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INTRODUCTION TO SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
NAME: COURSE: GROUP: NO:
P.S.P. RUPASINGHE B.Sc Eng (MATERIALS) C 080431T
DATE OF PER: 12/12/2012 DATE OF SUB: 20/12/2012
INTRODUCTION A shape memory alloy is an alloy that "remembers" its geometry. Two-way memory is exceptional. These extraordinary properties are due to a temperature-dependent martensitic phase transformation from a low-symmetry to a highly symmetric crystallographic structure. it regains its original geometry by itself during heating (one-way effect) or. simply during unloading (superelasticity). THEORY Shape memory alloy senses a change in ambient temperature and is able to convert its shape to a preprogrammed structure. After a sample of shape memory alloy has been deformed from its original crystallographic configuration. There is also an allround shape memory effect. it resumes its original shape and rigidity when heated to its higher temperature form (austenite). This is called the one-way shape memory effect. which is a special case of the two-way shape memory effect.TITAL: Introduction to Shape Memory Alloys AIM Identify the shape memory effect of supplied shape memory alloy samples. While shape memory alloy is soft and easily deformable in its lower temperature form (martensite). at higher ambient temperatures. The ability of shape memory alloys to recover a preset shape upon heating above the transformation temperatures and to return to a certain alternate shape upon cooling is known as the two-way shape memory effect. .
Temperature range were measured by corresponding to the Af and As temperatures and temperature range were measured during the cooling.MATERIALS AND APPARATES • Shape memory alloy(Cu – Zn – Al Alloy) samples • Electric heater • Thermometer • Beaker • Water PROCEDURE Step 1 Shape memory alloy samples were immersed in hot water and shape variation were observed. . Step 2 Shape memory alloy samples were immersed in water and temperature were increased gradually.
RESULTS Austenite start temperature (As) = 64C0 Austenite finish temperature (Af) = 74C0 Martensite start temperature (Ms) = 68C0 Martensite finish temperature (Mf ) = 60C0 .
If a single crystal of the parent phase is cooled below M f. it is soft and ductile and can be easily deformed. The mechanism by which single martensite variants deform is called twinning. The temperature at which this phenomenon starts is called martensite start temperature (Ms). and austenite. There is. which is also called thermoelastic martensitic transformation. stress-induced martensite (superelastic). it begins to change onto martensite. When the material is in its martensite form. In SMA. From the point of view of practical applications. Composition and metallurgical treatments have dramatic impacts on the above transition temperatures. Superelastic SMA is highly elastic (rubber-like). The unique behavior of SMA is based on the temperature-dependent austenite-to-martensite phase transformation on an atomic scale. it begins to change into austenite. SMA can have three different forms: martensite. the relative symmetries between the two phases lead to a highly ordered transformation. only one possible parent phase (austenite) orientation. where the displacements of individual atoms can be accurately predicted and eventually lead to a shape change on a macroscopic scale. The crystal structure of martensite is relatively less symmetric compared to that of the parent phase. while austenitic SMA is quite strong and hard. the twinning plane. When austenite SMA is cooled. When martensite SMA is heated.DISCUSSIONS shape memory alloy can exist in a two different temperature-dependent crystal structures (phases) called martensite (lower temperature) and austenite (higher temperature). . The temperature at which martensite is again completely reverted is called martensite finish temperature (Mf). however. and all martensitic configurations revert to that single defined structure and shape upon heating above Af. The thermoelastic martensitic transformation causing the shape recovery is a result of the need of the crystal lattice structure to accommodate to the minimum energy state for a given temperature. then martensite variants with a total of 24 crystallographically equivalent habit planes are generally created. The temperature at which this phenomenon starts is called austenite start temperature (As). The temperature at which this phenomenon is complete is called austenite finish temperature (Af). and it can be described as a mirror symmetry displacement of atoms across a particular atom plane.
The macroscopic deformation is accommodated by the formation of martensite. It is. There are examples of SMAs used in safety devices which will save lives in the future. Above Md SMA is deformed like ordinary materials by slipping. SMA eyeglass frames can be bent totally out of shape and return to their parent shape upon warming. Another successful medical application is SMA use as a guide for catheters through blood vessels .Superelasticity Superelasticity refers to the ability of SMA to return to its original shape upon unloading after a substantial deformation. The largest ability to recover occurs close to Af . The anti- . superelasticity appears in a temperature range from near A f and up to Md. which reflects its rubber-like behavior. These wires also accelerate tooth motion as they revert to their original shapes. When the stress is released. only observed over a specific temperature area. the martensite transforms back into austenite and the specimen returns back to its original shape. The application of an outer stress causes martensite to form at temperatures higher than M s. Antiscalding devices and fire-sprinklers utilizing SMAs are already on the market. Below As. Applications Many of the current applications of SMA have been in the field of medicine. Thus. Orthodontic wires made out of Nitinol reduces the need to retighten and adjust the wire. The highest temperature at which martensite can no longer stress induced is called M d. however. Superelastic SMA can be strained several times more than ordinary metal alloys without being plastically deformed. This is based on stress-induced martensite formation. the material is martensitic and does not recover.
controlled force it exerts upon activation. The main advantage of Nitinol-based fire sprinklers is the decrease in response time. After a certain temperature. Other miscellaneous applications of shape memory alloys include use in household appliances. McD. These actuators can helpful prevent the destruction of such structures as buildings and bridges. While SMA is soft and easily deformable in its lower temperature form (martensite). Wu and L. SMA is being used in robotics actuators and micromanipulators to simulate human muscle motion.scalding valves can be used in water faucets and shower heads. it resumes its original shape and rigidity when heated to its higher temperature form (austenite) REFERANCE Microstructure and properties of SMA/Microscopy society of America Industrial applications of shape memory alloy/Ming H. A deep fryer utilizes the thermal sensitivity by lowering the basket into the oil at the correct temperature. the device automatically shuts off the water flow. SMA actuators as engine mounts and suspensions can also control vibration. Schetky . CONCLUTION A SMA senses a change in temperature and is able to convert its shape to a preprogrammed structure. The main advantage of SMA is the smooth. and in structures. in clothing.
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