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Research and concepts Integration of quality and environmental management systems

Stanislav Karapetrovic and Walter Willborn

1. Introduction
In recent years, the US Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) has become an internationally recognized guide of the modern management of quality. During its rst ten years, from 1987-1997, the focus of the award criteria has been gradually broadened to include organizational competitiveness and performance excellence. Today, many organizations use the criteria for continuous improvement of performance in their quest for business excellence and world-class quality. The evolution of MBNQA brought to light another emerging trend in performance management: systems integration. Indeed, achieving an integrated systems perspective of performance management is the focus of the 1997 criteria (of MNBQA) and criteria framework, states Harry S. Hertz, director of the National Quality Programme of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (Hertz, 1997). Integrating systems has emerged as a major task for practicing managers and standards writers. Establishing a quality assurance system that complies with the ISO 9000 standards or total quality management will become just an important rst step in achieving excellence. The focal point of quality managers attention and responsibility will broaden from the quality of the product and services toward environmental management, workplace health and safety, and production and operations management. The standards for environmental control (ISO 14000) already confront management with new challenges that cannot be overlooked any longer (Berenz, 1997; Butterbrodt, 1995; Figura, 1996; Forkert et al., 1997; Helling and Herrmann, 1997; Sissell, 1996; Stielow, 1997). These modern developments and trends toward a comprehensive management system are indicated in currently revised ISO 9000 standards and MNBQA guidelines. Managers, who deal with increasingly complex technological, organizational and social problems, understandably consider new standards for management systems with skepticism. However, it can be argued that, to a large extent, this common skepticism is caused by misinterpretation of the management system itself. A system is one of the most misunderstood words among managers, leading to serious confusion and misapplication

The authors Stanislav Karapetrovic is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Walter Willborn is a senior scholar in the Faculty of Management at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Abstract Discusses quality and environmental management systems integration. Concepts of a system and a system of systems are addressed, followed by a description of different management systems, and their interrelations and integration. Subsequently, strategies for integration of the quality system based on the ISO 9001 standard and the ISO 14001 environmental management system are presented. The harmonization of related audit sub-systems, namely ISO 10011 and ISO 14010/11/12 is also addressed. Finally, a discussion on the development of a generic performance management system is provided.

The TQM Magazine Volume 10 Number 3 1998 pp. 204213 MCB University Press ISSN 0954-478X

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(Karapetrovic and Willborn, 1998). As Dr W. Edward Deming said: What is the system? To people in management, the system consists of style of management, employees, the people in the country To the production worker, the system is all but him (Deming, 1986). Or take a denition of a quality system from the current ISO 8402 quality vocabulary: the organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management (ISO 8402, 1994). The objectives and boundaries of the quality system, interrelationship between the systems elements are left unclear and subject to various interpretations. With a confusing structure of the ISO 9000 standards describing models for quality systems, it comes as no surprise that a number of organizations focus on the documentation resources, rather than improving the effectiveness and efciency of the quality system in whole. Thus, paradoxically, the system becomes a barrier to improved performance, rather than its catalyst. The term and the underlying concept of the system, or more precisely management system describes the essence of the framework of what managers will have to design and implement. We nd that this important conceptual foundation has never been sufciently and fairly presented to quality management practitioners (Karapetrovic and Willborn, 1998). Without understanding of the systems concept, establishing a modern integrated performance system becomes a complex and difcult task. Therefore, this paper will proceed with the clarication of the systems concept, followed by a description of different management systems, and their interrelations and integration. This will assist the manager in the current task of integrating individual systems. For example, a quality assurance system and an environmental management system need to be integrated in order to enhance operational performance and stay focused on the same target (Beechner and Koch, 1997). Subsequently, this practical and relevant issue will be illustrated with an example discussing the integration of an ISO 9001 quality system with an ISO 14001 environmental management system. Another example will focus on an integrated audit system. Finally, current trends in the integration of quality, environment, health and safety and costing systems will be discussed.

2. What is a system?
When parts, resources, activities or processes perform interdependently within a unity, this unity is viewed as a system (Cleland and King, 1983; Koontz et al., 1984). As mentioned earlier, the ISO 8402 quality vocabulary states that a system entails procedures, processes and resources of an organization designed to achieve certain objectives. According to the same source, a process transforms an input into a meaningful output, i.e. product. A process and a system are therefore identical when the resulting product requires only one process to be created. This, of course, is almost never the case. Several interrelated and interdependent processes, in a parallel or serial connection or both, are required for a particular output. We can therefore state that a system is simply a set of processes and resources that are designed and performed in order to achieve a desired objective, such as to create a product. A product can be tangible (hardware or some kind of material), intangible (software or service), and/or a combination thereof. Dening the objective of the system practically denes the system and its boundaries. For example, if the objective is to achieve certain product quality characteristics, then the production system must be established accordingly. An objective of higher performance within a certain time, and measured by customer satisfaction and market penetration, will require a more complex and comprehensive system. Another example of how different objectives make up different systems is the implementation of ISO 9001 and 9002. If the objective is to comply with the ISO 9002 standard, the resulting quality system will not include the design and development component. However, design must be included in the 9001 system. A poorly dened, communicated, and understood objective for quality or performance will result in a confused and inadequate system and a waste of human, material, information and nancial resources. Once the objective is clearly dened, the management typically adopts the following sequence of decisions and actions to stay focused on achieving it: (1) Assess the objective regarding the mission of the organization, its long- and short-term strategies, as well as its feasible capacity.

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(2) Design the set of processes, resource requirements, technology, timing and interrelationship of these in order to meet stated objectives. (3) Obtain human, material, and nancial resources, and provide for the training, hiring and out-sourcing as required. (4) Deploy resources as planned in performing the processes, and monitor performance. (5) Proceed in processing as planned, control progress and take corrective/preventive actions. (6) Assess the output of individual processes against suitable criteria. (7) Compare the nal output of the system against the original objective and its individual requirements and characteristics. Analyse deviations and possibly redesign the system, including its stated objective. Figure 1 demonstrates the cycle of decisions and actions that emanate from a well-stated objective. This description of the system is neither new nor unique. Similar logical sequences are represented in so-called quality loops and Demings plan-do-studyact circle. We argue, however, that with the above seven steps and the graphical model of the system in mind, interrelationships of individual small or complex systems can be better visualized, understood and managed. Objectives to be achieved by management and the organization at large are not isolated or independent. A business with several plants and/or products needs a well-aligned composite system, that incorporates respectively wellplanned and integrated sub-systems. In short, whatever the particular system under consideration may be, it is always related in many different aspects with other systems. To ignore this simple fact can create serious difculties for all concerned. The customer will not receive what was expected and

promised, supervisors and staff will lack proper responsibilities, managers will co-operate poorly with their peers, suppliers will lack adequate information, and even the surrounding local community might be affected and concerned. An extended view of the individual system and its position in relation to other systems and the overall system of systems can avoid such detrimental developments and outcomes. In the following section, the system of systems concept will be briey explained, and illustrated with an example.

3. What is an integrated system and a system of systems?


Numerous internal and external factors continuously inuence decisions and activities that govern a system. Many such factors emanate from other related systems. As individual processes are interlinked within a system, so are systems with other systems. The following are some examples: A customer modies quality characteristics of a product under contract, causing the supplier to make changes in design and production accordingly. That is, both the customers and suppliers quality systems are linked, e.g. in a just-in-time supply system. A customer requires a supplier to assure quality by means of a registered ISO 9001 system. A subcontractor encounters difculties in meeting a deadline because of a re in the plant. An audit by the corporate headquarters results in certain observations initiating changes in the quality management system Local community lobbies for the introduction of rigorous environmental controls. Events like this occur in the life of a business almost daily, and have a serious impact on the systems involved. Any system that is open to such disturbing factors must develop a constant interchange with other systems. The management system is directed effectively when these changes and developments are recognized and understood. Thus, sound partnership comes with a proper linkage of business systems and will result in the continuous improvement of the systems performance. For example, interrelations of a quality management system (QMS) with other systems exists in various forms and

Figure 1 A simple graphical model of a system (adapted from Karapetrovic and Willborn, 1998)
RESOURCES 3. Allocation PROCESSES 2. System Design OBJECTIVES 1. Required Output 7. Assessment 4. Deployment 5. System Implementation 6. Actual Output

ENVIRONMENT

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directions concurrently. Internally, QMS is inuenced by, and also inuences, the systems of human resource management, marketing, nances, strategic management, production, sales, etc. (Figure 2). Externally, the QMS interacts with similar quality systems from other organizations, but also with other subsystems, such as the nancial system of a subcontractor or a purchasing system of a customer. Linking two systems in a way that results in a loss of independence of one or both means that these systems are integrated. This would normally lead to a stronger and more comprehensive management system. Forms of such integration vary in terms of scope and control by the management involved. For example, one can integrate an existing ISO 9001 quality system with total quality management (TQM), a quality plan for an individual product with an overriding quality management system, or an environmental control system with TQM. Apart from this function-based integration, different systems can be interlinked on a product basis. For instance, each product possesses certain characteristics: a set of characteristics that affect the products ability to satisfy customer needs represents quality characteristics; a set that addresses environmental and health concerns of the public represents environmental characteristics;
Figure 2 Quality management system and related systems (adapted from Karapetrovic and Willborn, 1998)
BUSINESS SYSTEM QUALITY SYSTEM Quality Management System

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

product cost/price relation is its costing characteristic. Each of these sets of characteristics is created in a system: quality in the quality system, health and environmental in the environmental management system (EMS), etc. Ultimately, however, all these systems are parts of a larger system, which may be called a production, business, or a system of systems. Interlinked or integrated systems form a so-called system of systems. In this broader scope, an individual system can be related to another one, such as the QMS with EMS within the same organization. At the same time, this enhanced system can be linked hierarchically as a subsystem of an overriding general business system. Within the system of systems, individual systems are interlinked without relinquishing their individual identities. The system of systems needs to be designed and managed as an individual system, albeit without encroaching unduly on the management of its various subsystems. An integration of systems, in whatever form, should always lead to a more effective system. The following are some major benets arising from an integrated systems approach: improved technology development and transfer; improved joined operational performance; improved internal management methods and cross-functional teamwork; higher staff motivation, lower interfunctional conicts; multiple audits reduced and streamlined; enhanced condence of customers and positive market/community image; reduced costs and more efcient re-engineering; An example is the integration of the quality management and environmental systems. The reasons for such integration are capitalizing on the advantages of both systems and eliminating confusion and suboptimization from the outset (Beechner and Koch, 1997), rather than just satisfying demands from external sources. In the following section, we will demonstrate one possible solution for such systems integration.

Environmental Management System

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM

FINANCIAL SYSTEM Financial Management System

HUMAN RESOURCES Human Resource Management

HEALTH & SAFETY Health/Safety Management System

4. Integration of quality and environmental management systems


Quality systems based on the ISO 9000 international standards have been successfully 207

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introduced worldwide. These standards are designed as generic documents outlining minimum requirements for quality systems of organizations in all industries. The generic systems, as any others, are to be adopted by management and remain open to change. They drive development as much as they must follow sound management practice. However, quality does not rest only with organizations products and services. Quality and quality assurance of the natural environment have been perceived as an urgent management issue. Not surprisingly, the ISO 14000 standards for environmental management systems have followed ISO 9000. Both quality and environmental management systems share similar roots and objectives. Some organizations thus rightfully demand that this commonality results in coordination, integration or even complete amalgamation of the two systems (Adams and Haker, 1996; Bokhoven et al., 1996; Kiesgen et al., 1995; Struebing, 1996). Such integration will certainly result in improved cost-effectiveness, as well as joint audit and registration. Also, in the not too distant future, a combined system of systems may include workplace health and safety, auditing and auditor training, and even accounting and ergonomics. All these individual systems will need to be managed for an effective achievement of individual objectives, concurrently with achieving the objectives of the overriding system. Nevertheless, one must ask if such a system of systems is properly conceived and dened at this point. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The following are some current difculties and concerns when establishing such a system: insufciently harmonized standards from the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 series; different perceived customers and stakeholders; for QMS, customers are individuals purchasing a product or service, for EMS, customers are the general public, local communities and the government; interests concerning the environment are more homogeneous internally and externally than interests concerning assistance in product quality improvement; interfunctional conict, because of varying interests and motivation, i.e. workers are also interested in EMS as members of the local community;

different operational management methods; project management in EMS versus process management in QMS. This development toward a system of systems for improved performance calls for an urgent conception and description of a performance management system (PMS). As an integrated system of systems this improved design would encompass several areas of public and management concern. But where can the management, who must think and act globally, begin in this endeavor? Three possible strategies emerge: (1) Establish QMS rst and subsequently EMS. (2) Establish EMS rst and subsequently QMS. (3) Establish EMS and QMS simultaneously. The rst strategy capitalizes on a valuable ISO 9000 infrastructure on which an integrated system can be added, and would also ensure benets for organizations that are already registered to ISO 9001/2/3. Most of the available literature presents such an approach (Adams and Haker, 1996; Bokhoven et al., 1996; Culley, 1996; Hale, 1997; Hofmann and Trory, 1996; Kurtzman and Brewer, 1997; Ross, 1997). The current ISO 14001 standard even states: This standard shares common management principles with the ISO 9000 series of quality system standards. Organizations may elect to use an existing management system consistent with the ISO 9000 series as a basis for its environmental management system (ISO/TC 207/ SC 1, 1995). Table I demonstrates a topical outline of an EMS following the ISO 9001 lead. With an established ISO 9001 system, appropriate elements of ISO 14001 can be documented and implemented as add-ons to the existing 20 ISO 9001 elements. For example, adequate environmental records can be identied, documented and controlled with procedures emanating from the control of quality records. Subsequently, these two elements can be merged into one, i.e. control of records. Another example includes the establishment of an EMS audit on the basis of internal quality audits. This amalgamation will be addressed in detail in section ve of this paper. The second strategy is advantageous for organizations under high public pressure or scrutiny for an urgent establishment of an

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Table I EMS based on a QMS

ISO 9001 (1994) 4.1 Management responsibility 4.1.1 Quality policy 4.1.2 Organization 4.1.3 Management review Quality system 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 Quality system procedures 4.2.3 Quality planning Contract review

ISO 14001 (1995) 4.1 4.3.1 4.3.5 4.0 4.3.4 4.2.4 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3.6 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.6 4.3.3 4.3.6 4.3.7 4.4.1 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.2 4.3.6 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.3.2 4.3.6 4.4.1 Environmental policy Structure and responsibility Management review General Environmental management system documentation Environmental management programme(s) Environmental aspects Legal and other requirements Objectives and targets Environmental management programme(s) Operational control Document control Operational control Operational control Communication Operational control Emergency preparedness and response Monitoring and measurement Monitoring and measurement Nonconformance, corrective and preventive action Nonconformance, corrective and preventive action Operational control Records Environmental management system audit Training, awareness and competence Operational control Monitoring and measurement

4.2

4.3

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Design control Document and data control Purchasing Control of customer-supplied product Product identication and traceability Process control

4.10 Inspection and testing 4.11 Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment 4.12 Inspection and test status 4.13 Control of nonconforming product 4.14 Corrective and preventive action 4.15 Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery 4.16 Control of quality records 4.17 Internal quality audit 4.18 Training 4.19 Servicing 4.20 Statistical techniques

environmental management system. This approach also has higher potential for liability protection, motivation, cooperation and involvement of local community from the very start of the process. The ISO 14001 standard may be perceived as easier to comply with, and is currently very well supported with numerous self-evaluation guidelines, such as ISO/TC 207/SC 4/N 207 (1995). Table II represents the basis for an ISO 9001 system built within the framework of ISO 14001. Similarly to the rst strategy, appropriate elements of ISO 9001 can be added on the existing ISO 14001 documentation. For

instance, management reviews regarding the ability of an organization to meet quality objectives can be organized within environmental management reviews, and subsequently merged into the integrated quality and environment performance reviews. Finally, we advocate the third strategy of developing quality and environmental management systems concurrently (e.g. Gupta and Upadhyay, 1996; Hartstern, 1997; Helling and Herrmann, 1997; Kiesgen et al., 1995), using the concept of the system of systems. The advantages of this approach are:

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Table II QMS based on a EMS

ISO 14001 (1995) 4.1 4.2 Environmental policy Planning 4.2.1 Environmental aspects 4.2.2 Legal and other requirements 4.2.3 Objectives and targets 4.2.4 Environmental management programme(s) Implementation 4.3.1 Structure and responsibility 4.3.2 Training, awareness and competence 4.3.3 Communication 4.3.4 Environmental management system documentation 4.3.5 Document control 4.3.6 Operational control

ISO 9001 (1994) 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2.1 4.2.3 4.1.1 4.2.3 Quality policy Organization Quality system: general Contract review Quality policy Quality planning

4.3

4.1 4.18 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.15 4.9

Management responsibility Training Quality system Quality system Document and data control Purchasing Control of customer-supplied product Product identication and traceability Process control Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery Process control

4.4 4.9

4.3.7 Emergency, preparedness and response Checking and corrective action Process control 4.4.1 Monitoring and measurement

4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.16 4.17 4.1.3

4.5

4.4.2 Nonconformance, corrective and preventive action 4.4.3 Records 4.4.4 Environmental management system audit Management review

Inspection and testing Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment Inspection and test status Control of nonconforming product Corrective and preventive action Control of quality records Internal quality audit Management review

establishment of an integrated and optimal performance management system from the start; more comprehensive involvement of all interested parties; reduced use of multiple resources; use of synergy effects from the development of both systems together; harmonization and unied problem solving from the beginning of the project; improved cost effectiveness; increased exibility and possibilities for including other systems. We could start with common features and requirements of both systems. For example, management responsibility and authority, organizational structure, policy, programs, documentation resources, contract review,

design control, management review, internal audits and training are all common to both ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. Thus, these elements covering both the environmental and quality aspects should be documented and implemented rst. At the operational level, processes such as process/operational control, inspection, measurement and testing, nonconformance control, corrective and preventive action will differ and therefore need a more specialized and independent treatment. However, these could be built into two interlinked operational modules, which would allow for optimization and introduction of other modules, such as workplace health and safety. Figure 3 represents an integrated, simultaneously built performance system based on ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 standards. We have

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Figure 3 Graphical model of a PMS based on ISO 9001 and ISO 14001
3. Allocation
4.6 Purchasing 4.7 Cust. supp. prod. 4.11 Insp. equipment 4.3.1 Structure and Responsibility

2. System Design
4.4 Design Control 4.2.3 Quality Plan 4.2.4 Environmental management programme(s)

1. Required Output
4.3 Contract Review 4.2.1 Environmental Aspects 4.2.2 Legal and Other Requirements 4.2.3 Objectives and Targets

4. Deployment
4.18 Training 4.3.2 Training, Awareness and Competence

5. System Implementation
4.9 Process control

6. Actual Output

4.3.3 Communication 4.19 Servicing 4.3.6 Operational Control 4.5 Mangement review 4.3.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response 4.10 Inspection and testing 4.4.1 Monitoring and 4.12 Inspection and test status Measurement 4.13 Control of nonconforming product 4.4.2 Non-conformance, 4.14 Corrective and preventative action Corrective/Preventative 4.15 Handling, storage, packaging, etc. Action

System-wide supporting elements:


4.1 Management Responsibility 4.1 Environmental Policy 4.2 Quality System (4.2.1 General and 4.2.2 Procedures) 4.3.4 Environmental Management System Documentation 4.5 Document and data control 4.3.5 Document Control 4.8 Product identification and traceability 4.16 Control of quality records 4.4.3 Records 4.17 Internal quality audits 4.4.4 Environmental Management System Audit 4.5 Management Review 4.20 Statistical techniques

Management Resources

Resources for Performance Improvement

Note: elements of ISO 9001 are presented in italic, while ISO 14001 elements are in bold

used the denition of the system from section two, and a simple graphical model from Figure 1 to conceptualize this system of systems. This concept also provides a guideline for simultaneous integration, starting from the determination of objectives and desired outputs, through system design, allocation of resources and system implementation, to the comparison of actual and desired outputs. The integration of the two PMS subsystems, namely environmental and quality audits, will be addressed in the following section.

5. An integrated audit system


Standards for auditing quality and environmental systems are fairly well advanced regarding the integration aspect. The ISO guideline for auditing quality systems (ISO 10011/2/3) is currently under revision and has accepted many technical improvements from the respective documents for auditing environmental management systems

(ISO 14010/11/12). These efforts are very promising for developing a sound harmonized auditing system worldwide, which in the near future might even include nancial audits (Russell, 1997; Willborn, 1993). Apart from the focus on overall system improvement, joint audit systems will bring cost savings, better allocation and deployment of human, material and information resources, as well as a unied problem solving approach that will increase efciency and effectiveness of other interlinked systems. However, the extent of the system integration might vary between the rst, second and third party audits. For example, while the rst party (internal) audits might still be conducted separately, second (customer) and third party audits should be fully integrated. Figure 4 represents how the current EMS and QMS audits can be integrated using a systems approach. Although the scope of environmental and quality system audits is different, the procedure is almost identical. After identifying audit objectives and roles 211

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Stanislav Karapetrovic and Walter Willborn

Figure 4 Integrated audit system


RESOURCES PROCESSES OBJECTIVES

3. Allocation
4.2 Roles, Responsibilities and Activities 5.2.3 Working Documents

2. System Design
5.1 Initiating the Audit 5.2.1 Audit Plan

1. Required Output
4.1 Audit Objectives

4. Deployment
5.2.2 Audit Team Assignments

5. System Implementation
5.3.1 Opening Meeting 5.3.2 Examination 5.3.3 Audit Findings 5.3.4 Closing Meeting 5.3 Executing the Audit

6. Actual Output
5.4 Audit Documents 5.4 Audit Reports & Records 6 Audit Completion 7 Corrective Action Follow Up

Supporting sub-systems:
ISO 10011 Part 2: Qualification Criteria for Quality Systems Auditors ISO 10011 Part 3: Management of Audit Programmes ISO 14010 General Principles of Environmental Auditing ISO 14012 Qualification Criteria for Environmental Auditors

Note: elements of ISO 10011 are in italic, ISO 14001 are in bold, and identical elements are both italic and bold

and responsibilities of all parties involved, the audit is initiated, the scope dened, and an audit plan is prepared. Subsequently, the auditor(s) or the audit team executes the audit, reports and records are submitted to the client, and appropriate follow-up actions are taken. As we can observe from Figure 4, the environmental and quality audit systems are so intertwined, that a decision not to integrate them will certainly cause an unnecessary waste of resources and potential.

6. Conclusion
The trend in modern business management points toward composite, comprehensive and complex management systems that ensure competitive performance in the global economy. One can build such systems, and the system of systems, only when the objectives are clear, realistic and challenging to all concerned. The respective objectives and desired outputs dene and drive the system as a set of interrelated processes. Business reality today requires that related systems are linked and integrated in order to assure effective attainment of set objectives and avoid costly sub-optimization. As a rst step toward the integrated performance management system (PMS), existing quality

assurance and environmental management systems can be integrated, and subsequently broadened with health and safety, nancial and other interlinked systems. However, an establishment of the PMS requires the understanding of underlying system concepts, as well as clear objectives. What is, in fact, for an organization improved performance? This question must be asked and answered clearly and convincingly before embarking on the PMS project. If an organization wants to improve quality and environmental performance, then the integration of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 is a good idea. However, if quality is not considered the big issue, but health, safety and environment are, the latter can constitute the framework for gradually building a comprehensive performance management system. Otherwise, great resources, time and effort will be lost.

References
Adams, H.W. and Haker, W. (1996), Generic management system, Qualitaet und Zuverlaessigkeit, Vol. 41 No. 7, pp. 776-80. Beechner, A.B. and Koch, J.E. (1997), Integrating ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, Quality Progress, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 33-6. Berenz, R. (1997), Die qual der wahl?, Qualitaet und Zuverlaessigkeit, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 285-8.

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ISO 8402 (1994), International Standard: Quality Management and Quality Assurance Vocabulary, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. ISO/TC 207/SC 1 (1995), ISO 14001 Environmental Management System Specication, p. 6. ISO/TC 207/SC 4/N 207 (1995), Environmental Performance Evaluation, pp. 6-26. Karapetrovic, S. and Willborn, W. (1998), The systems view for clarication of quality vocabulary, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, Vol. 15 No. 4. Kiesgen, G., Schnauber, H. and Wupperman, V. (1995), Synergien nutzen, Qualitaet und Zuverlaessigkeit, Vol. 40 No. 6, pp. 702-6. Koontz, H. and ODonnell, W.H. (1984), Management, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Kurtzman, R.D. and Brewer, C.W. (1997), An ISO 9001 and 14001 integration: lessons learned, Proceedings of the 51st Annual Quality Congress, Orlando, FL, pp. 351-5. Ross, M.A. (1997), Implementing ISO 14000 from an ISO 9000 program, Proceedings of the 51st Annual Quality Congress, Orlando, FL, pp. 117-22. Russell, J.P. (Ed.) (1997), The Quality Audit Handbook, American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), Quality Press, Milwaukee, WI. Sissell, K. (1996), One size ts all: unifying ISO management, Chemical Week, Vol. 158 No. 13, pp. 27-36. Stielow, J. (1997), Gemeinsam geht es leichter, Qualitaet und Zuverlaessigkeit, Vol. 42 No. 7, pp. 786-8. Struebing, L. (1996), 9000 standards?, Quality Progress, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 23-8. Willborn, W. (1993), Audit Standards: A Comparative Analysis, Quality Press, Milwaukee, WI.

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