CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard

Version 1.1/01-2010

TABLE OF CONTENT
1 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 Introduction ......................................................................................... 4 General Part ......................................................................................... 5 Lightning activity and exposure.......................................................... 5 Frequency of lightning strikes ................................................................. 5 Direct lightning strikes to a structure....................................................... 6 Assessment of the average annual number of dangerous events due to flashes near a structure NM .............................................. 7 Direct and indirect lightning strikes to an incoming overhead line or cable................................................................................................... 8 Lightning Protection System (LPS) .................................................. 10 Air-termination system .......................................................................... 11 Down-conductors.................................................................................. 13 Earth-termination system...................................................................... 14 Equipotential bonding ........................................................................... 23 Surge Protection ................................................................................... 28 CTBTO/IMS Specific Part ...................................................................42 Classification of CTBTO/IMS stations .............................................. 42 Classification in terms of lightning exposure ......................................... 42 Classification in terms of Lightning Protection Zones ........................... 42 Protection of the Central Recording Facility .................................... 43 Air Termination system and down-conductors...................................... 43 Earth termination system ...................................................................... 43 Equipotential bonding system ............................................................... 44 Surge protection ................................................................................... 44 Protection of the remote elements.................................................... 45 Air termination system .......................................................................... 46 Down-conductors.................................................................................. 47 Earth-termination system...................................................................... 47 Equipotential Bonding system .............................................................. 50 Surge Protection ................................................................................... 51 Technology Specific Situations ........................................................ 51 Seismic Monitoring Stations ................................................................. 51 Infrasound Monitoring Stations ............................................................. 52 Hydroacoustic Monitoring Stations ....................................................... 52 Radionuclide Monitoring Stations ......................................................... 53

Version 1.1/01-2010

CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard

Annex A A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 Annex B B.1 B.2 B.3 Annex C C.1 C.2 C.3 C.4 C.5 Annex D D.1 D.1.1 D.1.2 D.1.3 D.1.4 D.1.5 D.2 D.3 D.3.1 D.3.2 D.3.3 Annex E Annex F Annex G

Maintenance and inspection of the Lightning Protection System ................................................................................................. 54 General................................................................................................. 54 Recommended frequency of inspection ............................................... 54 Visual inspection................................................................................... 54 Testing.................................................................................................. 55 Soil resistivity measurements ........................................................... 56 Specific earth resistance ρE .................................................................. 56 Seasonal fluctuations ........................................................................... 57 Measurement of specific earth resistance ρE [8], [10] .......................... 58 Earthing Electrode System Testing/Verification .............................. 60 Overview .............................................................................................. 60 3-pole/4-pole Measurement of Earthing Resistance ............................. 60 Clamp-on Ohmmeter ............................................................................ 62 Prerequisites for Testing....................................................................... 63 Required Test Equipment and Supplies ............................................... 65 Dissimilar Metals and Corrosion Control ......................................... 68 Choice of earth electrode materials ...................................................... 69 Hot-dip galvanized steel ....................................................................... 69 Bare steel ............................................................................................. 69 Steel with copper sheath ...................................................................... 69 Bare copper .......................................................................................... 69 Stainless steels .................................................................................... 69 Combination of earth electrodes made of different materials ............... 70 Methods to help reduce Corrosion ....................................................... 71 Galvanized steel connecting cables from foundation earth electrodes to down conductors ............................................................. 71 Earth entries ......................................................................................... 71 Underground terminals and connections .............................................. 71 Lightning Protection System Compliance Matrix ............................ 72 List of Abbreviations .......................................................................... 78 References .......................................................................................... 79

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[2].1/01-2010 -4- . lightning equipotential bonding and surge protection designated to minimize damage caused by these events. At those locations.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 1 Introduction The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of a worldwide network of 321 stations. Version 1. and to conduct the lightning current from the point of strike to the ground. including primary and auxiliary seismic. hydroacoustic and infrasound stations and 95% for radionuclide monitoring stations. the equipment is subject to damage caused by lightning. This seriously affects the data availability requirements. The external LPS is also intended to disperse this current into the earth without causing thermal or mechanical damage. IEC Standard 62305. In general. The IMS network is required to be in continuous operation with high data availability requirements in the IDC. including flashes to the side of the structure. hydroacoustic. the cases which require lightning protection are the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Existence of large crowds Necessity of service continuity Very high lightning flash frequency Tall isolated structures Buildings containing explosive or flammable materials Buildings containing irreplaceable cultural heritage For CTBTO/IMS stations cases (2). Many stations are located in areas with high annual ground flash density and unreliable mains power. (3) and (4) are applicable and hence proper lightning protection is needed in order to achieve the expected performance. An internal LPS prevents dangerous sparking within the structure using either equipotential bonding or a separation distance (and hence electrical insulation) between the external LPS components and other electrically conducting elements internal to the structure. The main and most effective measure for protection of structures against physical damage is considered to be the Lightning Protection System (LPS). This document provides information about the lightning protection and installation of earth-termination system. both direct strikes and surges from indirect flashes. nor dangerous sparking which may trigger fire or explosions. made up of four parts [1]. The IMS facilities transmit data using a closed and secure satellite communications network via the Global Communications Infrastructure to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna using very small aperture terminal technology. which can be summarized as 98% for seismic. infrasound and radionuclide monitoring stations supported by 16 radionuclide laboratories. and by electrical surges. It usually consists of both external and internal lightning protection systems. [3] and [4] provides all basic information for a proper lightning protection of CTBTO/IMS stations. The external LPS is intended to intercept direct lightning flashes to the structure.

1 x Td where Td is the average number of thunderstorm days per year (which can be obtained from isokeraunic maps from local meteorological services). Ng 0.12 0.024 x Td1.030 x Td1. For some tropical regions correlations have been found [5].1. lightning protection is strongly recommended.1 Frequency of lightning strikes It is necessary to distinguish between the following frequencies of lightning strikes which can be relevant for a building or structure: Nd NM NL NI Frequency of direct lightning strikes to the building or structure.56 Another estimate of Ng may be obtained from thunderstorm hour records by: Ng 0. This value is available from ground flash location networks in some areas of the world.12 for mountainous regions in Mexico for mountainous regions in Brazil for Colombia. Frequency of direct lightning strikes in utility lines entering the building or structure. Version 1.1 General Part Lightning activity and exposure The probability that a structure or object will be struck by lightning is the product of the equivalent collection area of the structure or object and the flash density for the area that the structure is located.0017 x Td1.2 2. sometimes also called Ground Flash Density.1 where Th is the average number of thunderstorm hours per year [6]. 2. is the average yearly number of flashes to ground per square kilometer. For Ng equal or higher than 4. Lightning Flash Density (Ng).054 x Th1. which are different from the more general one given above: Ng Ng 0. Frequency of lightning strikes adjacent to utility lines entering the building or structure. Frequency of close lightning strikes with electromagnetic effects. in temperate regions Ng may be estimated by: Ng 0.1/01-2010 . If a map of Ng is not available.

g.1/01-2010 -6- . Determination of the value of Ad may be performed graphically (Figure 1) or mathematically: Ad = L x W + 6 x H x (L+W) + 9 x π x H2 with L.1.25 0. IEC 62305-2. A. Table 1: Location Factor Cd Relative location Structure surrounded by higher objects or trees Structure surrounded by objects or trees of the same heights or smaller Isolated structure: no other structures in the vicinity Isolated structure on a hilltop or a knoll Cd 0. W and H expressed in meters.2 Direct lightning strikes to a structure The yearly lightning strike frequency (Nd) to a structure (as a CTBTO/IMS site) is determined by the following equation [1]: Nd N g x Ad x Cd x 10 6 where: Nd is the yearly lightning strike frequency to the site Ng is the yearly average flash density in the region where the structure is located Ad is the collection area of the structure (m2) Cd is the Location Factor (see Table 1). the collection area Ad is the area defined by the intersection between the ground surface and a straight line with 1/3 slope which passes from the upper parts of the structure (touching it there) and rotating around it (see Figure 1). Version 1.2.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 2.1.5 1 2 The Collection Area (Ad) refers to the ground area having the same yearly direct lightning flash probability as the structure.1. For isolated structures on flat ground. It is an increased area for the structure that includes the effect of the height and location of the structure. For more complex and non rectangular structures see e.

Version 1. is the collection area for the structure (see Figure 1) is the collection area of flashes striking near the structure (m2). a surrounding fence of height HF and a radio tower of height HT the collecting area Ad can be estimated as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Collection area Ad for a rectangular structure and a radio tower of height HT 2.1.1/01-2010 -7- .3 Assessment of the average annual number of dangerous events due to flashes near a structure NM Average annual number of dangerous events due to flashes near a structure NM may be evaluated as the product: NM = Ng × (Am – Ad x Cd) ×10–6 where Ng Ad Am is the lightning ground flash density (flash/(km2 x year)).CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 1: Calculation of the collection area Ad for a rectangular structure In case of a typical CTBTO/IMS site with underground vaults.

and Ai for a rectangular structure For a rectangular structure of length L and width W the collection area Am is given by: Am = L x W + 2 x (L+W) x 250+2502 x π 2. Al is a function of the type of line (overhead line or buried cable) and the length LC of the line. Al. telecommunication. data line. In the case of buried cables.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard The collection area Am extends to a line located at a distance of 250 m from the perimeter of the structure (see Figure 3) Figure 3: Collection area Am. it is also a function of the earth resistivity ρ. and for overhead lines it depends on the height of the line ( H) above ground level (see Table 2).1.4 Direct and indirect lightning strikes to an incoming overhead line or cable The frequency of lightning to or nearby a service line (power. etc) entering a building or a station can be estimated by: NL = Ng × Al × Ce × 10–6 (direct strikes) Ni = Ng × Ai × Ce × 10–6 (indirect strikes) Ce is the environment factor (in rural areas Ce is 1).1/01-2010 -8- . Version 1.

is the collection area of flashes to ground near the service (m2).1/01-2010 -9- . is the length of the service section from the structure to the first node (m).CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Table 2: Equivalent interception areas Al and Ai for utility lines Overhead Line Al Ai Al Ai Hc Lc Ha Hb ρ Underground cable LC 3 x (Ha Hb ) x 6 x HC LC 3 x (H a 25 x LC x Hb ) x 1000 x LC is the collection area of flashes striking the service (m2). is the height of the service conductors above ground (m). is the height of the structure connected at end “b” of service (m). A maximum value Lc = 1 000 m should be assumed. is the earth resistivity (Ωm) in or on which the line is laid. up to a maximum value of ρ NOTE: The structure to be protected shall be assumed to be the one connected at “b” end of service Version 1. is the height of the structure connected at end “a” of service (m).

II. for example.2 in 62305-3). Lightning protection measures specified in this document are based on LPL II. In most cases. screwing or riveting.10 - . the external LPS is attached to the structure to be protected. The external LPS is intended to intercept direct lightning flashes to the structure and conduct the lightning current from the point of strike to ground and to disperse this current into the earth without causing thermal or mechanical damage. nor dangerous sparking which may trigger fire or explosions. Only 1% of lightning events will exceed the maximum values of lighting current parameters specified for LPL I. which provides sufficient protection for the IMS installations. III and IV described above. pressing. Lightning protection classes I. II. Version 1.1/01-2010 . b) Lightning Protection Level Classification: According to [1] (IEC 62305-1) there exist four Lighting Protection Levels (LPL): LPL I. Equipotential Bonding and Surge Protection based on Lightning Protection Zone (LPZ) concept. For LPL II the parameters are reduced to 75% of the values of LPL I.3. welding. The method of connection depends on the materials used for the LPS and can be made by brazing. II. or on the conductors carrying the lightning current. may cause damage to the structure or to the contents (see paragraph 5. Down-conductors. All connections within LPS must provide permanent galvanic and mechanical connection between the components. Earthtermination System. For each LPL a set of maximum and minimum lightning current parameters is fixed. III and IV refer to the LPL I. The components of a LPS are Air-Termination System.2 Lightning Protection System (LPS) a) Definitions: The lightning protection system is the complete system used to reduce physical damage due to lightning flashes to the structure and lightning caused surges on power and data lines. An isolated external LPS should be considered when the thermal and explosive effects at the point of strike. III and IV. These values are 50 % of LPL I for LPL III and IV.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 2.

a) b) Figure 4: Two examples of air-termination system on buildings. The values for the protection angle.1 Air-termination system The probability of structure penetration by a lightning current is considerably decreased by the presence of a properly designed air-termination system. exposed points and edges in accordance with one or more of the following methods: – the protection angle method. – the mesh method. b) catenary wires. c) meshed conductors. Version 1. Air-termination systems can be composed of any combination of the following elements (examples see Figure 4): a) rods (including free-standing masts).11 - . a) Roof with air termination conductor and b) air-termination rod for chimney (adapted from [8]) Air-termination components installed on a structure shall be located at corners.2. rolling sphere radius and mesh size for each class of LPS are given in Table 3.1/01-2010 . – the rolling sphere method.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 2.

CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Table 3: Maximum values of rolling sphere radius and mesh size corresponding to the class of LPS Class of LPS I II III IV Rolling Sphere Radius r (m) 20 30 45 60 Mesh Size W (m) 5x5 10 x 10 15 x 15 20 x 20 Figure 5: Protection angle α corresponding to the class of LPS as a function of the height H of air-termination above the reference plane – The mesh method is a suitable form of protection where plane surfaces are to be protected.1/01-2010 . – The cone-shaped protected zone provided by a vertical rod of height h and the corresponding angle α (α being a function of h and class of LPS) is shown in Figure 6. Version 1.12 - . – The protection angle method is suitable for simple-shaped buildings but it is subject to limits of air-termination height H as indicated in Figure 5.

1/01-2010 . The length of those current paths must be kept to a minimum.2.2 Down-conductors Down-conductors shall be arranged in such a way that from the point of strike to the earth several parallel current paths exist.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard – Figure 6: Protected zone of a vertical rod for a protection angle α For class II LPS. the protection angle α and radius R of protected area at the reference plane are given in Table 4. Version 1. Table 4: Protective angle α and distance R in Figure 6 as a function of height h for class II LPS 2.13 - .

provide a stable reference for electrical and RF circuits at the facility in order to minimize noise during normal operation. Figure 7: Example of down-conductor mounted on a brick wall 2. where this is possible.2.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard An equal spacing of the down-conductors is preferred around the perimeter of a structure. Version 1.14 - . efficiently dissipate electrical surges and faults in order to minimize the chances of human injury from either “step potentials” or “touch potentials”. Table 5: Typical values of the distance between down-conductors and between ring conductors according to the class of LPS Class of LPS I II III IV Typical Distance (m) 10 10 15 20 A down-conductor should be installed at each exposed corner of the structure.3 Earth-termination system The main task of the earth termination system is to: efficiently dissipate the lightning surge energy that may arrive via downconductors of the lightning protection system. Typical values of the distance between the down-conductors are given in Table 5.1/01-2010 .

2.15 - . In addition. In general. electrolytic earthing rods or the metal frame of buildings and includes also foundation earth electrodes.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard be properly bonded to provide an equipotential plane under fault or lightning strike conditions. 2. in concrete encased conductors. a single integrated earth-termination system is preferable and is suitable for all purposes (i. the size of the electrodes should be large enough in order to provide sufficient life time (minimum 20 years for IMS applications). earthing ring conductors. Typical earthing electrodes are shown in Figure 8.1 Earthing electrodes The earthing electrodes are the conducting elements used to connect electrical systems and/or equipment to the earth. The shape and dimensions of the earth-termination system are the important criteria when dealing with the dispersion of the high frequency lightning current into the ground. Earthing electrodes may be earthing rods. with values lower than 10 Ω when measured at low frequency. metal plates. The earth-termination system shall have low electrical impedance. the more effectively the earth electrode system can dissipate high energy impulses into the earth.e. lightning protection.3. The lower the earth electrode impedance. Version 1. The earthing electrodes are placed into the soil to maintain electrical equipment at the potential of the earth and to dissipate currents into the soil.1/01-2010 . be electrically and mechanically robust in order to assure performance over the “life” of the facility (nominally several 10’s of years from construction date). power systems and telecommunication systems). Underground metallic piping and any other existing earthing system shall be bonded together to form a single integrated earth-termination system. in case of highly corrosive environment. From the viewpoint of lightning protection. a low earthing resistance is recommended [3]. with conductors large enough to withstand high fault and lightning currents.

the earth electrodes shall be buried below the permanent moisture level. Earth electrodes that cannot be driven straight down. and number of rods required may vary with site dimensions and/or as determined by an engineering study based on the soil resistivity profile of the site. The behavior of the metal with respect to corrosion in the soil and in connection with dissimilar metals should always be taken into account (see Annex D ). Where multiple connected earth electrodes are used. Where applicable. Earth electrodes shall be free of paint or other nonconductive coatings. where possible. Earth electrodes shall be buried to a minimum depth of 0.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 8: Typical earth electrodes and their installation The requirements for earthing electrodes are: The material and dimensions used for earth electrodes should conform to the materials listed in Table 6.1/01-2010 .8 m below finished grade. the separation between any two electrodes shall be at least the sum of their driven depths (where practicable). length. or buried below the freeze line. due to contact with rock formations. The method of bonding earthing conductors to earth electrodes shall be compatible with the types of metals being bonded (see Table 17 in Annex D).16 - . The vertical earth electrodes shall have a minimum length of 3 m. whichever depth is larger. The actual diameter. may be driven at an oblique angle of not greater than 45 degrees Version 1.

Table 6: Material.17 - .g.1/01-2010 . As the actual corrosion of bare steel is determined by local soil conditions. not embedded in concrete. Corrosion is phenomena that can occur at the boundaries between two distinct soil layers. Version 1. configuration and minimum dimensions of earth electrodes [3] Note: In some areas bare steel is also allowed to be used in the soil. stainless steel.8 m deep perpendicular to the building. earthing electrodes of sufficient corrosion resistivity (e. Therefore.6 % corrosion weight loss was determined after 7 years. regular measurements of the earthing resistance of such electrodes shall be done to ensure proper earthing conditions and initiate improvements.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard from the vertical. copper) shall be used. In [7] for bare steel electrodes in soil (electrodes were 2. or may be buried horizontally in a trench at least 0.4 m long and had a diameter of 16 mm) a 7. when necessary.

where towers. the request for a minimum earthing resistance may have different reasons.000 V) will occur and can cause flashover when bonding is not done properly. Table 7 shows l1 as a function of the soil resistivity in Ωm. at the striking point a potential raise relative to the reference earth of 100 kV (U = I*R = 10.1/01-2010 . For LPL II.3.3 Minimum site earthing requirements As the earthing system is used for several functions in a structure (e. is suitable to limit potential differences among the installations and at the surface (risk of step-voltage) to acceptable values.2. The need to ensure an equipotential plane becomes obvious by the following simple calculation: When a typical lightning current of 10 kA is injected in an earthing system of 10 Ω. For lightning and overvoltage protection the absolute value of the earthing system resistance is not as important as to ensure that all equipment and conducting services are connected to a more or less equal potential plane (equipotential bonding is a must). signal reference ground and lightning protection).CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 2. 2.3.g. objects and equipment vaults are integrated. In this IEC standard the minimum length I1 of the earthing electrode is a function of the class of lightning protection system (see Figure 9). no particular value is required for the earth electrode resistance. Since IEC 62305-3 [3] assumes a systematic lightning equipotential bonding.18 - . Figure 9: IEC 62305-3 specified minimum length l1 of each horizontal earth electrode according to the class of the LPS Version 1.2.000 A x 10 Ω = 100. A mesh of earth conductors with a mesh-size of about 5 m x 5 m.2 Earthing conductor Earthing conductor is a conductor connecting the system component to be earthed to an earth electrode and which is installed above the ground or insulated in the ground. being applicable to CTBTO/IMS stations.

0 5.9 44.9 11.0 5.3 46.0 5.9 36.7 45.9 38.5 18.5 29.0 5.6 42.2 39.0 5.8 31.0 5.7 25.3 38.0 33.0 25.0 5.4 49.1 35.0 5.0 5.0 5.8 33.9 47.8 24.m 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490 1500 l1 9.9 8.5 47.3 45.2 31.3 43.7 44.0 5.2 13.0 5.0 5.5 27.3 9.0 5.5 36.5 46.1 8.m 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 l1 5.0 48.4 31.0 5.5 20.1 36.8 7.1 37.0 5.0 Ω.5 44.8 13.0 5.8 16.0 5.5 28.0 5.5 26.2 15.5 Ω.5 17.0 42.1 17.3 28.8 12.8 23.9 28.4 12.2 6.0 5.9 46.0 5.3 Ω.4 32.0 39.1 18.3 27.1 46.3 16.6 22.8 14.0 5.6 23.0 5.7 17.3 44.2 23.9 26.4 21.8 25.5 7.2 30.0 32.6 41.2 48.0 5.8 6.9 19.7 10.6 39.0 5.0 21.2 49.7 7.0 41.4 6.3 20.4 30.1 47.7 36.7 26.m 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 l1 5.6 40.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.4 5.7 43.7 46.0 5.8 50.8 34.5 19.0 31.m 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180 2190 2200 2210 2220 2230 2240 2250 2260 2270 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2330 2340 2350 2360 2370 2380 2390 2400 2410 2420 2430 2440 2450 2460 2470 2480 2490 2500 l1 29.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Table 7: Minimum length l1of each horizontal earth electrode as a function of ground resistivity in Ωm according to LPL II Ω.0 5.0 14.0 22.9 10.0 6.4 15.0 5.1 38.0 5.0 16.0 5.0 34.7 34.8 49.4 24.0 5.6 31.5 35.9 45.2 41.6 30.5 45.1 9.0 5.0 5.7 9.2 12.3 17.0 5.0 5.5 9.2 21.3 47.8 22.2 42.4 40.0 5.9 27.0 5.4 14.0 5.0 5.3 8.1 27.6 48.4 23.2 14.9 37.3 10.0 5.7 16.1 20.8 41.6 14.3 29.3 36.3 19.0 5.0 5.0 5.5 43.0 5.2 22.0 5.0 5.0 5.6 6.0 30.8 39.6 21.9 35.5 16.5 37.4 48.19 - .3 37.0 13.4 39.0 5.1 44.0 5.5 38.2 40.6 13.3 18.4 22.0 5.6 49.0 5.4 41.m 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 l1 19.0 5.3 25.1/01-2010 .6 15.0 5.8 15.0 5.4 13.6 5.0 15.3 7.2 33.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.1 26.0 7.7 19.0 49.5 10.9 29.4 42.0 5.2 24.0 5.5 8.9 18.0 24.0 Version 1.7 28.0 43.7 18.7 37.3 11.0 5.6 33.6 32.7 8.7 27.8 42.0 5.0 5.0 40.1 19.0 5.3 35.m 2500 2510 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2590 2600 2610 2620 2630 2640 2650 2660 2670 2680 2690 2700 2710 2720 2730 2740 2750 2760 2770 2780 2790 2800 2810 2820 2830 2840 2850 2860 2870 2880 2890 2900 2910 2920 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000 l1 39.1 11.1 45.9 17.0 5.0 5.4 33.6 12.1 Ω.0 5.0 12.3 26.3 34.7 35.8 32.1 29.1 10.8 48.0 5.8 30.2 5.8 21.0 5.1 28.6 24.5 34.0 5.5 25.0 5.0 5.0 5.2 32.8 Ω.8 40.9 9.9 20.0 5.0 23.0 5.8 43.0 5.5 11.

89 m for the given ring electrode around the buildings area A1 is larger than the minimum length of 5 m (see Figure 9 for LPS class III) and hence no further earth electrodes are required. To determine the average radius r. the area under consideration is transferred into an equivalent circular area and the radius is determined as shown in Figure 10. when keeping in mind all the variable parameters of the ground subsurface (soil humidity.4 Calculation of earth electrode resistances Table 8 gives some formulas for estimating the earth electrode resistance of the most common types of earth electrodes. these approximate formulas are quite sufficient.) Version 1. 2. temperature.1/01-2010 . homogeneity of soil.3.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard The minimum length of each earth electrode is:   I1 for horizontal earth electrodes I1 x 0. For meshed earth electrodes and foundation earth electrodes the average radius r of the area enclosed by the earth electrode must be not less than the given minimum length l1 in Figure 9 according to the selected class of LPS. etc.20 - . In practice.2. Figure 10: Equivalent radius of a residential building in order to compare with minimum length l1 of each horizontal earth electrode according to the class of LPS [8] In the example shown in Figure 10 the calculated equivalent radius of 5.5 for vertical or inclined earth electrodes (with a minimum of 3 m) The determined values of l1 apply to each individual earth electrode.

1/01-2010 . Towers with limited space for an earthing ring Towers installed close to buildings may not have adequate space for a complete tower earthing ring or for earthing rods spaced properly to achieve the resistance requirements of the site. nevertheless it is always most important to ensure minimum potential differences within the protected area including towers.21 - . Independent of the actual earthing conditions (e. Version 1.2.5 Special earthing situations The earthing resistance of the total earthing systems should be as low as possible. The tower earthing shall be integrated with the earthing system of the adjacent buildings and an earthing mesh (with optional earthing rods) shall be installed across the available space (example see in Figure 11).g. in arctic region or coral environment) a safe operation of equipment is achievable when all equipment is on more or less the same potential and all lines entering the equipotential area are well bonded and protected by SPDs. Some examples are given below. buildings and equipment vault.3. on a mountain top.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Table 8: Formulae for calculating the earth electrode resistance RA for different earth electrodes 2.

) special designs will be needed.1/01-2010 .22 - . Even where a foundation earth electrode has a reduced earthing effect in rocky soil. coral. it should be protected against mechanical damage. The achievement of a low grounding resistance is a secondary task. Radial earth electrodes lying on or near the earth surface should be covered by stones or embedded in concrete for mechanical protection. the flat strip or round material is laid on the stony ground. it still acts as an equipotential bonding conductor. the ice or on the rock. limestone. or limestone environments.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 11: Linear earthing electrode system in case of limited space (typically one rod every 5 m or twice the length of the rod) Earth electrodes in rocky soil. When installing the earth electrodes. etc. The clamped points should be installed with particular care and be protected against corrosion (anticorrosive band). If the earth electrode cannot be installed in the soil and has to be mounted on the surface. An example for the extension of the earthing system of a tower to nearby areas with low soil resistivity is shown in Figure 12. In conditions described above. coral. In the instances where there is no soil or very little soil at the site (shallow topsoil environment. sand. the main target to be achieved is an earth termination system providing sufficient equipotential plane. sand. arctic ice or mountain tops Some sites are located on mountaintops or in areas with rocky soil. arctic regions. Version 1. Surface earth electrodes such as ring earth electrodes or star-type earth electrodes are often the only way to create an earth-termination system.

The major concern in the protection of a building/structure is the occurrence of potential differences between the conductors of the lightning protection system and other grounded metal bodies and wires belonging to the building. gas and heating pipes.1 Bonding to the earth termination system Equipotential bonding is required to remove or to reduce potential differences between various installations.4. steel skeleton.g. water.4 Equipotential bonding Lightning strikes can give rise to harmful potential differences in and on a building/structure. hazardous touch voltages between the protective conductor of the low voltage electrical power consumer’s installations and metal.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 12: Example of site on mountain top with earthing wires from the tower to nearby areas with low soil resistivity 2. lift rails. These potential differences are caused by resistive and inductive effects and can result in dangerous sparking or damage of electronic equipment. The equipotential bonding consists of a main equipotential bonding bar (MBB) where the following extraneous conductive parts shall be directly connected (see Figure 13): main equipotential bonding conductor foundation earth electrodes or lightning protection earth electrodes conductive parts of the building structure (e. ventilation and air conditioning ducting) metal drain pipes internal gas pipes earthing conductor for antennas Version 1. 2.1/01-2010 . Bonding prevents e.g.2.23 - .2.

In case. lightning equipotential bonding shall be established as near as possible to the point of entry into the structure to be protected. During normal operation the spark gap will keep the circuits insulated and whenever lightning strikes the spark gap will provide short time interconnection. measuring earth in laboratories. the installation components have to be integrated indirectly into the main equipotential bonding via isolating spark gaps (e. Lightning equipotential bonding connections shall be made as direct and straight as possible. if they have to be separate from the protective conductors).24 - . For external conductive parts.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard earthing conductor for telecommunication systems protective conductors of the electrical installation (PEN conductor for TN systems and PE conductors for TT systems or IT systems) metal shields of electrical and electronic conductors metal cable sheaths of high-voltage current cables up to 1000 V Figure 13: Principle of lightning equipotential bonding consisting of lightning and main equipotential [8] Different types of equipotential bonding bars and their installation are shown in Figure 14. Version 1.1/01-2010 .g. when a direct connection to the bonding bar is not possible.

Table 10: Minimum dimensions of conductors connecting internal metal installations to the bonding bar [3] According to [9] the minimum cross-section for earth conductors of antennas is 16 mm2 Cu.1/01-2010 . 25 mm2 Al or 50 mm2 steel.25 - .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 14: Examples of practical design an installation of equipotential bonding bars The minimum cross-section values of the bonding conductors connecting different bonding bars and of the conductors connecting the bars to the earth-termination system are listed in Table 9. Version 1. Table 9: Minimum dimensions of conductors connecting different bonding bars or connecting bonding bars to the earth-termination system [3] The minimum cross-section values of the bonding conductors connecting internal metal installations to the bonding bars are listed in Table 10.

the shield may be bonded with a spark gap. The difference to the main equipotential bonding is the fact that the cross sections of the conductors can be chosen to be smaller. This requires sufficient numbers of equipotential bonding bars and/or ring equipotential bonding bars in the building or structure. In case when a permanent bonding of the cable shield at both ends is not possible. All connections to the bonding bar shall be as short as possible and without loops. must be connected to the equipotential bonding network (Figure 15. The reason behind is to interconnect all simultaneously accessible parts as well as the stationary operating equipment and also extraneous conductive parts.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard In order to minimize the induction loops within buildings the following is recommended:     Cables and metal pipes shall enter the building at the same point. The busbars. Avoid unnecessarily long cables by laying lines directly. The aim is to keep any voltage differences between systems as low as possible.26 - . For minimum crosssection of conductors connecting internal metal installations to the bonding bar see Table 10.4. 2.2. Integration of the cable shields into the equipotential bonding by bonding the shield at both ends.4. Power lines and data lines shall be laid spatially close and have to be shielded. in turn. Figure 16).1/01-2010 .3 Internal perimeter earthing bus conductors Enclosures and racks of electronic devices and systems should be integrated into the equipotential bonding network with short connections. and also this supplementary equipotential bonding can be limited to a particular location. 2.2.2 Sub System Equipotential Bonding Bar (EBB) Sometimes supplementary local equipotential bonding is useful. Figure 15: Example of earthing bus Version 1.

or a room within the building or structure. Version 1.2.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 16: Connection of the ring equipotential bonding bar with the equipotential bonding network via fixed earthing point 2. The connections can be made either in the shape of a star or as a mesh (see Figure 17 and Figure 18). at a single point. all metal components of the electronic system must be suitably insulated against the equipotential bonding network. such as IMS stations.1/01-2010 .27 - . A star-shaped arrangement is therefore usually limited to applications in small.4 Equipment Earthing Protective conductors (PE) and cable shields of the data links of electronic devices and systems must be integrated into the equipotential bonding network in accordance with the instructions of the system manufacturer. all lines must enter the building or structure. The star point arrangement must be connected to the equipotential bonding network at one single earthing reference point (ERP) only. In such cases. Figure 17: Star shape integration of electronic systems into the equipotential bonding network (ERP is the earthing reference point) Figure 18: Mesh shape integration of electronic systems into the equipotential bonding network When using a star point arrangement (Figure 17).4. locally confined systems.

LPZ 2.28 - . The special feature of this equipotential bonding is the fact that a tie-up to the equipotential bonding is only possible via suitable surge protective devices (SPDs).4. the following lightning protection zones are defined (see also Figure 19): External LPZ 0A: Zone is at risk from direct lightning strikes.1 Lightning Protection Zones Depending on the type of threat caused by the lightning.2. 2. According to this principle.5 Equipotential bonding of AC power service connection and data lines Equipotential bonding of AC power service connection and data lines.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 2.5 Surge Protection The protection of electrical and electronic systems in a structure against surges resulting from the lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) is based on the principle of Lightning Protection Zones (LPZ) [4]. In addition to all conductive systems. the building or structure to be protected must be divided into a number of internal lightning protection zones according to the level of threat posed by LEMP (Figure 19). Internal LPZ 1: Impulse currents limited by the splitting of the current and by surge protective devices (SPDs) at the zones boundaries.1/01-2010 .4. Analogous to the equipotential bonding with metallic installations (see section 2. 2. Impulse currents further limited by the splitting of the current and by surge protective devices (SPDs) at the zone boundaries. Internal systems can be exposed to (partial) lightning currents. If the step down transformer from medium to low voltage is located in the vicinity of IMS installation the earthing of medium voltage and low voltage system shall be interconnected. but at risk from the whole electromagnetic field of the flash of lightning.2. except it is in contradiction with local regulations. The electromagnetic field of the lightning flash is usually attenuated by spatial shielding. Version 1. this also integrates the supply conductors (“hot wires”) of the low voltage consumer’s installation and data lines into the equipotential bonding.2. from impulse currents up to the whole lightning current and from the whole electromagnetic field of the flash of lightning. as part of the internal lightning protection. represents an extension of the main equipotential bonding. 3. …. the equipotential bonding for AC power and data line shall also be carried out immediately at the point of entry into the structure. LPZ 0B: Zone is protected against direct lightning strikes.2.1).5. The electromagnetic field of the lightning flash can be attenuated by spatial shielding. This allows categorizing areas of different LEMP risk levels and to adjust protection measures to the immunity of the electronic system.

structures (with or without lightning protection system) or to the soil. Lightning is a natural and unavoidable event which affects low-voltage systems (power systems as well as signal/communication systems) through several mechanisms.29 - .1/01-2010 . the lightning current arrester from LPZ 0 to LPZ 1 acts like a kind of wave breaker and it conducts a large part of the interference energy away and thus protects the installation in the building from damage. The obvious interaction is a flash to the power system. 2.2 Types of overvoltages Overvoltages (surges) in low-voltage systems are caused by several types of events or mechanisms [11]: (1) Lightning overvoltages Lightning overvoltages are the result of a direct flash to or near the power system. but other coupling mechanisms can also produce overvoltages (see Figure 20) Version 1.5. Distant lightning flashes can also induce overvoltages in the circuits of an installation.2. Additional surge protective devices are installed at the LPZ boundary from LPZ 1 to LPZ 2 to ensure a sufficiently low level of residual interference adjusted to the immunity of the terminal device.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 19: Lightning protection zones concept according to IEC 62305-4 [4] (figure adapted from [8]) Generally.

presence of surgeprotective devices (SPDs) along the path. (2) Switching overvoltages Switching overvoltages are the result of intentional actions on the power system. (3) Temporary overvoltages (TOV) Temporary overvoltages occur in power systems.3 Expected surge currents due to lightning flashes For direct lightning flashes to connected services. As an example a 2 wire 0. or in the low-voltage system by end-user operations. Otherwise the SPD will be destroyed due to an overload when TOVs occur. Considering these limitations expected surge telecommunication/data lines are shown in Table 11. such as load. and branching out of the distribution system.5. currents for power and Version 1.2. the severity of the overvoltage appearing at the end-users facility reflects the characteristics of the coupling path such as distance and nature of the system between the point of flash and the end-users facility.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard S1: flashes to the structure S2: flashes near the structure S3: flashes to the services connected to the structure S4: flashes near the services connected to the structure Figure 20: Different lightning flash coupling mechanisms to a structure For a given flash. earthing practices and earth connection impedance. TOV are power frequency overvoltages of relatively long duration (several seconds) and may be caused by faults within the medium and low-voltage networks. both normal operation and abnormal conditions. The Temporary overvoltage specification of the SPD (UT) shall be greater than temporary overvoltage of the network. partitioning of the lightning current in both directions of the service and the breakdown of insulation must be taken into account. as the result of a wide range of system conditions. 2. inductor or capacitor switching in the transmission or distribution systems by the utility. They can also be the result of unintentional events such as power system faults and their elimination.1/01-2010 . Insulation breakdown (cable damage) will occur along the line. All these factors vary over a wide range according to the general practice of the utility as well as local configurations. Their occurrence is relevant to the selection of suitable surge-protective devices.5 mm2 cross section data cable will be unable to carry a 100 kA lightning current into a building.30 - .

Equipment of overvoltage category III is equipment in fixed installations and for cases where the reliability and the availability of the equipment is subject to special requirements (e. and IV are specified in the standards for testing of equipment taking into account the characteristics of the system to which it is intended to be connected [16].2.4 Impulse withstand categories of installed equipment So called “overvoltage categories’ or “impulse withstand categories” I. Thus installation of appropriate (and coordinated) SPDs shall limit the overvoltages to the values shown in Table 12.g. If such equipment is subjected to special requirements with regard to reliability and availability.Table 12 shows the rated impulse voltages for equipment energized directly from the low-voltage mains.1/01-2010 . distribution boards. appliances. overvoltage category III applies). electricity meters and primary over-current protection equipment).g. II. Equipment of overvoltage category II is energy-consuming equipment to be supplied from the fixed installation (e. Equipment of overvoltage category I is equipment for connection to circuits in which measures are taken to limit transient overvoltages to an appropriately low level (e. Equipment of overvoltage category IV is for use at the origin of the installation (e.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Table 11: Expected surge currents due to lightning flashes 2.31 - . electric wall mounted sockets in the fixed installation and equipment for industrial use with permanent connection to the fixed installation).g.5.g. Version 1. As an example. III. PCs). switches. portable tools and other household and similar loads. in a typical 230/400 V 3-phase network limitation of overvoltages to 1500 V is required for Category I equipment such as PCs or other sensitive electronic devices.

g. They also reduce the risk of cables from being damaged.c.c.5. up to and including (V) 50 100 Rated impulse voltage in (V) Overvoltage category I 330 500 800 1 500 2 500 4 000 II 500 800 1 500 2 500 4 000 6 000 III 800 1500 2 500 4 000 6 000 8 000 IV 1500 2500 4 000 6 000 8 000 12 000 120-240 230/400 277/480 400/690 1 000 150 300 600 1 000 2. on the following considerations:         Lightning protection zones of the installation site (see 2. Version 1.5.5. or d.5 Surge Protection Devices A Surge Protective Device (SPD) is a device that is intended to limit transient overvoltages and divert surge currents and it contains at least one non-linear component. The choice of SPDs depends.2.5. Under normal conditions. the SPD responds to surges by lowering its impedance and thus diverting surge current through it to limit the voltage to its protective level. transmission parameters Compliance with product or user-specific standards.32 - . 2. among other things. where required Adaption to the environmental conditions / installation conditions.1) Energies to be discharged Arrangement of the protective devices Immunity of the terminal devices Protection against differential-mode and/or common-mode interferences System requirements.6 SPD selection The primary function of SPDs is to protect downstream terminal devices.1/01-2010 .7 SPD Technologies SPDs are installed external to the equipment to be protected and to limit overvoltages to values below the test voltages of equipment in Table 12. Upon return to normal conditions.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Table 12: Rated impulse voltage for equipment energized directly from the low-voltage mains [16] Nominal voltage of the supply system Three phase (V) Single phase (V) Voltage line to neutral derived from nominal voltages a. 2.2. Under abnormal conditions (occurrence of a surge).2. the SPD recovers to a high impedance value after the surge and a possible power follow current. the SPD has no significant influence on the operational characteristics of the systems to which it is applied. e.2.

These SPDs are sometimes called "clamping type". etc. For a short-circuit mode the system is severely affected by the failed SPD. In case the system to be protected has no suitable device to disconnect the failed SPD from its circuit.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard A SPD can fail or be destroyed when surges are larger than its designed maximum energy and discharge current capability.33 - . Figure 22 shows the response of a typical voltage-switching SPD to an impulse applied via a combination wave generator. a failure of the SPD is usually difficult to detect because it has almost no effect on the system.1/01-2010 . For an open-circuit mode the system to be protected is no longer protected. etc. Figure 22: Typical response of a voltage-switching type SPD such as a spark-gap Version 1. thyristors. Figure 21: Typical response of a voltage-limiting type SPD such as a varistor (2) Voltage-switching type as air-gaps. Short-circuit current flows through the failed SPD from the power source. additional disconnecting device may be required for an SPD with short-circuit failure mode. Figure 21 shows the response of a typical voltage-limiting SPD to an impulse applied via a combination wave generator. an indicating device of the SPD failure may be required. The main components of SPDs belong to two categories [13]: (1) Voltage-limiting type. In this case. avalanche or suppressor diodes. Failure modes of SPD are divided roughly in open-circuit mode and short-circuit mode. Thermal energy can be produced there and can result in a fire hazard before burning out and open circuit. To ensure replacement of the failed SPD before the next surge. as varistors. gas discharge tubes. a suitable.

9 SPDs for information technology systems. 2 and 3) SPDs employed as part of the fixed installation are classified according to the requirements and loads on the installation sites as surge protective devices Type 1. 4 – 20 mA) Version 1.  SPDs Type 3: The main function of a SPD Type 3 is to protect against surges arising between L and N in the electrical system – They may be installed in supply networks where SDPs Type 1 and/or 2 already exist. 0 – 20 mA. many times without consequential damage to the equipment. control and data networks differ with respect to their   Voltage (e.5. 0 – 10 V) Current (e. line entrances to buildings protected by lightning protection systems. are used. and Type 3 Surge Protection Devices 2.The class I test is intended to simulate partial conducted lightning current impulses. 2 and 3 and tested according to [12]. the types of signals to be transmitted in information technology (IT).  SPDs tested to class II or III test methods are subjected to impulses of shorter duration.g. which incorporate both voltage-switching type components and voltage-limiting type components. waveform 10/350 μs. for example. SPDs Type 2 are called surge arresters and employed to protect against surges. Their discharge capacity is around some 10 kA (8/20 μs).34 - .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard In practice often combination type SPDs. They can be installed in fixed or mobile sockets. SPDs Type 1 are called lightning current arresters and the function of these protective devices is to prevent destructive partial lightning currents from penetrating the electrical installation of a structure.8 AC power SPD classification (Type 1. SPDs Type 1 are generally recommended for locations at points of high exposure. Type 1 SPD Type 2 SPD Type 3 SPD Figure 23: Examples of Type 1. where uniform conditions can be expected with respect to voltage and frequency in 230/400 V systems. 2.g.  The highest requirements (class I test in [12]) with respect to the discharge capacity are made on SPDs Type 1.5. These protective devices must be capable of carrying partial lightning currents. Type 2. RF receivers and GPS In contrary to surge protective devices for AC power supply systems. Type 2 SPDs are generally recommended for locations with lesser exposure to direct impulses.2.2.1/01-2010 .

Category C tests represent especially disturbing pulses with a steep rate of rise and less energy (surge arrestors). 4 kV or 10 kV.2/50 s 1 kV. When selecting SPDs. the following aspects must be especially taken into consideration: – – – Protective effect (discharge capacity and protection level) System parameters (system voltage. NF. Iimp) and protection level (Up). RS232. conditions of connection and certifications) Guidelines for the selection and testing of surge protective devices connected to telecommunications and signaling networks are given in [14]. the signal must not be influenced intolerably by the use of lightning current and surge arresters in measuring and control installations.1/01-2010 .). 1 kA or 2. 10/350 s Minimum number of impulses 300 10 Test for surge arrester *) . ISDN. 8/20 s 10 A. 2 kA or 5 kA. which is supposed to simulate high energy loads due to induced partial lightning currents (lightning current arrestors). Telephone. nominal current and transmission parameters) Installation environment (design. IEC 61643-21 [14] specifies test procedures and parameters for IT system SPDs and they must be tested with at least one of the pulses listed in Table 13. opposite to the disturbing pulses of category D. 1 kV/ s Impulse Current 0. The maximum protection level of a given SPD arisen during these tests is indicated as voltage protection level Up measured at the output of the device. RS442.5 kA. unbalanced) Frequency (DC. [15] and by the manufacturers specifications. digital). Manufacturers of SPDs offer a wide variety of surge protection elements with appropriate specifications for many applications (Ethernet. 25 A or 100 A. The category is also indicated in the technical data sheet of the SPDs – both in the description of the discharge capacity (In. Therefore.5 kA.5 kV or 1 kV. 10/100 s 0. 1.35 - steep rate of rise C3 high energy 300 D1 1 kV 2 *) Lightning current arrester / Combined lightning current and surge arrester Version 1. Table 13: Voltage and current impulses for determining the voltage limiting characteristics of SPDs for IT systems adopted from [14] Category C1 C2 Type of test Impulse voltage 0. 1. etc. 8/20 s 1 kA.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard    Signal reference (balanced.5 kA.2/50 s 2 kV. HF) Type of signal (analogue.25 kA or 0.

1/01-2010 . Table 14: Test levels of devices according to EN 61000-4-5 [19] Test levels according to EN 61000-4-5 1 2 3 4 Corresponds to charging voltage of the test generator 0. meteorological sensors) are shown in Figure 24.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Immunity of IT terminal devices to be protected Within the scope of the tests for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).1) it may be necessary to install lightning current and surge arresters locally separated from each other or at one point of the installation. Test level 1 includes the minimum requirements on the immunity of the terminal device. GPS) Ethernet IT system Figure 24: Typical SPDs for coaxial cables.g.5. Ethernet and low voltage signal lines (e.2.g.36 - . coaxial cables (e. electrical and electronic equipment (devices) must have a predefined immunity against conducted pulse interferences (surges).5 kV 1 kV 2 kV 4 kV SPDs for use in IT systems need to limit conducted interferences to safe values to ensure that the immunity of the terminal device is not exceeded. Coaxial cable (e.g. Examples of different types of SPDs applicable for AC power. Different electromagnetic environmental conditions make different demands on the immunity of the devices. GPS signals). Ethernet and IT data lines Version 1. In EN 61000-4-5 test levels are subdivided into four different stages. Depending on the building structure and the protection requirements stipulated by the Lightning Protection Zones Concept (see 2. Requirements on the immunity and test constructions are specified in EN 61000-4-5 [19]. the test level can be taken from the documentation about the device or requested from its manufacturer. Generally.

etc.1/01-2010 . DG PV 500 SCP). Figure 25: Example of a SPD for coaxial cable with N-connectors 2. Version 1. Connection to the common ground of the GPS clock and the SPD should be as short as possible.1 kV Some SPD manufacturers offer SPDs especially designed for the application in PV installations (e. This is especially important for structures made of nonshielding material (wood. 2008) the following specifications for surge arresters to protect PV arrays from over-voltages caused by indirect lightning strikes are requested: a) maximum continuous operating voltage UC > 1.11 SPD Installation Requirements  It is highly recommended that the power and signaling networks enter the structure to be protected close to each other and are bonded together at a common bonding bar. DEHNguard.5. nevertheless SPD manufacturers offer appropriate SPDs. In a recent draft IEC document (IEC/82/514CD. concrete.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Protection of GPS receiver The GPS receiver antenna shall be placed within the area protected by a lightning rod or a structure (LPZ 0B) to avoid any direct lightning strike to the antenna. Appropriate SPD for coaxial lines shall be placed at the entry of the antenna cable into the equipment vault or the building.10 SPD for PV installations Photovoltaic systems inevitably represent a connection to the electrical installation of a building.2. bricks. Note: Check with the GPS clock manufacturer compatibility of the SPD with the GPS clock specifications to avoid unacceptable signal distortion.37 - .).2. 2.g. Today no final standard exists.2 × VOC STC. specifying SPDs used to protect PV arrays. Alternatively the SPD can be placed directly at the GPS clock interface. where VOC STC is the open circuit voltage of a PV module at Standard Test Conditions b) maximum discharge current Imax ≥ 5 kA c) voltage protection level UC < Up < 1.5.

1/01-2010 . the discharge current flows through further elements (lead conductors. Version 1. The residual voltage transferred to equipment will be the sum of the residual of the SPD and the inductive voltage drop along the connecting leads as shown in Figure 26.g. Furthermore. fuses) causing additional dynamic voltage drops Udyn1 and Udyn2. When the surge protective device in the conductor branch responds. use shielded cable from combined arrestor to the terminal device). respectively. given by Utotal = Udyn1 + USPD + Udyn2 Figure 26: Connection of surge protective devices in cable branches [8] For a high frequency event as a lightning flash. As a general rule. the inductance of the connecting cable and hence its length must be kept as low as possible (less then 0. SPDs in the AC power installation Due to short distance between entry point of the cables and the equipment in the vault combined lightning current and surge arresters (Type 1 +Type 2 SPD in a single unit) are recommended when low impedance equipotential bonding from the protective device to the terminal device can be assured (e. if the steepness of di/dt is greater. the resistive component is negligible compared to the inductive component and Udyn is determined by: Udyn L x di imp dt where L is the inductance of the lead conductor. when caused by an impulse with a rate of rise of 1 kA/μs will be approximately 1 kV/m of lead length.5 m). this value will be increased. across these impedances (Figure 26) and the protected equipment is exposed to the voltage Utotal. the lead inductance is assumed to be 1 μH/m. In order to keep this dynamic voltage drop low.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard  Connecting conductors for SPDs and any external connectors connected in series with the SPD shall be as short as possible.38 - . This inductive voltage drop.

RCD) Earthing electrode (earthing resistance) of the installation Earthing electrode (earthing resistance) of the supply system RA Rg Figure 27: Installation of SPD in TN-system 1 2 3 4 4a 5 6 7 F Origin of the installation Distribution board Main earthing terminal or bar Surge protective devices Surge protective device in accordance with IEC 60364-5-53 (2. TT or IT distribution network systems). circuit-breaker. before or after the meter or different solutions are applicable in TN. circuit-breaker. Figure 28.g.1/01-2010 . Coordination with the local power distribution network operator is required to ensure installation of surge protection devices in line with local regulations and conditions (e. The main target is to ensure proper operation of the RCD even in case of a damaged SPD. unless it contradicts local regulations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 F Origin of the installation Distribution board Main earthing terminal or bar Surge protective devices Earthing connection of surge protective devices. fuse.3. Manufacturers of SPD offer coordinated product lines and provide information about installation requirements (e. minimum cable length between Type 1 and Type 2 unit). either location 5a or 5b Equipment to be protected Protective device indicated by the manufacturer of the SPD (for example. RCD) Earthing electrode (earthing resistance) of the installation Earthing electrode (earthing resistance) of the supply system RA Rg Figure 28: Installation of SPD in TT-system Version 1.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard When using separate Type 1 and Type 2 SPD in series.g. With respect to system earthing (TT.2) or spark gap Earthing connection of surge protective devices. and Figure 29. respectively [13]. fuse.39 - . either location 5a or 5b Equipment to be protected Residual current protective device (RCD) Protective device indicated by the manufacturer of the SPD (for example. coordination of the SPDs is essential to ensure proper share of the surge energy among the involved SPDs. TN. IT) and position of Residual Current Device (RCD) the SPDs shall be installed as shown in Figure 27.

If the cable shield is capable of carrying lightning currents. the lightning current flows via the shield. capacitive/inductive interferences can reach the wires and make it necessary to use surge arresters. However. RCD) Earthing electrode (earthing resistance) of the installation Earthing electrode (earthing resistance) of the supply system Figure 29: Installation of SPD in IT-system SPDs in Telephone/Control/Data Network Circuits and RF installations Lightning equipotential bonding requires that all metal conductive components such as cable lines and shields at the entrance to the building shall be incorporated into the equipotential bonding to achieve impedances as low as possible.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F RA Rg Origin of the installation Distribution board Main earthing terminal or bar Surge protective devices Earthing connection of surge protective devices. A convenient installation site is the point where cabling enters the building. o The shield at both ends must be connected to the main equipotential bonding to be capable of carrying lightning currents  Version 1. fuse. either location 5a or 5b Equipment to be protected Residual current protective device (RCD) Protective device indicated by the manufacturer of the SPD (for example. Examples of such components include antenna lines. telecommunication and control lines with metal conductors.40 - . Both the arresters and the shielding terminals must be chosen to be appropriate to the lightning current parameters to be expected. circuit-breaker. The individual cables must be integrated into the equipotential bonding as follows:  Unshielded cables must be connected by SPDs which are capable of carrying partial lightning currents (the expected partial lightning current per wire is the partial lightning current of the line divided by the number of individual wires).1/01-2010 . The lines are connected with the help of elements capable of carrying lightning current (arresters and shielding terminals).

When implementing measures to protect against disturbance variables from nearby. it is recommended to apply a concept of protective devices with several protective stages. etc. Version 1.1/01-2010 .41 - . This reduces the high energy interference (partial lightning current) in stages because an initial energy absorbing stage (LPZ 0/LPZ 1) prevents the main part of the interference from reaching the downstream system.) shall be installed in LPZ 0B. The subsequent stages (LPZ 1/LPZ 2) serve to reduce the interference to values which the system can cope with.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 30: Shield connection system capable of carrying lightning currents Whenever possible all outside equipment (antennas. sensors. distant and direct lightning strikes.

since there is no risk of explosions and loss of human life involved in IMS stations. LPZ 0B.1. the stations can be separated in two classes.2 Classification in terms of Lightning Protection Zones For a typical CTBTO/IMS site application of LPZ 0A.42 - . Class B: None or very little lightning activity Lightning is not expected in the region or is an extraordinary event. the classification should be based also on information from local authorities. as well as some technology specific issues. etc. The protection of the Central Recording Facility (CRF) and the remote elements is discussed.8) at the entry point of service lines is sufficient. Class B should be used only. when the local authorities confirm the absence of any lightning activity. As for many sites reliable data of ground flash density or annual thunderstorm days are not available to the public. 3.1 Classification of CTBTO/IMS stations 3.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 3 CTBTO/IMS Specific Part This part is a complement to section 2 and describes specific requirements for the protection of IMS field installations. use SPD Type I at the entry points of service lines and install a lightning protection system). equipotential bonding. LPZ 1 seems sufficient with the following specifications: Version 1.g.2.1/01-2010 . In terms of the Lightning Protection Level (LPL) defined and used in IEC 62305 a LPL II should be considered as a standard for Class A CTBTO/IMS stations. Class A and Class B. 3.) should consider direct lightning on site or to an entering service (e.1 Classification in terms of lightning exposure The CTBTO/IMS stations are installed at geographical locations with different exposure to lightning. With respect to their location. The consequences of increased failure rate and costs for repair do hardly justify the acceptance of any lightning risk. Class A: Lightning Exposed Lightning is not an unusual event in the region and therefore all protection measures (SPDs.5. Extra lightning protection is not necessary but typical measures for surge protection and equipotential bonding as for Class A sites are recommended with the only difference that installation of SPDs Type 2 (see section 2. The budget differences in the protection measures for Class A and Class B stations are relatively small compared to the total value of installed equipment.1.

43 - . When the expected lightning strike rate is very high. 3.2.2 Protection of the Central Recording Facility CRF is usually located in a separate building or in a dedicated room of an existing building.1/01-2010 . Figure 31: Typical external LPS of a small building Alternatively to the system of horizontal air termination conductors shown in Figure 31 protection can also be achieved by vertical lightning rods of a sufficient height to place the building within the protected volume.g.2 Earth termination system Foundation earth electrodes shall be the preferred earth electrode system for buildings.1 Air Termination system and down-conductors Typical design of the air termination and down conductor system of a small building with two down conductors placed at diagonal corners is shown in Figure 31. corrosion resistant. Because of the large area of this type of Version 1. LPL II. implementation of LPZ 2 inside the CRF building is highly recommended. electrodes are enclosed in concrete on all sides.2. and hence.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard LPZ 0A: LPZ 0B: Exterior of the site Outside areas protected against direct lightning strikes either by extra lightning rods or by IMS station construction elements (e. 3. 3. The design of the LPS for the CRF installation has to comply with standard IEC 62305. When professionally installed. radio tower) Inside the equipment vault or the CRF LPZ 1: At the boundary LPZ 0A to LPZ 1 lightning current arrestors (Type 1 SPD) shall be used whereas at the boundary LPZ 0B to LPZ 1 surge arrestors (Type 2 SPD) shall be used.

When LPZ 2 needs to be provided. When a foundation earth electrode is not possible.4571. whose earth termination system does not comply with LPL II requirements. the local conditions must be taken into consideration.4 Surge protection All incoming and outgoing cables must be protected at the entrance of the building (LPZ 0A.2. Material No.B / LPZ 1 – boundary) by appropriate SPDs. When choosing the material of the earth electrode with regard to corrosion. an upgrade of the earth termination system according to LPL II is required. the CRF equipment must be installed in a metal rack which defines the volume of the LPZ 2. The hygroscopic characteristics of concrete generally produce a sufficiently low earth electrode resistance. For larger buildings (exceeding dimensions of 20 m) a division into meshes ≤ 20 m x 20 m is required. must be considered. The terminal lugs to the outside required to connect the down conductors of the external lightning protection system. 3. or fixed earthing terminals. Figure 32: Preparation of foundation earth electrode (spaces ensure that electrodes are enclosed on all sides by concrete) Figure 33: Foundation earth electrode in use Terminal lugs to the outside into the ground must have supplementary corrosion protection at the outlet point. plastic sheathed steel wire high-alloy stainless steel. In case of CRF being located in a dedicated room of an existing building. 1. Figure 33).2.3 Equipotential bonding system Equipotential bonding shall be done according to section 2.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard electrode.44 - . for example. 3. Appropriate SPDs shall be installed at all lines crossing this boundary Version 1.2. Suitable materials are.4. The foundation earth electrode must be installed as a closed ring in the strip foundation or the bedplate and thus also acts primarily as the equipotential bonding (Figure 32. low earthing resistance can be achieved. It is advantageous to use stainless steel. and to the inside for equipotential bonding. a ring electrode shall be installed.1/01-2010 .

The main equipment shall be located in the LPZ 1.45 - . 3.1/01-2010 . located outside. power transmission line poles or installed lightning attractors. will be situated in the LPZ 0 B (antennas and radio modems) and no equipment shall be installed in the LPZ 0 A. Some units.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Special attention should be paid also to equipment not belonging to IMS station but is interconnected through power or signal connections with the IMS station equipment. The protection zones at remote elements are shown in Figure 34 and Figure 35. In case of a dedicated room. provided by the communication towers. calculated for the LPL II. the room boundaries define the LPZ 1 volume and appropriate SPDs shall be installed at all lines crossing this boundary. The boundary between LPZ 0A and LPZ 0B is defined by the protection zones. The LPZ 0B and LPZ 1 boundary is defined by the SPDs at the entrance to the equipment vault. Figure 34: Example for LPZ for an infrasound remote element (Note: it is assumed in this example that trees provide certain protection against direct strikes to installations at ground level) Version 1.3 Protection of the remote elements The remote elements shall be protected from direct lightning and lightning induced surges based on the lightning protection zones concept.

1/01-2010 . and meteorological stations.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 35: Example of LPZ for a seismic remote element A schematic LPZ concept and according SPD installations for a remote element is shown in Figure 36. installed at remote elements shall be located within LPZ 0B. All lines entering the equipment vault are protected by SPDs and the GPS antenna and meteorological sensors are placed in LPZ 0 B.1 Air termination system All electronic equipment.46 - . Version 1. Figure 36: Lightning protection concept of an IMS station (schematic) 3. GPS and RF antennas. including solar panels.3.

3.2. the size and material of the down conductor shall comply with requirements in section 2.g. the distances and the relative position between the tower.3. Figure 37: Example of air-termination for RF antenna at an IMS station 3.47 - . except in case of lightning air-termination installed on non conductive structures (e. When such non conductive structures are used. radio tower) or extra installed lightning protection rods.1/01-2010 . 3.2 Down-conductors Down-conductors are not required.2.3 Earth-termination system The earthing of the remote elements should be designed in order to provide (a) equipotential plane and (b) low resistance to ground. the equipment vault and the fences may vary from site to site.1). Figure 38 and Figure 39 present two examples for a recommended design of the earthing system for CTBTO/IMS array elements.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard This zone LPZ 0B is provided either by existing installations (e.g. the following main aspects should be considered: Version 1. As the size.2. wooden or fiber glass masts). Protection angles are computed according to LPL II (see section 2.

1/01-2010 . equipment vault. and solar panel array) shall be installed Version 1. A minimum of 4 earthing rods per structure (communication tower.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 38: Example of schematic design of earth termination system for an IMS infrasound array element.48 - .

A minimum of 4 earthing rods per structure (communication tower. and solar panel array) shall be installed Version 1. equipment vault.1/01-2010 .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 39: Example of schematic design of earth termination system for an IMS seismic array element.49 - .

conductive fences. Cables shall be placed inside the tower structure whenever possible (reduces induction effects). guy wires. To minimize potential differences all metal parts (e. tower base.2. as well as equipment chassis interconnection. etc. borehole casing. which have been integrated into both of the earth-termination systems.) shall be connected to the earth termination system.g.1 3. To reduce the potential difference between the tower and the vault the following may be applied:  Several parallel bonding conductors running in the same paths as the electrical cables.1/01-2010 .3. solar panel frames.   Version 1. or the cables enclosed in grid-like reinforced concrete ducts (or continuously bonded metal conduit).3.4 by the installation of SPDs at all incoming and outgoing cables and proper connection of cable shields at the cable entry point.g. Shielded cables with shields of adequate cross-section.4 Equipotential Bonding system The equipotential bonding at the remote elements has to be done according to section 2. Material and dimension shall be selected according to section 2. Ensure low impedance connection between tower and vault and/or building parallel to the cables. and bonded to the separate earthing systems at either end. GPS and meteorological mast.50 - . when they reach the ground water level or other good conduction soil layers).2.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Create one integrated earthing systems for the tower and equipment vault (about 5 m x 5 m mesh) Ring conductor (distance about 1 m) around the tower and the equipment vault shall be used in order to provide control of the step voltage in the vicinity of the constructions Vertical ground rods shall be used when they result in a significant and cost effective reduction of earthing resistance (e.

The casing of this borehole must be integrated to the earth termination system. Figure 41: Example of SPDs installed at the entrance of incoming cables to the equipment vault 3. Version 1. Examples are shown in Figure 36 and Figure 41.5 at the entrance of all incoming cables to the equipment vault (boundary of the LPZ 0 B to LPZ 1).3.5 Surge Protection The Surge Protective Devices (SPD) shall be installed according to section 2.1/01-2010 .1 Seismic Monitoring Stations The main specific part of the seismic monitoring station is the existence of the borehole (up to a depth of 60 m or more) at the remote elements.4 Technology Specific Situations 3.4.2.51 - .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 40: Preferential cable routing along a tower of triangular cross profile 3. that this casing does not substitute the earth termination system described above. It should be noted.

No specific situation is foreseen for T-Phase Monitoring Stations. partly filled by soil 3. It should be noted.2 Infrasound Monitoring Stations The main specific part of the infrasound monitoring station is the existence of wind noise reducing pipe array (see Figure 43) at the remote elements. Version 1.52 - . In case of an electrically conductive pipe array it must be integrated to the earth termination system.3 Hydroacoustic Monitoring Stations The protection requirements for Hydroacoustic (Hydrophone) stations are covered by the requirements for CRF.1/01-2010 .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 42: Borehole at an IMS seismic monitoring station with earthing conductor 3. Figure 43: Pipe array at an infrasound station.4.4. that this does not substitute the earth termination system described above.

Figure 44: Lightning protection of a radionuclide monitoring station by a metallic tower providing protected volume for the satellite antenna Version 1.4 Radionuclide Monitoring Stations No specific requirements apply to radionuclide monitoring stations.53 - .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 3.4.1/01-2010 . An example of a lightning protection system for a radionuclide monitoring station is shown in Figure 44. Air sampler and meteorological sensors shall be placed in the protected area of the air termination system or protected structure (LPZ 0 B) to avoid direct strikes to the technical equipment. Any buildings and objects shall be protected by a lightning protection system of LPL II according to IEC 62305-3 standard. Surge protection on power lines and data lines shall be installed at the interfaces of the LPZs.

all components of the LPS are in good condition and capable of performing their designed functions. Recommended frequency of inspection For class II LPS a visual inspection at least annually is recommended in IEC 623053. earthing resistance value for the earth-termination system.2 deterioration and corrosion of air-termination elements. in order to check the embedded electrodes that will become inaccessible.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Annex A A.1/01-2010 . and that there is no corrosion. corrosion of earth electrodes. all visible earth connections are intact (functionally operational).54 - . A. condition of connections. no part of the system has been weakened by corrosion. especially at ground level. after the installation of the LPS.e.3 Visual inspection Visual inspections should be made to ascertain that:     the LPS is in good condition. or when it is known that the structure has been struck by lightning. and that any recently added services or constructions are incorporated into the LPS. conductors and connections. A complete inspection (including measurements and component tests) is recommended every 2 years. Version 1. Inspections should be made:     during the construction of the structure. it is particularly important to check the following:     A. During the periodic inspection. after alterations or repairs. there are no loose connections and no accidental breaks in the LPS conductors and joints. periodically at intervals determined with regard to the nature of the structure to be protected. equipotential bonding and fixings. corrosion problems and the class of LPS. i.1 General Maintenance and inspection of the Lightning Protection System The objective of the LPS inspections is to ascertain that:    the LPS conforms to the originally specified design.

additional investigations should be made to determine the reason for the increase and measures taken to improve the situation. For earth electrodes in rocky soil.5 should be followed. The 10 Ω requirement is not applicable in this case. cable routing and SPDs have been checked and tested. there has been no indication of damage to the LPS. separation distances are maintained. (2)  (1) The results of a visual check of all conductors. If the resistance to earth of the earth-termination system as a whole exceeds 10 Ω. joints. The following isolated and combined earth measurements and checks should be made and the results recorded in an LPS inspection report: The resistance to earth of each local earth electrode and where reasonably practical the resistance to earth of the complete earth-termination system.55 - . Conducting earth resistance tests of the earth-termination system. A. Each local earth electrode should be measured in isolation with the test point between the down-conductor and earth electrode in the disconnected position (isolated measurement).4 Testing Visual inspections should be completed by the following actions:  Performing continuity tests.3.1/01-2010 . bonding conductors. especially continuity of those parts of the LPS which were not visible for inspection during the initial installation and are not subsequently available for visual inspection. to SPDs or any failures of fuses which protect SPDs. If there is a significant increase in the value of the earth resistance. the requirements in section 2. bonds and joints or their measured electrical continuity. correct equipotential bonding has been established for any new services or additions which have been made to the interior of the structure since the last inspection. Version 1. there have not been any additions or alterations to the protected structure which would require additional protection. and that continuity tests have been performed for these new additions bonding conductors and connections inside the structure are present and intact (functionally operational).CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard       all visible conductors and system components are fastened to the mounting surfaces and components which provide mechanical protection are intact (functionally operational) and in the right place. a check should be made to ascertain that the electrode conforms to the minimum length requirements of Figure 9. shielding devices.2.

Version 1.56 - .m (Ωm) and represents the resistance between two opposite sides of a cube of soil with edges of 1 m in length (see Figure 45). Values and fluctuation ranges of the specific earth resistance ρE for various types of soil are given in Figure 46. Figure 45: Definition of specific ground resistivity ρE Note: In some documents the term ground conductivity σE. given in units Siemens/meter (S. The specific earth resistance ρE which determines the magnitude of the earth electrode resistance RA of an earth electrode is a function of the composition of the soil. the amount of moisture in the soil and the temperature. is used and is defined as the inverse of the ground resistivity σE = 1/ ρE.1 Soil resistivity measurements Specific earth resistance ρE ρE is the specific electrical resistance of the soil.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Annex B B.m-1).1/01-2010 . It can fluctuate between wide limits. It is typically given in units Ohm.

004)... It is therefore advisable to convert the measured values obtained from earth electrodes to the maximum prospective values.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 46: Specific earth resistance ρE of different ground types B. 0. the maximum deviation of the specific earth resistance from the average is around ± 30 % (see Figure 47).5 m.57 - . The curve of the specific earth resistance ρE as a function of the season (ground temperature) can be represented to a very good approximation by a sinus curve having its maximum at the northern hemisphere around the middle of February and its minimum around the middle of August.2 Seasonal fluctuations Extensive measurements have shown that the specific earth resistance varies significantly depending on the burial depth of the earth electrode. Owing to the negative temperature coefficient of the ground (α = 0. Investigations have further shown that.02 . Shifting the x-axis by six month it can be applied to the southern hemisphere too Version 1. Note: This figure is valid for mid latitudes at the northern hemisphere. for earth electrodes buried not deeper than around 1. the specific earth resistance attain a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. Figure 47: Specific earth resistance ρE as a function of the seasons without influencing of rainfall (burial depth of the earth electrode < 1. since even under unfavorable conditions (very low temperatures) permissible values must not be exceeded.1/01-2010 .5 m).

50 cm long) are driven into the soil along a line a – a' pegged out in the ground. stepwise from 2 m to 30 m) and retuning the earthing measuring bridge.1/01-2010 .g. Four measuring probes (earthing spikes 30 . [10] The specific earth resistance ρE is determined using an earthing measuring bridge with 4 clamps. The measurement is carried out from a fixed central point M which is retained for all subsequent measurements. Figure 48 illustrates the measuring arrangement of this measuring method named after WENNER..CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard For earth electrodes buried deeper (particularly for earth rods). B and voltage drop U along the central earth section between electrode M and N is picked off by electrodes M. B.. Version 1. Current I is injected by electrodes A. From the measured resistance R one can determine the specific earth resistance ρE of the ground: Figure 48: Determination of the specific earth resistance ρE with a four-terminal measuring bridge according to the WENNER method. N R e ρE measured resistance (R=U/I) in Ω probe distance in m average specific earth resistance in Ωm down to a depth corresponding to about the probe distance e By increasing the probe distance e (e.58 - . the curve of the specific earth resistance ρE as a function of the depth can be determined (examples see Figure 49). the fluctuation is merely ± 10 %. From the sine .shaped curve of the specific earth resistance in Figure 47 the earthing electrode resistance RA of an earth-termination system measured during a particular season can be converted to a maximum prospective value.3 Measurement of specific earth resistance ρE [8].

in which the spike axis is turned by an angle of 90°.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Curve 1: A decrease of ρE with increasing depth (see line “1” in Figure 49) indicates existence of good conductive soil layer (ground water) at greater depth and a deep earth electrode is advisable. is always advisable (see Figure 50).59 - . an increase in the depth deeper than Z does not improve the values. Curve 3: With increasing depth ρE is not decreasing: a strip conductor electrode is advisable Figure 49: Specific earth resistance ρE as a function of probe distance “e” As measuring results are often distorted and corrupted by underground pieces of metal. Figure 50: 90° turned positions of earth electrodes to check for any underground pieces of metal Version 1. a second measurement.1/01-2010 . underground aquifers etc. Curve 2: As ρE decreases only down to point Z.

2 3-pole/4-pole Measurement of Earthing Resistance This method is the most widely accepted.1/01-2010 . C. The resistance of an earthing electrode system shall be measured after its installation and before it is bonded to the power company neutral wire or any other utility. Version 1. nor are any procedures herein intended to replace proper training.60 - . rules and codes regulating the work on electrical systems shall be complied with at all times. This section provides procedures for performing resistance testing of the site earthing electrode system. such as the telephone ground or metallic pipes. with tests being performed in alternate seasons to verify results under diverse soil moisture/temperature conditions.1 Overview Testing shall be performed using one of the methods which are described in this chapter. All applicable laws. Periodic testing shall be performed on the site regularly when the site ground system can be safely disconnected from the power company neutral wire. The methods are: C. performing the test may require access to areas that may be beyond the site property lines. NOTE: Earthing electrode system testing shall be performed anytime the site is suspected to have taken a direct lightning strike. The current voltage measuring method is based on the block diagram circuit shown in Figure 51 below.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Annex C Earthing Electrode System Testing/Verification Procedures in this section shall not be performed by untrained or unqualified personnel. It is required that personnel attempting to measure the resistance of an earthing electrode system receive prior formal training on the subject and on its associated safety hazards. Suggested best practice is to perform the test at least once every year. However.

Normally. Voltage UE drops on earthing resistance RE (UE proportional to RE.) This voltage is picked up and measured by probe S. the instrument sockets E and ES are connected to each other. As the voltage measuring circuit has such a high impedance. In a four wire circuit a separate cable is used to connect socket ES with the earth electrode and with that. Thus the earthing resistance RE evolves RE U meas I and is independent from the resistance of the auxiliary earth electrode RH.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 51: Earthing Resistances Measurement . the voltage drop of the cable between socket E and earth electrode is not measured. A probe positioned inside a potential gradient area leads to incorrect measuring results.1/01-2010 . the influence by the probe resistance RS is negligible within certain limits. The generator typically runs at a frequency between 70 and 140 Hz. With the so called three wire circuit. a distance of 20 m to the earth electrode and to the probes to each other is sufficient (see Figure 52). Version 1.61 - .Method An AC generator G feeds current I via earth electrode E (earth electrode resistance RE) and auxiliary earth electrode H (auxiliary earth electrode resistance RH). For that reason it is advisable to repeat each measurement with repositioned probes and only to regard a measurement as successful and accurate if several subsequent measurements result in the same values.

As such.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 52: 3-pole/4-pole Measurement of Earthing Resistance .62 - . Spike wires should not run too close to each other. The test current flows from the earthing electrode system through the earth. However. the meter considers it to be of negligible value and disregards its effect on the reading. The meter then measures this current and converts the measurement to a resistance reading using Ohm’s Law (R = U/I). If the value stays about the same. The test voltage (U) is applied without disconnecting ground rod and/or the direct electrical connection by means of a clamp-on current transformer and the current detected by a second current transformer (some companies provide meters where the two transformers are combined in a single instrument).Process An accuracy test of the results is made with another measurement following repositioning of the auxiliary earth electrode or probe. Version 1. Since the power company’s earthing system is so extensive. C. probe or auxiliary earth electrode must be repositioned until the measured value RE stays constant.3 Clamp-on Ohmmeter This method shall be used when access to necessary space needed for the 3-pole/4-pole Measurement of Earthing Resistance is not available. The Clamp-on Ohmmeter works on the basis of injecting a known voltage U into the earthing electrode system in order to create a current flow whose value is a function of the earthing electrode system resistance. If the measured value changes. the distance is sufficient.1/01-2010 . the clamp-on ohmmeter test can only be performed after AC utilities have been connected to the site and various feed conductors are accessible. returning to the earthing electrode system via the power company’s multi-grounded neutral wire. the meter displays a resistance of the earthing electrode system in Ohms.

63 - .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Figure 53: Clamp-on Ohmmeter Measurement of Earthing Resistance (RX Earthing Resistance to be measured.4 Prerequisites for Testing The following conditions must be met in order to perform earthing electrode system testing: Version 1.1/01-2010 . R 1… Rn It is recommended that the commercial power be turned off in order to eliminate any currents on the neutral wire that can affect the meter’s ability to give an accurate reading of RX. Figure 54: Placement of Clamp-on Ohmmeter C.

1/01-2010 . (3) Combined Soil Resistivity/Clamp-on Ohmmeter testing is possible only if the following conditions can be met: System must be such that gathering of individual earthing electrode system component values with a clamp-on-ohmmeter can be available for use by an engineering firm. This supplemental system should be installed in such a manner as to allow an easy disconnect point for future testing. the neutral wire may not be part of the extensive power company earthing system. (2) Clamp-on Ohmmeter testing is possible only if the following conditions can be met: Site must be supplied with commercial power company-provided power. The earthing electrode system must be connected to the power company grounded conductor (may be a neutral wire).64 - . For a single earthing electrode system. Testing using a clamp-on ohmmeter may be an option in these cases. Neutral wire must be present as part of the power company service. This supplemental earthing electrode system could be installed and tested prior to its connection to the existing system. For sites using a multi-bonded/multi-earthing electrode system (such as commonly used at communications sites). In systems such as 3-phase delta service. A soil resistivity profile for the site has been performed and is available for use by an engineering firm. The earthing electrode system must be able to be isolated from the power company grounded conductor (may be a neutral wire). the earthing electrode conductor must be accessible for the meter to clamp onto at a point between the earthing electrode and any other connection (such as the telephone company ground or a metallic pipe). Version 1. The reference probe may likely need to be inserted into soil that is beyond the site fence or property line. an added supplemental earthing electrode system can be installed. Sites supplied only by a generator or other non-commercial power may not be suitable for clamp-on ohmmeter testing. If these conditions cannot be met. a point on neutral wire for meter to clamp onto must be available before its first bond to the site. Neutral wire must be part of an extensive power company earthing system.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard (1) 3-pole/4-pole Measurement of Earthing Resistance is possible only if the following conditions can be met: Sufficient land area must be available to perform 3-pole/4-pole Measurement of Earthing Resistance.

CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard

C.5

Required Test Equipment and Supplies Ground Resistance Tester (with supplied test leads, test clips, and probes) Small sledgehammer Tape measure Safety glasses Gloves Earthing/Bonding System Test Worksheet (Table 15)

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Table 15: Earthing/Bonding System Test Worksheet

Test completed by: Date: Client/Project: Site Location/ID: Ground Resistance Tester Model: S/N: Calibration date: Soil Description Ambient Conditions during test Temperature: Present conditions (dry, rain, snow): Date of last precipitation: Documentation available to the person performing the test: Documentation of the earthing system Test results of the previous test Type of Test: Initial Test after completion Scheduled test after …. Years Unscheduled test after a lightning strike ……………………………………………….. Material(s) used for earthing/earthing system (result of visual inspection) o.k Copper Stainless steel Galvanized steel Results of measurement: Specific Ground Resistivity (ρ): ……………….(Ωm) not o.k

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Individual earthing rods:

#
RE (Ω)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Comments:

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68 - . Table 16: LPS materials and conditions of use [3] Earth electrodes made of a uniform material can be threatened by corrosion from corrosive soils and the formation of concentration cells. Test soil pH using a commercially available soil pH meter or a swimming pool acid/ base tester. mix and test a solution containing one part site soil and one part distilled water. electrical and chemical (corrosion) performance. If using a swimming pool acid/base tester. The pH (hydrogen ion concentration) of the soil where an earthing electrode system is to be installed should be tested before the system is installed.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Annex D Dissimilar Metals and Corrosion Control Components of an LPS shall withstand the electromagnetic effects of lightning current and predictable accidental stresses without being damaged. Components of an LPS shall be manufactured from the materials listed in Table 16 or from other materials with equivalent mechanical. In strongly acidic soils (pH of Version 1.1/01-2010 . The risk of corrosion depends on the material and the type and composition of the soil.

hence a complete closed copper layer must always be present. the comments for bare copper apply to the sheath material. D. V4A) are inert and corrosion-resistant in the ground. D.69 - . creates a high risk of corrosion for the steel core. although at the expense of the more “base” metals.1.1. it is recommended that precautionary measures be taken to help maintaining the life expectancy of the earthing electrode system. in combination with earth electrodes or other installations in the ground made of more “base” materials (e.3 Steel with copper sheath In the case of steel with copper sheath. it has additional cathodic protection. Damage to the copper sheath.1.4 Bare copper Bare copper is very resistant due to its position in the electrolytic insulation rating. Some options may be as follows: • • • Consult an engineering firm Encase all earthing electrode system components in an earthing enhancing material Use stainless steel or solid copper ground rods instead of copper-clad rods. D.1/01-2010 . earth electrodes and equipotential bonding conductors made of galvanized steel in concrete may be connected with reinforcement iron. steel).1 Hot-dip galvanized steel Hot-dip galvanized steel is also suitable for embedding in concrete. When bare steel (not embedded in concrete) is already in use in existing installations corrosion effects over the years should be monitored carefully. Moreover. As the surface of stainless steel earth electrode materials is passivating within a few weeks.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard 5 or below). The free corrosion potential of high-alloy stainless steels in normally aerated soils is mostly close to the value of copper. D. D.2 Bare steel Bare steel shall be used only when completely embedded in concrete. however. they are neutral to other more inert and base materials. Foundation earth electrodes.g. D.1.g. Version 1.1 Choice of earth electrode materials Table 6 is a compilation of the earth electrode materials and minimum dimensions usually used.5 Stainless steels Certain high-alloy stainless steels (e.1.

70 - . 1. corrosion will be accelerated. Table 17: Material combinations of earth-termination systems for different area ratios (AC > 100 x AA) Version 1. D. This essentially depends on the ratio of the magnitude of the cathodic area AC to the magnitude of the anodic area AA. in the presence of moisture. the corrosion effect shall be reduced by the use of plating or special connectors.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Stainless steels shall contain at least 16 % chrome.1/01-2010 . leads to the corrosion of the metal acting as the anode. for example. The cell current density resulting from the combination of two different metals installed in the earth to be electrically conductive. Extensive measurements have shown that only a high-alloy stainless steel with the Material No. 5 % nickel and 2 % molybdenum. AA Table 17 shows possible combinations (+) of materials and not combinable (-) materials when AC > 100 x AA. is sufficiently corrosion-resistant in the ground.2 Combination of earth electrodes made of different materials No combination of materials shall be used that will form an electrolytic couple of such a nature that. A higher degree of corrosion is only to be expected if the ratio of the areas is AC 100 . In those cases where it is impractical to avoid a junction of dissimilar metals.4571. such as stainless steel connectors used between aluminum and copper or copper alloys.

1/01-2010 . Figure 55: Points threatened by corrosion [8] and practical solution D. Within the masonry. Version 1. stainless steel or fixed earthing terminals must be used. Generally.3 Underground terminals and connections Cut surfaces and connection points in the ground must be designed to ensure that their corrosion resistance is as good as the corrosion resistance of the basic earth electrode material. e. Therefore it might be necessary (e.3 D. D.g. alternatively.3 m above and below the surface of the earth (Figure 55).71 - .3. terminal lugs with NYY cable. galvanized steel must be equipped with concrete or synthetic sheathing or. when there is a cut of galvanized steel). to cover that connection points in the ground with a suitable coating. the earth conductors can also be led upwards without corrosion protection.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard D. butyl rubber strips or heat-shrinkable sleeves.g.3.3.2 Earth entries Earth entries made of galvanized steel must be protected against corrosion for a distance of at least 0. e. sheathed with an anticorrosive band. If the connecting cables are led through the ground.1 Methods to help reduce Corrosion Galvanized steel connecting cables from foundation earth electrodes to down conductors Galvanized steel connecting cables from foundation earth electrodes to down conductors shall be laid in concrete or masonry up to above the surface of the earth.g. bitumen coatings are not sufficient. Sheathing not absorbing moisture offers protection.

Table 6 Air termination conductors diameter/crosssection IEC 62305-3. Table 2 Air termination system material IEC 62305-3.1/01-2010 .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Annex E Lightning Protection System Compliance Matrix CTBTO guidelines minimum requirements AIR TERMINATION SYSTEM Design Parameters Rolling sphere radius: Mesh size: Protection angle: Galvanized steel Stainless steel Copper Aluminum Galvanized steel: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm Stainless steel: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm Copper: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm Aluminum: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm 30m 10 m x 10 m see Table 2 of IEC 62305-3 Reference Station Design Remarks IEC 62305-3.72 - . Table 6 Version 1.

1/01-2010 . Table 6 Down conductors diameter/crosssection IEC 62305-3. 5.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard CTBTO guidelines minimum requirements DOWN CONDUCTORS Design Parameters Minimum number of down conductors Down conductor material Maximum distance between down-conductors 10 m Reference Station Design Remarks IEC 62305-3.73 - .3 Copper Aluminum Galvanized steel Stainless steel Galvanized steel: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm Stainless steel: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm Copper: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm Aluminum: solid round Ø8 mm or 2 cross section 50 mm IEC 62305-3. Table 6 Version 1. Table 4 Two (2) IEC 62305-3.

5. steel: Stainless steel: 50 mm 2 90 mm 2 100 mm 2 Reference Station Design Remarks IEC 62305-3. Table 7 Recommended < 10 Ω IEC 62305-3.1/01-2010 .1 Version 1.4. steel solid round: Ø 16 mm Stainless steel solid round: Ø 15 mm Copper: Galv.0 m Vertical electrodes: 2. Figure 2 IEC 62305-3.5 m Copper Galvanized Steel Stainless steel Copper solid round: Ø 15 mm Galv.74 - .CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard CTBTO guidelines minimum requirements EARTH TERMINATION SYSTEM Design Parameters Earth termination system material For the specific soil resistivity up to 800 Ωm: Horizontal electrodes: 5. Table 7 Earth conductor cross-section Earthing resistance of the earth-termination system IEC 62305-3. Table 7 Earth rod diameter IEC 62305-3.

5 Version 1.1/01-2010 .2.5 directly to MBB IEC 62305-3.2.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard LPL class II minimum requirements EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING Main bonding bar (MBB) Conductors connecting bonding bar to earth termination system Conductors connecting internal metal installations to the bonding bar Bonding of AC power line Bonding of data and communication lines Bonding of cable shields Placed close to the entry point of service lines Copper Aluminum Steel Copper Aluminum Steel 14 mm 2 22 mm 2 50 mm 5 mm 2 8 mm 2 16 mm 2 2 Reference Station Design Remarks IEC 62305-3.5 by SPD IEC 62305-3.2. 6.75 - . Table 8 by SPD (Typ1 or Type 2) IEC 62305-3. 6. Table 8 IEC 62305-3. 6.

TT. for installation at the boundary LPZ 0B/LPZ 1. TN system) Version 1. 1 Reference Station Design Remarks IEC 62643-12 EN 65305-3 IEC 62305-1 IEC 61643-21 EN 61000-4-5 1 Installation requirements depend on local power network type (e.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard LPL class II minimum requirements SURGE PROTECTION AC Power supply Photovoltaic system Type 1+2 SPD Type 1+2 SPD Place antenna within protected area of air termination rod (LPZ 0B) GPS antenna SPD for RF coaxial cable.76 - . with protective effect P1.1/01-2010 .g. Operating DC voltage up to 8 V is necessary for active GPS antennas. Bandwidth must be suitable for GPS signal (carrier frequency of 1575 MHz). Type 2.

corresponding to the type of the signal. with protective effect P1. for installation at the boundary LPZ 0B/LPZ 1. with protective effect P1. for installation at the boundary LPZ 0B/LPZ 1. with protective effect P1.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard SURGE PROTECTION cont. discharge capacity Type 2. for installation at the boundary LPZ 0B/LPZ 1.1/01-2010 . SPD for data lines.77 - . IEC 62305-1 IEC 61643-21 EN 61000-4-5 IEC 62305-1 IEC 61643-21 EN 61000-4-5 Signal cables IEC 61643-21 EN 61000-4-5 Version 1. Bandwidth must correspond to RF equipment specifications. Place sensors within protected area of air termination rod (LPZ 0B). discharge capacity Type 2. Meteorological data SPD for data lines. Type 2. corresponding to the signal parameters of the sensors. Place antenna within protected area of air termination rod (LPZ 0B) RF antenna SPD for RF coaxial cable.

CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Annex F α Ad Am CRF LPS LEMP LPZ Nd Ng Nm Ni NL PE PEN RA RCD ρ σE SPD Td Th TOV UC UP VOC STC List of Abbreviations Protection angle of air-terminal (°) Collection area of structure for direct strikes Collection area of structure for nearby strikes Central Recording Facility Lightning protection system Lightning electromagnetic impulse Lightning protection zone Annual number of direct strikes to a structure Ground flash density Annual number of nearby strikes to a structure Annual number of strikes nearby an incoming line Annual number of direct strikes to an incoming line protective earthing conductor PEN conductor is a conductor combining the functions of both a protective earthing conductor and a neutral conductor Earth electrode resistance (Ω) Residual Current Device Specific earth resistivity (Ωm) Specific ground conductivity (Sm-1) Surge protective device Thunderstorm days per year Thunderstorm hours per year Temporary over voltage (V) Maximum continuous operation voltage (V) Voltage protection level of a SPD Open circuit voltage of a PV module at Standard Test Conditions (V) .1/2010 .78 - Version 1.

NFPA. de la Rosa.Part 12: Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems .Part 2: Risk management IEC 62305-3:2006-01. CIGRE WG. Technical Brochure No.2.0. Users Manual. Husse. Dellera. First Edition. 2 September 1971. Ed.CTBTO/IMS Earthing and Lightning Protection Minimum Standard Annex G [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] References [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] IEC 62305-1:2006-01.Part 1: General principles IEC 62305-2:2006-01. 2006 IEC TR 62066: Surge overvoltages and surge protection in low-voltage a. L. 2007 IEC 60728-11:2005 Cable networks for television signals.c.Part 11: Safety. requirements and tests NFPA 780: Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems. Final Report. Galván. Ed. Uman: Characterization of lightning for applications in Electric Power Systems. Protection against lightning . H. Draft No.Part 4: Electrical and electronic systems within structures F. G. 2005 IEC 61643-12: Low-voltage surge protective devices . Rakov.1.und Überspannungsschutz für PV-Stromversorgungssysteme IEC 61000-4-5: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques–Surge immunity test (2001-04) . 2004 IEC 60664-1: Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems – Part 1: Principles.172. Protection against lightning . V. 2005 FLUKE 1625 Earth/Ground Tester.Part 1: Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems . Torres and M. sound signals and interactive services . 33. Diendorfer.0.01. USA DIN EN 62305-3 Beiblatt 5: Blitzschutz – Teil 3: Schutz von baulichen Anlagen und Personen – Beiblatt 5: Blitz. 2008 IEC 61643-21: Low voltage surge protective devices – Part 21: Surge protective devices connected to telecommunications and signaling networks – Performance requirements and testing methods. Rachidi. IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Electric Power Overhead Distribution Lines Driven Ground Rod 1-3-7 Year Test Program”. Larsen. IEEE Std 1410-2004. Cummins. 2009 IEC 61643-22: Low voltage surge protective devices – Part 21: Surge protective devices connected to telecommunications and signaling networks – Selection and application principles. 2008 Edition. National Association of Corrosion Engineers nd Lightning Protection Guide (2 updated edition) – Dehn + Söhne.79 - Version 1.2. J.1.1/2010 . Nucci. F. V. power systems – General basic information. Ed.02.A. First edition 2002 IEC 61643-1: Low-voltage surge protective devices .Part 3: Physical damage to structures and life hazard IEC 62305-4:2006-01. Protection against lightning .Selection and application principles. Protection against lightning .Requirements and tests. December 2000.A. K. C. A.

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