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Version 2.

General Certificate of
Secondary Education

Mathematics (Modular) 2005


Specification B

This specification should be read in conjunction with:


Specimen and Past Papers and Mark Schemes
Examiners’ Reports
Teachers’ Guide

AQA GCSE 3302


This specification will be published annually on the AQA Website (www.aqa.org.uk). If there
are any changes to the specification centres will be notified in print as well as on the Website.
The version on the Website is the definitive version of the specification.

In the Spring Term before the start of the course, details of any year-specific information, such
as set tests, theme/topics, will be notified to centres in print and on the Website.

Vertical black lines indicate a significant change or addition to the specification.

Copyright © 2003 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

COPYRIGHT
AQA retains the copyright on all its publications, including the specimen units and mark
schemes/teachers guides. However, the registered centres for AQA are permitted to copy material
from this booklet for their own internal use, with the following exception: AQA cannot give
permission to centres to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal
use within the centre.

Set and published by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance.

The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance is a Company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales 3644723 and a registered
charity number 1073334. Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.
Dr Michael Cresswell, Director General.
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Contents
Background Information

1 The Revised General Certificate of Secondary Education 7

2 Specification at a Glance 9

3 Availability of Assessment Units and Entry Details 10

Scheme of Assessment

4 Introduction 13

5 Aims 15

6 Assessment Objectives 16

7 Scheme of Assessment 17

Subject Content

8 Summary of Subject Content 21

9 Module 1 25

10 Module 2 31

11 Module 3 33

12 Module 4 44

13 Module 5 48

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Key Skills and Other Issues

14 Key Skills – Teaching, Developing and Providing


Opportunities for Generating Evidence 67

15 Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social, Cultural and Other Issues 72

Internal Assessment (Coursework)

16 Nature of the Coursework Modules 74

17 Assessment Criteria for the Coursework Modules 76

Option T – Centre-Assessed Modules 2 and 4

18 Guidance on Setting the Centre-Assessed Modules 80

19 Supervision and Authentication 81

20 Standardisation 82

21 Administrative Procedures 83

22 Moderation 84

Option X – AQA-Assessed Modules 2 and 4

23 Guidance on Setting the AQA-Assessed Modules 85

24 Supervision and Authentication 86

25 Administrative Procedures 87

Awarding and Reporting

26 Grading, Shelf-Life and Re-Sits 88

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Appendices

A Grade Descriptions 91

B Formulae Sheets 94

C AQA-set Coursework Tasks for Module 2 97

D AQA-set Coursework Tasks for Module 4 102

E Record Forms 109

F Overlaps with Other Qualifications 119

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Background Information

1 The Revised General Certificate


of Secondary Education
Following a review of the National Curriculum requirements, and the
establishment of the National Qualifications Framework, all the unitary
awarding bodies revised their GCSE syllabuses for examination in 2003.

1.1 National Qualifications GCSE has the following broad equivalence to General National
Framework Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ).

GCSE GCSE GNVQ

Two GCSE Grades D-G One (Double Award) DD-GG One 3-Unit GNVQ Foundation†
Grades A*-C One (Double Award) A*A*-CC Intermediate††
Four GCSE Grades D-G Two (Double Award) DD-GG One 6-Unit GNVQ Foundation
Grades A*-C Two (Double Award) A*A*-CC Intermediate
† only available until 2003
†† only available until 2005
1.2 Changes at GCSE
Key Skills All GCSE specifications must identify, as appropriate, opportunities for
generating evidence on which candidates may be assessed in the “main”
Key Skills of Communication, Application of Number and Information
Technology at the appropriate level(s). Also, where appropriate, they must
identify opportunities for developing and generating evidence for
addressing the “wider” Key Skills of Improving own Learning and
Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving.

Spiritual, moral, ethical, All specifications must identify ways in which the study of the subject
social, cultural, can contribute to an awareness and understanding of these issues.
environmental, health and
safety and European Issues

ICT The National Curriculum requires that students should be given


opportunities to apply and develop their ICT capacity through the use
of ICT tools to support their learning. In each specification candidates
will be required to make effective use of ICT in ways appropriate to the
needs of the subject.

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Tiering In GCSE Mathematics the scheme of assessment must include


question papers targeted at three tiers of grades, i.e. A* - C (Higher),
B – E (Intermediate) and D – G (Foundation).

Candidates should be entered at the tier appropriate to their


attainment. In GCSE Mathematics (Modular) each candidate may
enter for each individual module at a different tier of entry. However,
the final range of grades available to a candidate is determined by the
tier of entry for Module 5. Candidates who fail to achieve the mark
for the lowest grade available at each tier of Module 5 will be recorded
as unclassified (U).

Citizenship Students in England are required to study Citizenship as a National


Curriculum subject. Each GCSE specification must signpost, where
appropriate, opportunities for developing citizenship knowledge, skills
and understanding.

1.3 Changes to the Mathematics • Internal assessment (coursework) is now compulsory.


Criteria
• Internal assessment comprises two tasks:

q the AO4 task – a handling data task which counts as half of


the AO4 weighting;

q the AO1 task – an investigative task which assesses AO1 in the


context of AO2 and/or AO3 and counts as half of the AO1
weighting.

• The other half of the AO1 and AO4 weightings are assessed in the
written papers.

• New subject content has been added to the Programme of Study,


particularly in AO4, whilst other subject content has been deleted.

• Some questions demanding the unprompted solution of multi-step


problems are required.

• The proportion of marks allocated to grade G on Foundation tier


has been increased to about one third, leaving the remaining marks
balanced across grades D, E and F.

• Grade descriptors have been modified to reflect the new


Programme of Study.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

2 Specification at a Glance
Mathematics B (Modular)
Option T and Option X
• This is one of two specifications offered by AQA. Specification A
is a traditional linear scheme; Specification B is modular and is
suitable for both pre-16 and post-16 candidates.
• There are three tiers of assessment, Foundation (D-G),
Intermediate (B-E) and Higher (A*-C).
• Centres in Northern Ireland/Wales must refer to the Statement in
Section 8.1 of this specification.

Foundation Tier GCSE 3302


Intermediate Tier Module 1
Higher Tier Written Paper 11% of the total assessment
2 × 25 minutes (All tiers)
Modules 1, 3 and 5 Section A – Calculator
are available in all Section B – Non-calculator
three tiers Module 2
See entry code Coursework (AO4 task) 10% of the total assessment
information in
section 3.2 Either Or
OPTION T OPTION X
Centre-Set or AQA-Set task AQA-Set task
Centre-Marked AQA-Marked

Module 3
Written Paper 19% of the total assessment
2 × 40 minutes (All tiers)
Section A – Calculator
Section B – Non-calculator

Module 4
Coursework (AO1 task) 10% of the total assessment
Either Or
OPTION T OPTION X
Centre-Set or AQA-Set task AQA-Set task
Centre-Marked AQA-Marked

Module 5
Written papers 50% of the total assessment
Non-calculator
Foundation tier 1 hour
Intermediate and Higher tiers 1 hour 15 minutes
Calculator
Foundation tier 1 hour
Intermediate and Higher tiers 1 hour 15 minutes

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3 Availability of Assessment Units


and Entry Details
3.1 Availability of Assessment Specification B is a modular assessment of GCSE Mathematics
Units designed to be taken over a one or two year course of study. To offer
maximum flexibility to centres and to suit different teaching
programmes, Modules 1 to 4 can be taken in any order and candidates
can enter at different tiers for the different modules. Module 5 is the
certificating module and must be taken in the final examination series.
This is to meet the QCA requirement that at least 50% of the
qualification is externally examined at the end of the course.
Examinations based on this specification will be available as follows:

Series Availability of
Availability of Modules
Certification

Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5

March _ _
All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers

June All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers
Intermediate Intermediate
November All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers tier only tier only

3.2 Entry Codes Normal entry requirements apply, but the following information
should be noted.

A separate entry is needed for each of the five modules. In addition,


an entry for the overall subject award, 3302, must be submitted by 21
February for the June examination or 7 October for the November
examination.

More detailed information, including component codes, will be issued


to examination centres in a separate document.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3.3 Prohibited Combinations Candidates entering for Module 5 of this Specification are prohibited
from entering for any other GCSE Mathematics specification that will
be certificated in the same examination series.

Candidates may enter only for a single tier in each module, in a


particular examination series.

Each specification is assigned a national classification code, indicating


the subject area to which it belongs.

Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more than one
GCSE qualification with the same classification code, will have only
one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and
College Performance Tables.

The classification code for this specification is 2210.

3.4 Private Candidates Private candidates should normally enter for Specification B Option
X. Specification B Option T is only available for private candidates
where:

• the candidate attends an AQA centre which will supervise the


coursework, or,
• the candidate has a coursework module mark that can be carried
forward (see Section 26.5).

Private candidates should write to AQA for a copy of Supplementary


Guidance for Private Candidates.

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3.5 Special Consideration Special consideration may be requested for candidates whose work has
been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. The
appropriate form and all relevant information should be forwarded to
the AQA office which deals with such matters for the centre
concerned. Special arrangements may be provided for candidates with
special needs.

Details are available from AQA and centres should ask for a copy of
Candidates with Special Assessment Needs, Special Arrangements and Special
Conditions.

3.6 Language of Examinations All assessment will be through the medium of English. Assessment
materials will not be available in Welsh or Gaeilge.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Scheme of Assessment

4 Introduction
4.1 National Criteria This AQA GCSE (modular) in Mathematics: (B) complies with the
following:
• the GCSE Subject Criteria for Mathematics;
• the GCSE and GCE A/AS Code of Practice;
• the GCSE Qualification Specific Criteria;
• the Arrangements for the Statutory Regulation of External
Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: Common
Criteria.

4.2 Rationale AQA offers a suite of qualifications for GCSE Mathematics.


Specification A is a traditional scheme and is a development of the
former NEAB GCSE Mathematics syllabus A and SEG GCSE
Mathematics syllabus 2510T and 2510X. Specification B is a modular
scheme suitable for both pre-16 and post-16 candidates; it is a
development of the former SEG GCSE Modular Mathematics
syllabus 2540.
Specification A and Specification B have common coursework tasks;
this allows candidates the flexibility to move from one scheme of
assessment to the other.

4.3 Specification B There are two options within Specification B, allowing alternative
approaches for the Internal Assessment (coursework) Modules 2 and
4. In Option T centres may choose from the bank of coursework
tasks provided by AQA or they may set their own coursework tasks;
centres mark their own coursework tasks with moderation of
candidates’ coursework by AQA. In Option X centres must choose
from the bank of coursework tasks provided by AQA (AQA-Set tasks)
and candidates’ coursework is marked by AQA (see appendices C and
D).

Specification B used in pre-16 centres.


Mathematics is essentially a holistic subject, and as such should be
taught in this way with appropriate connections being made between
the sections on Number and algebra, Shape, space and measures, and
Handling data, as required in the National Curriculum. For example
Number underpins the whole of Mathematics. Modular Mathematics
Specification B is designed to be more reflective of the way in which
candidates are likely to revise for examinations when they tend to
cover just one area of Mathematics at a time. Specification B allows
candidates to take modules early in the course based on Handling data
(AO4) and the mainly number part of Number and algebra (AO2). The

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final module has to comprise 50% of the external written assessment


and this concentrates on the mainly algebraic part of Number and algebra
(AO2) and the whole of Space, shape and measures (AO3). The
coursework has been separated into two further modules to allow for
increased flexibility as to when the tasks are submitted.
Division into discrete topic areas gives candidates much more insight
into their strengths and weaknesses. Specification B provides a natural
link between KS3/KS4 (which are taught holistically) and A-level
where Mathematics is examined in discrete topic areas, but not
necessarily taught as such. The modular nature of the specification
can allow candidates who fail to obtain a GCSE Grade C at KS4 to
carry forward some of their module results into post-16 education.
Specification B used in a post-16 centre gives links to Free-
Standing Mathematics Qualifications (FSMQs) and the Key Skill of
Application of Number, and in some cases this could lead to co-teaching
opportunities.

4.4 Prior level of attainment and There is progression of material through all levels at which the subject
recommended prior learning is studied. This specification therefore builds on the Key Stage 3
Programme of Study.
It is also expected that candidates will have reached the required level
of literacy through study at Key Stage 3.

4.5 Progression This qualification is a recognised part of the National Qualifications


Framework. As such, GCSE Mathematics provides progression from
Key Stage 3 to GCE A/AS Mathematics or further study at Advanced
or Advanced Subsidiary level in other subjects or further study at
GNVQ level, or directly into employment.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

5 Aims
The aims set out below are consistent with the 1999 National
Curriculum Order for Mathematics and the GCSE Criteria for
Mathematics. Most of the aims are reflected in the Assessment
Objectives; others are not because they cannot be readily translated
into assessment objectives.

This specification encourages candidates to:


a. consolidate their understanding of mathematics;
b. be confident in their use of mathematics;
c. extend their use of mathematical vocabulary, definitions and formal
reasoning;
d. develop the confidence to use mathematics to tackle problems in the
work place and everyday life;
e. take increasing responsibility for the planning and execution of their
work;
f. develop an ability to think and reason mathematically;
g. learn the importance of precision and rigour in mathematics;
h. make connections between different areas of mathematics;
i. realise the application of mathematics in the world around them;
j. use ICT appropriately;
k. develop a firm foundation for appropriate further study.

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6 Assessment Objectives
6.1 Assessment Objectives A course based on this specification requires candidates to demonstrate
their knowledge, understanding and skills in the following assessment
objectives. These relate to the knowledge, skills and understanding in
the Programme of Study.

AO1 Using and applying mathematics

AO2 Number and algebra

AO3 Shape, space and measures

AO4 Handling data

The Assessment Objective AO1, Using and applying mathematics, will be


assessed in contexts provided by the other assessment objectives.

6.2 Quality of Written This specification does not formally assess quality of written
Communication communication.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

7 Scheme of Assessment
7.1 Assessment Units The Scheme of Assessment has a modular structure. The subject
Option T and Option X content of the specification is assessed by five separate modules which
comprise the following components.

Module 1 Written Paper


(Section A – Calculator)
(Section B – Non-Calculator)
Foundation Tier 2 x 25 minutes
Intermediate Tier 2 x 25 minutes
Higher Tier 2 x 25 minutes
11 % of the total assessment 2 x 20 marks

This written paper is the same for Option T or Option X.


Assesses AO4 (Handling data).
All questions are compulsory. Question and answer booklet.

Module 2 Internal Assessment 1 – AO4 task


10 % of the total assessment 24 marks

EITHER Option T OR Option X


one task set and marked by the one task, selected from a bank of
centre tasks provided by AQA, and
marked by AQA (Appendix C)
Coursework task set in the context of AO4 (Handling data).

Module 3 Written Paper


(Section A – Calculator)
(Section B – Non-Calculator)
Foundation Tier 2 x 40 minutes
Intermediate Tier 2 x 40 minutes
Higher Tier 2 x 40 minutes
19 % of the total assessment 2 x 32 marks

This written paper is the same for Option T or Option X.


Assesses mainly the number part of AO2 (Number and algebra).
All questions are compulsory. Question and answer booklet.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Module 4 Internal Assessment 2 – AO1 task


10 % of the total assessment 24 marks

EITHER Option T OR Option X


One task set and marked by the one task, selected from a bank of
centre tasks provided by AQA, and
marked by AQA (Appendix D)
Coursework task set in the context of AO2 and/or AO3.

Module 5 Written Paper


(Terminal Module) Paper 1 (Non-Calculator)
Foundation Tier 60 marks 1 hour
Intermediate Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins
Higher Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins
25 % of the total assessment

Written Paper
Paper 2 (Calculator)
Foundation Tier 60 marks 1 hour
Intermediate Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins
Higher Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins
25 % of the total assessment

Both written papers are the same for Option T or Option X.


Both papers assess the mainly algebra part of AO2 (Number and
algebra) and the whole of AO3 (Shape, space and measures).
All questions are compulsory.
Question and answer booklet.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

7.2 Weighting of Assessment The approximate relationship between the relative percentage
Objectives weighting of the Assessment Objectives and the overall Scheme of
Assessment is shown in the following table.

Module Weightings (%) Overall Weighting of


Assessment
Assessment
Objectives Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Objectives (%)
(Written) (Coursework) (Written) (Coursework) (Written)
AO1 Using and
applying mathematics 1* 2* 10 7* 20
AO2 Number and
algebra 17 23 40
AO3 Shape, space and
measures 20 20

AO4 Handling data 10 10 20


Overall Weighting of
Modules (%) 11 10 19 10 50 100

* On the written papers the assessment of AO1 is subsumed within


the other Assessment Objectives covered by the Module. Thus 10%
of the total written paper assessment will also assess Using and Applying
Mathematics within the contexts of the questions.
Candidates’ marks for each module are scaled to achieve the correct
weightings.

7.3 Written papers The written papers at the Intermediate and Higher tiers offer balanced
assessment across the grades available at those tiers. At Foundation
tier about one third of the marks are allocated to grade G and the
remaining marks are balanced across grades D, E and F.
Common questions will be set on papers at adjacent tiers. Some
questions will be designed to assess the unprompted solution of multi-
step problems.
In Modules 1 and 3, the written papers are divided into 2 separate
sections. The first section is the calculator paper and this is issued to
candidates at the beginning of the examination. After this section has
been completed (after 25 minutes for Module 1 and 40 minutes for
Module 3) candidates are instructed to place their calculators beneath
their seat. The second section (the non-calculator paper) is then
issued. At the end of the examination, the two sections are tagged
together and the papers are collected in.
Module 5 written papers are taken on two separate days, with the non-
calculator paper on the first day and the calculator paper on the
second day.
Formulae sheets for the Foundation, Intermediate and Higher tier
papers of Module 5 are provided in Appendix B.
On the non-calculator papers the use of a calculator, slide rules,
logarithmic tables and all other aids is forbidden. On the calculator
papers, candidates will be required to demonstrate the effective use of
a calculator.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

7.4 Calculators Candidates will be expected to have a suitable electronic calculator for
use with the calculator papers. The calculator should possess the
following as a minimum requirement:
• Foundation tier – four rules and a square, square root, brackets,
reciprocal and power function and a memory facility;
• Intermediate and Higher tiers – as for Foundation tier together
with a constant function, standard form and appropriate
exponential, trigonometric and statistical functions.
Further guidance on regulations relating to calculators can be obtained
from Instructions for the Conduct of Examinations.

7.5 Coursework modules Apart from the choice of coursework tasks and the method of
assessment, the nature of the Coursework Modules 2 and 4 is the same
for Option T and Option X. Information about the administrative
arrangements for Option T Modules 2 and 4 can be found in Section
21 and for Option X Modules 2 and 4 in Section 25. AQA set tasks
can be found in Appendices C and D of this specification.

7.6 Entry policy Centres are encouraged to enter candidates aiming to achieve grades
E, F and G for the Foundation tier, grades C and D for the
Intermediate tier and grades A*, A and B for the Higher tier.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Subject Content

8 Summary of Subject Content


8.1 Introduction There are three tiers of entry for GCSE Mathematics candidates:
Foundation, Intermediate and Higher. In the National Curriculum,
published in 1999, the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study was directed
into two tiers. The division of the Programme of Study into three
tiers in the subject content of this specification is common to all
Awarding Bodies. Thus:
the subject content of the Foundation tier is based on the Foundation
Programme of Study but does not include the grade C material;
the subject content of the Intermediate tier is based on the Higher
Programme of Study but does not include the grade A and A*
material;
the subject content of the Higher tier is based on the Higher
Programme of Study but does not include the grade D (or lower)
material.
In general, the Intermediate tier content of the specification subsumes
the Foundation tier content. However, questions on the Intermediate
tier do not focus directly on material that is outside the grade range of
the tier. Similarly, the Higher tier content subsumes the Intermediate
and Foundation tier content, but questions on the examination papers
for the Higher tier do not focus directly on material that is outside the
grade range of the tier.
This GCSE Specification has been written against the Key Stage 4
Programme of Study for England. Candidates entering for this GCSE
in Northern Ireland and Wales must be taught all the material required
by the National Curriculum in their own country.
8.2 Assessment Objectives Within the modules of this specification the subject content is
presented under the following Assessment Objectives.
The Assessment Objective AO1 (Using and applying mathematics) is
assessed in contexts provided by the other Assessment Objectives.

AO2 Number and algebra

1. Using and applying number and algebra


2. Numbers and the number system
3. Calculations
4. Solving numerical problems
5. Equations, formulae and identities
6. Sequences, functions and graphs

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO3 Shape, space and measures

1. Using and applying shape, space and measures


2. Geometrical reasoning
3. Transformations and coordinates
4. Measures and construction

AO4 Handling data

1. Using and applying handling data


2. Specifying the problem and planning
3. Collecting data
4. Processing and representing data
5. Interpreting and discussing results

8.3 Modules Module 1

This includes all of the subject content from AO4 (Handling data) of
the National Curriculum for Mathematics, divided into three tiers of
entry.

Module 2

This is an internally assessed module assessing the using and applying


section of AO4 (Handling data). The marking criteria are given in
Section 17.5.

Module 3

This includes the mainly number subject content from AO2 (Number
and algebra) of the National Curriculum. At the Foundation and
Intermediate tiers, only number topics are examined in this module.
At the Higher tier some algebra topics are also examined.

Module 4

This is an internally assessed module assessing the using and applying


sections of AO2 (Number and algebra) and/or AO3 (Shape, space and
measures). The marking criteria are given in Section 17.6.

Module 5

This includes the mainly algebra subject content from AO2 (Number
and Algebra) and all of the subject content from AO3 (Shape, Space and
Measures). At the Foundation and Intermediate tiers selected number
topics from AO2 (Number and algebra) are also assessed. At the Higher
tier only the algebra topics from AO2 (Number and algebra) are assessed
in this module.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

8.4 Breadth of Study In addition to the required knowledge, skills and understanding, the
National Curriculum Programme of Study also specifies the Breadth
of Study expected.
Foundation Tier Pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding
through:
a. extending mental and written calculation strategies and using efficient
procedures confidently to calculate with integers, fractions, decimals,
percentages, ratio and proportion;
b. solving a range of familiar and unfamiliar problems, including those
drawn from real-life contexts and other areas of the curriculum;
c. activities that provide frequent opportunities to discuss their work, to
develop reasoning and understanding and to explain their reasoning
and strategies;
d. activities focused on developing short chains of deductive reasoning
and correct use of the ‘=’ sign;
e. activities in which they do practical work with geometrical objects,
visualise them and work with them mentally;
f. practical work in which they draw inferences from data, consider how
statistics are used in real life to make informed decisions, and
recognise the difference between meaningful and misleading
representations of data;
g. activities focused on the major ideas of statistics, including using
appropriate populations and representative samples, using different
measurement scales, using probability as a measure of uncertainty,
using randomness and variability, reducing bias in sampling and
measuring, and using inference to make decisions;
h. substantial use of tasks focused on using appropriate ICT (for
example, spreadsheets, databases, geometry or graphic packages),
using calculators correctly and efficiently, and knowing when not to
use a calculator.
Intermediate/Higher Tiers Pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding
through:
a. activities that ensure they become familiar with and confident using
standard procedures for the range of calculations appropriate to this
level of study;
b. solving familiar and unfamiliar problems in a range of numerical,
algebraic and graphical contexts and in open-ended and closed form;
c. using standard notations for decimals, fractions, percentages, ratio and
indices;
d. activities that show how algebra, as an extension of number using
symbols, gives precise form to mathematical relationships and
calculations;
e. activities in which they progress from using definitions and short
chains of reasoning to understanding and formulating proofs in
algebra and geometry;

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

f. a sequence of practical activities that address increasingly demanding


statistical problems in which they draw inferences from data and
consider the uses of statistics in society;
g. choosing appropriate ICT tools and using these to solve numerical and
graphical problems, to represent and manipulate geometrical
configurations and to present and analyse data.

8.5 Subject Content Presentation The subject content for each module is shown in three columns,
representing the Programmes of Study for Key Stage 4 divided into
three tiers of entry. The subject content is taken directly from the
Statutory Orders for Mathematics.
To maintain the coherence of the topics, the statements have been
given in full for each tier. Where the wording is almost the same as
the previous tier with just a small addition, the additional material is in
bold type face. In the Module 3 Foundation and Intermediate tiers the
statements for some number topics are shown in Module 3 but are
shaded to show that they are not examined until Module 5. The
statements are then repeated in Module 5.
For each of the written paper modules, Modules 1, 3 and 5, the using
and applying statements are given at the beginning. These statements
will be mainly tested, and indeed some can only be tested, in the
coursework tasks. However, 10% of the total written paper
assessment also has to assess using and applying mathematics within
the contexts of questions appropriate to that paper.
Each statement is referenced to the appropriate statement in the
Foundation or Higher Programme of Study.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

9 Module 1
AO4: Handling data
1. Using and applying handling data
Problem solving
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
4F1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling
data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems:
(i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions
in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what
inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what
data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data
format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed
(ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources,
including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and
secondary sources secondary sources secondary sources
(iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data
into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the
problem problem problem
(iv) interpret and discuss: answer the initial question by (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial
drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data
4F1b identify what further information is needed to pursue 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in
a particular line of enquiry statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness
(these strategies should address the scale and (these strategies should address the scale and
4F1c select and organise the appropriate mathematics and manageability of the tasks, and should consider manageability of the tasks, and should consider
resources to use for a task whether the mathematics and approach used are whether the mathematics and approach used are
4F1d review progress while working; check and evaluate delivering the most appropriate solutions) delivering the most appropriate solutions)
solutions

hij 25
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
4F1e interpret, discuss and synthesise information
presented in a variety of forms
4F1f communicate mathematically, including using ICT, 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the
making use of diagrams and related explanatory text use of an increasing range of diagrams and related use of an increasing range of diagrams and related
explanatory text, on the selection of their explanatory text, on the selection of their
mathematical presentation, explaining its mathematical presentation, explaining its purpose
purpose and approach, and on the use of and approach, and on the use of symbols to convey
symbols to convey statistical meaning statistical meaning

Reasoning
4F1h apply mathematical reasoning, explaining inferences 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and
and deductions justifying inferences and deductions, justifying justifying inferences and deductions, justifying
arguments and solutions arguments and solutions
4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when
solving statistical problems solving statistical problems
4F1i explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for
cause and effect when analysing data relationships between variables when analysing relationships between variables when analysing data
data
4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the 4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the
effects that varying the assumptions could have on effects that varying the assumptions could have on
the conclusions drawn from data analysis the conclusions drawn from data analysis

2. Specifying the problem and planning


Pupils should be taught to:
4F2a see that random processes are unpredictable 4H2a see that random processes are unpredictable
4F2b identify questions that can be addressed by statistical 4H2b identify key questions that can be addressed by
methods statistical methods
4F2c discuss how data relate to a problem 4H2c discuss how data relate to a problem; identify 4H2c identify possible sources of bias and plan to
possible sources of bias and plan to minimise it minimise it

26 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


4F2d identify which primary data they need to collect and 4H2d identify which primary data they need to collect and 4H2d select and justify a sampling scheme and a
in what format, including grouped data, considering in what format, including grouped data, considering method to investigate a population, including
appropriate equal class intervals appropriate equal class intervals random and stratified sampling
4F2e design an experiment or survey; decide what 4H2e design an experiment or survey; decide what 4H2e decide what primary and secondary data to use
secondary data to use primary and secondary data to use

3. Collecting data
Pupils should be taught to:
4F3a design and use data-collection sheets for grouped 4H3a collect data using various methods, including
discrete and continuous data; collect data using observation, controlled experiment, data logging,
various methods, including observation, controlled questionnaires and surveys
experiment, data logging, questionnaires and surveys
4F3b gather data from secondary sources, including 4H3b gather data from secondary sources, including
printed tables and lists from ICT-based sources printed tables and lists from ICT-based sources
4F3c design and use two-way tables for discrete and 4H3c design and use two-way tables for discrete and
grouped data grouped data
4H3d deal with practical problems such as non-response or 4H3d deal with practical problems such as non-response or
missing data missing data

4. Processing and representing data


Pupils should be taught to:
4F4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, pie charts 4H4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, pie charts 4H4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, cumulative
for categorical data, and diagrams for continuous for categorical data, and diagrams for continuous frequency tables and diagrams, box plots and
data, including line graphs for time series, scatter data, including line graphs (time series), scatter histograms for grouped continuous data
graphs, frequency diagrams and stem-and-leaf graphs, frequency diagrams, stem-and-leaf diagrams,
diagrams cumulative frequency tables and diagrams, box
plots
4F4b calculate mean, range and median of small data sets see 4H4e see 4H4e
with discrete and then continuous data; identify the
modal class for grouped data

hij 27
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


4F4c understand and use the probability scale
4F4d understand and use estimates or measures of 4H4b understand and use estimates or measures of 4H4b understand and use estimates or measures of
probability from theoretical models (including probability from theoretical models, or from relative probability from theoretical models, or from relative
equally likely outcomes) frequency frequency
4F4e list all outcomes for single events, and for two 4H4c list all outcomes for single events, and for two
successive events, in a systematic way successive events, in a systematic way
4F4f identify different mutually exclusive outcomes and 4H4d identify different mutually exclusive outcomes and
know that the sum of the probabilities of all these know that the sum of the probabilities of all these
outcomes is 1 outcomes is 1
4H4e find the median, quartiles and interquartile range for 4H4e find the median, quartiles and interquartile range for
large data sets and calculate the mean for large data large data sets and calculate the mean for large data
sets with grouped data sets with grouped data
4H4f calculate an appropriate moving average 4H4f calculate an appropriate moving average
4H4g know when to add or multiply two probabilities:
if A and B are mutually exclusive, then the
probability of A or B occurring is P(A) + P(B),
whereas if A and B are independent events, the
probability of A and B occurring is P(A) × P(B)
4H4h use tree diagrams to represent outcomes of 4H4h use tree diagrams to represent outcomes of
compound events, recognising when events are compound events, recognising when events are
independent independent
4F4h draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what 4H4i draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what 4H4i draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what
these represent these represent these represent
4H4j use relevant statistical functions on a calculator or 4H4j use relevant statistical functions on a calculator or
spreadsheet spreadsheet

28 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

5. Interpreting and Discussing Results


Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
4F5a relate summarised data to the initial questions 4H5a relate summarised data to the initial questions
4F5b interpret a wide range of graphs and diagrams and 4H5b interpret a wide range of graphs and diagrams and 4H5b identify seasonality and trends in time series
draw conclusions draw conclusions; identify seasonality and trends
in time series
4F5c look at data to find patterns and exceptions 4H5c look at data to find patterns and exceptions
4F5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the 4H5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the 4H5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the
shapes of distributions and measures of average and shapes of distributions and measures of average and shapes of distributions and measures of average and
range spread, including median and quartiles spread, including median and quartiles; understand
frequency density
4F5e consider and check results and modify their 4H5e consider and check results and modify their
approach if necessary approach if necessary
4F5f have a basic understanding of correlation as a 4H5f appreciate that correlation is a measure of the 4H5f appreciate that correlation is a measure of the
measure of the strength of the association between strength of the association between two variables; strength of the association between two variables;
two variables; identify correlation or no correlation distinguish between positive, negative and zero distinguish between positive, negative and zero
using lines of best fit correlation using lines of best fit; appreciate correlation using lines of best fit; appreciate that
that zero correlation does not necessarily imply zero correlation does not necessarily imply ‘no
‘no relationship’ but merely ‘no linear relationship’ but merely ‘no linear relationship’
relationship’
4F5g use the vocabulary of probability to interpret results 4H5g use the vocabulary of probability to interpret results
involving uncertainty and prediction involving uncertainty and prediction [for example,
‘there is some evidence from this sample that …’]
4F5h compare experimental data and theoretical 4H5h compare experimental data and theoretical
probabilities probabilities
4F5i understand that if they repeat an experiment, they 4H5i understand that if they repeat an experiment, they
may – and usually will – get different outcomes, and may – and usually will – get different outcomes, and
that increasing sample size generally leads to better that increasing sample size generally leads to better
estimates of probability and population estimates of probability and population parameters
characteristics
4F5j discuss implications of findings in the context of the
problem

hij 29
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


4F5k interpret social statistics including index numbers
[for example, the General Index of Retail Prices];
time series [for example, population growth]; and
survey data [for example, the National Census]

30 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

10 Module 2
AO4: Handling data
1. Using and applying handling data
Problem solving
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
4F1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling
data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems:
(i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions
in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what
inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what
data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data
format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed
(ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources,
including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and
secondary sources secondary sources secondary sources
(iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data
into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the
problem problem problem
(iv) interpret and discuss: answer the initial question by (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial
drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data
4F1b identify what further information is needed to pursue 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in
a particular line of enquiry statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness
(these strategies should address the scale and (these strategies should address the scale and
4F1c select and organise the appropriate mathematics and
manageability of the tasks, and should consider manageability of the tasks, and should consider
resources to use for a task
whether the mathematics and approach used are whether the mathematics and approach used are
4F1d review progress while working; check and evaluate delivering the most appropriate solutions) delivering the most appropriate solutions)
solutions

hij 31
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
4F1e interpret, discuss and synthesise information
presented in a variety of forms
4F1f communicate mathematically, including using ICT, 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the
making use of diagrams and related explanatory text use of an increasing range of diagrams and related use of an increasing range of diagrams and related
explanatory text, on the selection of their explanatory text, on the selection of their
mathematical presentation, explaining its mathematical presentation, explaining its purpose
purpose and approach, and on the use of and approach, and on the use of symbols to convey
symbols to convey statistical meaning statistical meaning

Reasoning
4F1h apply mathematical reasoning, explaining inferences 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and
and deductions justifying inferences and deductions, justifying justifying inferences and deductions, justifying
arguments and solutions arguments and solutions
4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when
solving statistical problems solving statistical problems
4F1i explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for
cause and effect when analysing data relationships between variables when analysing relationships between variables when analysing data
data
4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the 4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the
effects that varying the assumptions could have on effects that varying the assumptions could have on
the conclusions drawn from data analysis the conclusions drawn from data analysis

32 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

11 Module 3
AO2: Number and Algebra
1. Using and applying number and algebra
Problem solving
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
2F1a select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques
efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing and strategies to solve problems of increasing
problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic complexity, involving numerical and algebraic
manipulation manipulation
2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in
order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give
reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular
approaches approaches
2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps
before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their
choice of methods
2F1c use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem
– identifying the variable, setting up an equation,
solving the equation and interpreting the solution in
the context of the problem
2F1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations;
use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy;
operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in
certain calculations

Assessed in Module 5

hij 33
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using
information presented in a variety of forms an increasing range of mathematical language and an increasing range of mathematical language and
notation notation
2F1g use a range of strategies to create numerical, 2H1f use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f move from one form of representation to another to
algebraic or graphical representations of a problem establishing algebraic or graphical representations of get different perspectives on the problem
and its solution a problem and its solution; move from one form of
representation to another to get different
perspectives on the problem
2F1h present and interpret solutions in the context of the 2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the
original problem original problem
2F1f use notation and symbols correctly and consistently 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently
within a given problem within a given problem
2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice
of mathematical presentation of mathematical presentation; present a concise,
reasoned argument

Reasoning
2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j understand the importance of a counter-example;
algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular identify exceptional cases when solving problems
that substitute numbers for letters], investigating case may be generalised further and understand the
whether particular cases can be generalised further, importance of a counter-example; identify
and understanding the importance of a counter- exceptional cases when solving problems
example
2H1k understand the difference between a practical 2H1k understand the difference between a practical
demonstration and a proof demonstration and a proof
2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive
reasoning

Assessed in Module 5

34 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and
assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the
limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the
effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the
solution to a problem solution to a problem

2. Numbers and the number system


Integers
Pupils should be taught to:
2F2a use their previous understanding of integers and 2H2a use their previous understanding of integers and 2H2a use the concepts and vocabulary of highest common
place value to deal with arbitrarily large positive place value to deal with arbitrarily large positive factor, least common multiple, prime number and
numbers and round them to a given power of 10; numbers and round them to a given power of 10; prime factor decomposition
understand and use positive numbers, both as understand and use negative integers both as
positions and translations on a number line; order positions and translations on a number line; order
integers; use the concepts and vocabulary of factor integers; use the concepts and vocabulary of factor
(divisor), multiple and common factor (divisor), multiple, common factor, highest
common factor, least common multiple, prime
number and prime factor decomposition

Powers and roots


2F2b use the terms square, positive square root, cube; use 2H2b use the terms square, positive square root, negative 2H2b use index laws for multiplication and division of
index notation for squares, cubes and powers of 10 square root, cube and cube root; use index notation integer powers; use standard index form, expressed
and index laws for multiplication and division of in conventional notation and on a calculator display
integer powers; use standard index form,
expressed in conventional notation and on a
calculator display

Assessed in Module 5

hij 35
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Fractions
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2F2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a 2H2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a
fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fraction by cancelling all common factors; order
fractions by rewriting them with a common fractions by rewriting them with a common
denominator denominator

Decimals
2F2d use decimal notation and recognise that each 2H2d recognise that each terminating decimal is a fraction 2H2d recognise that recurring decimals are exact fractions,
terminating decimal is a fraction [for example, 137 ]; recognise that
[for example, 0.137 = 1000 and that some exact fractions are recurring decimals
137 ]; order decimals
0.137 = 1000 recurring decimals are exact fractions, and that [for example, 17 = 0.142857142857…]
some exact fractions are recurring decimals [for
example, 17 = 0.142857142857…]; order decimals

Percentages
2F2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts 2H2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts
per 100’ and use this to compare proportions; per 100’, and interpret percentage as the operator ‘so
interpret percentage as the operator ‘so many many hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10
hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 parts parts per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 15 × Y]
15
per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 × Y]; use
percentage in real-life situations [for example,
commerce and business, including rate of inflation,
VAT and interest rates]

Ratio
2F2f use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest 2H2f use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest 2H2f use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest
form and its various links to fraction notation [for form and its various links to fraction notation form and its various links to fraction notation
example, in maps and scale drawings, paper sizes and
gears]

Assessed in Module 5

36 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3. Calculations
Number operations and the relationships between them
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
2F3a add, subtract, multiply and divide integers and then 2H3a multiply or divide any number by powers of 10, and 2H3a multiply or divide any number by a number between
any number; multiply or divide any number by any positive number by a number between 0 and 1; 0 and 1; find the prime factor decomposition of
powers of 10, and any positive number by a number find the prime factor decomposition of positive positive integers; understand ‘reciprocal’ as
between 0 and 1 integers; understand ‘reciprocal’ as multiplicative inverse, knowing that any non-zero
multiplicative inverse, knowing that any non- number multiplied by its reciprocal is 1 (and that
zero number multiplied by its reciprocal is 1 zero has no reciprocal, because division by zero is
(and that zero has no reciprocal, because not defined); multiply and divide by a negative
division by zero is not defined); multiply and number; use index laws to simplify and calculate the
divide by a negative number; use index laws to value of numerical expressions involving
simplify and calculate the value of numerical multiplication and division of integer, fractional and
expressions involving multiplication and negative powers; use inverse operations,
division of integer powers; use inverse understanding that the inverse operation of
operations raising a positive number to power n is raising
the result of this operation to power n1

2F3b use brackets and the hierarchy of operations 2H3b use brackets and the hierarchy of operations
2F3c calculate a given fraction of a given quantity [for 2H3c calculate a given fraction of a given quantity, 2H3c distinguish between fractions with denominators that
example, for scale drawings and construction of expressing the answer as a fraction; express a given have only prime factors of 2 and 5 (which are
models, down payments, discounts], expressing the number as a fraction of another; add and subtract represented by terminating decimals), and other
answer as a fraction; express a given number as a fractions by writing them with a common fractions (which are represented by recurring
fraction of another; add and subtract fractions by denominator; perform short division to convert a decimals); convert a recurring decimal to a fraction
writing them with a common denominator; perform simple fraction to a decimal; distinguish between [for example, 0.142857142857… = 17 ]
short division to convert a simple fraction to a fractions with denominators that have only
decimal prime factors of 2 and 5 (which are represented
by terminating decimals), and other fractions
(which are represented by recurring decimals)
2F3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative 2H3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative 2H3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative
inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication
by 15 as division by 5]; multiply and divide a fraction by 15 as division by 5; or multiplication by 67 as by 67 as multiplication by 6 followed by division by 7
by an integer, and multiply a fraction by a unit multiplication by 6 followed by division by 7 (or vice (or vice versa)]; multiply and divide a given fraction
fraction versa)], multiply and divide a given fraction by an by a unit fraction and by a general fraction
integer, by a unit fraction and by a general fraction

hij 37
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


2F3e convert simple fractions of a whole to percentages of 2H3e convert simple fractions of a whole to percentages of 2H3e understand the multiplicative nature of percentages
the whole and vice versa [for example, analysing the whole and vice versa; then understand the as operators [for example, a 15% increase in value Y,
diets, budgets or the costs of running, maintaining multiplicative nature of percentages as operators followed by a 15% decrease is calculated as
and owning a car] [for example, a 15% increase in value Y, followed by 1.15 × 0.85 × Y]; calculate an original amount
a 15% decrease is calculated as 1.15 × 0.85 × Y]; when given the transformed amount after a
calculate an original amount when given the percentage change; reverse percentage problems [for
transformed amount after a percentage change; example, given that a meal in a restaurant costs £36
reverse percentage problems [for example, given with VAT at 17.5%, its price before VAT is
that a meal in a restaurant costs £36 with VAT at calculated as £ 1.36
175
]
17.5%, its price before VAT is calculated as £ 1.36
175
]

2F3f divide a quantity in a given ratio [for example, share 2H3f divide a quantity in a given ratio 2H3f divide a quantity in a given ratio
£15 in the ratio of 1:2]

Mental methods
2F3g recall all positive integer complements to 100 2H3g recall integer squares from 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 and the 2H3g recall integer squares from 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 and the
[for example, 37 + 63 = 100]; recall all multiplication corresponding square roots, the cubes of 2, 3, 4, 5 corresponding square roots, the cubes of 2, 3, 4, 5
facts to 10 × 10, and use them to derive quickly the and 10 and 10, the fact that n0 = 1 and n-1 = n1 for
corresponding division facts; recall the cubes of 2, 3,
4, 5 and 10, and the fraction-to-decimal conversion positive integers n [for example,100 = 1; 9-1 = 19 ],
of familiar simple fractions [for example, the corresponding rule for negative numbers
1, 1, 1, 1 , 1 , 1, 2, 1 ] 1

2 4 5 10 100 3 3 8 [for example, 5 −2 = 512 = 25


1 ], n 2 = n and

1
n 3 = 3 n for any positive number n [for example,
1 1
25 2 = 5 and 64 3 = 4 ]

Assessed in Module 5

38 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


2F3h round to the nearest integer and to one significant 2H3h round to a given number of significant figures; 2H3h round to a given number of significant figures;
figure; estimate answers to problems involving develop a range of strategies for mental calculation; convert between ordinary and standard index form
decimals derive unknown facts from those they know; convert representations [for example,
2F3i develop a range of strategies for mental calculation; between ordinary and standard index form 0.1234 = 1.234 × 10-1], converting to standard index
derive unknown facts from those they know [for representations [for example, form to make sensible estimates for calculations
example, estimate 85 ]; add and subtract numbers 0.1234 = 1.234 × 10-1], converting to standard index involving multiplication and/or division
form to make sensible estimates for calculations
mentally with up to two decimal places [for example,
involving multiplication and/or division
13.76 – 5.21, 20.08 + 12.4]; multiply and divide
numbers with no more than one decimal digit,
[for example, 14.3 × 4, 56.7 ÷ 7] using the
commutative, associative, and distributive laws and
factorisation where possible, or place value
adjustments

Written methods
2F3j use standard column procedures for addition and
subtraction of integers and decimals
2F3k use standard column procedures for multiplication
of integers and decimals, understanding where to
position the decimal point by considering what
happens if they multiply equivalent fractions
2F3l use efficient methods to calculate with fractions, 2H3i use efficient methods to calculate with fractions,
including cancelling common factors before carrying including cancelling common factors before carrying
out the calculation, recognising that, in many cases, out the calculation, recognising that, in many cases,
only a fraction can express the exact answer only a fraction can express the exact answer
2F3m solve simple percentage problems, including increase 2H3j solve percentage problems, including increase and 2H3j solve percentage problems, [for example, simple
and decrease [for example, VAT, annual rate of decrease [for example, simple interest, VAT, annual interest, VAT, annual rate of inflation]; and reverse
inflation, income tax, discounts] rate of inflation]; and reverse percentages percentages

hij 39
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


2F3n solve word problems about ratio and proportion,
including using informal strategies and the unitary
method of solution [for example, given that m
identical items cost £y, then one item costs £ my and
y
n items cost £(n × m ), the number of items that
can be bought for £z is z × my ]

2H3k represent repeated proportional change using a 2H3k represent repeated proportional change using a
multiplier raised to a power [for example, compound multiplier raised to a power [for example, compound
interest] interest]
2H3l calculate an unknown quantity from quantities that 2H3l calculate an unknown quantity from quantities that
vary in direct proportion vary in direct or inverse proportion
2H3m calculate with standard index form [for example, 2H3m calculate with standard index form [for example,
2.4 × 107 × 5 × 103 = 12 × 1010 = 1.2 × 1011, 2.4 × 107 × 5 × 103 = 12 × 1010 = 1.2 × 1011,
(2.4 × 107) ÷ (5 × 103) = 4.8 × 103] (2.4 × 107) ÷ (5 × 103) = 4.8 × 103]
2H3n use surds and π in exact calculations, without a 2H3n use surds and π in exact calculations, without a
calculator calculator; rationalise a denominator such as
1 3
=
3 3

Calculator methods
2F3o use calculators effectively; know how to enter 2H3o use calculators effectively and efficiently; know how 2H3o use calculators effectively and efficiently, know how
complex calculations and use function keys for to enter complex calculations; use an extended to enter complex calculations; use an extended range
reciprocals, squares and powers range of function keys, including of function keys, including trigonometrical and
trigonometrical and statistical functions relevant statistical functions relevant across this programme
across this programme of study of study
2F3p enter a range of calculations, including those
involving measures [for example, time calculations in
which fractions of an hour must be entered as
fractions or as decimals]

Assessed in Module 5

40 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


2F3q understand the calculator display, interpreting it 2H3p understand the calculator display, knowing when to
correctly [for example, in money calculations, or interpret the display, when the display has been
when the display has been rounded by the rounded by the calculator, and knowing not to round
calculator], and knowing not to round during the during the intermediate steps of a calculation
intermediate steps of a calculation
2H3q use calculators, or written methods, to calculate the
upper and lower bounds of calculations, particularly
when working with measurements
2H3r use standard index form display and know how to 2H3r use standard index form display and know how to
enter numbers in standard index form enter numbers in standard index form
2H3s use calculators for reverse percentage calculations by 2H3s use calculators for reverse percentage calculations by
doing an appropriate division doing an appropriate division
2H3t use calculators to explore exponential growth and
decay [for example, in science or geography], using a
multiplier and the power key

4. Solving numerical problems


Pupils should be taught to:
2F4a draw on their knowledge of the operations and the 2H4a draw on their knowledge of operations and inverse 2H4a draw on their knowledge of operations and inverse
relationships between them, and of simple integer operations (including powers and roots), and of operations (including powers and roots), and of
powers and their corresponding roots, to solve methods of simplification (including factorisation methods of simplification (including factorisation
problems involving ratio and proportion, a range of and the use of the commutative, associative and and the use of the commutative, associative and
measures including speed, metric units, and distributive laws of addition, multiplication and distributive laws of addition, multiplication and
conversion between metric and common imperial factorisation) in order to select and use suitable factorisation) in order to select and use suitable
units, set in a variety of contexts strategies and techniques to solve problems and strategies and techniques to solve problems and
word problems, including those involving ratio and word problems, including those involving ratio and
2F4b select appropriate operations, methods and strategies
proportion, repeated proportional change, fractions, proportion, repeated proportional change, fractions,
to solve number problems, including trial and
percentages and reverse percentages, surds, measures percentages and reverse percentages, inverse
improvement where a more efficient method to find
and conversion between measures, and compound proportion, surds, measures and conversion
the solution is not obvious
measures defined within a particular situation between measures, and compound measures defined
within a particular situation

Assessed in Module 5

hij 41
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


2F4c use a variety of checking procedures, including 2H4b check and estimate answers to problems; select and 2H4b check and estimate answers to problems; select and
working the problem backwards, and considering justify appropriate degrees of accuracy for answers to justify appropriate degrees of accuracy for answers to
whether a result is of the right order of magnitude problems; recognise limitations on the accuracy of problems; recognise limitations on the accuracy of
data and measurements data and measurements
2F4d give solutions in the context of the problem to an
appropriate degree of accuracy, interpreting the
solution shown on a calculator display, and
recognising limitations on the accuracy of data and
measurements

5. Equations, formulae and identities


Use of symbols
Pupils should be taught to:
2F5a assessed in Module 5 2H5a assessed in Module 5 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter
symbols in algebra, using the correct notational
conventions for multiplying or dividing by a given
number, and knowing that letter symbols represent
definite unknown numbers in equations [for
example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or variables
in formula [for example, V = IR], general,
unspecified and independent numbers in identities
[for example, (x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1, for all x] and in
functions they define new expressions or quantities
by referring to known quantities [for example,
3
y = 2 – 7x, f(x) = x ; y = 1x with x ≠ 0]

2F5b assessed in Module 5 2H5b assessed in Module 5 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic
entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules
of generalised arithmetic [for example,
a(b + c) = ab + ac]; manipulate algebraic expressions
by collecting like terms
2H5c assessed in Module 5 2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’
and ‘expression’

42 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Direct and inverse proportion


Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2H5h set up and use equations to solve word and other
problems involving direct proportion or inverse
proportion
1
[for example, y ∝ x, y ∝ x2, y∝ x , y∝ 1
], and relate
x2
algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the
equations

6. Sequences, functions and graphs


Quadratic functions
Pupils should be taught to:
2H6e assessed in Module 5 2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic
functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then
more general quadratic functions [for example,
x2 – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a
quadratic equation from the graph of the
corresponding quadratic function; find the
intersection points of the graphs of a linear and
quadratic function, knowing that these are the
approximate solutions of the corresponding
simultaneous equations representing the linear and
quadratic functions

hij 43
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

12 Module 4
AO2: Number and algebra
1. Using and applying number and algebra
Problem solving
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
2F1a select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques
efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing and strategies to solve problems of increasing
problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic complexity, involving numerical and algebraic
manipulation manipulation
2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in
order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give
reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular
approaches approaches
2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps
before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their
choice of methods
2F1c use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem
– identifying the variable, setting up an equation,
solving the equation and interpreting the solution in
the context of the problem
2F1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations;
use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy;
operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in
certain calculations

44 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Communicating
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using
information presented in a variety of forms an increasing range of mathematical language and an increasing range of mathematical language and
notation notation
2F1g use a range of strategies to create numerical, 2H1f use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f move from one form of representation to another to
algebraic or graphical representations of a problem establishing algebraic or graphical representations of get different perspectives on the problem
and its solution a problem and its solution; move from one form of
representation to another to get different
perspectives on the problem
2F1h present and interpret solutions in the context of the 2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the
original problem original problem
2F1f use notation and symbols correctly and consistently 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently
within a given problem within a given problem
2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice
of mathematical presentation of mathematical presentation; present a concise,
reasoned argument

Reasoning
2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j understand the importance of a counter-example;
algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular identify exceptional cases when solving problems
that substitute numbers for letters], investigating case may be generalised further and understand the
whether particular cases can be generalised further, importance of a counter-example; identify
and understanding the importance of a counter- exceptional cases when solving problems
example
2H1k understand the difference between a practical 2H1k understand the difference between a practical
demonstration and a proof demonstration and a proof
2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive
reasoning
2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and
assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the
limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the
effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the
solution to a problem solution to a problem

hij 45
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO3: Shape, space and measures


1. Using and applying shape, space and measures
Problem solving
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
3F1a select problem-solving strategies and resources, 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in
including ICT tools, to use in geometrical work, and geometrical work, and consider and explain the geometrical work, and consider and explain the
monitor their effectiveness extent to which the selections they made were extent to which the selections they made were
appropriate appropriate
3F1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem-
solving strategies to solve complex problems solving strategies to solve more complex solving strategies to solve more complex geometrical
geometrical problems problems
3F1c identify what further information is needed to solve 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry,
a geometrical problem; break complex problems justifying their decisions to follow or reject
down into a series of tasks particular approaches

Communicating
3F1d interpret, discuss and synthesise geometrical
information presented in a variety of forms
3F1e communicate mathematically, by presenting and 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a
organising results and explaining geometrical critical examination of the presentation and critical examination of the presentation and
diagrams organisation of results, and on effective use of organisation of results, and on effective use of
symbols and geometrical diagrams symbols and geometrical diagrams
3F1f use geometrical language appropriately 3H1e use precise formal language and exact methods for
analysing geometrical configurations
3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical
presentation presentation

46 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Reasoning
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and 3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and
proofs proofs
3F1i apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from
justifying inferences and deductions brief mathematical explanations towards full brief mathematical explanations towards full
justifications in more complex contexts justifications in more complex contexts
3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional 3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional
constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask
questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’ questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’
3F1j show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical 3H1h show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical
problem problem
3H1i state constraints and give starting points when 3H1i state constraints and give starting points when
making deductions making deductions
3H1j understand the necessary and sufficient conditions
under which generalisations, inferences and solutions
to geometrical problems remain valid

hij 47
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

13 Module 5
AO2: Number and Algebra
1. Using and applying number and algebra
Problem solving
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
2F1a select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques
efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing and strategies to solve problems of increasing
problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic complexity, involving numerical and algebraic
manipulation manipulation
2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in
order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give
reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular
approaches approaches
2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps
before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their
choice of methods
2F1c use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem
– identifying the variable, setting up an equation,
solving the equation and interpreting the solution in
the context of the problem
2F1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations;
use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy;
operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in
certain calculations

Assessed in Module 3

48 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Communicating
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using
information presented in a variety of forms an increasing range of mathematical language and an increasing range of mathematical language and
notation notation
2F1g use a range of strategies to create numerical, 2H1f use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f move from one form of representation to another to
algebraic or graphical representations of a problem establishing algebraic or graphical representations of get different perspectives on the problem
and its solution a problem and its solution; move from one form of
representation to another to get different
perspectives on the problem
2F1h present and interpret solutions in the context of the 2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the
original problem original problem
2F1f use notation and symbols correctly and consistently 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently
within a given problem within a given problem
2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice
of mathematical presentation of mathematical presentation; present a concise,
reasoned argument

Reasoning
2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j understand the importance of a counter-example;
algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular identify exceptional cases when solving problems
that substitute numbers for letters], investigating case can be generalised further and understand the
whether particular cases can be generalised further, importance of a counter-example; identify
and understanding the importance of a counter- exceptional cases when solving problems
example
2H1k understand the difference between a practical 2H1k understand the difference between a practical
demonstration and a proof demonstration and a proof
2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive
reasoning
2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and
assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the
limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the
effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the
solution to a problem solution to a problem

hij 49
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

2. Numbers and the number system


Integers
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
2F2a use the concepts and vocabulary of factor (divisor), 2H2a assessed in Module 3 2H2a assessed in Module 3
multiple and common factor

Powers and roots


2F2b use the terms square, positive square root, cube; use 2H2b use the terms square, positive square root, negative 2H2b assessed in Module 3
index notation for squares, cubes and powers of 10 square root, cube and cube root; use index notation
and index laws for multiplication and division of
integer powers; use standard index form,
expressed in conventional notation and on a
calculator display

Fractions
2F2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a 2H2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a
fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fraction by cancelling all common factors; order
fractions by rewriting them with a common fractions by rewriting them with a common
denominator denominator

Decimals
2F2d use decimal notation 2H2d assessed in Module 3 2H2d assessed in Module 3

Percentages
2F2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts 2H2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts
per 100’ and use this to compare proportions; per 100’, and interpret percentage as the operator ‘so
interpret percentage as the operator ‘so many many hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10
hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 parts parts per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 15 × Y]

per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 15 × Y]

50 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3. Calculations
Number operations and the relationships between them
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
2F3a add, subtract, multiply and divide integers and then 2H3a assessed in Module 3 2H3a assessed in Module 3
any number; multiply or divide any number by
powers of 10, and any positive number by a number
between 0 and 1
2F3b use brackets and the hierarchy of operations 2H3b assessed in Module 3

Mental methods
2F3g recall all positive integer complements to 100 2H3g assessed in Module 3 2H3g assessed in Module 3
[for example, 37 + 63 = 100]; recall all multiplication
facts to 10 × 10, and use them to derive quickly the
corresponding division facts; recall the cubes of 2, 3,
4, 5 and 10

Calculator methods
2F3o use calculators effectively; use function keys for 2H3o assessed in Module 3 2H3o assessed in Module 3
reciprocals, squares and powers

4. Solving numerical problems


Pupils should be taught to:
2F4a draw on their knowledge of simple integer powers 2H4a assessed in Module 3 2H4a assessed in Module 3
and their corresponding roots, to solve problems

hij 51
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

5. Equations, formulae and identities


Use of symbols
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
2F5a distinguish the different roles played by letter 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter
symbols in algebra, knowing that letter symbols symbols in algebra, using the correct notational symbols in algebra, using the correct notational
represent definite unknown numbers in equations conventions for multiplying or dividing by a conventions for multiplying or dividing by a given
[for example, 5x + 1 = 16], defined quantities or given number, and knowing that letter symbols number, and knowing that letter symbols represent
variables in formulae [for example, V = IR], general, represent definite unknown numbers in equations definite unknown numbers in equations [for
unspecified and independent numbers in identities [for example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or variables
[for example, 3x + 2x = 5x, for all values of x] and in variables in formulae [for example, V = IR], general, in formulae [for example, V = IR], general,
functions they define new expressions or quantities unspecified and independent numbers in identities unspecified and independent numbers in identities
2 2
by referring to known quantities [for example, [for example, (x + 1) = x + 2x + 1, for all x], and in [for example, (x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1, for all x], and in
y = 2x] functions they define new expressions or quantities functions they define new expressions or quantities
by referring to known quantities [for example, by referring to known quantities [for example,
3 1 3
y = 2 – 7x; f(x) = x ; y = x with x ≠ 0] y = 2 – 7x; f(x) = x ; y = 1x with x ≠ 0]

2F5b understand that the transformation of algebraic 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic
expressions obeys and generalises the rules of entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules
arithmetic; manipulate algebraic expressions by of generalised arithmetic [for example, of generalised arithmetic [for example,
collecting like terms, by multiplying a single term a(b + c) = ab + ac]; expand the product of two a(b + c) = ab + ac]; expand the product of two linear
over a bracket, and by taking out single term linear expressions [for example, expressions [for example,
common factors [for example, (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 3x + 2]; manipulate algebraic (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 3x + 2]; manipulate algebraic
x + 5 – 2x – 1 = 4 – x; 5(2x + 3) = 10x + 15; expressions by collecting like terms, multiplying a expressions by collecting like terms, multiplying a
x 2 + 3x = x ( x + 3) ] single term over a bracket, taking out common single term over a bracket, taking out common
factors [for example, 9x – 3 = 3(3x – 1)], factorising factors [for example, 9x – 3 = 3(3x – 1)], factorising
quadratic expressions, including the difference quadratic expressions, including the difference of
of two squares [for example, x2 – 9 = (x + 3)(x – 3)], two squares [for example, x2 – 9 = (x + 3)(x – 3)], and
and cancelling common factors in rational cancelling common factors in rational expressions
expressions [for example,
2
[for example, 2(x + 1)2/(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)]
2(x + 1) /(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)]
2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’, 2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’,
‘formula’, ‘identity’ and ‘expression’ ‘formula’, ‘identity’ and ‘expression’

52 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Index notation
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2F5c use index notation for simple integer powers; 2H5d use index notation for simple integer powers, and 2H5d use simple instances of index laws [for example,
2
substitute positive and negative numbers into simple instances of index laws [for example, x3 × x2 = x5; xx3 = x-1; (x2)3 = x6]
expressions such as 3x2 + 4 and 2x3 3 2 5 x2 -1 2 3 6
x × x = x ; x3 = x ; (x ) = x ]; substitute positive
and negative numbers into expressions such as
3x2 + 4 and 2x3

Equations
2H5e set up simple equations [for example, find the angle 2H5e set up simple equations [for example, find the angle a
a in a triangle with angles a, a + 10, a + 20]; solve in a triangle with angles a, a + 10, a + 20]; solve
simple equations [for example, 5x = 7; 11 – 4x = 2; simple equations [for example, 5x = 7; 11 – 4x = 2;
3(2x + 1) = 8; 2(1 – x) = 6(2 + x); 4x2 = 49; 3 = 12x ] 3(2x + 1) = 8; 2(1 – x) = 6(2 + x); 4x2 = 49; 3 = 12x ]
by using inverse operations or by transforming both by using inverse operations or by transforming both
sides in the same way sides in the same way

Linear Equations
2F5e solve linear equations, with integer coefficients, in 2H5f solve linear equations in one unknown, with integer 2H5f solve linear equations in one unknown, with integer
which the unknown appears on either side or on or fractional coefficients, in which the unknown or fractional coefficients, in which the unknown
both sides of the equation; solve linear equations appears on either side or on both sides of the appears on either side or on both sides of the
that require prior simplification of brackets, equation; solve linear equations that require prior equation
including those that have negative signs occurring simplification of brackets, including those that have
anywhere in the equation, and those with a negative negative signs occurring anywhere in the equation,
solution and those with a negative solution

hij 53
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Formulae
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2F5f use formulae from mathematics and other subjects 2H5g use formulae from mathematics and other subjects 2H5g use formulae from mathematics and other subjects
expressed initially in words and then using letters and [for example, formulae for the area of a triangle or a [for example, formulae for the area of a triangle or a
symbols [for example, formulae for the area of a parallelogram, area enclosed by a circle, volume of parallelogram, area enclosed by a circle, volume of a
triangle, the area enclosed by a circle, a prism, volume of a cone]; substitute numbers prism, volume of a cone]; substitute numbers into a
wage earned = hours worked × rate per hour]; into a formula; change the subject of a formula, formula; change the subject of a formula, including
substitute numbers into a formula; derive a formula including cases where the subject occurs twice, cases where the subject occurs twice, or where a
[for example, convert temperatures between degrees or where a power of the subject appears [for power of the subject appears [for example, find r,
2
Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius, find the perimeter of example, find r, given that A = πr , find x given given that A = πr 2 , find x given y = mx + c];
a rectangle given its area A and the length l of one y = mx + c]; generate a formula [for example, find generate a formula [for example, find the perimeter
side] the perimeter of a rectangle given its area A and the of a rectangle given its area A and the length l of one
length l of one side] side]

Simultaneous linear equations


2H5i find the exact solution of two simultaneous 2H5i find the exact solution of two simultaneous
equations in two unknowns by eliminating a variable, equations in two unknowns by eliminating a variable,
and interpret the equations as lines and their and interpret the equations as lines and their
common solution as the point of intersection common solution as the point of intersection
2H5j solve simple linear inequalities in one variable, and 2H5j solve simple linear inequalities in one variable, and
represent the solution set on a number line; solve represent the solution set on a number line; solve
several linear inequalities in two variables and find several linear inequalities in two variables and find
the solution set the solution set

Quadratic equations
2H5k solve quadratic equations by factorisation 2H5k solve quadratic equations by factorisation,
completing the square and using the quadratic
formula

54 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Simultaneous linear and quadratic equations


Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2H5l solve exactly, by elimination of an unknown, two
simultaneous equations in two unknowns, one of
which is linear in each unknown, and the other is
linear in one unknown and quadratic in the other
[for example, solve the simultaneous equations
y = 11x – 2 and y = 5x2], or where the second is of
the form x2 + y2 = r2

Numerical methods
2H5m use systematic trial and improvement to find 2H5m use systematic trial and improvement to find
approximate solutions of equations where there is no approximate solutions of equations where there is no
simple analytical method of solving them [for simple analytical method of solving them [for
example, x3 – x = 900] example, x3 – x = 900]

6. Sequences, functions and graphs


Sequences
Pupils should be taught to:
2F6a generate terms of a sequence using term-to-term and 2H6a generate common integer sequences (including 2H6a generate common integer sequences (including
position-to-term definitions of the sequence sequences of odd or even integers, squared sequences of odd or even integers, squared integers,
integers, powers of 2, powers of 10, triangular powers of 2, powers of 10, triangular numbers); use
numbers); generate terms of a sequence using term- linear expressions to describe the nth term of an
to-term and position-to-term definitions of the arithmetic sequence, justifying its form by reference
sequence; use linear expressions to describe the to the activity or context from which it was
nth term of an arithmetic sequence, justifying its generated
form by reference to the activity or context from
which it was generated

hij 55
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Graphs of linear functions


Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2F6b use the conventions for coordinates in the plane; 2H6b use conventions for coordinates in the plane; plot 2H6b recognise (when values are given for m and c) that
plot points in all four quadrants; plot graphs of points in all four quadrants; recognise (when equations of the form y = mx + c correspond to
functions in which y is given explicitly in terms of x values are given for m and c) that equations of straight-line graphs in the coordinate plane
[for example, y = 2x + 3], or implicitly [for example, the form y = mx + c correspond to straight-line
x + y = 7] graphs in the coordinate plane; plot graphs of
functions in which y is given explicitly in terms of x
(as in y = 2x + 3), or implicitly (as in x + y = 7)
2F6c construct linear functions from real-life problems
and plot their corresponding graphs; discuss and
interpret graphs arising from real situations
2H6c find the gradient of lines given by equations of the 2H6c find the gradient of lines given by equations of the
form y = mx + c (when values are given for m and c); form y = mx + c (when values are given for m and c);
understand that the form y = mx + c represents a understand that the form y = mx + c represents a
straight line and that m is the gradient of the line, and straight line and that m is the gradient of the line, and
c is the value of the y-intercept; explore the gradients c is the value of the y-intercept; explore the gradients
of parallel lines [for example, know that the lines of parallel lines and lines perpendicular to these
represented by the equations y = –5x and y = 3 – 5x lines [for example, know that the lines represented
are parallel, each having gradient (–5)] by the equations y = –5x and y = 3 – 5x are parallel,
each having gradient (–5) and that the line with
equation y = 5x is perpendicular to these lines
and has gradient 1 ]
5

Interpret graphical information


2F6e interpret information presented in a range of linear 2H6d construct linear functions and plot the 2H6d construct linear functions and plot the
and non-linear graphs [for example, graphs corresponding graphs arising from real-life corresponding graphs arising from real-life
describing trends, conversion graphs, distance-time problems; discuss and interpret graphs modelling problems; discuss and interpret graphs modelling
graphs, graphs of height or weight against age, real situations [for example, distance-time graph for a real situations [for example, distance-time graph for a
graphs of quantities that vary against time, such as particle moving with constant speed, the depth of particle moving with constant speed, the depth of
employment] water in a container as it empties, the velocity-time water in a container as it empties, the velocity-time
graph for a particle moving with constant graph for a particle moving with constant
acceleration] acceleration]

56 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Quadratic functions
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic 2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic
functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then
more general quadratic functions [for example, more general quadratic functions [for example,
2 2
y = x – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a y = x – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a
quadratic equation from the graph of the quadratic equation from the graph of the
corresponding quadratic function corresponding quadratic function

Other functions
2H6f plot graphs of simple cubic functions [for example, 2H6f plot graphs of simple cubic functions [for example,
3 3
y = x ], the reciprocal function y = 1x with x ≠ 0, y = x ], the reciprocal function y = 1x with x ≠ 0, the
using a spreadsheet or graph plotter as well as pencil exponential function y = kx for integer values of
and paper; recognise the characteristic shapes of all x and simple positive values of k [for example,
these functions
( )x ], the circular functions y = sinx
y = 2 x ; y = 12
and y = cosx, using a spreadsheet or graph plotter as
well as pencil and paper; recognise the characteristic
shapes of all these functions

Transformation of functions
2H6g apply to the graph of y = f(x) the transformations
y = f(x) + a, y = f(ax), y = f(x + a), y = af(x) for
linear, quadratic, sine and cosine functions f(x)

Loci
2H6h construct the graphs of simple loci 2H6h construct the graphs of simple loci, including the
circle x2 + y2 = r2 for a circle of radius r centred
at the origin of coordinates; find graphically the
intersection points of a given straight line with
this circle and know that this corresponds to
solving the two simultaneous equations
representing the line and the circle

hij 57
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO3: Shape, space and measures


1. Using and applying shape, space and measures
Problem solving
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
Pupils should be taught to:
3F1a select problem-solving strategies and resources, 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in
including ICT tools, to use in geometrical work, and geometrical work, and consider and explain the geometrical work, and consider and explain the
monitor their effectiveness extent to which the selections they made were extent to which the selections they made were
appropriate appropriate
3F1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem-
solving strategies to solve complex problems solving strategies to solve more complex solving strategies to solve more complex geometrical
geometrical problems problems
3F1c identify what further information is needed to solve 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry,
a geometrical problem; break complex problems justifying their decisions to follow or reject
down into a series of tasks particular approaches

Communicating
3F1d interpret, discuss and synthesise geometrical
information presented in a variety of forms
3F1e communicate mathematically, by presenting and 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a
organising results and explaining geometrical critical examination of the presentation and critical examination of the presentation and
diagrams organisation of results, and on effective use of organisation of results, and on effective use of
symbols and geometrical diagrams symbols and geometrical diagrams
3F1f use geometrical language appropriately 3H1e use precise formal language and exact methods for
analysing geometrical configurations
3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical
presentation presentation

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Reasoning
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and 3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and
proofs proofs
3F1i apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from
justifying inferences and deductions brief mathematical explanations towards full brief mathematical explanations towards full
justifications in more complex contexts justifications in more complex contexts
3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional 3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional
constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask
questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’ questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’
3F1j show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical 3H1h show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical
problem problem
3H1i state constraints and give starting points when 3H1i state constraints and give starting points when
making deductions making deductions
3H1j understand the necessary and sufficient conditions
under which generalisations, inferences and solutions
to geometrical problems remain valid

2. Geometrical reasoning
Angles
Pupils should be taught to:
3F2a recall and use properties of angles at a point, angles
on a straight line (including right angles),
perpendicular lines, and opposite angles at a vertex
3F2b distinguish between acute, obtuse, reflex and right
angles; estimate the size of an angle in degrees

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Properties of triangles and other rectilinear shapes


Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
3F2c use parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding 3H2a distinguish between lines and line segments; use 3H2a distinguish between lines and line segments
angles, understand the properties of parallelograms parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding
and a proof that the angle sum of a triangle is 180 angles, understand the consequent properties of
degrees; understand a proof that the exterior angle of parallelograms and a proof that the angle sum of a
a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at triangle is 180 degrees; understand a proof that the
the other two vertices exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the
interior angles at the other two vertices
3F2d use angle properties of equilateral, isosceles and 3H2b use angle properties of equilateral, isosceles and
right-angled triangles; understand congruence; right-angled triangles; understand congruence;
explain why the angle sum of any quadrilateral is explain why the angle sum of any quadrilateral is 360
360 degrees degrees
3F2e use their knowledge of rectangles, parallelograms and
triangles to deduce formulae for the area of a
parallelogram, and a triangle, from the formula for
the area of a rectangle
3F2f recall the essential properties of special types of 3H2c recall the definitions of special types of
quadrilateral, including square, rectangle, quadrilateral, including square, rectangle,
parallelogram, trapezium and rhombus; classify parallelogram, trapezium and rhombus; classify
quadrilaterals by their geometric properties quadrilaterals by their geometric properties
3F2g calculate and use the sums of the interior and 3H2d calculate and use the sums of the interior and
exterior angles of quadrilaterals, pentagons and exterior angles of quadrilaterals, pentagons and
hexagons; calculate and use the angles of regular hexagons; calculate and use the angles of regular
polygons polygons
3H2e understand and use SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS
conditions to prove the congruence of triangles
using formal arguments, and to verify standard ruler
and compass constructions
3H2f understand, recall and use Pythagoras’ theorem in 3H2f understand, recall and use Pythagoras’ theorem in
2-D problems; investigate the geometry of cuboids 2-D , then 3-D problems; investigate the geometry
including cubes, and shapes made from cuboids of cuboids including cubes, and shapes made from
cuboids, including the use of Pythagoras’
theorem to calculate lengths in three dimensions

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


3H2g understand similarity of triangles and of other plane 3H2g understand similarity of triangles and of other plane
figures, and use this to make geometric inferences; figures, and use this to make geometric inferences;
understand, recall and use trigonometrical understand, recall and use trigonometrical
relationships in right-angled triangles, and use these relationships in right-angled triangles, and use these
to solve problems, including those involving to solve problems, including those involving
bearings bearings, then use these relationships in 3-D
contexts, including finding the angles between a
line and a plane (but not the angle between two
planes or between two skew lines); calculate the
area of a triangle using 12 ab sin C ; draw, sketch
and describe the graphs of trigonometric
functions for angles of any size, including
transformations involving scalings in either or
both the x and y directions; use the sine and
cosine rules to solve 2-D and 3-D problems

Properties of circles
3F2i recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of 3H2h recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of 3H2h recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of
related terms, including centre, radius, chord, related terms, including centre, radius, chord, related terms, including sector and segment;
diameter, circumference, tangent and arc; understand diameter, circumference, tangent, arc, sector and understand that the tangent at any point on a circle is
that inscribed regular polygons can be constructed segment; understand that the tangent at any perpendicular to the radius at that point; understand
by equal division of a circle point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius at and use the fact that tangents from an external point
that point; understand and use the fact that are equal in length; explain why the perpendicular
tangents from an external point are equal in from the centre to a chord bisects the chord; prove
length; explain why the perpendicular from the and use the facts that the angle subtended by an arc
centre to a chord bisects the chord; understand at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended
that inscribed regular polygons can be constructed at any point on the circumference, the angle
by equal division of a circle; use the facts that the subtended at the circumference by a semicircle is a
angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a right angle, that angles in the same segment are
circle is twice the angle subtended at any point equal, and that opposite angles of a cyclic
on the circumference, the angle subtended at quadrilateral sum to 180 degrees; prove and use the
the circumference by a semicircle is a right alternate segment theorem
angle, that angles in the same segment are
equal, and that opposite angles of a cyclic
quadrilateral sum to 180 degrees

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

3-D shapes
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
3F2j explore the geometry of cuboids (including cubes),
and shapes made from cuboids
3F2k use 2-D representations of 3-D shapes and analyse 3H2i use 2-D representations of 3-D shapes and analyse 3H2i solve problems involving surface areas and volumes
3-D shapes through 2-D projections and cross- 3-D shapes through 2-D projections and cross- of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres;
sections, including plan and elevation sections, including plan and elevation; solve solve problems involving more complex shapes
problems involving surface areas and volumes of and solids, including segments of circles and
prisms and cylinders frustums of cones

3. Transformations and coordinates


Specifying transformations
Pupils should be taught to:
3F3a understand that rotations are specified by a centre 3H3a understand that rotations are specified by a centre 3H3a use any point as the centre of rotation; measure the
and an (anticlockwise) angle; rotate a shape about the and an (anticlockwise) angle; use any point as the angle of rotation using fractions of a turn or degrees;
origin; measure the angle of rotation using right centre of rotation; measure the angle of rotation understand that translations are specified by giving a
angles or simple fractions of a turn; understand that using right angles, fractions of a turn or degrees; vector
reflections are specified by a mirror line, at first using understand that reflections are specified by a (mirror)
a line parallel to an axis; understand that translations line such as y = x or y = –x line; understand that
are specified by a distance and direction, and translations are specified by giving a distance and
enlargements by a centre and positive scale factor direction (or a vector), and enlargements by a centre
and positive scale factor

Properties of transformations
3F3b recognise and visualise rotations, reflections and 3H3b recognise and visualise rotations, reflections and 3H3b transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by
translations, including reflection symmetry of 2-D translations, including reflection symmetry of 2-D combinations of translation, rotation and reflection;
and 3-D shapes, and rotation symmetry of 2-D and 3-D shapes, and rotation symmetry of 2-D use congruence to show that translations,
shapes; transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by shapes; transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by rotations and reflections preserve length and
translation, rotation and reflection, recognising that translation, rotation and reflection and angle, so that any figure is congruent to its
these transformations preserve length and angle, so combinations of these transformations; image under any of these transformations;
that any figure is congruent to its image under any of distinguish properties that are preserved under distinguish properties that are preserved under
these transformations particular transformations particular transformations

62 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier


3F3c recognise, visualise and construct enlargements of 3H3c recognise, visualise and construct enlargements of 3H3c use positive fractional and negative scale factors
objects using positive scale factors greater than one; objects; understand from this that any two circles
understand from this that any two circles and any and any two squares are mathematically similar,
two squares are mathematically similar, while, in while, in general, two rectangles are not, then use
general, two rectangles are not positive fractional scale factors
3F3d recognise that enlargements preserve angle but not 3H3d recognise that enlargements preserve angle but not 3H3d understand the difference between formulae for
length; identify the scale factor of an enlargement as length; identify the scale factor of an enlargement as perimeter, area and volume by considering
the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding dimensions; understand and use the effect of
line segments and apply this to triangles; understand line segments; understand the implications of enlargement on areas and volumes of shapes
the implications of enlargement for perimeter; use enlargement for perimeter; use and interpret maps and solids
and interpret maps and scale drawings and scale drawings; understand the difference
between formulae for perimeter, area and
volume by considering dimensions

Coordinates
3F3e understand that one coordinate identifies a point on 3H3e understand that one coordinate identifies a point on 3H3e given the coordinates of the points A and B,
a number line, two coordinates identify a point in a a number line, that two coordinates identify a point calculate the length AB
plane and three coordinates identify a point in space, in a plane and three coordinates identify a point in
using the terms '1-D', '2-D' and '3-D'; use axes and space, using the terms '1-D', '2-D' and '3-D'; use axes
coordinates to specify points in all four quadrants; and coordinates to specify points in all four
locate points with given coordinates; find the quadrants; locate points with given coordinates; find
coordinates of points identified by geometrical the coordinates of points identified by geometrical
information [for example, find the coordinates of the information; find the coordinates of the midpoint of
fourth vertex of a parallelogram with vertices at the line segment AB, given the points A and B, then
(2, 1) (–7, 3) and (5, 6)]; find the coordinates of the calculate the length AB
mid-point of the line segment AB, given points A
and B

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Vectors
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
3H3f understand and use vector notation 3H3f understand and use vector notation; calculate, and
represent graphically the sum of two vectors, the
difference of two vectors and a scalar multiple of
a vector; calculate the resultant of two vectors;
understand and use the commutative and
associative properties of vector addition; solve
simple geometrical problems in 2-D using vector
methods

4. Measures and construction


Measures
Pupils should be taught to:
3F4a interpret scales on a range of measuring instruments, 3H4a use angle measure [for example, use bearings to 3H4a know that measurements using real numbers depend
including those for time and mass; convert specify direction]; know that measurements using on the choice of unit; recognise that measurements
measurements from one unit to another; know real numbers depend on the choice of unit; given to the nearest whole unit may be inaccurate by
rough metric equivalents of pounds, feet, miles, pints recognise that measurements given to the up to one half in either direction; understand and use
and gallons; make sensible estimates of a range of nearest whole unit may be inaccurate by up to compound measures, including speed and density
measures in everyday settings one half in either direction; convert
measurements from one unit to another;
3F4b understand angle measure using the associated
understand and use compound measures,
language [for example, use bearings to specify
including speed and density
direction]
3F4c understand and use speed

64 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Construction
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
3F4d measure and draw lines to the nearest millimetre, and 3H4b draw approximate constructions of triangles and
angles to the nearest degree; draw triangles and other other 2-D shapes, using a ruler and protractor, given
2-D shapes using a ruler and protractor, and given information about side lengths and angles; construct
information about their side lengths and angles; specified cubes, regular tetrahedra, square-based
understand, from their experience of constructing pyramids and other 3-D shapes
them, that triangles satisfying SSS, SAS, ASA and
RHS are unique, but SSA triangles are not; construct
cubes, regular tetrahedra, square-based pyramids and
other 3-D shapes from given information
3F4e use straight edge and compasses to do standard 3H4c use a straight edge and compasses to do standard 3H4c use a straight edge and compasses to do standard
constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a
given side given side, the midpoint and perpendicular given side, the midpoint and perpendicular bisector
bisector of a line segment, the perpendicular of a line segment, the perpendicular from a point to
from a point to a line, the perpendicular from a a line, the perpendicular from a point on a line, and
point on a line, and the bisector of an angle the bisector of an angle

Mensuration
3F4f find areas of rectangles, recalling the formula, 3H4d find the surface area of simple shapes by using the 3H4d find the surface area of simple shapes by using the
understanding the connection to counting squares formulae for the areas of triangles and rectangles; formulae for the areas of triangles and rectangles;
and how it extends this approach; recall and use the find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and
formulae for the area of a parallelogram and a understanding the connection to counting cubes and understanding the connection to counting cubes and
triangle; find the surface area of simple shapes using how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of
the area formulae for triangles and rectangles; right prisms and of shapes made from cubes and right prisms; convert between volume measures
calculate perimeters and areas of shapes made from cuboids; convert between volume measures including cm3 and m3; calculate the lengths of arcs
triangles and rectangles 3 3
including cm and m ; find circumferences of circles and the areas of sectors of circles
and areas enclosed by circles, recalling relevant
3F4g find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and
formulae
understanding the connection to counting cubes and
how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of
shapes made from cubes and cuboids
3F4h find circumferences of circles and areas enclosed by
circles, recalling relevant formulae
3F4i convert between area measures, including cm2 and
m2, and volume measures, including cm3 and m3

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Loci
Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier
3H4e find loci, both by reasoning and by using ICT to 3H4e find loci, both by reasoning and by using ICT to
produce shapes and paths [for example, a region produce shapes and paths [for example, a region
bounded by a circle and an intersecting line] bounded by a circle and an intersecting line]

66 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Key Skills and Other Issues

14 Key Skills – Teaching, Developing


and Providing Opportunities for
Generating Evidence
14.1 Introduction The Key Skills Qualification requires candidates to demonstrate levels
of achievement in the Key Skills of Communication, Application of Number
and Information Technology.
The units for the ‘wider’ Key Skills of Improving own Learning and
Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving are also available.
The acquisition and demonstration of ability in these ‘wider’ Key Skills
is deemed highly desirable for all candidates, but they do not form part
of the Key Skills Qualification.
Copies of the Key Skills Units may be down loaded from the QCA
web site (www.qca.org.uk/keyskills).
The units for each Key Skill comprise three sections:

A What you need to know.


B What you must do.
C Guidance.

Candidates following a course of study based on this Specification for


GCSE Mathematics (Modular) can be offered opportunities to
develop and generate evidence of attainment in aspects of the Key
Skills of Communication, Application of Number, Information Technology,
Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with Others and Problem
Solving. Areas of study and learning that can be used to encourage the
acquisition and use of Key Skills, and to provide opportunities to
generate evidence for Part B of the units, are signposted below.

14.2 Key Skills Opportunities in The signposting which follows indicates the opportunities to acquire
Mathematics (Modular) and produce evidence of the Key Skills in AO2-4. AO1, Using and
applying mathematics which is assessed in the context of AO2-3, also
provides opportunities.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communication Level 1
What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
C1.1 Take part in discussions ü ü ü
C1.2 Read and obtain information ü ü ü
C1.3 Write different types of documents

Communication Level 2
What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
C2.1a Contribute to discussions ü ü ü
C2.1b Give a short talk ü ü ü
C2.2 Read and summarise information ü ü ü
C2.3 Write different types of documents

Application of Number Level 1


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
N1.1 Interpret information from different
ü ü ü
sources
N1.2 Carry out calculations ü ü ü
N1.3 Interpret results and present findings ü ü ü

Application of Number Level 2


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
N2.1 Interpret information from different
ü ü ü
sources
N2.2 Carry out calculations ü ü ü
N2.3 Interpret results and present findings ü ü ü

68 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Information Technology Level 1


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
IT1.1 Find, explore and develop
ü ü ü
information
IT1.2 Present information, including text,
ü ü ü
numbers and images

Information Technology Level 2


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
IT2.1 Search for and select information ü ü ü
IT2.2 Explore and develop information
ü ü ü
and derive new information
IT2.3 Present combined information,
ü ü ü
including text, numbers and images

Improving own Learning and Performance Level 1


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
LP1.1 Confirm short-term
targets and plan how ü ü ü
these will be met
LP1.2 Follow plan to meet
targets and improve ü ü ü
performance
LP1.3 Review progress and
ü ü ü
achievements

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Improving own Learning and Performance Level 2


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
LP2.1 Help set short-term targets and plan
ü ü ü
how these will be met
LP2.2 Use plan and support from others,
ü ü ü
to meet targets
LP2.3 Review progress and identify
ü ü ü
evidence of achievements

Working with Others Level 1


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
WO1.1 Confirm what needs to be done
ü ü ü
and who is to do it
WO1.2 Work towards agreed objectives ü ü ü
WO1.3 Identify progress and suggest
ü ü ü
improvements

Working with Others Level 2


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
WO2.1 Plan work and confirm working
ü ü ü
arrangements
WO2.2 Work cooperatively towards
ü ü ü
achieving identified objectives
WO2.3 Exchange information on progress
and agree ways of improving work ü ü ü
with others

70 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Problem Solving Level 1


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
PS1.1 Confirm understanding of given
ü ü ü
problems
PS1.2 Plan and try out ways of solving
ü ü ü
problems
PS1.3 Check if problems have been
ü ü ü
solved and describe the results

Problem Solving Level 2


What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating
Evidence in Subject Content
AO2 AO3 AO4
PS2.1 Identify problems and come up
ü ü ü
with ways of solving them
PS2.2 Plan and try out options ü ü ü
PS2.3 Apply given methods to check if
problems have been solved and ü ü ü
describe the results

The signposting in the twelve tables above represents the possible


opportunities to acquire and produce evidence of the Key Skills
through this specification. Such opportunities are dependent on the
detailed course of study delivered within centres.

14.3 Further Guidance More specific guidance and examples of tasks that can provide
evidence of single Key Skills, or composite tasks that can provide
evidence of more than one Key Skill, are given in the AQA
specification support material, particularly the Teachers’ Guide.

14.4 Exemptions for the Key Skills GCSE A*- C examination performance on this specification provides
Qualification exemptions for the external test in Application of Number at Level 2.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

15 Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social,


Cultural and Other Issues
15.1 Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Mathematics provides opportunities to promote:
Social, Cultural and Other • spiritual development, through explaining the underlying mathematical
Issues principles behind some of the natural forms and patterns in the
world around us;
• moral development, helping pupils recognise how logical reasoning
can be used to consider the consequences of particular decisions
and choices helping them learn the value of mathematical truth;
• social development, through helping pupils work together productively
on complex mathematical tasks and helping them see that the
result is often better than could be achieved separately;
• cultural development, through helping pupils appreciate that
mathematical thought contributes to the development of our
culture and is becoming increasingly central to our highly
technological future, and through recognising that mathematicians
from many cultures have contributed to the development of
modern day mathematics.

15.2 European Dimension AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the
European Community in preparing this specification and associated
specimen papers.

15.3 Environmental Issues AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the
European Community and the Report Environmental Responsibility: An
Agenda for Further and Higher Education 1993 in preparing this
specification and associated specimen papers.

15.4 Citizenship Coursework tasks, particularly those for AO4 Handling data, promote
the skills of enquiry and communication. They also encourage the skill
of participation and responsible action in the educational
establishment and/or communication.

15.5 Avoidance of Bias AQA has taken great care in the preparation of this specification and
associated specimen papers to avoid bias of any kind.

15.6 Health and Safety Coursework tasks, particularly those for AO4 Handling data provide
opportunities to promote Health and Safety issues.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

15.7 ICT (a) Pupils should be given opportunities to apply and develop
their ICT capability through the use of ICT tools to support
their learning in mathematics.

(b) Pupils should be given opportunities to support their work by


being taught to :

(i) find things out from a variety of sources, selecting and


synthesising the information to meet their needs and
developing an ability to question its accuracy, bias and
plausibility;

(ii) develop their ideas using ICT tools to amend and


refine their work and enhance its quality and accuracy;

(iii) exchange and share information, both directly and


through electronic media;

(iv) review, modify and evaluate their work, reflecting


critically on its quality, as it progresses.

15.8 Other issues Mathematics provides opportunities to promote:


• thinking skills, through developing pupils’ problem-solving skills
and deductive reasoning;
• financial capability, through applying mathematics to problems set in
financial contexts;
• enterprise and entrepreneurial skills, through developing pupils’ abilities
to apply mathematics in science and technology, in economics and
in risk assessment;
• work related learning, through developing pupils’ abilities to use and
apply mathematics in workplace situations and in solving real-life
problems.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Internal Assessment (Coursework)

16 Nature of the Coursework


Modules
16.1 Introduction There are two alternative approaches to the assessment of the
coursework modules:
• Option T centres may choose from a bank of coursework tasks
provided by AQA or they set their own coursework tasks; centres
then mark the coursework tasks with moderation of candidates’
coursework by AQA;
• Option X centres choose from the bank of coursework tasks
provided by AQA in this specification and candidates’ coursework
is marked by AQA.
Apart from the choice of coursework tasks and the method of
assessment, the nature of the coursework is the same for Option T
and Option X. The following details apply to both Option T and
Option X. It is not necessary to use the same option for both tasks.
The details for the coursework are also common to GCSE
Mathematics Specification A.

16.2 Module 2 Module 2 assesses the Handling data task (AO4 task) which must be set
in the context of AO4. Candidates are expected to submit one task
only. Tasks based on probability only, without data handling, are
unlikely to score well on these criteria and should be avoided.
Simulation activities are acceptable provided that they lead to statistical
tasks rather than probability tasks. Candidates may choose to use
statistical information from the Internet or other sources. The
Assessment Criteria for the AO4 task are given in section 17.5. The
AO4 task is marked out of a total of 24 marks. The coursework task
is expected to take approximately two weeks to complete, including
lesson and homework time. It is not permissible for the Handling data
project (AO4 task) to be re-used as the Module 4 coursework task.

16.3 Module 4 The Using and Applying Mathematics task (AO1 task) submitted for
Module 4 must be set in the context of AO2 and/or AO3. One task
is expected, however, candidates may submit up to two tasks in order
to satisfy the assessment criteria for AO1. The Assessment Criteria
for the AO1 task are given in section 17.6. The AO1 task is marked
out of a total of 24 marks and if two tasks are submitted, the better
mark in each strand should be used. The coursework task is expected
to take approximately two weeks to complete, including lesson and
homework time.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

16.4 General Module 2 and Module 4 will be offered three times a year in the
March, June and November examination series. Centres may choose
the most appropriate examination series to submit the tasks for
assessment. Centres may enter candidates for Module 2 and for
Module 4 in different examination series. For example, centres may
enter candidates for Module 2 in the June of year 10 and for Module 4
in the June of year 11.

16.5 Philosophy It is intended that coursework should be an integral part of the


teaching and learning process. It must not be regarded as an
additional or separate part of this process. Therefore it is important
that the scheme of work includes activities designed to develop the
strands that are assessed in Module 2 and Module 4. The Module 2
AO4 coursework task provides an opportunity for candidates to carry
out an extended piece of work using Handling data skills. The Module
4, AO1 coursework task provides an opportunity for candidates to
conduct an extended piece of work which enhances their
understanding of the mathematics of AO2 and/or AO3. Candidates
are expected to use appropriate mathematical skills to investigate and
carry out the tasks. These skills may involve the use of practical
equipment and computers where appropriate to the tasks. Tasks
should be chosen so that they are appropriate for the candidate and,
by their nature, do not limit the mark that can be awarded.
Coursework also provides an appropriate method for generating
evidence for the six Key Skills: Communication, Application of Number,
Information Technology, Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with
Others and Problem Solving.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

17 Assessment Criteria for the


Coursework Modules
17.1 Introduction There are two different sets of assessment criteria, one for each of the
coursework modules. For Module 2 (AO4 task) the assessment
criteria for Handling data are used and for Module 4 (AO1 task) the
assessment criteria for Using and applying mathematics are used.

17.2 Module 2 Candidates will be assessed in terms of their attainment in each of the
Handling data (AO4 task) following three strands which correspond to the Programme of Study
for Handling data at National Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4.
Strand Maximum mark
1 Specify the problem and plan 8
2 Collect, process and represent data 8
3 Interpret and discuss results 8
Maximum total mark 24

The score in each of the three strands should be that which reflects
the best performance by the candidate in that strand. These marks
should be totalled to give a mark out of 24.
The criteria are to be used as best fit indicative descriptions and the
statements within them are not to be taken as hurdles. This means
candidates’ work should be assessed in relation to the criteria taken as
holistic descriptions of performance. The first consideration is which
of the descriptions in each strand best describes the work in a
candidate’s project. Once that is established, the final step is to decide
between the lower and the higher tier mark available for that
description; this decision may well involve looking again at the criteria
above and below the selected best fitting criterion. It is not
appropriate to take each statement in each description and regard it as
a separate assessment criterion. Nor is it necessary to consider
whether the majority of the statements within a criterion have been
met.
A mark of 0 should be awarded if a candidate’s work fails to satisfy the
requirements for 1 mark.
Descriptions for higher marks subsume those for lower marks.
Where there are references to ‘at least the level detailed in the handling
data paragraph of the grade description for grade X ’ , work which uses
no technique beyond the specified grade is indicative of the lower of
the two marks. To obtain the higher of the two marks requires
processing and analysis using techniques that best fit a more
demanding standard.
In these criteria, there is an intended approximate link between 7
marks and grade A, 5 marks and grade C and 3 marks and grade F.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

17.3 Module 4 Candidates will be assessed in terms of their attainment in each of the
Using and Applying following three strands which correspond to the three areas of the
Mathematics (AO1 task) Programme of Study for Using and applying mathematics at National
Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4.

Strand Maximum mark


1 Making and monitoring decisions to 8
solve problems
2 Communicating mathematically 8

3 Developing skills of mathematical 8


reasoning
Maximum total mark 24

The score in each of the three strands should be that which reflects
the best performance by the candidate in that strand. These marks
should be totalled to give a mark out of 24.
The criteria are to be used as best fit indicative descriptions and the
statements within them are not to be taken as hurdles. It is necessary,
however, for the majority of the statement to be met for the mark to
be awarded.
The mark descriptions within a strand are designed to be broadly
hierarchical. This means that, in general, a description at a particular
mark subsumes those at lower marks. Therefore the mark awarded
may not be supported by direct evidence of achievement of lower
marks in each strand.
It is assumed that tasks which allow higher marks will involve a more
sophisticated approach and/or treatment.
The AO1 coursework task must be set in the context of AO2 (Number
and algebra) and/or AO3 (Shape, space and measures).
In these criteria, there is an intended approximate link between 7
marks and grade A, 5 marks and grade C and 3 marks and grade F.

17.4 Reporting of the Coursework The mark out of a total of 24 awarded for each Module is reported on
Modules a Uniform Mark Scale (see section 26.3). The rules for re-sitting and
carrying forward the coursework modules are also given in Sections
26.5 and 26.6.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

17.5 Module 2 (AO4 task) – Assessment criteria for Handling data


Strand 1 Strand 2 Strand 3
Specify the problem and plan Collect, process and represent data Interpret and discuss results
1-2 Candidates choose a simple well-defined problem. Their aims Candidates collect data with limited relevance to the problem and Candidates comment on patterns in the data. They
have some clarity. The appropriate data to collect are plan. The data are collected or recorded with little thought given to summarise the results they have obtained but make little
reasonably obvious. An overall plan is discernible and some processing. Candidates use calculations of the simplest kind. The attempt to relate the results to the initial problem.
attention is given to whether the plan will meet the aims. The results are frequently correct. Candidates present information and
structure of the report as a whole is loosely related to the results in a clear and organised way. The data presentation is
aims. sometimes related to their overall plan.
3-4 Candidates choose a problem involving routine use of simple Candidates collect data with some relevance to the problem and Candidates comment on patterns in the data and any
statistical techniques and set out reasonably clear aims. plan. The data are collected or recorded with some consideration exceptions. They summarise and give a reasonably correct
Consideration is given to the collection of data. Candidates given to efficient processing. Candidates use straightforward and interpretation of their graphs and calculations. They attempt
describe an overall plan largely designed to meet the aims and largely relevant calculations involving techniques of at least the level to relate the summarised data to the initial problem, though
structure the project report so that results relating to some of detailed in the handling data paragraph of the grade description for some conclusions may be incorrect or irrelevant. They make
the aims are brought out. Where appropriate, they use a grade F. The results are generally correct. Candidates show some attempt to evaluate their strategy.
sample of adequate size. understanding of situations by describing them using statistical
concepts, words and diagrams. They synthesise information
presented in a variety of forms. Their writing explains and informs
their use of diagrams, which are usually related to their overall plan.
They present their diagrams correctly, with suitable scales and titles.
5-6 Candidates consider a more complex problem. They choose Candidates collect largely relevant and mainly reliable data. The Candidates comment on patterns in the data and suggest
appropriate data to collect and state their aims in statistical data are collected in a form designed to ensure that they can be reasons for exceptions. They summarise and correctly
terms with the selection of an appropriate plan. Their plan is used. Candidates use a range of more demanding, largely relevant interpret their graphs and calculations, relate the summarised
designed to meet the aims and is well described. Candidates calculations that include techniques of at least the level detailed in data to the initial problem and draw appropriate inferences.
consider the practical problems of carrying out the survey or the handling data paragraph of the grade description for grade C. Candidates use summary statistics to make relevant
experiment. Where appropriate, they give reasons for The results are generally correct and no obviously relevant comparisons and show an informal appreciation that results
choosing a particular sampling method. The project report is calculation is omitted. There is little redundancy in calculation or may not be statistically significant. Where relevant, they allow
well structured so that the project can be seen as a whole. presentation. Candidates convey statistical meaning through precise for the nature of the sampling method in making inferences
and consistent use of statistical concepts that is sustained about the population. They evaluate the effectiveness of the
throughout the work. They use appropriate diagrams for overall strategy and make a simple assessment of limitations.
representing data and give a reason for their choice of presentation,
explaining features they have selected.
7-8 Candidates work on a problem requiring creative thinking and Candidates collect reliable data relevant to the problem under Candidates comment on patterns and give plausible reasons
careful specification. They state their aims clearly in statistical consideration. They deal with practical problems such as non- for exceptions. They correctly summarise and interpret
terms and select and develop an appropriate plan to meet response, missing data or ensuring secondary data are appropriate. graphs and calculations. They make correct and detailed
these aims giving reasons for their choice. They foresee and Candidates use a range of relevant calculations that include inferences from the data concerning the original problem
plan for practical problems in carrying out the survey or techniques of at least the level detailed in the handling data using the vocabulary of probability. Candidates appreciate the
experiment. Where appropriate, they consider the nature and paragraph of the grade description for grade A. These calculations significance of results they obtain. Where relevant, they allow
size of sample to be used and take steps to avoid bias. Where are correct and no obviously relevant calculation is omitted. for the nature and size of the sample and any possible bias in
appropriate, they use techniques such as control groups, or Numerical results are rounded appropriately. There is no making inferences about the population. They evaluate the
pre-tests of questionnaires or data sheets, and refine these to redundancy in calculation or presentation. Candidates use language effectiveness of the overall strategy and recognise limitations
enhance the project. The project report is well structured and and statistical concepts effectively in presenting a convincing of the work done, making suggestions for improvement.
the conclusions are related to the initial aims. reasoned argument. They use an appropriate range of diagrams to They comment constructively on the practical consequences
summarise the data and show how variables are related. of the work.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

17.6 Module 4 (AO1 task) – Assessment criteria for Using and Applying Mathematics
Strand 1): Strand 2: Strand 3:
Making and monitoring decisions to solve problems Communicating mathematically Developing skills of mathematical reasoning
1 Candidates try different approaches and find ways of Candidates discuss their mathematical work and are Candidates show that they understand a general
overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving beginning to explain their thinking. They use and statement by finding particular examples that match it.
problems. They are beginning to organise their work and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams.
check results.
2 Candidates are developing their own strategies for Candidates present information and results in a clear and Candidates search for a pattern by trying out ideas of
solving problems and are using these strategies both in organised way, explaining the reasons for their their own.
working within mathematics and in applying presentation.
mathematics to practical contexts.
3 In order to carry through tasks and solve mathematical Candidates show understanding of situations by Candidates make general statements of their own,
problems, candidates identify and obtain necessary describing them mathematically using symbols, words based on evidence they have produced, and give an
information; they check their results, considering and diagrams. explanation of their reasoning.
whether these are sensible.
4 Candidates carry through substantial tasks and solve Candidates interpret, discuss and synthesise information Candidates are beginning to give a mathematical
quite complex problems by breaking them down into presented in a variety of mathematical forms. Their justification for their generalisations; they test them by
smaller, more manageable tasks. writing explains and informs their use of diagrams. checking particular cases.
5 Starting from problems or contexts that have been Candidates examine critically and justify their choice of Candidates justify their generalisations or solutions,
presented to them, candidates introduce questions of mathematical presentation, considering alternative showing some insight into the mathematical structure
their own, which generate fuller solutions. approaches and explaining improvements they have of the situation being investigated. They appreciate the
made. difference between mathematical explanation and
experimental evidence.
6 Candidates develop and follow alternative approaches. Candidates convey mathematical meaning through Candidates examine generalisations or solutions
They reflect on their own lines of enquiry when consistent use of symbols. reached in an activity, commenting constructively on
exploring mathematical tasks; in doing so they introduce the reasoning and logic employed, and make further
and use a range of mathematical techniques. progress in the activity as a result.
7 Candidates analyse alternative approaches to problems Candidates use mathematical language and symbols Candidates' reports include mathematical justifications
involving a number of features or variables. They give accurately in presenting a convincing reasoned argument. explaining their solutions to problems involving a
detailed reasons for following or rejecting particular lines number of features or variables.
of enquiry.
8 Candidates consider and evaluate a number of Candidates use mathematical language and symbols Candidates provide a mathematically rigorous
approaches to a substantial task. They explore efficiently in presenting a concise reasoned argument. justification or proof of their solution to a complex
extensively a context or area of mathematics with which problem, considering the conditions under which it
they are unfamiliar. They apply independently a range of remains valid.
appropriate mathematical techniques.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Option T – Centre-Assessed
Modules 2 and 4

18 Guidance on Setting the


Centre-Assessed Modules
18.1 Introduction Centres following Option T may choose from the AQA-set tasks or
may choose their own tasks based on the guidance provided in the
Teachers’ Guide and coursework support materials.
The AQA-set tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005 for Module 2 are
given in Appendix C and those for Module 4 in Appendix D.
AQA-set tasks may be removed or added from year to year. It is
therefore essential that candidates wishing to submit work under
Option X use current versions.
Teachers should note that in the AQA-set Handling Data tasks the
word ‘hypothesis’ is used for a general prediction which is to be
tested.
It is important that teachers consider very carefully all types of
activities which will provide valid evidence of achievement. The
activities in which candidates are involved should be designed to
make reasonable demands and to enable positive achievement to be
demonstrated in relation to the assessment criteria. The tasks chosen
therefore must be open to investigation by a variety of different
methods, and open to investigations that permit candidates to
demonstrate their best attainment in all three strands of the marking
criteria.
Teachers will find it helpful to refer to the assessment criteria when
designing tasks. It is particularly important to ensure that the tasks
chosen do not limit the mark that can be achieved by the candidate.

18.2 Advice on group activities For the AO4 task it is permissible for candidates to collect data as a
group or class. It is important that teachers ensure that the analysis
and writing up of this work is carried out individually by candidates,
so that the requirements of the specification are met.

18.3 Coursework Advisers Coursework Advisers are available to assist centres with any matters
relating to coursework.

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19 Supervision and Authentication


19.1 Supervision of Candidates’ Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions
Work which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to
be authenticated. If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done
outside the centre, sufficient work must take place under direct
supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole
work with confidence.

19.2 Guidance by the Teacher The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned.
Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that
given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record
Form.

19.3 Unfair Practice At the start of the course, the supervising teacher is responsible for
informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice.
Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation
of coursework to be submitted for assessment, and must understand
that to present material copied directly from books or other sources
without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.
Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. The penalties for
malpractice are set out in the AQA General Regulations.

19.4 Authentication of Candidates’ Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations
Work confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's
own. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the
specified conditions, and records details of any additional assistance.
Sample Candidate Record Forms for Option T are provided in
Appendix E. Current Candidate Record Forms are available separately on
the AQA website under Administration/Procedures/Coursework
Administration.

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20 Standardisation
20.1 Standardising Meetings Annual standardising meetings for both Specification A and
Specification B will usually be held in the autumn term. Centres
entering candidates for the first time must send a representative to a
meeting. Attendance is also mandatory in the following cases:

• where there has been a serious misinterpretation of the


specification requirements;
• where the nature of coursework tasks set by a centre has been
inappropriate;
• where a significant adjustment has been made to a centre’s marks
in the previous year’s examination.

After the first year, attendance is at the discretion of centres. At these


meetings support will be provided for centres in the development of
appropriate coursework tasks and assessment procedures.

20.2 Internal Standardisation of The centre is required to standardise the assessments across different
Marking teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates at the centre
have been judged against the same standards. If two or more teachers
are involved in marking a component, one teacher must be designated
as responsible for internal standardisation. Common pieces of work
must be marked on a trial basis and differences between assessments
discussed at a training session in which all teachers involved must
participate. The teacher responsible for standardising the marking
must ensure that the training includes the use of reference and archive
materials such as work from a previous year or examples provided by
AQA. The centre is required to send to the moderator the Centre
Declaration Sheet, duly signed, to confirm that the marking of centre-
assessed work at the centre has been standardised. If only one teacher
has undertaken the marking, that person must sign this form.
A specimen Centre Declaration Sheet is provided in Appendix E.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

21 Administrative Procedures
21.1 Evidence to support the During the course teachers should keep records of their assessments
award of marks in a form which facilitates the complete and accurate submission of
the final assessments at the end of the course.
When the assessments are complete, the marks awarded under each of
the assessment criteria must be entered on the Candidate Record Form,
with supporting information given in the spaces provided. A
specimen Candidate Record Form for Module 2 and for Module 4
appears in Appendix E; the exact design may be modified before the
operational version is issued and the correct year’s Candidate Record
Forms should always be used.
The candidates’ work must be marked according to the assessment
21.2 Recording Assessments
criteria set out in Sections 17.5 and 17.6. The marks and supporting
information must be recorded in accordance with the instructions in
Section 21.3. The completed Candidate Record Form for each candidate
must be attached to the work and made available to AQA on request.
The total component mark for each candidate must be submitted to
21.3 Submitting Marks and Sample
AQA on the mark sheets provided or by Electronic Data Interchange
Work for Moderation (EDI) by the specified date and copies sent to the Moderator. Centres
will be informed which candidates’ work is required in the samples to
be submitted to the moderator.

21.4 Problems with Individual Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of
Candidates candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make
up missed assessments.
Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work
has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances.
Information about the procedure is issued separately.
If work is lost, AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the
loss, how it occurred, and who was responsible for the loss. AQA will
advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. Where special
help which goes beyond normal learning support is given, AQA must
be informed so that such help can be taken into account when
assessment and moderation take place.
Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course
sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment.
Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move
takes place. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre
should take responsibility for assessment. If it occurs late in the
course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the
previous centre. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible
stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

21.5 Retaining Evidence The centre must retain the work of all candidates, with Candidate Record
Forms attached, under secure conditions from the time it is assessed, to
allow for the possibility of an enquiry upon results. The work may be
returned to candidates after the issue of results provided that no
enquiry upon results is to be made which will include re-moderation of
the coursework component. If an enquiry upon results is to be made,
the work must remain under secure conditions until requested by
AQA.

22 Moderation
22.1 Moderation Procedures Moderation of the coursework is by inspection of a sample of
candidates' work, sent by post from the centre to a moderator
appointed by AQA. The centre marks must be submitted to AQA
and the sample of work must reach the moderator by the specified
date in the year in which the qualification is awarded.
The evidence must be presented in a clear and helpful way for the
moderator. The candidates’ work must be annotated to identify, as
precisely as possible, where in the work the relevant criteria have been
satisfied so that the reasons why marks have been awarded are clear.
Details must also be given of the context within which the work was
done, to enable the moderator to judge the attainment inherent in the
work.
Following the re-marking of the sample work, the moderator’s marks
are compared with the centre marks to determine whether any
adjustment is needed to bring the centre’s assessments into line with
standards generally. In some cases it may be necessary for the
moderator to call for the work of other candidates. In order to meet
this possible request, centres must have available the coursework and
Candidate Record Form of every candidate entered for the examination
and be prepared to submit it on demand. Mark adjustments will
normally preserve the centre’s order of merit but, where major
discrepancies are found, AQA reserves the right to alter the order of
merit.

22.2 Post-Moderation Procedures On publication of the GCSE results, the centre is supplied with details
of the final marks for the coursework component.

The candidates' work is returned to the centre after the examination


with a report form from the moderator giving feedback to the centre
on the appropriateness of the tasks set, the accuracy of the
assessments made, and the reasons for any adjustments to the marks.

Some candidates' work may be retained by AQA for archive purposes.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Option X - AQA-Assessed
Modules 2 and 4

23 Guidance on Setting the


AQA-Assessed Modules

23.1 Introduction Centres following Option X must select coursework tasks from the
bank of AQA-set tasks provided in Appendix C for Module 2 or
Appendix D for Module 4.
The AQA-set tasks and Mark Schemes will be published each year.
Tasks may be removed or added from year to year. It is therefore
essential that the latest version is used each year.
Teachers should note that in the AQA-set Handling Data tasks the
word ‘hypothesis’ is used for a general prediction which is to be tested.

23.2 Advice on group activities For the AO4 task it is permissible for candidates to collect data as a
group or class. It is important that teachers ensure that the analysis
and writing up of this work is carried out individually by candidates, so
that the requirements of the specification are met.

23.3 Coursework Advisers Coursework Advisers are available to assist centres with any matters
relating to coursework. Details will be provided when AQA knows
which centres are following the specification.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

24 Supervision and Authentication


24.1 Supervision of Candidates’ Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions
Work which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to
be authenticated. If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done
outside the centre, sufficient work must take place under direct
supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole
work with confidence.

Private candidates who follow Option X and follow an open-learning


course with a tutorial college, or attend a part-time course at a school
or college, may have their work authenticated by their tutor.
Candidates who do not have a tutor must make arrangements to carry
out the tasks at their examination centre. In this case, the work should
be supervised and the examination officer must sign the declaration
that all the work has been carried out by the candidate.

24.2 Guidance by the Teacher The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned.
Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that
given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record
Form.

24.3 Unfair Practice At the start of the course, the supervising teacher is responsible for
informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice.
Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation
of coursework to be submitted for assessment, and must understand
that to present material copied directly from books or other sources
without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.
Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. The penalties for
malpractice are set out in the AQA General Regulations.

24.4 Authentication of Candidates’ Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations
Work confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's
own. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the
specified conditions, and records details of any additional assistance.

Sample Candidate Record Forms for Option X are provided in


Appendix E. Current Candidate Record Forms are available separately on
the AQA website under Administration/Procedures/Coursework
Administration.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

25 Administrative Procedures
25.1 Evidence of attainment Where there is ephemeral evidence of attainment, which does not
form part of the candidate’s written record, brief notes of each
candidate’s achievement in these skill areas should be supplied, with
the coursework, to AQA.

25.2 Problems with Individual Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of
Candidates candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make
up missed assessments.
Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work
has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances.
Information about the procedure is issued separately.
If work is lost, AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the
loss, how it occurred, and who was responsible for the loss. AQA will
advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. Where special
help which goes beyond normal learning support is given, AQA must
be informed so that such help can be taken into account when
assessment and moderation take place.
Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course
sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment.
Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move
takes place. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre
should take responsibility for assessment. If it occurs late in the
course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the
previous centre. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible
stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Awarding and Reporting

26 Grading, Shelf-Life and Re-Sits


26.1 Qualification Title The qualification based on this specification has the following title:
AQA GCSE (modular) in Mathematics: (B).

26.2 Grading System The qualification will be graded on an 8 point grade scale A*, A, B, C,
D, E, F, G.
The written paper modules are offered at three tiers of entry:
Foundation tier, Intermediate tier and Higher tier. For candidates
entered for the Foundation tier, grades D-G are available. For
candidates entered for the Intermediate tier, grades B-E are available.
For candidates entered for the Higher tier, grades A*-C are available.
Candidates may enter for each individual module at a different tier of
entry. However, the final range of grades available to a candidate is
determined by the tier of entry of Module 5.

26.3 The determination of For each module, candidates’ results are reported on a Uniform Mark
candidates’ final grades Scale which is related to grades by means of the following
correspondence.

Module 1 (Maximum uniform mark = 66)


Mark range Grade
59 - 66 A*
53 - 58 A
46 - 52 B
40 - 45 C
33 - 39 D
26 - 32 E
20 - 25 F
13 - 19 G
0 - 12 U

Modules 2 and 4 (Maximum uniform mark = 60)


Mark range Grade
54 - 60 A*
48 - 53 A
42 - 47 B
36 - 41 C
30 - 35 D
24 - 29 E
18 - 23 F
12 - 17 G
0 - 11 U

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Module 3 (Maximum uniform mark = 114)


Mark range Grade
103 - 114 A*
91 - 102 A
80 - 90 B
68 - 79 C
57 - 67 D
46 - 56 E
34 - 45 F
23 - 33 G
0 - 22 U

Module 5 (Maximum uniform mark = 300)


Mark range Grade
270 - 300 A*
240 - 269 A
210 - 239 B
180 - 209 C
150 - 179 D
120 - 149 E
90 - 119 F
60 - 89 G
0 - 59 U

A candidate’s uniform mark is calculated from his/her raw mark for


the module by using the grade boundaries set by the awarding
committee. For example, a candidate who achieved the minimum raw
mark required for grade B on Module 1 receives a uniform mark of 46.
(The marks required for each grade are published annually in the report
on the examination.)
A candidate cannot obtain a uniform mark corresponding to a grade
which is above the range for the tier. For example, on Module 1 a
candidate entered for the Foundation tier (grade range D-G) cannot
obtain a uniform mark higher than 39, even if he/she achieves the
maximum (raw) marks for the paper.
On individual modules there is a small ‘safety net’ for candidates who
fail to reach the minimum mark required for the lowest grade available
in the tier. For example, on Module 1 a candidate entered for the
Intermediate tier (grade range B-E) who just fails to reach the standard
required for grade E does not obtain zero uniform marks. However,
centres should note that such a candidate will normally be awarded
fewer uniform marks than a Foundation tier candidate who reaches
the same standard.
A candidate’s overall uniform mark is obtained by adding together the
uniform marks for the five modules. This overall mark is then
converted to a grade by means of the following correspondence.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Overall (Maximum uniform mark = 600)


Mark range Grade
540 - 600 A*
480 - 539 A
420 - 479 B
360 - 419 C
300 - 359 D
240 - 299 E
180 - 239 F
120 - 179 G

The final grade must be in a range which is available for the


candidate’s tier of entry for Module 5. For example, a candidate
entering Module 5 at the Intermediate tier (grade range B - E), and
with uniform marks of 55, 48, 94, 50 and 234 for Modules 1, 2, 3, 4
and 5 respectively, receives a total uniform mark of 481, which
corresponds to a grade A, but the candidate is awarded grade B since
this is the highest grade available on the Intermediate tier. Candidates
achieving less than the minimum uniform mark for the lowest grade
on the tier of entry for Module 5 will receive an Unclassified result.

26.4 Shelf-Life of Module Results The shelf-life of individual module results, prior to the award of the
qualification, is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification.

26.5 Re-taking Modules and Modules 2 and 4, and each tier of Modules 1 and 3, may be re-taken
carrying forward of Module once before certification of the qualification. The best result for each
Results module will count towards the final award.

Candidates who wish to re-take the qualification after first certification


may, on request, re-use results from Modules 1-4, but Module 5 must
be taken again. For Modules 2 and 4 the two most recent results, and
for Modules 1 and 3 the two most recent results from each tier, will be
considered, and the best of these results will count towards the final
award. For example, if a candidate attempts Module 1 once at the
Higher tier and twice at the Intermediate tier before first certification,
then once more at the Intermediate tier before certificating again, the
Higher tier attempt and the second and third Intermediate tier
attempts are eligible to count towards the final award. In the case of
Module 5 the most recent attempt will always be the one that counts.

Candidates may take the whole qualification an unlimited number of


times. There is no limit to the number of times a result for Modules
1-4 may be re-used.

26.6 Minimum Requirements Candidates will be graded on the basis of work submitted for
assessment.

26.7 Awarding and Reporting The regulatory authorities, in consultation with GCSE Awarding
bodies, have developed a Code of Practice for GCSE qualifications
introduced in September 2000. This specification complies with the
grading, awarding and certification requirements of the revised Code
of Practice.

90 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Appendices

A Grade Descriptions
Grade descriptions are provided to give a general indication of the
standards of achievement likely to have been shown by candidates
awarded particular grades. The descriptions must be interpreted in
relation to the content in the specification; they are not designed to
define that content. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon
the extent to which the candidate has met the assessment objectives
overall. Shortcomings in some aspects of the candidates’ performance
in the examination may be balanced by better performances in others.

Grade A Candidates give reasons for the choices they make when investigating
within mathematics itself or when using mathematics to analyse tasks:
these reasons explain why particular lines of enquiry or procedures are
followed and others rejected. Candidates apply the mathematics they
know in familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Candidates use
mathematical language and symbols effectively in presenting a
convincing reasoned argument. Their reports include mathematical
justifications, explaining their solutions to problems involving a
number of features or variables.

Candidates understand and use rational and irrational numbers. They


determine the bounds of intervals. Candidates understand and use
direct and inverse proportion. They manipulate algebraic formulae,
equations and expressions, finding common factors and multiplying
two linear expressions. In simplifying algebraic expressions, they use
rules of indices for negative and fractional values. In finding formulae
that approximately connect data, candidates express general laws in
symbolic form. They solve problems using intersections and gradients
of graphs.

Candidates sketch the graphs of sine, cosine and tangent functions for
any angle, and generate and interpret graphs based on these functions.
Candidates use sine, cosine and tangent of angles of any size, and
Pythagoras’ theorem when solving problems in two and three
dimensions. They use the conditions for congruent triangles in formal
geometric proofs. They calculate lengths of circular arcs and areas of
sectors, and calculate the surface area of cylinders and volumes of
cones and spheres.

Candidates interpret and construct histograms. They understand how


different methods of sampling and different sample sizes may affect
the reliability of conclusions drawn; they select and justify a sample
and method to investigate a population. They recognise when and
how to work with probabilities associated with independent and
mutually exclusive events.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Grade C Starting from problems or contexts that have been presented to them,
candidates refine or extend the mathematics used to generate fuller
solutions. They give a reason for their choice of mathematical
presentation, explaining features they have selected. Candidates justify
their generalisations, arguments or solutions, showing some insight
into the mathematical structure of the problem. They appreciate the
difference between mathematical explanation and experimental
evidence.

In making estimates candidates round to one significant figure and


multiply and divide mentally. They solve numerical problems
involving multiplication and division with numbers of any size using a
calculator efficiently and appropriately. They understand the effects of
multiplying and dividing by numbers between 0 and 1. They
understand and use the equivalencies between fractions, decimals and
percentages and calculate using ratios in appropriate situations. They
understand and use proportional changes. Candidates find and
describe in symbols the next term or the nth term of a sequence,
where the rule is quadratic; they multiply two expressions of the form
(x + n); they simplify the corresponding quadratic expressions. They
solve simple polynomial equations by trial and improvement and
represent inequalities using a number line. They formulate and solve
linear equations with whole number coefficients. They manipulate
simple algebraic formulae, equations and expressions. Candidates use
algebraic and graphical methods to solve simultaneous linear equations
in two variables.

Candidates solve problems using angle and symmetry properties of


polygons and properties of intersecting and parallel lines. They
understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem when solving problems in
two-dimensions. Candidates find areas and circumferences of circles.
They calculate lengths, areas and volumes in plane shapes and right
prisms. Candidates enlarge shapes by a positive whole number or
fractional scale factor. They appreciate the imprecision of
measurement and recognise that a measurement given to the nearest
whole number may be inaccurate by up to one half in either direction.
They understand and use compound measures such as speed.

Candidates construct and interpret frequency diagrams. They specify


hypotheses and test them. They determine the modal class and
estimate the mean, median and range of a set of grouped data,
selecting the statistic most appropriate to their line of enquiry. They
use measures of average and range with associated frequency
polygons, as appropriate, to compare distributions and make
inferences. They draw a line of best fit on a scatter diagram by
inspection. Candidates understand relative frequency as an estimate of
probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Grade F In order to carry through tasks and solve mathematical problems,


candidates identify and obtain necessary information; they check their
results, considering whether these are sensible. Candidates show
understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using
symbols, words and diagrams. They draw simple conclusions of their
own and give an explanation of their reasoning.

Candidates use their understanding of place value to multiply and


divide whole numbers and decimals by 10, 100 and 1000. They order,
add and subtract negative numbers in context. They use all four
operations with decimals to two places. They reduce a fraction to its
simplest form by cancelling common factors and solve simple
problems involving ratio and direct proportion. They calculate
fractional or percentage parts of quantities and measurements, using a
calculator where necessary. Candidates understand and use an
appropriate non-calculator method for solving problems involving
multiplying and dividing any three-digit by any two-digit number. In
solving problems with or without a calculator, candidates check the
reasonableness of their results by reference to their knowledge of the
context or to the size of the numbers, by applying inverse operations
or by estimating using approximations. Candidates explore and
describe number patterns and relationships including multiple, factor
and square. They construct, express in symbolic form, and use simple
formulae involving one or two operations.

When constructing models and when drawing, or using shapes,


candidates measure and draw angles as accurately as practicable and
use language associated with angle. They know the angle sum of a
triangle and that of angles at a point. They identify all the symmetries
of 2-D shapes. They know the rough metric equivalents of imperial
units still in daily use and convert one metric unit to another. They
make sensible estimates of a range of measures in relation to everyday
situations. Candidates calculate areas of rectangles and right-angled
triangles, and volumes of cuboids.

Candidates understand and use the mean of discrete data. They


compare two simple distributions using the range and one of the
mode, median or mean. They interpret graphs and diagrams, including
pie charts, and draw conclusions. They understand and use the
probability scale from 0 to 1. Candidates make and justify estimates of
probability by selecting and using a method based on equally likely
outcomes or on experimental evidence as appropriate. They
understand that different outcomes may result from repeating an
experiment.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

B Formulae Sheets for Module 5

Foundation Tier

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Intermediate Tier

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Higher Tier

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

C AQA-Set Coursework Tasks for


Module 2 (2005)
The following are the tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005.
Details of the AQA-set tasks will be published annually.

Context
AO4 This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.
It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing
hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

1 Reaction Times

Grandad told Simon that some people have slower


reactions than other people.

Simon decided to test the reaction times of some of


his friends.

• Write down a hypothesis for him to test

• Design and carry out an investigation to find out


different ways in which reaction times can be
affected

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO4 Context
This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.
It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing
hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

2 Guestimate

Sarah asked a sample of people to estimate

• the length of this line

• the size of this angle


Sarah then said that people estimate the length of lines
better than the size of angles.
• Write down a hypothesis to test how well people
estimate
• Design and carry out an investigation to test your
hypothesis

Investigate further.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context
AO4 This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.
It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing
hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

3 Memory Game

Ranjir collected 16 different objects. She put them on


a tray and covered them with a cloth.

She gathered some of her friends and sat them round


the tray. She removed the cloth for 30 seconds and let
them look at the objects.

After 30 seconds she covered the objects again and


asked her friends to write down as many objects as
they could remember.

• Write down a hypothesis to test in a memory game


like this

• Design and carry out an investigation to test your


hypothesis

Investigate further.

hij 99
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Context
AO4
This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.
It would be most suitably done when candidates have covered
scatter graphs, plotting graphs of real experimental values, and
graphs of rates of change over time; in addition to work on setting
up and testing hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

4 Pulse Rate

Not everyone has the same pulse rate – and pulse rate can
be affected by a number of different things.

• Write a hypothesis about how someone’s pulse rate can


be affected

• Design and carry out an investigation to show different


ways in which pulse rate can be affected

Investigate further.

100 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context
AO4
This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.
It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing
hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

5 Read All About It

Suresh is comparing magazines and newspapers.

He chooses a passage from one newspaper and one


magazine. They each contain 100 words and he
counts the lengths of all the words.

Suresh then says that the magazine has the


shortest words.

• Write a hypothesis about the length of words in


newspapers and magazines

• Design and carry out an investigation to test your


hypothesis

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

D AQA-Set Coursework Tasks for


Module 4 (2005)
The following are the tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005.
Details of the AQA-set tasks will be published annually.

Context
AO1 This task is most suitable for Foundation and/or Intermediate candidates.
It would normally follow on from work on sequences and algebraic equations.
Calculators will have to be used and this task offers a good opportunity to use
a spreadsheet.

1 Round and Round

6 Add 2 Divide by 5

Write down
your result

Investigate further.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context
AO1
This task is most suitable for Foundation and/or Intermediate candidates.
It could follow on from work on sequences.

2 Trios

Three whole numbers, greater than zero, can be used


to form a trio.

For example:
(1, 2, 2) is a trio whose sum is 1 + 2 + 2 = 5

and

(2, 1, 2) is a different trio whose sum is also 5.

How many trios can you find with a sum of 5?

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO1 Context
This task is most suitable for Intermediate and/or Higher candidates.
It would normally follow on from work on sequences and fractions.

3 Fraction Differences

Ruth was investigating fraction differences.

She wrote down this sequence of fractions:

1 1 1 1 1 1 … …
1 2 3 4 5 6

Then she worked out the differences between the


consecutive fractions:
1 1 1 1 1 … …
2 6 12 20 30

Then she worked out the differences between the


fractions in her second series:

1 1 … …
3 12

Investigate further.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context
AO1
This task is most suitable for Intermediate and/or Higher candidates.
It would normally follow on from trigonometry work on the sine and
cosine rules. It provides an opportunity to use these in a practical situation.

4 Tangled Triangles

Two students are discussing how to find the biggest


value of the area:perimeter ratio for triangles.

One of them suggests that this can be done with


measurements of 40, 60 and 80 – but forgets to say
what units were used, and whether they were angles
or sides.

Which triangle gives the biggest value for the


area:perimeter ratio?

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO1 Context
This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It
would normally follow work on mensuration of different shapes and it
provides an opportunity to use trigonometry and algebraic manipulation.

5 Equable Shapes

An equable shape is one in which:


• the perimeter
and
• the area
have the same numerical value.

Find out what you can about these shapes.

Investigate further.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context
AO1
This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.
It can be completed by simple number manipulation or by algebraic methods.

6 Number Grid

Look at this number grid:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

• A box is drawn round four numbers


• Find the product of the top left number and the
bottom right number in this box
• Do the same with the top right and bottom left
numbers
• Calculate the difference between these products

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Context
AO1
This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.
Candidates may tackle problems practically by making shapes or use
numerical or algebraic methods. It provides an opportunity for
candidates to use mensuration skills.

7 Trays

A shopkeeper asks a company to make some trays.


A net of a tray made from a piece of card measuring
18cm by 18cm is shown below:

Side

Base

Side
18 cm
[drawn to scale]

The shopkeeper says, “When the area of the base is


the same as the area of the four sides, the volume of
the tray will be a maximum”.

Investigate this claim.

Investigate further.

108 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

E Record Forms
Samples of the Centre Declaration Sheet and Candidate Record Forms are given on the following pages.

hij 109
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Centre-assessed work

Centre Declaration Sheet

ELC GCSE GCE VCE Key


Qualification: ✔ GNVQ FSMQ
Skills

Specification title: ……………………………………………………………………………… Unit code(s): ………………………

Centre name: ……………………………………………………………………… Centre no:

Authentication of candidates’ work


This is to certify that marks/assessments have been given in accordance with the requirements of the
specification and that every reasonable step has been taken to ensure that the work presented is that of
the candidates named.
Any assistance given to candidates beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in
the specification has been recorded on the Candidate Record Form(s) and has been taken into account. The
marks/assessments given reflect accurately the unaided achievement of the candidates.

Signature(s) of teacher(s) responsible for assessment

Teacher 1:………………………………………… Teacher 4: ………………………………………..


Teacher 2: ………………………………………… Teacher 5: ………………………………………..
Teacher 3:…………………………………………. Teacher 6: ………………………………………..
(continue overleaf if necessary)

Internal standardisation of marking


Each centre must standardise assessment across different teachers/assessors and teaching groups to ensure
that all candidates at the centre have been judged against the same standards.

If two or more teachers/assessors are involved in marking/assessing, one of them must be designated as
responsible for standardising the assessments of all teachers/assessors at the centre.

I confirm that [tick either (a) or (b)]

(a) the procedure described in the specification has been followed at this centre to ensure that the
assessments are of the same standard for all candidates; or
(b) I have marked/assessed the work of all candidates.

Signed: ……………………………………………………………………… Date: …………………………

Signature of Head of Centre: …………………………………………………………… Date: ………………………


This form should be completed and sent to the moderator with the sample of centre-assessed work.

110 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Centre-assessed work
Candidate Record Form
2004
GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 2 (Option T) 3302
Centre name: ......................................................................................... Centre no:

Candidate name: .................................................................................. Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the candidate

Sources of advice and information


1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the
production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................
2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.
................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or
information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are
clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without
acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTICE TO CANDIDATE
The work you submit for assessment must be your own.
If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you
cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

Declaration by candidate
I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any help
apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

Candidate’s signature: ....................................................................................................... Date: ..................................


This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre
or sent to the moderator as required.
PTO

hij 111
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name: .................................................................................. Candidate no:


This side is to be completed by the teacher
Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in section 87 of the specification.
Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations
on the candidate’s work and in the spaces provided below.

Project title:

Module 2 – AO4 (one task only)

Max. Mark
Strand Criteria for award of marks Key evidence
mark awarded
1 Specify the problem and 8
plan
2 Collect, process and 8
represent data
3 Interpret and discuss 8
results

Total mark 24

Concluding comments

Details of additional assistance given (if any)


Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole
and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Teacher’s signature: ……………………………………………………………………… Date: ………………………………

112 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Centre-assessed work
Candidate Record Form
2004
GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 4 (Option T) 3302
Centre name: .......................................................................................... Centre no:

Candidate name: ................................................................................... Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the candidate

Sources of advice and information


1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in
the production of this work? (Write YES or NO).............................
2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or
information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are
clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without
acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTICE TO CANDIDATE
The work you submit for assessment must be your own.
If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you
cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

Declaration by candidate
I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any
help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

Candidate’s signature: ...................................................................................................... Date: ...................................

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre
or sent to the moderator as required.
PTO

hij 113
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name: .................................................................................. Candidate no:


This side is to be completed by the teacher
Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in section 87 of the specification.
Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations
on the candidate’s work and in the spaces provided below.

Project title:

Module 4 – AO1 task

Max. Mark
Strand Criteria for award of marks Key evidence
mark awarded
1 Making and monitoring 8
decisions to solve problems
2 Communicating 8
mathematically
3 Developing skills of 8
mathematical reasoning

Total mark 24

Concluding comments

Details of additional assistance given (if any)


Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and
beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Teacher’s signature: ……………………………………………………………………… Date: ………………………………

114 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AQA-assessed work
Candidate Record Form
2004

GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 2 (Option X) 3302


Centre name: .......................................................................................... Centre no:

Candidate name: .................................................................................. Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the candidate

Sources of advice and information


1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in
the production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................
2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.
................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or
information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are
clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without
acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTICE TO CANDIDATE
The work you submit for assessment must be your own.
If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you
cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

Declaration by candidate
I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any
help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

Candidate’s signature: ....................................................................................................... Date: ..................................

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and sent to the examiner
PTO

hij 115
Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name: .................................................................................. Candidate no:

Teachers are strongly advised to provide comments as evidence of mathematical or statistical thinking
where this is not clearly communicated in the work. This may be done in the body of the script or on a
separate sheet.

Declaration by the teacher

Project title:

Details of additional assistance given (if any)


Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a
whole and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Teacher’s signature: ……………………………………………………………………… Date: ………………………………..

To be marked by the examiner


Module 2 – AO4 task

Final assessed
Strand Key evidence
score (0–8)
1

Total score (max. 24)

Examiner’s initials

116 hij
General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AQA-assessed work
Candidate Record Form
2004
GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 4 (Option X) 3302
Centre name: .......................................................................................... Centre no:

Candidate name: .................................................................................. Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the candidate.

Sources of advice and information


1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in
the production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................
2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.
................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or
information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are
clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without
acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTICE TO CANDIDATE
The work you submit for assessment must be your own.
If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you
cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

Declaration by candidate
I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any
help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

Candidate’s signature: ....................................................................................................... Date: ..................................

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and sent to the examiner
PTO

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name: .................................................................................. Candidate no:

Teachers are strongly advised to provide comments as evidence of mathematical or statistical thinking
where this is not clearly communicated in the work. This may be done in the body of the script or on a
separate sheet.

Declaration by the teacher

Project title:

Details of additional assistance given (if any)


Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole
and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Teacher’s signature: ……………………………………………………………………… Date: ………………………………..

To be marked by the examiner


Module 4 – AO1 task

Final assessed
Strand Key evidence
score (0–8)
1

Total mark (max. 24)

Examiner’s initials

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

F Overlaps with other


Qualifications
The subject content of this Specification is identical, though differently
structured, to that of AQA GCSE Mathematics Specification A.

There is some overlap between Module 1 of this specification and


GCSE Statistics.

There is a considerable overlap of skills and content between the


modules of GCSE Mathematics (Modular) Specification B, Free-
Standing Mathematics Qualifications (FSMQs) and the Key Skill of
Application of Number. In some post-16 centres candidates on the
different courses may be grouped together.

Further information about the links between these subjects can be


obtained from AQA (Guildford) as separate booklets.

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