
1
200
[12
3
+ 30(12)
2
]
= 30.24 m
Maximum value occurs when x = 30.24 m (highest point).
2 a f(x) = 2 x g(x) = x
2
+1
Domain: x [0, ) Domain: x R
Range: y [0, ) Range: y [1, )
b i f(g(x)) =
2
2 1 x +

ii g(f(x)) =
2
(2 ) 1 x +
g(f(x)) = 4x + 1
c f(g(x)) g(f(x))
Domain: x R Domain: x [0, )
Range: y [2, ) Range: y [1, )
d i
d
dx
(f(g(x)) = 2
1
2
2
1
( 1) 2
2
x x

+
=
1
2
2
2 ( 1) x x

+
=
2
2
1
x
x +

ii
d
dx
(g(f(x)) = 4
e i f (g(2)) =
2
2 2
2 1

+

=
4
5

ii g (f(2)) = 4
3 f(x) =
2
4 , 2
2 4, 2 5
1, 5
x x
x x
x x

< <


a


b f(x) is discontinous for x = 5
c f(x) is not differentiable for x = 2 and x = 5
d
2 ,
2
( ) 2,
2 5
1,
5
x
x
f x
x
x

<

=
< <

>


e


MM1 2 - 8 196 A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n

Exercise 8A Equations of
tangents and normals
1 y = x
2
+ x (2, 6)

d
d
y
x
= 2x + 1
At x = 2,
d
d
y
x
= 5.
(gradient of tangent)
Therefore y 6 = 5(x 2)
y 6 = 5x 10
y = 5x 4
2 y = x
2
+ 5x 6

d
d
y
x
= 2x + 5
x-intercepts when y = 0
0 = x
2
+ 5x 6
= (x + 6) (x 1)
x = 6 or 1
(6, 0) (1, 0)
Tangent at (6, 0):
At x = 6,
d
d
y
x
= 2 6 + 5
= 12 + 5
= 7
Therefore y 0 = 7(x 6)
y = 7x 42
y + 7x + 42 = 0
Tangent at (1, 0):
At x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 7
Therefore y 0 = 7(x 1)
y = 7x 7
3 y = 3x
2
5x + 4
when x = 1, y = 3 5 + 4 = 2

d
d
y
x
= 6x 5
At x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 1
Gradient of normal = 1
Equation of normal at (1, 2):
y 2 = 1(x 1)
y 2 = x + 1
y + x 3 = 0
4 y =
1
2
x
2
+ 3x 7
y-axis when x = 0 y = 7.

d
d
y
x
= x + 3
At x = 0,
d
d
y
x
= 3
Gradient of normal =
1
3
.
Equation of normal at point (0, 7)
y (7) =
1
3
(x 0)
y + 7 =
3
x

3y + 21 + x = 0
5 a y = x
2
+ 1 x = 1, y = 2

d
d
y
x
= 2x
At x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 2
i Equation of tangent:
y 2 = 2(x 1)
y 2 = 2x 2
y = 2x
ii Gradient of normal =
1
2

Equation of normal:
y 2 =
1
2
(x 1)
2y 4 = x + 1
2y + x 5 = 0
b y = x
3
6x, x = 2, y = (2)
3
+ 12
= 8 + 12
= 4

d
d
y
x
= 3x
2
6
At x = 2,
d
d
y
x
= 3 4 6
= 6
i Equation of tangent:
y 4 = 6(x + 2)
y 4 = 6x + 12
y = 6x + 16
ii Gradient of normal =
1
6

Equation of normal:
y 4 =
1
6
(x + 2)
y 4 =
2
6 6
x

6y 24 = x 2
6y + x 22 = 0
c y =
1
,
x
x = 2, y =
1
2

y = x
1

d
d
y
x
= 1x
2

d
d
y
x
=
2
1
x

At x = 2,
d
d
y
x
=
1
4

Gradient of normal = 4.
i Equation of tangent:
y
1
2
=
1
4
(x 2)
4y 2 = x + 2
4y + x = 4
ii Equation of normal:
y
1
2
= 4(x 2)
y
1
2
= 4x 8
2y 1 = 8x 16
2y = 8x 15
d y = (x 1)(x
2
+ 2), x = 1
y = x
3
+ 2x x
2
2
y = x
3
x
2
+ 2x 2

d
d
y
x
= 3x
2
2x + 2
At x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 3 + 2 + 2
= 7
x = 1, y = 2 3
y = 6
i Equation of tangent:
y (6) = 7(x (1))
y + 6 = 7x + 7
y = 7x + 1
ii Gradient of normal =
1
7

Equation of normal:
y (6) =
1
7
(x + 1)
7y + 42 = x 1
7y + x + 43 = 0
e y =
1
2
x x = 4, y = 2

d
d
y
x
=
1
2
1
2
x


=
1
2 x

At x = 4,
d
d
y
x
=
1
2 4
=
1
4

i Equation of tangent:
y 2 =
1
4
(x 4)
4y 8 = x 4
4y = x + 4
ii Gradient of normal = 4
Equation of normal:
y 2 = 4(x 4)
y 2 = 4x + 16
y + 4x = 18
f y = (2 3) x + x = 3, y = 9
= 3
Using the Chain Rule:
y =
1
2
u where u = 2x + 3

d
d
y
u
=
1
2
1
2
u


d
d
u
x
= 2

d
d
y
x
=
1
2
1
2
2
u



d
d
y
x
=
1
2 3 x +

At x = 3,
d
d
y
x
=
1
9
=
1
3

Gradient of normal = 3
i Equation of tangent:
y 3 =
1
3
(x 3)
3y 9 = x 3
3y = x + 6
Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation
A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 8 197
ii Equation of normal:
y 3 = 3(x 3)
y 3 = 3x + 9
y + 3x = 12
g y = x(x + 2)(x 1), x = 1
y = 1(1)(2)
= 2
y = (x
2
+ 2x)(x 1)
= x
3
x
2
+ 2x
2
2x
= x
3
+ x
2
2x

d
d
y
x
= 3x
2
+ 2x 2
At x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 3 2 2
= 1
Therefore gradient of normal = 1
i Equation of tangent:
y 2 = 1(x 1)
y 2 = x 1
y + x = 1
ii Equation of normal:
y 2 = 1(x 1)
y 2 = x + 1
y = x + 3
h y = x
3
3x
2
+ 4x x = 0, y = 0

d
d
y
x
= 3x
2
6x + 4
At x = 0,
d
d
y
x
= 4
i Equation of tangent:
y 0 = 4(x 0)
y = 4x
ii Gradient of normal =
1
4

Equation of normal:
y 0 =
1
4
(x 0)
y =
1
4
x
4y + x = 0.
i y = 2x
3
+ x
2
6x + 2
x = 1, y = 2 + 1 6 + 2
= 1

d
d
y
x
= 6x
2
+ 2x 6
At x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 6 + 2 6
= 2
i Equation of tangent:
y 1 = 2(x 1)
y + 1 = 2x 2
y = 2x 3
ii Gradient of normal =
1
2

Equation of normal:
y 1 =
1
2
(x 1)
2y + 2 = x + 1
2y + x = 1
j y = e
2x
, x = 0, y = 1

d
d
y
x
= 2e
2x

At x = 0,
d
d
y
x
= 2
i Equation of tangent:
y 1 = 2(x 0)
y 1 = 2x
y = 2x + 1
ii Gradient of normal =
1
2

Equation of normal:
y 1 =
1
2
(x 0)
y 1 =
2
x

2y 2 = x
2y + x = 2
k y = e
3x + 2
, x = 1 y = e
3 + 2

y = e
1


d
d
y
x
= 3e
3x + 2

At x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 3e
1

i Equation of tangent:
y e
1
= 3e
1
(x + 1)
y e
1
= 3e
1
x + 3e
1

y = 3e
1
x + 4e
1

ii Gradient of normal:

1
1
3e

=
1
3
e

Equation of normal:
y e
1
=
3
e
(x + 1)
3y 3e
1
= ex e
3y + ex = 3e
1
e
l y = log
e
(x) x = 2, y = log
e
(2)

d
d
y
x
=
1
x

At x = 2,
d
d
y
x
=
1
2

i Equation of tangent:
y log
e
(2) =
1
2
(x 2)
2y 2 log
e
(2) = x 2
2y = x 2 + 2 log
e
(2)
ii Gradient of normal = 2
Equation of normal:
y log
e
(2) = 2(x 2)
y log
e
(2) = 2x + 4
y + 2x = 4 + log
e
(2)
m y = log
e
(2x + 3), x = 0, y = log
e
(3)

d
d
y
x
=
2
2 3 x +

At x = 0,
d
d
y
x
=
2
3

i Equation of tangent:
y log
e
(3) =
2
3
(x 0)
y log
e
(3) =
2
3
x
3y 3 log
e
(3) = 2x
3y = 2x + 3 log
e
(3)
ii Gradient of normal =
3
2

Equation of normal:
y log
e
(3) =
3
2
(x 0)
y log
e
(3) =
3
2
x

2y 2 log
e
(3) = 3x
2y + 3x = 2 log
e
(3)
n y = sin(2x)

d
d
y
x
= 2 cos(2x)
x =
3

, y = sin
2
3




=
3
2


d
d
y
x
= 2 cos
2
3




= 2
1
2

= 1
i Equation of tangent:
y
3
2
= 1
3
x





y
3
2
= x +
3


y + x =
3

+
3
2

ii Gradient of normal = 1
Equation of normal:
y
3
2
= 1
3
x




y = x
3

+
3
2

o y = 3 cos
2



, x = , y = 3 cos
2




= 0

d
d
y
x
=
3
2
sin
1
2
x




At x = ,
d
d
y
x
=
3
2
sin
2




=
3
2
1
=
3
2

i Equation of tangent:
y 0 =
3
2

(x )
y 0 =
3 3
2 2
x
+
2y = 3x + 3
3x + 2y = 3
ii Gradient of normal =
2
3
.
Equation of normal:
y 0 =
2
3
(x )
3y = 2x 2
p y = sin 2
4
x

+


, x = 0, y = sin
4




=
2
2


d
d
y
x
= 2cos 2
4
x

+



MM1 2 - 8 198 A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n

At x = 0,
d
d
y
x
= 2cos
4




= 2
2
2

= 2
i Equation of tangent:
y
2
2
= 2 (x 0)
y
2
2
= 2 x
y = 2 x +
2
2

ii Gradient of normal =
1
2

Equation of normal:
y
2
2
=
1
2
(x 0)
y 2 1 = x
x + 2 y = 1
6 a y = (2x + 3)
4


d
d
y
x
= 4(2)(2x + 3)
3

= 8(2x + 3)
3

At x = 1

d
d
y
x
= 8(2 + 3)
3

= 8
Equation of normal at point
(1, 1) with m =
1
8
:
y 1 =
1
8
(x + 1)
8y 8 = x 1
8y + x 7 = 0
The answer is B.
b Gradient parallel to x-axis means
d
d
y
x
= 0.
8(2x + 3)
3
= 0
2x + 3 = 0
x =
3
2

The answer is C.
7 Gradient of line y = 2x + 3 is 2.
f (x) = x
2
+ 4x + 1
f (x) = 2x + 4
2 = 2x + 4
2 = 2x
1 = x
f(1) = (1)
2
+ 4(1) + 1
= 2
Tangent parallel to y = 2x + 3 goes
through point (1, 2).
Equation of tangent:
(y 2) = 2(x 1)
y + 2 = 2(x + 1)
y + 2 = 2x + 2
y = 2x
8 y =
2
2
1
1
x
x
+

at x = 0, y = 1.
By Quotient Rule:
y =
2
2
1
1
x
x
+


u
v


d
d
y
x
=
2
d d
d d
u v
v u
x x
v


=
2 2
2 2
( 1) 2 ( 1) 2
( 1)
x x x x
x
+


=
2 2
2 2
2 [ 1 ( 1)]
( 1)
x x x
x
+


=
2 2
2 2
2 ( 1 1)
( 1)
x x x
x


=
4 2
4
2 1
x
x x

+


d
d
y
x
=
4 2
4
2 1
x
x x

+

At x = 0,
d
d
y
x
= 0.
y 1 = 0(x 0)
y + 1 = 0
y = 1
9 y = x sin(x) at x =
2


y =
2

sin
2




y =
2

1
y =
2


Using the Product Rule,

d
d
y
x
= x cos(x) + sin(x)
At x =
2

,
d
d
y
x
=
2

cos
2



+ sin
2




=
2

0 + 1
= 1
So gradient of normal is 1
Equation of normal:
y
2

= 1
2
x




y
2

= x +
2


y + x =
10 Gradient of line y + 3x 5 = 0 is
m = 3. The normal has this gradient
so the tangents gradient is
1
3
.
When does this occur on
y = log
e
(x + 2)?

d
d
y
x
=
1
2 x +
=
1
3

3 = x + 2
1 = x
x = 1, y = log
e
(1 + 2)
= log
e
(3)
Equation of normal:
y log
e
(3) = 3(x 1)
y log
e
(3) = 3x + x
3x + y = 3 + log
e
(3)
11 a f(x) = x
2
+ 1 at x = a
f(a) = a
2
+ 1
(a, a
2
+ 1) is the point of
tangency
f (x) = 2x
f (a) = 2a
m
T
= 2a
m
N
=
1
2a

Equation of tangent:
y y
1
= m
T
(x x
1
)
y (a
2
+ 1) = 2a(x a)
y = 2ax 2a
2
+ a
2
+ 1
y = 2ax a
2
+ 1
Equation of normal:
y y
1
= m
N
(x x
1
)
y (a
2
+ 1) =
1
2a
(x a)
y =
2
x
a
+
1
2
+ a
2
+ 1
y =
2
x
a
+ a
2
+
3
2

b f(x) = x at x = a
f(a) = a
( , ) a a is the point of tangency.
f(x) = x
f (x) =
1
2 x

f (a) =
1
2 a

m
T
=
1
2 a

m
N
= 2 a
Equation of tangent:
y y
1
= m
T
(x x
1
)
y a =
1
2 a
(x a)
y =
2 2
x a
a
a a
+
y =
2 2
x a
a
a
+
y =
2 2
x a
a
+
Equation of normal:
y y
1
= m
N
(x x
1
)
y a = 2 a (x a)
y = 2 2 ax a a a + +
y = 2 (2 1) ax a a + +
c f(x) =
2
x
e at x = 2a
f(x) =
2
x
e
f(2a) =
( )
2
2a
e
f(2a) =
2
4a
e

2
4
(2 , )
a
a e is the point of
tangency

f (x) =
2
2
x
xe
f (2a) =
( )
2
2
2 2
a
ae
f (2a) =
2
4
4
a
ae
m
T
=
2
4
4
a
ae
A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 8 199
m
N
=
2
4
1
4
a
ae

Equation of tangent:
y y
1
= m
T
(x x
1
)
y
2
4a
e =
2
4
4 ( 2 )
a
ae x a
y =
2 2 2
4 2 4 4
4 8
a a a
ae x a e e +
y =
2 2
4 4 2
4 (1 8 )
a a
ae x e a +
Equation of normal:
y y
1
= m
N
(x x
1
)
y
2
4a
e =
2
4
1
4
a
ae
(x 2a)
y =
2
4
2 2
4 4
2
4 4
a
a a
x a
e
ae ae
+ +
y =
2 2
4 4
2
4
1
2
4
a a
a
x
e e
ae

+ +
12 f(x) = e
4x

f (x) = 4e
4x

As the tangent is perpendicular to
the line y = 2
8
x
+ , m
N
=
1
8
.
m
T
= 8
f (x) = 8
4e
4x
= 8
e
4x
= 2
4x = ln (2)
x =
1
ln (2)
4


1
ln (2)
4
f



=
1
4 ln(2)
4
e


=
( ) ln 2
e
= 2

1
ln (2), 2
4



is the point of
tangency.
Equation of tangent at the point
1
ln(2), 2
4




y y
1
= m
T
(x x
1
)
y 2 =
1
8 ln (2)
4
x




y = 8x 2 ln(2) + 2
y = 8x + 2(1 ln(2))
13 y = x

d
d
y
x
=
1
2
1
2
x



d
d
y
x
=
1
2 x

m
N
= 8
m
T
=
1
8


1
2 x
=
1
8

2 x = 8
x = 4
x = 16
x = 16, y = 16
y = 4 (16, 4)
y = 8x + b
4 = 8 16 + b
b = 128 + 4
b = 132
Exercise 8B Sketching
curves
1 a y = 8 x
2

d
d
y
x
= 2x
If
d
d
y
x
= 2x = 0
x =
0
2

x = 0
When x = 0, y = 8 0
2
y = 8
The stationary point is (0, 8).
Nature: if x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 2x
= 2 1
= 2 (that is, positive)
if x = 0,
d
d
y
x
= 2x
= 2 0
= 0
if x = 1,
d
d
y
x
= 2x
= 2 1
= 2 (that is, negative)
Gradient table:
x 1 0 1
d
d
y
x
2 0 2
Slope / \
Therefore (0, 8) is a local
maximum.
b f(x) = x
3
3x
f (x) = 3x
2
3
For stationary value
3x
2
3 = 0
3 (x
2
1) = 0
x
2
1 = 0
x
2
= 1
x = 1
When x = 1, f(1) = 1
3
3
= 2
so (1, 2) is one stationary point
When x = 1, f(1) = 1
3
3 1
= 1 + 3
= 2
So (1, 2) is another stationary point
Gradient table:
x 2 1 0 1 2
f (x) 9 0 3 0 9
Slope / \ /
Therefore (1, 2) is a local
minimum stationary point and
(1, 2) is a local maximum
stationary point.
c g(x) = 2x
2
8x
g(x) = 4x 8
4x 8 = 0
x = 2
when x = 2, g(2) = 2 2
2
8 2
= 8
So (2, 8) is the stationary point
Gradient table:
x 1 2 3
g(x) 4 0 4
Slope \ /
Therefore (2, 8) is a local
minimum stationary point.
d f(x) = 4x 2x
2
x
3

f (x) = 4 4x 3x
2

f (x) = 0 for a stationary value.
3x
2
4x + 4 = 0
1(3x
2
+ 4x 4) = 0
1(3x 2)(x + 2) = 0
x =
2
3
or 2.
When x =
2
3
,
f(x) = 4
2
3
2
2 3
2 2
3 3




=
8
3

8
9

8
27

= 1
13
27

So
2 13
, 1
3 27



is one stationary
point.
When x = 2,
f(x) = 4 2 2 (2)
2
(2)
3
= 8 8 + 8
= 8
So (2, 8) is another stationary
point.
Gradient table:
x 3 2 0
2
3
---

1
f (x) 11 0 4 0 3
Slope \ / \
Therefore
2 13
, 1
3 27



is a local
maximum stationary point and
(2, 8) is a local minimum
stationary point.
e g(x) = 4x
3
3x
4
g(x) = 12x
2
12x
3
g(x) = 0 for stationary values.
12x
2
(1 x) = 0
x = 0 or 1
When x = 0, g(0) = 0
So (0, 0) is one stationary point.
When x = 1, g(1) = 4 3
= 1
So (1, 1) is another stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 1 0
1
2
---

1 2
g(x) 24 0 1.5 0 48
Slope / / \
MM1 2 - 8 200 A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n

Therefore (0, 0) is a positive
stationary point of inflection and
(1, 1) is a local maximum
stationary point.
f y = x
2
(x + 3)
y = x
3
+ 3x
2

d
d
y
x
= 3x
2
+ 6x
Now
d
d
y
x
= 0 for a stationary value.
3x (x + 2) = 0
x = 0 or 2
When x = 0, y = 0
2
(0 + 3)
y = 0
So (0, 0) is one stationary point.
When x = 2, y = (2)
2
(2 + 3)
= 4
So (2, 4) is another stationary
point.
Gradient table:
x 3 2 1 0 1
d
d
y
x
9 0 3 0 9
Slope / \ /
Therefore (0, 0) is a local
minimum stationary point and
(2, 4) is a local maximum
stationary point.
g y = 5 6x + x
2


d
d
y
x
= 6 + 2x

d
d
y
x
= 0 for stationary value.
x = 3
When x = 3, y = 5 6 3 + 3
2

y = 4
So (3, 4) is the stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 2 3 4
d
d
y
x
2 0 2
Slope \ /
Therefore (3, 4) is a local
minimum stationary point.
h f (x) = x
3
+ 8
f (x) = 3x
2

f (x) = 0 for a stationary value.
x = 0
When x = 0, f(0) = 8
So (0, 8) is the stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 1 0 1
f (x) 3 0 3
Slope / /
Therefore (0, 8) is a positive
stationary point of inflection.
i y = x
2
x + 6

d
d
y
x
= 2x 1

d
d
y
x
= 0 for a stationary value.
x =
1
2

When x =
1
2
,
y =
2
1 1
2 2




+ 6
=
25
4

So
1 1
, 6
2 4



is the stationary
point.
Gradient table:
x 1
1
2
0
d
d
y
x
1 0 1
Slope / \
Therefore
1 1
, 6
2 4



is a local
maximum stationary point.
j y = 3x
4
8x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 5

d
d
y
x
= 12x
3
24x
2
+ 12x

d
d
y
x
= 0 for a stationary value.
12x(x
2
2x + 1) = 0
12x(x 1) (x 1) = 0
x = 0 or 1
When x = 0, y = 5
So (0, 5) is one stationary point.
When x = 1,
y = 3(1)
4
8(1)
3
+ 6(1)
2
+ 5
y = 6
So (1, 6) is another stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 1 0
1
2
1 2
d
d
y
x
48 0 1.5 0 24
Slope \ / /
Therefore (0, 5) is a local
minimum stationary point and
(1, 6) is a positive stationary point
of inflection.
k g(x) = x (x
2
27)
g(x) = x
3
27x
g(x) = 3x
2
27
g(x) = 0 for stationary value.
3(x
2
9) = 0
x = 3 or 3
When x = 3,
g(3) = (3)
3
27 3
= 54
So (3, 54) is one stationary
point.
When x = 3
g(3) = 3
3
27 3
= 54
So (3, 54) is another stationary
point.
Gradient table:
x 4 3 0 3 4
g(x) 21 0 27 0 21
Slope / \ /
Therefore (3, 54) is a local
maximum stationary point and
(3, 54) is a local minimum
stationary point.
l y = x
3
+ 4x
2
3x 2

d
d
y
x
= 3x
2
+ 8x 3
Now
d
d
y
x
= 0 for stationary values.
(3x 1)(x + 3) = 0
x =
1
3
or 3
When x =
1
3
,
y =
3
1
3



+ 4
2
1
3



3
1
3
2
y = 2
14
27

So
1 14
, 2
3 27



is one stationary
point.
When x = 3,
y = (3)
3
+ 4(3)
2
3 3 2
y = 16
So (3, 16) is another stationary
point.
Gradient table:
x 4 3 0
1
3
---

1
d
d
y
x
13 0 3 0 8
Slope / \ /
Therefore
1 14
, 2
3 27



is a local
minimum stationary point, and
(3, 16) is a local maximum
stationary point.
m h(x) = 12 x
3
h(x) = 3x
2
h(x) = 0 for stationary value.
x = 0
When x = 0, h(0) = 12
So (0, 12) is a stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 1 0 1
h(x) 3 0 3
Slope \ \
Therefore (0, 12) is a negative
stationary point of inflection.
n g(x) = x
3
(x 4)
g(x) = x
4
4x
3

g(x) = 4x
3
12x
2

g(x) = 0 for stationary values.
A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 8 201
4x
2
(x 3) = 0
x = 0 or 3
When x = 0,
g(0) = 0
3
(0 4)
g(0) = 0
So (0, 0) is one stationary point.
When x = 3,
g(3) = 3
4
4 3
3
= 27
So (3, 27) is another stationary
point.
Gradient table:
x 1 0 1 3 4
g(x) 16 0 8 0 64
Slope \ \ /
Therefore (0, 0) is a negative
stationary point of inflection and
(3, 27) is a local minimum
stationary point.
2 a

b

c

d

e

f


g


h


i


j

k

l

m


n

3 a f (x) = x
3
2x
2
7x 4
f (x) = 3x
2
4x 7
f (x) = 0 for stationary values.
(3x 7) (x + 1) = 0
x =
7
3
or 1
When x =
7
3
,

7
3
f



=
3
7
3



2
2
7
3




7
7
3
4
= 8
14
27

So
7 14
, 18
3 27



is one
stationary point.
When x = 1,
f (1) = (1)
3
2(1)
2
7 1 4
= 0
So, (1, 0) is another stationary
point.
Gradient table:
x 2 1 0

7
3
3
f (x) 13 0 7 0 8
Slope / \ /
Therefore
7 14
, 18
3 27



is a
minimum stationary point and
(1, 0) is a maximum stationary
point.
b f(4) = 4
3
2(4)
2
7 4 4
= 64 32 28 4
= 0
Therefore f(x) passes through
(4, 0).
c f(x) = x
3
2x
2
7x 4
As f(4) = 0 then x 4 is a factor
of f(x).
f(x) = (x 4)(x
2
+ 2x + 1)
= (x 4)(x + 1)(x + 1)
= (x 4)(x + 1)
2

MM1 2 - 8 202 A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n

The x-intercept are (1, 0) and (4, 0)
f(0) = 0
3
2 0
2
7 0 4
= 4
The y-intercept is (0, 4)


4 a y = x
3
x
2
16x + 16

d
d
y
x
= 3x
2
2x 16

d
d
y
x
= 0 for stationary values.
(3x 8)(x + 2) = 0
x =
8
3
or 2
When x =
8
3
,
y =
3 2
8 8
3 3



16
8
3
+ 16
y = 14
22
27

So
8 22
, 14
3 27



is one stationary point.
When x = 2,
y = (2)
3
(2)
2
16 2 + 16
= 36
So (2, 36) is another stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 3 2 0
8
3
3
d
d
y
x
17 0 16 0 5
Slope / \ /
Therefore
8 22
, 14
3 27



is a local minimum
stationary point and (2, 36) is a local maximum
stationary point.
b y = 1
3
1
2
16 1 + 16
= 0
Therefore the curve passes through (1, 0).
y = x
3
x
2
16x + 16
As y = 0 when x = 1, then (x 1) is a factor.
y = (x 1)(x
2
16)
= (x 1)(x 4) (x + 4)
The x-intercepts are (1, 0) (4, 0) (4, 0)
y = 0
3
0
2
16 0 + 16
y = 16
The y-intercept is (0, 16)
c


5 a g(x) = x
4
4x
2

g(x) = 4x
3
8x
g(x) = 0 for stationary values.
4x(x
2
2) = 0
x = 0 or 2 .
When x = 0, g(x) = 0.
Therefore (0, 0) is a stationary point.
When x = 2 ,
g(x) = ( 2 )
4
4 ( 2 )
2

= 4
Therefore ( 2 , 4) is a stationary point.
When x = 2 ,
g(x) = ( 2 )
4
4 ( 2 )
2

= 4
Therefore ( 2 , 4) is a stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 2 2
1 0 1
2
2
g(x) 16 0 4 0 4 0 16
Slope \ / \ /
Therefore ( 2 , 4) and ( 2 , 4) are local
minimum stationary points and (0, 0) is a local
maximum stationary point.
b x
4
4x
2
= 0
x
2
(x
2
4) = 0
x
2
(x 2)(x + 2) = 0
x = 0, 2 or 2
The x-intercepts are (0, 0) (2, 0) (2, 0)
The y-intercept is (0, 0)
c


6 a y = x
4
6x
2
+ 8x 3

d
d
y
x
= 4x
3
12x + 8
Now
d
d
y
x
= 0 for stationary values.
(x 1)(4x
2
+ 4x 8) = 0
(x 1) 4(x
2
+ x 2) = 0
(x 1) 4(x + 2)(x 1) = 0
x = 1 or 2
When x =1,
y = 1
4
6 1
2
+ 8 1 3
y = 0
Therefore (1, 0) is a stationary point.
When x = 2
y = (2)
4
6 (2)
2
+ 8 2 3
= 27
Therefore (2, 27) is a stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 3 2 0 1 2
d
d
y
x
64 0 8 0 16
Slope \ / /
Therefore (1, 0) is a positive stationary point of
inflection and (2, 27) is a local minimum value.
A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 8 203
b y = 1
4
6 1
2
+ 8 1 3
= 0
Therefore (1, 0) lies on the curve.
c (x 1) is a factor of y = x
4
6x
2
+ 8x 3
y = (x 1)(x
3
+ x
2
5x + 3)
y = (x 1)(x 1)(x
2
+ 2x 3)
y = (x 1)(x 1)(x + 3)(x 1)
y = (x 1)
3
(x + 3)
x = 1 or 3 are x-intercepts.
The x-intercepts are (1, 0) and (3, 0)
y = 0
4
6 0
2
+ 8 0 3
y = 3
The y-intercept is (0, 3)
d


7 a y = x
4
+ x
3
5x
2
6

d
d
y
x
= 4x
3
+ 3x
2
10x

d
d
y
x
= 0 for stationary values.
(x + 2)(4x
2
5x) = 0
(x + 2) x(4x 5) = 0
x = 2, 0, or
5
4

When x = 2,
y = (2)
4
+ (2)
3
5 (2)
2
6
y = 16 8 20 6
= 18
Therefore (2, 18) is a stationary point.
When x = 0,
y = (0)
4
+ (0)
3
5 (0)
2
6
y = 6
Therefore (0, 6) is a stationary point.
When x =
5
4
,
y =
4 3 2
5 5 5
5 6
4 4 4

+



y = 9
107
256

Therefore
5 107
, 9
4 256



is another stationary point.
Gradient table:
x 3 2 1 0 1
5
4
2
d
d
y
x
51 0 9 0 3 0 24
Slope \ / \ /
Therefore (2, 18) and
5 107
, 9
4 256



are local
minimum stationary points and (0, 6) is a local
maximum stationary point.
b y = 0
4
+ 0
3
5 0
2
6
y = 6
The y-intercept is (0, 6)
c


8 a f(x) = x
4
x
2

f (x) = 4x
3
2x
f (x) = 0 gives stationary values.
2x(2x
2
1) = 0
x = 0 or
1
2

When x = 0, f(x) = 0.
When x =
1
2
,
f(x) =
4 2
1 1
2 2




=
1 1
4 2

=
1
4

When x =
1
2
,
f(x) =
4 2
1 1
2 2





=
1
4

Stationary points are (0, 0),
1 1
,
4 2



and
1 1
,
4 2





Gradient table:
x 1

1
2

1
2
0
1
2

1
2

1
f (x) 2 0
1
2
0
1
2
0 2
Slope \ / \ /
Local minimum stationary points

1 1
,
4 2




and
1 1
,
4 2



.
Local maximum stationary point (0, 0).
(1) x-intercepts x
4
x
2
= 0
x
2
(x
2
1) = 0
x-intercepts (0, 0) (1, 0) (1, 0).
(2) y-intercept f(0) = 0, (0, 0)


b f(x) = x
3
3x
2

f (x) = 3x
2
6x
3x(x 2) = 0 for stationary points.
MM1 2 - 8 204 A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n

x = 0 or 2
When x = 0, f(x) = 0
When x = 2, f(x) = 8 12
= 4
Stationary points (0, 0) and (2, 4)
Gradient table:
x 1 0 1 2 3
f (x) 9 0 3 0 9
Slope / \ /
Local maximum stationary point
(0, 0).
Local minimum stationary point
(2, 4).
(1) x-intercepts when f(x) = 0
x
3
3x
2
= 0
x
2
(x 3) = 0
x = 0 or 3.
(2) y-intercepts when x = 0
f(x) = 0
3
3 0
2

= 0


c g(x) = x
3
+ 3x
4

g(x) = 3x
2
+ 12x
3

3x
2
(1 + 4x) = 0 for stationary values.
x = 0 or
1
4

When x = 0, g(x) = 0.
When x =
1
4
,
g(x) =
3 4
1 1
3
4 4

+



=
1 3
64 256
+
=
4 3
256
+

=
1
256

Gradient table:
x 1
1
4

1
8
0 1
g(x) 9 0
3
128
0 15
Slope \ / /

1 1
,
4 256




local minimum
stationary point and
(0, 0) is a positive stationary point
of inflection.
(1) x-intercepts when g(x) = 0
x
3
+ 3x
4
= 0
x
3
(1 + 3x) = 0
x = 0 or
1
3

(2) y-intercept when x = 0
g(x) = 0


d g(x) = x
3
4x
2
+ 4x
g(x) = 3x
2
8x + 4
(3x 2)(x 2) = 0 for stationary
values.
x =
2
3
or 2.
When x =
2
3
,
g(x) =
3 2
2 2 2
4 4
3 3 3

+



=
8 16 8
27 9 3
+
=
8 48 72
27
+

=
32
27

=
5
1
27




When x = 2
g(x) = 2
3
4(2)
2
+ 4 2
= 8 16 + 8
= 0
Gradient table:
x 0
2
3
1 2 3
g(x) 4 0 1 0 7
Slope / \ /
Local maximum stationary point
2 5
, 1
3 27



.
Local minimum stationary point
(2, 0)
(1) x-intercepts when g(x) = 0
x
3
4x
2
+ 4x = 0
x(x
2
4x + 4) = 0
x(x 2)(x 2) = 0
x = 0 or 2
(2) y-intercept when x = 0
0
3
4 0
2
+ 4 0 = 0


e h(x) = x
3
4x
2
11x + 30
h(x) = 3x
2
8x 11
(3x 11)(x + 1) = 0 for stationary
values.
x =
11
3
or 1
When x =
11
3

h(x) =
3 2
11 11
4
3 3





11
11
3
+ 30
=
1331 484 121 810
27 9 3 27
+
=
1331 1452 1089 810
27
+

=
400
27

or
22
14
27

When x = 1
h(x) = (1)
3
4(1)
2
11 1 + 30
= 1 4 + 11 + 30
= 36
Gradient table:
x 2 1 0
11
3
4
h(x) 17 0 11 0 5
Slope / \ /
Local maximum stationary point
(1, 36)
Local minimum stationary point
11 22
, 14
3 27




(1) x-intercepts when h(x) = 0
x
3
4x
2
11x + 30 = 0
(x 2)(x
2
2x 15) = 0
(x 2)(x 5) (x + 3) = 0
x-intercepts are 2, 5, and 3
(2) y-intercepts when x = 0
h(x) = 30


f h(x) = x (x + 3)(x 5)
= (x
2
+ 3x)(x 5)
= x
3
5x
2
+ 3x
2
15x
= x
3
2x
2
15x
h(x) = 3x
2
4x 15
(3x + 5)(x 3) = 0 for stationary
values.
x =
5
3
or 3
When x =
5
3

h(x) =
3 2
5 5 5
2 15
3 3 3





A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n MM1 2 - 8 205
=
125 50 75
27 9 3

+
=
125 150 675
27
+

=
400
27
or 14
22
27

When x = 3
h(x) = 3
3
2 3
2
15 3
= 27 18 45
= 36
Gradient table:
x 2
5
3
2 3 4
h(x) 5 0 11 0 17
Slope / \ /

5 22
, 14
3 27



local maximum stationary point.
(3, 36) local minimum stationary point.
(1) x-intercept h(x) = 0
0 = x
3
2x
2
15x
0 = (x + 3)(x
2
5x)
0 = (x + 3)x(x 5)
x-intercepts 3, 0, 5
(2) y-intercept x = 0
h(x) = 0


g f (x) = x
4
2x
2
+ 1
f (x) = 4x
3
4x
4x (x
2
1) = 0 for stationary values.
x = 0 or 1
When x = 0, f(0) = 1
When x = 1, f(1) = 1 2 + 1
= 0
When x = 1, f(1) = 1 2 + 1
= 0
Gradient table:
x 2 1
1
2
0
1
2
1 2
f (x) 24 0 1.5 0 1.5 0 24
Slope / \ / \
Local minimum stationary points (1, 0) and (1, 0)
Local maximum stationary point (0, 1)
(1) x-intercept f(x) = 0
0 = x
4
2x
2
+ 1
0 = (x
2
1)(x
2
1)
0 = (x 1)
2
(x + 1)
2

x = 1, or 1
(2) y-intercept x = 0
f(0) = 1


h f (x) = x(x
2
+ 1)
f (x) = x
3
+ x
f (x) = 3x
2
+ 1
3x
2
= 1 for stationary values
x
2
=
1
3


Cant take the square root of a negative number,
so there are no stationary points.
(1) x-intercepts when f(x) = 0
0 = x(x
2
+ 1)
x = 0
(2) y-intercept when x = 0
f(0) = 0
Find points to graph.
Let x = 1 then f(1) = 2
Let x = 1 then f(1) = 1 1
= 2


i g(x) = x
3
+ 9x
2
+ 24x + 20
g(x) = 3x
2
+ 18x + 24
= 3(x
2
+ 6x + 8)
0 = 3(x + 4)(x + 2) for stationary values.
x = 4 or 2
When x = 4
g(x) = (4)
3
+ 9 (4)
2
+ 24 4 + 20
= 64 + 144 96 + 20
g(x) = 4
When x = 2
g(x) = (2)
3
+ 9(2)
2
+ 24 2 + 20
= 8 + 36 48 + 20
= 0
Gradient table:
x 5 4 3 2 1
g(x) 9 0 3 0 9
Slope / \ /
Local maximum stationary point (4, 4)
Local minimum stationary point (2, 0)
(1) x-intercept, g(x) = 0
0 = x
3
+ 9x
2
+ 24x + 20
= (x + 2)(x
2
+ 7x + 10)
= (x + 2)(x + 5)(x + 2)
x-intercepts 2 and 5
(2) y-intercepts, x = 0
g(0) = 20
MM1 2 - 8 206 A p p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n



j h(x) = (x
2
1)
3

h(x) = 3 2x (x
2
1)
2

= 6x (x
2
1)
2

6x(x