You are on page 1of 18

Power System Protection S.A.

Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power System Protection


S.A.Soman
Department of Electrical Engineering IIT Bombay

Power Swings and Distance Relaying

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman

1
Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power Swings It refers to oscillation in active and reactive power ows on a transmission line. It is a consequence of large system disturbance like a fault. The post fault power swings may encroach the relay characteristics. This will be seen by the relay as an impedance swing on the R-X plane. If the impedance trajectory stays in the relay zone for sufciently long time the relay will issue trip decision.

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Analysis of Two Area System During steady state power ows from A to B and assume that the system is purely reactive. Pm0 is the output power and 0 is the rotor angle under steady state condition. 0 = sin1
Pm 0 Pmax

During fault, Pe drops to zero and rotor accelerates to 1 . As per equal area criteria, the rotor will swing up to maximum rotor angle max so that Accelerating Area (A1 ) = Decelerating Area (A2 ).

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Rotor angle corresponding to fault clearing time tcr can be computed by swing equation, 2Hd 2 = Pm0 s dt 2 It can be derived that, Pm0 (1 0 ) = Pmax (cos1 cosmax ) Pm0 (max 1 ) cosmax = cos1 Pm0 (max 0 ) Pmax

max = f (Pm0 , tcr )

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Variation of max versus Pm0 for different values of tcr

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Determination of Power Swing Locus The impedance seen by the relay is given by, Zseen (relay ) = Es Irelay Zs Vrelay = Irelay Irelay ZT ZT j cot 2 2 2 ZT 2

= Zs + At = 180 ,

Zseen = Zs +

T The vector component Zs + Z2 is a constant in R-X plane. ZT The component j 2 cot 2 lies on a straight line T perpendicular to Z2 .

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Thus it can be seen that The trajectory of the impedance measured by relay during the power swing is straight line. The angle subtended by a point in the locus on S and R end points is the angle . The swing intersects the line AB, when = 180. This point of intersection of swing impedance trajectory on the impedance line is known as electrical center of the swing. At the electrical center, angle between two sources is 180 . The existence of the electrical center is an indication of system instability. i.e, the two generators are now out of step. If the post fault system is stable, the power swing retraces its path at max .

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

ES If E = k = 1 then the power swing locus is an arc of the R circle.

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

It can be shown that, ES k (cos + jsin ) k [(k cos ) jsin ] = = ES ER k (cos + jsin ) 1 (k cos )2 + sin2 Then, Zseen = ZS + k [(k cos ) jsin ] ZT (k cos )2 + sin2
| ES | | ER |

The location of electrical center depends upon ratio.

Appearance of electrical center on a transmission line is a transient phenomenon. The electrical center vanishes after some time.

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

At the electrical center voltage is zero and the relays at both ends will trip the line. Thus, existence of electrical center indicates system instability and nuisance tripping of the distance relay.

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Power Swings and Distance Relaying


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Let Z 1 , Z 2 and Z 3 are the rotor angles when swing just enters the 3 zones, then, If max < Z 3 , then the swing will not enter the relay characteristics. If Z 3 max Z 2 , then the swing will enter in zone 3. If Z 2 max Z 1 , then the swing will enter in both zone 2 and 3. If max Z 1 , then the swing will enter in all the 3 zones and the relay will trip on zone 1.

Setting of Distance Relays


Power System Protection S.A.Soman Introduction to Power Swings Analysis of Two Area System Determination of Power Swing Locus Electrical Center Three Stepped Distance Protection Summary

Summary Introduction to power swings Distance relay perspective of power swings Swing locus seen by distance relay Electrical center Three stepped distance protection Possibility of distance relay tripping on power swings