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General Certificate of Secondary Education

**Mathematics (Modular) 2005
**

Specification B

**This specification should be read in conjunction with:
**

Specimen and Past Papers and Mark Schemes Examiners’ Reports Teachers’ Guide

AQA GCSE 3302

This specification will be published annually on the AQA Website (www.aqa.org.uk). If there are any changes to the specification centres will be notified in print as well as on the Website. The version on the Website is the definitive version of the specification. In the Spring Term before the start of the course, details of any year-specific information, such as set tests, theme/topics, will be notified to centres in print and on the Website. Vertical black lines indicate a significant change or addition to the specification.

Copyright © 2003 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT AQA retains the copyright on all its publications, including the specimen units and mark schemes/teachers guides. However, the registered centres for AQA are permitted to copy material from this booklet for their own internal use, with the following exception: AQA cannot give permission to centres to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal use within the centre. Set and published by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance.

The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance is a Company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales 3644723 and a registered charity number 1073334. Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX. Dr Michael Cresswell, Director General.

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Contents

Background Information

1 2 3 The Revised General Certificate of Secondary Education Specification at a Glance Availability of Assessment Units and Entry Details 7 9 10

Scheme of Assessment

4 5 6 7 Introduction Aims Assessment Objectives Scheme of Assessment 13 15 16 17

Subject Content

8 9 10 11 12 13 Summary of Subject Content Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 21 25 31 33 44 48

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

**Key Skills and Other Issues
**

14 Key Skills – Teaching, Developing and Providing Opportunities for Generating Evidence 15 Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social, Cultural and Other Issues 67 72

**Internal Assessment (Coursework)
**

16 17 Nature of the Coursework Modules Assessment Criteria for the Coursework Modules 74 76

**Option T – Centre-Assessed Modules 2 and 4
**

18 19 20 21 22 Guidance on Setting the Centre-Assessed Modules Supervision and Authentication Standardisation Administrative Procedures Moderation 80 81 82 83 84

**Option X – AQA-Assessed Modules 2 and 4
**

23 24 25 Guidance on Setting the AQA-Assessed Modules Supervision and Authentication Administrative Procedures 85 86 87

**Awarding and Reporting
**

26 Grading, Shelf-Life and Re-Sits 88

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Appendices

A B C D E F Grade Descriptions Formulae Sheets AQA-set Coursework Tasks for Module 2 AQA-set Coursework Tasks for Module 4 Record Forms Overlaps with Other Qualifications 91 94 97 102 109 119

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

**Background Information 1 The Revised General Certificate of Secondary Education
**

Following a review of the National Curriculum requirements, and the establishment of the National Qualifications Framework, all the unitary awarding bodies revised their GCSE syllabuses for examination in 2003. 1.1 National Qualifications Framework GCSE Two GCSE Grades D-G Grades A*-C Four GCSE Grades D-G Grades A*-C † only available until 2003 †† only available until 2005 1.2 Changes at GCSE Key Skills All GCSE specifications must identify, as appropriate, opportunities for generating evidence on which candidates may be assessed in the “main” Key Skills of Communication, Application of Number and Information Technology at the appropriate level(s). Also, where appropriate, they must identify opportunities for developing and generating evidence for addressing the “wider” Key Skills of Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving. All specifications must identify ways in which the study of the subject can contribute to an awareness and understanding of these issues. GCSE has the following broad equivalence to General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ). GCSE One (Double Award) DD-GG One (Double Award) A*A*-CC Two (Double Award) DD-GG Two (Double Award) A*A*-CC GNVQ One 3-Unit GNVQ Foundation† Intermediate†† One 6-Unit GNVQ Foundation Intermediate

Spiritual, moral, ethical, social, cultural, environmental, health and safety and European Issues ICT

The National Curriculum requires that students should be given opportunities to apply and develop their ICT capacity through the use of ICT tools to support their learning. In each specification candidates will be required to make effective use of ICT in ways appropriate to the needs of the subject.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Tiering

In GCSE Mathematics the scheme of assessment must include question papers targeted at three tiers of grades, i.e. A* - C (Higher), B – E (Intermediate) and D – G (Foundation). Candidates should be entered at the tier appropriate to their attainment. In GCSE Mathematics (Modular) each candidate may enter for each individual module at a different tier of entry. However, the final range of grades available to a candidate is determined by the tier of entry for Module 5. Candidates who fail to achieve the mark for the lowest grade available at each tier of Module 5 will be recorded as unclassified (U).

Citizenship

Students in England are required to study Citizenship as a National Curriculum subject. Each GCSE specification must signpost, where appropriate, opportunities for developing citizenship knowledge, skills and understanding. • • Internal assessment (coursework) is now compulsory. Internal assessment comprises two tasks:

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1.3

Changes to the Mathematics Criteria

the AO4 task – a handling data task which counts as half of the AO4 weighting; the AO1 task – an investigative task which assesses AO1 in the context of AO2 and/or AO3 and counts as half of the AO1 weighting.

q

• • • •

The other half of the AO1 and AO4 weightings are assessed in the written papers. New subject content has been added to the Programme of Study, particularly in AO4, whilst other subject content has been deleted. Some questions demanding the unprompted solution of multi-step problems are required. The proportion of marks allocated to grade G on Foundation tier has been increased to about one third, leaving the remaining marks balanced across grades D, E and F. Grade descriptors have been modified to reflect the new Programme of Study.

•

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

2

**Specification at a Glance Mathematics B (Modular) Option T and Option X
**

• This is one of two specifications offered by AQA. Specification A is a traditional linear scheme; Specification B is modular and is suitable for both pre-16 and post-16 candidates. There are three tiers of assessment, Foundation (D-G), Intermediate (B-E) and Higher (A*-C). Centres in Northern Ireland/Wales must refer to the Statement in Section 8.1 of this specification. GCSE 3302 Module 1

Written Paper 2 × 25 minutes (All tiers) Section A – Calculator Section B – Non-calculator 11% of the total assessment

• •

Foundation Tier Intermediate Tier Higher Tier Modules 1, 3 and 5 are available in all three tiers See entry code information in section 3.2

Module 2

Coursework (AO4 task) Either OPTION T Centre-Set or AQA-Set task Centre-Marked 10% of the total assessment Or OPTION X AQA-Set task AQA-Marked

Module 3

Written Paper 2 × 40 minutes (All tiers) Section A – Calculator Section B – Non-calculator 19% of the total assessment

Module 4

Coursework (AO1 task) Either OPTION T Centre-Set or AQA-Set task Centre-Marked 10% of the total assessment Or OPTION X AQA-Set task AQA-Marked

Module 5

Written papers Non-calculator Foundation tier Intermediate and Higher tiers Calculator Foundation tier Intermediate and Higher tiers 50% of the total assessment 1 hour 1 hour 15 minutes 1 hour 1 hour 15 minutes

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

3

3.1 Availability of Assessment Units

**Availability of Assessment Units and Entry Details
**

Specification B is a modular assessment of GCSE Mathematics designed to be taken over a one or two year course of study. To offer maximum flexibility to centres and to suit different teaching programmes, Modules 1 to 4 can be taken in any order and candidates can enter at different tiers for the different modules. Module 5 is the certificating module and must be taken in the final examination series. This is to meet the QCA requirement that at least 50% of the qualification is externally examined at the end of the course. Examinations based on this specification will be available as follows: Series Module 1 March June November All tiers All tiers All tiers Availability of Certification Module 5 _ All tiers Intermediate tier only _ All tiers Intermediate tier only

Availability of Modules Module 2 All tiers All tiers All tiers Module 3 All tiers All tiers All tiers Module 4 All tiers All tiers All tiers

3.2

Entry Codes

Normal entry requirements apply, but the following information should be noted. A separate entry is needed for each of the five modules. In addition, an entry for the overall subject award, 3302, must be submitted by 21 February for the June examination or 7 October for the November examination. More detailed information, including component codes, will be issued to examination centres in a separate document.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3.3

Prohibited Combinations

Candidates entering for Module 5 of this Specification are prohibited from entering for any other GCSE Mathematics specification that will be certificated in the same examination series. Candidates may enter only for a single tier in each module, in a particular examination series. Each specification is assigned a national classification code, indicating the subject area to which it belongs. Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more than one GCSE qualification with the same classification code, will have only one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and College Performance Tables. The classification code for this specification is 2210.

3.4

Private Candidates

Private candidates should normally enter for Specification B Option X. Specification B Option T is only available for private candidates where: • • the candidate attends an AQA centre which will supervise the coursework, or, the candidate has a coursework module mark that can be carried forward (see Section 26.5).

Private candidates should write to AQA for a copy of Supplementary Guidance for Private Candidates.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

3.5

Special Consideration

Special consideration may be requested for candidates whose work has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. The appropriate form and all relevant information should be forwarded to the AQA office which deals with such matters for the centre concerned. Special arrangements may be provided for candidates with special needs. Details are available from AQA and centres should ask for a copy of Candidates with Special Assessment Needs, Special Arrangements and Special Conditions.

3.6

Language of Examinations

All assessment will be through the medium of English. Assessment materials will not be available in Welsh or Gaeilge.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Scheme of Assessment 4

4.1 National Criteria

Introduction

This AQA GCSE (modular) in Mathematics: (B) complies with the following: • • • • the GCSE Subject Criteria for Mathematics; the GCSE and GCE A/AS Code of Practice; the GCSE Qualification Specific Criteria; the Arrangements for the Statutory Regulation of External Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: Common Criteria.

4.2

Rationale

AQA offers a suite of qualifications for GCSE Mathematics. Specification A is a traditional scheme and is a development of the former NEAB GCSE Mathematics syllabus A and SEG GCSE Mathematics syllabus 2510T and 2510X. Specification B is a modular scheme suitable for both pre-16 and post-16 candidates; it is a development of the former SEG GCSE Modular Mathematics syllabus 2540. Specification A and Specification B have common coursework tasks; this allows candidates the flexibility to move from one scheme of assessment to the other.

4.3

Specification B

There are two options within Specification B, allowing alternative approaches for the Internal Assessment (coursework) Modules 2 and 4. In Option T centres may choose from the bank of coursework tasks provided by AQA or they may set their own coursework tasks; centres mark their own coursework tasks with moderation of candidates’ coursework by AQA. In Option X centres must choose from the bank of coursework tasks provided by AQA (AQA-Set tasks) and candidates’ coursework is marked by AQA (see appendices C and D). Specification B used in pre-16 centres. Mathematics is essentially a holistic subject, and as such should be taught in this way with appropriate connections being made between the sections on Number and algebra, Shape, space and measures, and Handling data, as required in the National Curriculum. For example Number underpins the whole of Mathematics. Modular Mathematics Specification B is designed to be more reflective of the way in which candidates are likely to revise for examinations when they tend to cover just one area of Mathematics at a time. Specification B allows candidates to take modules early in the course based on Handling data (AO4) and the mainly number part of Number and algebra (AO2). The

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

final module has to comprise 50% of the external written assessment and this concentrates on the mainly algebraic part of Number and algebra (AO2) and the whole of Space, shape and measures (AO3). The coursework has been separated into two further modules to allow for increased flexibility as to when the tasks are submitted. Division into discrete topic areas gives candidates much more insight into their strengths and weaknesses. Specification B provides a natural link between KS3/KS4 (which are taught holistically) and A-level where Mathematics is examined in discrete topic areas, but not necessarily taught as such. The modular nature of the specification can allow candidates who fail to obtain a GCSE Grade C at KS4 to carry forward some of their module results into post-16 education. Specification B used in a post-16 centre gives links to FreeStanding Mathematics Qualifications (FSMQs) and the Key Skill of Application of Number, and in some cases this could lead to co-teaching opportunities. 4.4 Prior level of attainment and recommended prior learning There is progression of material through all levels at which the subject is studied. This specification therefore builds on the Key Stage 3 Programme of Study. It is also expected that candidates will have reached the required level of literacy through study at Key Stage 3. 4.5 Progression This qualification is a recognised part of the National Qualifications Framework. As such, GCSE Mathematics provides progression from Key Stage 3 to GCE A/AS Mathematics or further study at Advanced or Advanced Subsidiary level in other subjects or further study at GNVQ level, or directly into employment.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

5

Aims

The aims set out below are consistent with the 1999 National Curriculum Order for Mathematics and the GCSE Criteria for Mathematics. Most of the aims are reflected in the Assessment Objectives; others are not because they cannot be readily translated into assessment objectives. This specification encourages candidates to: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. consolidate their understanding of mathematics; be confident in their use of mathematics; extend their use of mathematical vocabulary, definitions and formal reasoning; develop the confidence to use mathematics to tackle problems in the work place and everyday life; take increasing responsibility for the planning and execution of their work; develop an ability to think and reason mathematically; learn the importance of precision and rigour in mathematics; make connections between different areas of mathematics; realise the application of mathematics in the world around them; use ICT appropriately; develop a firm foundation for appropriate further study.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

6

6.1 Assessment Objectives

Assessment Objectives

A course based on this specification requires candidates to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in the following assessment objectives. These relate to the knowledge, skills and understanding in the Programme of Study. AO1 Using and applying mathematics AO2 Number and algebra AO3 Shape, space and measures AO4 Handling data The Assessment Objective AO1, Using and applying mathematics, will be assessed in contexts provided by the other assessment objectives.

6.2

Quality of Written Communication

This specification does not formally assess quality of written communication.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

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7.1 Assessment Units Option T and Option X

Scheme of Assessment

The Scheme of Assessment has a modular structure. The subject content of the specification is assessed by five separate modules which comprise the following components. Written Paper (Section A – Calculator) (Section B – Non-Calculator) Foundation Tier Intermediate Tier Higher Tier 11 % of the total assessment 2 x 25 minutes 2 x 25 minutes 2 x 25 minutes 2 x 20 marks

Module 1

This written paper is the same for Option T or Option X. Assesses AO4 (Handling data). All questions are compulsory. Question and answer booklet.

Module 2

Internal Assessment 1 – AO4 task 10 % of the total assessment EITHER Option T one task set and marked by the centre 24 marks OR Option X one task, selected from a bank of tasks provided by AQA, and marked by AQA (Appendix C)

Coursework task set in the context of AO4 (Handling data).

Module 3

Written Paper (Section A – Calculator) (Section B – Non-Calculator) Foundation Tier Intermediate Tier Higher Tier 19 % of the total assessment 2 x 40 minutes 2 x 40 minutes 2 x 40 minutes 2 x 32 marks

This written paper is the same for Option T or Option X. Assesses mainly the number part of AO2 (Number and algebra). All questions are compulsory. Question and answer booklet.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Module 4

Internal Assessment 2 – AO1 task 10 % of the total assessment EITHER Option T One task set and marked by the centre 24 marks OR Option X one task, selected from a bank of tasks provided by AQA, and marked by AQA (Appendix D)

Coursework task set in the context of AO2 and/or AO3.

Module 5 (Terminal Module)

Written Paper Paper 1 (Non-Calculator) Foundation Tier Intermediate Tier Higher Tier 25 % of the total assessment Written Paper Paper 2 (Calculator) Foundation Tier Intermediate Tier Higher Tier 25 % of the total assessment Both written papers are the same for Option T or Option X. Both papers assess the mainly algebra part of AO2 (Number and algebra) and the whole of AO3 (Shape, space and measures). All questions are compulsory. Question and answer booklet. 60 marks 70 marks 70 marks 1 hour 1 hour 15 mins 1 hour 15 mins 60 marks 70 marks 70 marks 1 hour 1 hour 15 mins 1 hour 15 mins

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

7.2

Weighting of Assessment Objectives

The approximate relationship between the relative percentage weighting of the Assessment Objectives and the overall Scheme of Assessment is shown in the following table.

Module Weightings (%)

Overall Weighting of Assessment Objectives (%)

Assessment Objectives AO1 Using and applying mathematics AO2 Number and algebra AO3 Shape, space and measures AO4 Handling data Overall Weighting of Modules (%)

Module 1 (Written)

Module 2 (Coursework)

Module 3 (Written)

Module 4 (Coursework)

Module 5 (Written)

1*

2* 17

10

7* 23 20

20 40 20 20

10 11

10 10 19 10 50

100

* On the written papers the assessment of AO1 is subsumed within the other Assessment Objectives covered by the Module. Thus 10% of the total written paper assessment will also assess Using and Applying Mathematics within the contexts of the questions. Candidates’ marks for each module are scaled to achieve the correct weightings. 7.3 Written papers The written papers at the Intermediate and Higher tiers offer balanced assessment across the grades available at those tiers. At Foundation tier about one third of the marks are allocated to grade G and the remaining marks are balanced across grades D, E and F. Common questions will be set on papers at adjacent tiers. Some questions will be designed to assess the unprompted solution of multistep problems. In Modules 1 and 3, the written papers are divided into 2 separate sections. The first section is the calculator paper and this is issued to candidates at the beginning of the examination. After this section has been completed (after 25 minutes for Module 1 and 40 minutes for Module 3) candidates are instructed to place their calculators beneath their seat. The second section (the non-calculator paper) is then issued. At the end of the examination, the two sections are tagged together and the papers are collected in. Module 5 written papers are taken on two separate days, with the noncalculator paper on the first day and the calculator paper on the second day. Formulae sheets for the Foundation, Intermediate and Higher tier papers of Module 5 are provided in Appendix B. On the non-calculator papers the use of a calculator, slide rules, logarithmic tables and all other aids is forbidden. On the calculator papers, candidates will be required to demonstrate the effective use of a calculator.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

7.4

Calculators

Candidates will be expected to have a suitable electronic calculator for use with the calculator papers. The calculator should possess the following as a minimum requirement: • • Foundation tier – four rules and a square, square root, brackets, reciprocal and power function and a memory facility; Intermediate and Higher tiers – as for Foundation tier together with a constant function, standard form and appropriate exponential, trigonometric and statistical functions.

Further guidance on regulations relating to calculators can be obtained from Instructions for the Conduct of Examinations. 7.5 Coursework modules Apart from the choice of coursework tasks and the method of assessment, the nature of the Coursework Modules 2 and 4 is the same for Option T and Option X. Information about the administrative arrangements for Option T Modules 2 and 4 can be found in Section 21 and for Option X Modules 2 and 4 in Section 25. AQA set tasks can be found in Appendices C and D of this specification. Centres are encouraged to enter candidates aiming to achieve grades E, F and G for the Foundation tier, grades C and D for the Intermediate tier and grades A*, A and B for the Higher tier.

7.6

Entry policy

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Subject Content 8

8.1 Introduction

**Summary of Subject Content
**

There are three tiers of entry for GCSE Mathematics candidates: Foundation, Intermediate and Higher. In the National Curriculum, published in 1999, the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study was directed into two tiers. The division of the Programme of Study into three tiers in the subject content of this specification is common to all Awarding Bodies. Thus: the subject content of the Foundation tier is based on the Foundation Programme of Study but does not include the grade C material; the subject content of the Intermediate tier is based on the Higher Programme of Study but does not include the grade A and A* material; the subject content of the Higher tier is based on the Higher Programme of Study but does not include the grade D (or lower) material. In general, the Intermediate tier content of the specification subsumes the Foundation tier content. However, questions on the Intermediate tier do not focus directly on material that is outside the grade range of the tier. Similarly, the Higher tier content subsumes the Intermediate and Foundation tier content, but questions on the examination papers for the Higher tier do not focus directly on material that is outside the grade range of the tier. This GCSE Specification has been written against the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study for England. Candidates entering for this GCSE in Northern Ireland and Wales must be taught all the material required by the National Curriculum in their own country.

8.2

Assessment Objectives

Within the modules of this specification the subject content is presented under the following Assessment Objectives. The Assessment Objective AO1 (Using and applying mathematics) is assessed in contexts provided by the other Assessment Objectives. AO2 Number and algebra 1. Using and applying number and algebra 2. Numbers and the number system 3. Calculations 4. Solving numerical problems 5. Equations, formulae and identities 6. Sequences, functions and graphs

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO3 Shape, space and measures 1. Using and applying shape, space and measures 2. Geometrical reasoning 3. Transformations and coordinates 4. Measures and construction AO4 Handling data 1. Using and applying handling data 2. Specifying the problem and planning 3. Collecting data 4. Processing and representing data 5. Interpreting and discussing results 8.3 Modules Module 1 This includes all of the subject content from AO4 (Handling data) of the National Curriculum for Mathematics, divided into three tiers of entry. Module 2 This is an internally assessed module assessing the using and applying section of AO4 (Handling data). The marking criteria are given in Section 17.5. Module 3 This includes the mainly number subject content from AO2 (Number and algebra) of the National Curriculum. At the Foundation and Intermediate tiers, only number topics are examined in this module. At the Higher tier some algebra topics are also examined. Module 4 This is an internally assessed module assessing the using and applying sections of AO2 (Number and algebra) and/or AO3 (Shape, space and measures). The marking criteria are given in Section 17.6. Module 5 This includes the mainly algebra subject content from AO2 (Number and Algebra) and all of the subject content from AO3 (Shape, Space and Measures). At the Foundation and Intermediate tiers selected number topics from AO2 (Number and algebra) are also assessed. At the Higher tier only the algebra topics from AO2 (Number and algebra) are assessed in this module.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

8.4

Breadth of Study

In addition to the required knowledge, skills and understanding, the National Curriculum Programme of Study also specifies the Breadth of Study expected. Pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through: a. extending mental and written calculation strategies and using efficient procedures confidently to calculate with integers, fractions, decimals, percentages, ratio and proportion; b. solving a range of familiar and unfamiliar problems, including those drawn from real-life contexts and other areas of the curriculum; c. activities that provide frequent opportunities to discuss their work, to develop reasoning and understanding and to explain their reasoning and strategies; d. activities focused on developing short chains of deductive reasoning and correct use of the ‘=’ sign; e. activities in which they do practical work with geometrical objects, visualise them and work with them mentally; f. practical work in which they draw inferences from data, consider how statistics are used in real life to make informed decisions, and recognise the difference between meaningful and misleading representations of data; g. activities focused on the major ideas of statistics, including using appropriate populations and representative samples, using different measurement scales, using probability as a measure of uncertainty, using randomness and variability, reducing bias in sampling and measuring, and using inference to make decisions; h. substantial use of tasks focused on using appropriate ICT (for example, spreadsheets, databases, geometry or graphic packages), using calculators correctly and efficiently, and knowing when not to use a calculator.

Foundation Tier

Intermediate/Higher Tiers

Pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through: a. activities that ensure they become familiar with and confident using standard procedures for the range of calculations appropriate to this level of study; b. solving familiar and unfamiliar problems in a range of numerical, algebraic and graphical contexts and in open-ended and closed form; c. using standard notations for decimals, fractions, percentages, ratio and indices; d. activities that show how algebra, as an extension of number using symbols, gives precise form to mathematical relationships and calculations; e. activities in which they progress from using definitions and short chains of reasoning to understanding and formulating proofs in algebra and geometry;

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

f. a sequence of practical activities that address increasingly demanding statistical problems in which they draw inferences from data and consider the uses of statistics in society; g. choosing appropriate ICT tools and using these to solve numerical and graphical problems, to represent and manipulate geometrical configurations and to present and analyse data. 8.5 Subject Content Presentation The subject content for each module is shown in three columns, representing the Programmes of Study for Key Stage 4 divided into three tiers of entry. The subject content is taken directly from the Statutory Orders for Mathematics. To maintain the coherence of the topics, the statements have been given in full for each tier. Where the wording is almost the same as the previous tier with just a small addition, the additional material is in bold type face. In the Module 3 Foundation and Intermediate tiers the statements for some number topics are shown in Module 3 but are shaded to show that they are not examined until Module 5. The statements are then repeated in Module 5. For each of the written paper modules, Modules 1, 3 and 5, the using and applying statements are given at the beginning. These statements will be mainly tested, and indeed some can only be tested, in the coursework tasks. However, 10% of the total written paper assessment also has to assess using and applying mathematics within the contexts of questions appropriate to that paper. Each statement is referenced to the appropriate statement in the Foundation or Higher Programme of Study.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

9

AO4: Handling data

1. Using and applying handling data

Problem solving Foundation tier 4F1a (i)

Module 1

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

(ii) (iii) (iv) 4F1b 4F1c 4F1d

Pupils should be taught to: carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems: specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and secondary sources secondary sources secondary sources process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the problem problem problem interpret and discuss: answer the initial question by (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data identify what further information is needed to pursue 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in a particular line of enquiry statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness (these strategies should address the scale and select and organise the appropriate mathematics and manageability of the tasks, and should consider resources to use for a task whether the mathematics and approach used are delivering the most appropriate solutions) review progress while working; check and evaluate solutions 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness (these strategies should address the scale and manageability of the tasks, and should consider whether the mathematics and approach used are delivering the most appropriate solutions)

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating Foundation tier 4F1e 4F1f interpret, discuss and synthesise information presented in a variety of forms communicate mathematically, including using ICT, making use of diagrams and related explanatory text 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the use of an increasing range of diagrams and related use of an increasing range of diagrams and related explanatory text, on the selection of their explanatory text, on the selection of their mathematical presentation, explaining its mathematical presentation, explaining its purpose purpose and approach, and on the use of and approach, and on the use of symbols to convey symbols to convey statistical meaning statistical meaning Intermediate tier Higher tier

Reasoning 4F1h apply mathematical reasoning, explaining inferences and deductions 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and justifying inferences and deductions, justifying arguments and solutions 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when solving statistical problems 4F1i explore connections in mathematics and look for cause and effect when analysing data 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for relationships between variables when analysing data 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and justifying inferences and deductions, justifying arguments and solutions 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when solving statistical problems 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for relationships between variables when analysing data

4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the 4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the effects that varying the assumptions could have on effects that varying the assumptions could have on the conclusions drawn from data analysis the conclusions drawn from data analysis

**2. Specifying the problem and planning
**

4F2a 4F2b 4F2c Pupils should be taught to: see that random processes are unpredictable 4H2a see that random processes are unpredictable

identify questions that can be addressed by statistical 4H2b identify key questions that can be addressed by methods statistical methods discuss how data relate to a problem 4H2c discuss how data relate to a problem; identify possible sources of bias and plan to minimise it 4H2c identify possible sources of bias and plan to minimise it

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier 4F2d identify which primary data they need to collect and in what format, including grouped data, considering appropriate equal class intervals design an experiment or survey; decide what secondary data to use

Intermediate tier 4H2d identify which primary data they need to collect and in what format, including grouped data, considering appropriate equal class intervals 4H2e design an experiment or survey; decide what primary and secondary data to use

Higher tier 4H2d select and justify a sampling scheme and a method to investigate a population, including random and stratified sampling 4H2e decide what primary and secondary data to use

4F2e

3. Collecting data

4F3a Pupils should be taught to: design and use data-collection sheets for grouped 4H3a collect data using various methods, including discrete and continuous data; collect data using observation, controlled experiment, data logging, various methods, including observation, controlled questionnaires and surveys experiment, data logging, questionnaires and surveys gather data from secondary sources, including printed tables and lists from ICT-based sources design and use two-way tables for discrete and grouped data 4H3b gather data from secondary sources, including printed tables and lists from ICT-based sources 4H3c design and use two-way tables for discrete and grouped data 4H3d deal with practical problems such as non-response or 4H3d deal with practical problems such as non-response or missing data missing data

4F3b 4F3c

**4. Processing and representing data
**

4F4a Pupils should be taught to: draw and produce, using paper and ICT, pie charts for categorical data, and diagrams for continuous data, including line graphs for time series, scatter graphs, frequency diagrams and stem-and-leaf diagrams calculate mean, range and median of small data sets with discrete and then continuous data; identify the modal class for grouped data 4H4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, pie charts 4H4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, cumulative for categorical data, and diagrams for continuous frequency tables and diagrams, box plots and data, including line graphs (time series), scatter histograms for grouped continuous data graphs, frequency diagrams, stem-and-leaf diagrams, cumulative frequency tables and diagrams, box plots see 4H4e see 4H4e

4F4b

hij

27

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier 4F4c 4F4d understand and use the probability scale understand and use estimates or measures of probability from theoretical models (including equally likely outcomes) list all outcomes for single events, and for two successive events, in a systematic way identify different mutually exclusive outcomes and know that the sum of the probabilities of all these outcomes is 1

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

4H4b understand and use estimates or measures of 4H4b understand and use estimates or measures of probability from theoretical models, or from relative probability from theoretical models, or from relative frequency frequency 4H4c list all outcomes for single events, and for two successive events, in a systematic way 4H4d identify different mutually exclusive outcomes and know that the sum of the probabilities of all these outcomes is 1 4H4e find the median, quartiles and interquartile range for 4H4e find the median, quartiles and interquartile range for large data sets and calculate the mean for large data large data sets and calculate the mean for large data sets with grouped data sets with grouped data 4H4f calculate an appropriate moving average 4H4f calculate an appropriate moving average

4F4e 4F4f

4H4g know when to add or multiply two probabilities: if A and B are mutually exclusive, then the probability of A or B occurring is P(A) + P(B), whereas if A and B are independent events, the probability of A and B occurring is P(A) × P(B) 4H4h use tree diagrams to represent outcomes of compound events, recognising when events are independent 4F4h draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what these represent 4H4i 4H4j draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what these represent use relevant statistical functions on a calculator or spreadsheet 4H4h use tree diagrams to represent outcomes of compound events, recognising when events are independent 4H4i 4H4j draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what these represent use relevant statistical functions on a calculator or spreadsheet

28

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

**5. Interpreting and Discussing Results
**

Foundation tier 4F5a 4F5b Pupils should be taught to: relate summarised data to the initial questions interpret a wide range of graphs and diagrams and draw conclusions look at data to find patterns and exceptions Intermediate tier 4H5a relate summarised data to the initial questions 4H5b interpret a wide range of graphs and diagrams and 4H5b identify seasonality and trends in time series draw conclusions; identify seasonality and trends in time series 4H5c look at data to find patterns and exceptions Higher tier

4F5c 4F5d

compare distributions and make inferences, using the 4H5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the 4H5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the shapes of distributions and measures of average and shapes of distributions and measures of average and shapes of distributions and measures of average and range spread, including median and quartiles spread, including median and quartiles; understand frequency density consider and check results and modify their approach if necessary have a basic understanding of correlation as a measure of the strength of the association between two variables; identify correlation or no correlation using lines of best fit 4H5e consider and check results and modify their approach if necessary 4H5f appreciate that correlation is a measure of the strength of the association between two variables; distinguish between positive, negative and zero correlation using lines of best fit; appreciate that zero correlation does not necessarily imply ‘no relationship’ but merely ‘no linear relationship’ 4H5f appreciate that correlation is a measure of the strength of the association between two variables; distinguish between positive, negative and zero correlation using lines of best fit; appreciate that zero correlation does not necessarily imply ‘no relationship’ but merely ‘no linear relationship’

4F5e 4F5f

4F5g

use the vocabulary of probability to interpret results involving uncertainty and prediction compare experimental data and theoretical probabilities

4H5g use the vocabulary of probability to interpret results involving uncertainty and prediction [for example, ‘there is some evidence from this sample that …’] 4H5h compare experimental data and theoretical probabilities understand that if they repeat an experiment, they may – and usually will – get different outcomes, and that increasing sample size generally leads to better estimates of probability and population parameters

4F5h 4F5i

understand that if they repeat an experiment, they 4H5i may – and usually will – get different outcomes, and that increasing sample size generally leads to better estimates of probability and population characteristics discuss implications of findings in the context of the problem

4F5j

hij

29

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier 4F5k interpret social statistics including index numbers [for example, the General Index of Retail Prices]; time series [for example, population growth]; and survey data [for example, the National Census]

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

30

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

10

AO4: Handling data

1. Using and applying handling data

Problem solving Foundation tier 4F1a

Module 2

Intermediate tier 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling data cycle to solve problems: (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions in terms of the data needed, and consider what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what data to collect (including sample size and data format) and what statistical analysis is needed (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, including experiments and surveys, and primary and secondary sources (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data into usable information that gives insight into the problem (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial question by drawing conclusions from the data

Higher tier 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling data cycle to solve problems: (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions in terms of the data needed, and consider what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what data to collect (including sample size and data format) and what statistical analysis is needed (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, including experiments and surveys, and primary and secondary sources (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data into usable information that gives insight into the problem (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial question by drawing conclusions from the data 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness (these strategies should address the scale and manageability of the tasks, and should consider whether the mathematics and approach used are delivering the most appropriate solutions)

Pupils should be taught to: carry out each of the four aspects of the handling data cycle to solve problems:

(i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions in terms of the data needed, and consider what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what data to collect (including sample size and data format) and what statistical analysis is needed (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, including experiments and surveys, and primary and secondary sources (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data into usable information that gives insight into the problem (iv) interpret and discuss: answer the initial question by drawing conclusions from the data 4F1b 4F1c 4F1d

identify what further information is needed to pursue 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in a particular line of enquiry statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness (these strategies should address the scale and select and organise the appropriate mathematics and manageability of the tasks, and should consider resources to use for a task whether the mathematics and approach used are delivering the most appropriate solutions) review progress while working; check and evaluate solutions

hij

31

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating Foundation tier 4F1e 4F1f interpret, discuss and synthesise information presented in a variety of forms communicate mathematically, including using ICT, making use of diagrams and related explanatory text 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the use of an increasing range of diagrams and related use of an increasing range of diagrams and related explanatory text, on the selection of their explanatory text, on the selection of their mathematical presentation, explaining its mathematical presentation, explaining its purpose purpose and approach, and on the use of and approach, and on the use of symbols to convey symbols to convey statistical meaning statistical meaning Intermediate tier Higher tier

Reasoning 4F1h apply mathematical reasoning, explaining inferences and deductions 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and justifying inferences and deductions, justifying arguments and solutions 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when solving statistical problems 4F1i explore connections in mathematics and look for cause and effect when analysing data 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for relationships between variables when analysing data 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and justifying inferences and deductions, justifying arguments and solutions 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when solving statistical problems 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for relationships between variables when analysing data

4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the 4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the effects that varying the assumptions could have on effects that varying the assumptions could have on the conclusions drawn from data analysis the conclusions drawn from data analysis

32

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

11

AO2: Number and Algebra

Module 3

**1. Using and applying number and algebra
**

Problem solving Foundation tier 2F1a Intermediate tier Higher tier 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques and strategies to solve problems of increasing complexity, involving numerical and algebraic manipulation

Pupils should be taught to: select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic manipulation

2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular approaches approaches 2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their choice of methods use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem – identifying the variable, setting up an equation, solving the equation and interpreting the solution in the context of the problem make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy; operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in certain calculations

2F1c

2F1d

Assessed in Module 5

hij

33

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating Foundation tier 2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic information presented in a variety of forms use a range of strategies to create numerical, algebraic or graphical representations of a problem and its solution Intermediate tier 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using an increasing range of mathematical language and notation 2H1f Higher tier 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using an increasing range of mathematical language and notation move from one form of representation to another to get different perspectives on the problem

2F1g

use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f establishing algebraic or graphical representations of a problem and its solution; move from one form of representation to another to get different perspectives on the problem

2F1h 2F1f

present and interpret solutions in the context of the original problem use notation and symbols correctly and consistently within a given problem

2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the original problem 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently within a given problem 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice of mathematical presentation 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice of mathematical presentation; present a concise, reasoned argument

Reasoning 2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes that substitute numbers for letters], investigating whether particular cases can be generalised further, and understanding the importance of a counterexample 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular case may be generalised further and understand the importance of a counter-example; identify exceptional cases when solving problems understand the importance of a counter-example; identify exceptional cases when solving problems

2H1k understand the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof 2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem

2H1k understand the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive reasoning

Assessed in Module 5

34

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the solution to a problem solution to a problem

**2. Numbers and the number system
**

Integers 2F2a Pupils should be taught to: use their previous understanding of integers and place value to deal with arbitrarily large positive numbers and round them to a given power of 10; understand and use positive numbers, both as positions and translations on a number line; order integers; use the concepts and vocabulary of factor (divisor), multiple and common factor 2H2a use their previous understanding of integers and place value to deal with arbitrarily large positive numbers and round them to a given power of 10; understand and use negative integers both as positions and translations on a number line; order integers; use the concepts and vocabulary of factor (divisor), multiple, common factor, highest common factor, least common multiple, prime number and prime factor decomposition 2H2a use the concepts and vocabulary of highest common factor, least common multiple, prime number and prime factor decomposition

Powers and roots 2F2b use the terms square, positive square root, cube; use index notation for squares, cubes and powers of 10 2H2b use the terms square, positive square root, negative 2H2b use index laws for multiplication and division of square root, cube and cube root; use index notation integer powers; use standard index form, expressed and index laws for multiplication and division of in conventional notation and on a calculator display integer powers; use standard index form, expressed in conventional notation and on a calculator display

Assessed in Module 5

hij

35

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Fractions Foundation tier 2F2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fractions by rewriting them with a common denominator Intermediate tier 2H2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fractions by rewriting them with a common denominator Higher tier

Decimals 2F2d use decimal notation and recognise that each terminating decimal is a fraction [for example, 137 0.137 = 1000 ]; order decimals 2H2d recognise that each terminating decimal is a fraction 137 [for example, 0.137 = 1000 ]; recognise that recurring decimals are exact fractions, and that some exact fractions are recurring decimals [for example, 1 = 0.142857142857…]; order decimals 7 2H2d recognise that recurring decimals are exact fractions, and that some exact fractions are recurring decimals [for example, 1 = 0.142857142857…] 7

Percentages 2F2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts 2H2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts per 100’, and interpret percentage as the operator ‘so per 100’ and use this to compare proportions; many hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 interpret percentage as the operator ‘so many 15 hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 parts parts per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 × Y] 15 × Y]; use per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 percentage in real-life situations [for example, commerce and business, including rate of inflation, VAT and interest rates]

Ratio 2F2f use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest 2H2f form and its various links to fraction notation [for example, in maps and scale drawings, paper sizes and gears] use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest 2H2f form and its various links to fraction notation use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest form and its various links to fraction notation

Assessed in Module 5

36

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3. Calculations

Number operations and the relationships between them Foundation tier 2F3a Intermediate tier Higher tier 2H3a multiply or divide any number by a number between 0 and 1; find the prime factor decomposition of positive integers; understand ‘reciprocal’ as multiplicative inverse, knowing that any non-zero number multiplied by its reciprocal is 1 (and that zero has no reciprocal, because division by zero is not defined); multiply and divide by a negative number; use index laws to simplify and calculate the value of numerical expressions involving multiplication and division of integer, fractional and negative powers; use inverse operations, understanding that the inverse operation of raising a positive number to power n is raising 1 the result of this operation to power n

Pupils should be taught to: add, subtract, multiply and divide integers and then 2H3a multiply or divide any number by powers of 10, and any number; multiply or divide any number by any positive number by a number between 0 and 1; powers of 10, and any positive number by a number find the prime factor decomposition of positive between 0 and 1 integers; understand ‘reciprocal’ as multiplicative inverse, knowing that any nonzero number multiplied by its reciprocal is 1 (and that zero has no reciprocal, because division by zero is not defined); multiply and divide by a negative number; use index laws to simplify and calculate the value of numerical expressions involving multiplication and division of integer powers; use inverse operations use brackets and the hierarchy of operations 2H3b use brackets and the hierarchy of operations

2F3b 2F3c

calculate a given fraction of a given quantity [for 2H3c calculate a given fraction of a given quantity, example, for scale drawings and construction of expressing the answer as a fraction; express a given models, down payments, discounts], expressing the number as a fraction of another; add and subtract answer as a fraction; express a given number as a fractions by writing them with a common fraction of another; add and subtract fractions by denominator; perform short division to convert a writing them with a common denominator; perform simple fraction to a decimal; distinguish between short division to convert a simple fraction to a fractions with denominators that have only decimal prime factors of 2 and 5 (which are represented by terminating decimals), and other fractions (which are represented by recurring decimals)

2H3c distinguish between fractions with denominators that have only prime factors of 2 and 5 (which are represented by terminating decimals), and other fractions (which are represented by recurring decimals); convert a recurring decimal to a fraction [for example, 0.142857142857… = 1 ] 7

2F3d

2H3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative 2H3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication by 1 as division by 5; or multiplication by 6 as by 1 as division by 5]; multiply and divide a fraction by 6 as multiplication by 6 followed by division by 7 5 5 7 7 by an integer, and multiply a fraction by a unit multiplication by 6 followed by division by 7 (or vice (or vice versa)]; multiply and divide a given fraction fraction versa)], multiply and divide a given fraction by an by a unit fraction and by a general fraction integer, by a unit fraction and by a general fraction

37

hij

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier 2F3e

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

convert simple fractions of a whole to percentages of 2H3e convert simple fractions of a whole to percentages of 2H3e understand the multiplicative nature of percentages the whole and vice versa [for example, analysing the whole and vice versa; then understand the as operators [for example, a 15% increase in value Y, diets, budgets or the costs of running, maintaining multiplicative nature of percentages as operators followed by a 15% decrease is calculated as and owning a car] [for example, a 15% increase in value Y, followed by 1.15 × 0.85 × Y]; calculate an original amount when given the transformed amount after a a 15% decrease is calculated as 1.15 × 0.85 × Y]; calculate an original amount when given the percentage change; reverse percentage problems [for transformed amount after a percentage change; example, given that a meal in a restaurant costs £36 reverse percentage problems [for example, given with VAT at 17.5%, its price before VAT is that a meal in a restaurant costs £36 with VAT at calculated as £ 1.36 ] 175 17.5%, its price before VAT is calculated as £ 1.36 ] 175 divide a quantity in a given ratio [for example, share £15 in the ratio of 1:2] 2H3f divide a quantity in a given ratio 2H3f divide a quantity in a given ratio

2F3f

Mental methods 2F3g 2H3g recall integer squares from 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 and the 2H3g recall integer squares from 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 and the recall all positive integer complements to 100 corresponding square roots, the cubes of 2, 3, 4, 5 corresponding square roots, the cubes of 2, 3, 4, 5 [for example, 37 + 63 = 100]; recall all multiplication 1 and 10 facts to 10 × 10, and use them to derive quickly the and 10, the fact that n0 = 1 and n-1 = n for corresponding division facts; recall the cubes of 2, 3, positive integers n [for example,100 = 1; 9-1 = 1 ], 9 4, 5 and 10, and the fraction-to-decimal conversion the corresponding rule for negative numbers of familiar simple fractions [for example, 1 1, 1, 1, 1 , 1 , 1, 2, 1 ] 1 [for example, 5 −2 = 512 = 25 ], n 2 = n and 2 4 5 10 100 3 3 8

n 3 = 3 n for any positive number n [for example,

25 2 = 5 and 64 3 = 4 ]

1

1

1

Assessed in Module 5

38

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

**2F3h round to the nearest integer and to one significant
**

2F3i figure; estimate answers to problems involving decimals develop a range of strategies for mental calculation; derive unknown facts from those they know [for example, estimate 85 ]; add and subtract numbers mentally with up to two decimal places [for example, 13.76 – 5.21, 20.08 + 12.4]; multiply and divide numbers with no more than one decimal digit, [for example, 14.3 × 4, 56.7 ÷ 7] using the commutative, associative, and distributive laws and factorisation where possible, or place value adjustments

2H3h round to a given number of significant figures; 2H3h round to a given number of significant figures; develop a range of strategies for mental calculation; convert between ordinary and standard index form derive unknown facts from those they know; convert representations [for example, between ordinary and standard index form 0.1234 = 1.234 × 10-1], converting to standard index representations [for example, form to make sensible estimates for calculations involving multiplication and/or division 0.1234 = 1.234 × 10-1], converting to standard index form to make sensible estimates for calculations involving multiplication and/or division

Written methods 2F3j 2F3k use standard column procedures for addition and subtraction of integers and decimals use standard column procedures for multiplication of integers and decimals, understanding where to position the decimal point by considering what happens if they multiply equivalent fractions use efficient methods to calculate with fractions, 2H3i including cancelling common factors before carrying out the calculation, recognising that, in many cases, only a fraction can express the exact answer use efficient methods to calculate with fractions, including cancelling common factors before carrying out the calculation, recognising that, in many cases, only a fraction can express the exact answer solve percentage problems, including increase and decrease [for example, simple interest, VAT, annual rate of inflation]; and reverse percentages 2H3j solve percentage problems, [for example, simple interest, VAT, annual rate of inflation]; and reverse percentages

2F3l

2F3m solve simple percentage problems, including increase 2H3j and decrease [for example, VAT, annual rate of inflation, income tax, discounts]

hij

39

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier 2F3n solve word problems about ratio and proportion, including using informal strategies and the unitary method of solution [for example, given that m y identical items cost £y, then one item costs £ m and

n items cost £(n × m ), the number of items that can be bought for £z is z × m ] y

y

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

2H3k represent repeated proportional change using a 2H3k represent repeated proportional change using a multiplier raised to a power [for example, compound multiplier raised to a power [for example, compound interest] interest] 2H3l calculate an unknown quantity from quantities that vary in direct proportion 2H3l calculate an unknown quantity from quantities that vary in direct or inverse proportion

2H3m calculate with standard index form [for example, 2.4 × 107 × 5 × 103 = 12 × 1010 = 1.2 × 1011, (2.4 × 107) ÷ (5 × 103) = 4.8 × 103] 2H3n use surds and π in exact calculations, without a calculator

2H3m calculate with standard index form [for example, 2.4 × 107 × 5 × 103 = 12 × 1010 = 1.2 × 1011, (2.4 × 107) ÷ (5 × 103) = 4.8 × 103] 2H3n use surds and π in exact calculations, without a calculator; rationalise a denominator such as

1 3 = 3 3

Calculator methods 2F3o use calculators effectively; know how to enter complex calculations and use function keys for reciprocals, squares and powers 2H3o use calculators effectively and efficiently; know how 2H3o use calculators effectively and efficiently, know how to enter complex calculations; use an extended to enter complex calculations; use an extended range range of function keys, including of function keys, including trigonometrical and trigonometrical and statistical functions relevant statistical functions relevant across this programme across this programme of study of study

2F3p

enter a range of calculations, including those involving measures [for example, time calculations in which fractions of an hour must be entered as fractions or as decimals] Assessed in Module 5

40

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier 2F3q understand the calculator display, interpreting it correctly [for example, in money calculations, or when the display has been rounded by the calculator], and knowing not to round during the intermediate steps of a calculation

Intermediate tier 2H3p understand the calculator display, knowing when to interpret the display, when the display has been rounded by the calculator, and knowing not to round during the intermediate steps of a calculation

Higher tier

2H3q use calculators, or written methods, to calculate the upper and lower bounds of calculations, particularly when working with measurements 2H3r 2H3s use standard index form display and know how to enter numbers in standard index form 2H3r use standard index form display and know how to enter numbers in standard index form use calculators for reverse percentage calculations by doing an appropriate division use calculators to explore exponential growth and decay [for example, in science or geography], using a multiplier and the power key

use calculators for reverse percentage calculations by 2H3s doing an appropriate division 2H3t

**4. Solving numerical problems
**

2F4a Pupils should be taught to: draw on their knowledge of the operations and the relationships between them, and of simple integer powers and their corresponding roots, to solve problems involving ratio and proportion, a range of measures including speed, metric units, and conversion between metric and common imperial units, set in a variety of contexts 2H4a draw on their knowledge of operations and inverse 2H4a draw on their knowledge of operations and inverse operations (including powers and roots), and of operations (including powers and roots), and of methods of simplification (including factorisation methods of simplification (including factorisation and the use of the commutative, associative and and the use of the commutative, associative and distributive laws of addition, multiplication and distributive laws of addition, multiplication and factorisation) in order to select and use suitable factorisation) in order to select and use suitable strategies and techniques to solve problems and strategies and techniques to solve problems and word problems, including those involving ratio and word problems, including those involving ratio and select appropriate operations, methods and strategies proportion, repeated proportional change, fractions, proportion, repeated proportional change, fractions, to solve number problems, including trial and percentages and reverse percentages, surds, measures percentages and reverse percentages, inverse improvement where a more efficient method to find and conversion between measures, and compound proportion, surds, measures and conversion the solution is not obvious measures defined within a particular situation between measures, and compound measures defined within a particular situation Assessed in Module 5

2F4b

hij

41

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier 2F4c use a variety of checking procedures, including working the problem backwards, and considering whether a result is of the right order of magnitude give solutions in the context of the problem to an appropriate degree of accuracy, interpreting the solution shown on a calculator display, and recognising limitations on the accuracy of data and measurements

Intermediate tier

Higher tier

2F4d

2H4b check and estimate answers to problems; select and 2H4b check and estimate answers to problems; select and justify appropriate degrees of accuracy for answers to justify appropriate degrees of accuracy for answers to problems; recognise limitations on the accuracy of problems; recognise limitations on the accuracy of data and measurements data and measurements

**5. Equations, formulae and identities
**

Use of symbols 2F5a Pupils should be taught to: assessed in Module 5 2H5a assessed in Module 5 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter symbols in algebra, using the correct notational conventions for multiplying or dividing by a given number, and knowing that letter symbols represent definite unknown numbers in equations [for example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or variables in formula [for example, V = IR], general, unspecified and independent numbers in identities [for example, (x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1, for all x] and in functions they define new expressions or quantities by referring to known quantities [for example, 3 y = 2 – 7x, f(x) = x ; y = 1 with x ≠ 0] x 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules of generalised arithmetic [for example, a(b + c) = ab + ac]; manipulate algebraic expressions by collecting like terms 2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’ and ‘expression’

2F5b

assessed in Module 5

2H5b assessed in Module 5

2H5c assessed in Module 5

42

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Direct and inverse proportion Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier 2H5h set up and use equations to solve word and other problems involving direct proportion or inverse proportion [for example, y ∝ x, y ∝ x2, y∝

1 x

, y∝

1 x2

], and relate

algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the equations

**6. Sequences, functions and graphs
**

Quadratic functions Pupils should be taught to: 2H6e assessed in Module 5 2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then more general quadratic functions [for example, x2 – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a quadratic equation from the graph of the corresponding quadratic function; find the intersection points of the graphs of a linear and quadratic function, knowing that these are the approximate solutions of the corresponding simultaneous equations representing the linear and quadratic functions

hij

43

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

12

AO2: Number and algebra

Module 4

**1. Using and applying number and algebra
**

Problem solving Foundation tier 2F1a Intermediate tier Higher tier 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques and strategies to solve problems of increasing complexity, involving numerical and algebraic manipulation

Pupils should be taught to: select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic manipulation

2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular approaches approaches 2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their choice of methods use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem – identifying the variable, setting up an equation, solving the equation and interpreting the solution in the context of the problem make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy; operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in certain calculations

2F1c

2F1d

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Communicating Foundation tier 2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic information presented in a variety of forms use a range of strategies to create numerical, algebraic or graphical representations of a problem and its solution Intermediate tier 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using an increasing range of mathematical language and notation 2H1f Higher tier 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using an increasing range of mathematical language and notation move from one form of representation to another to get different perspectives on the problem

2F1g

use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f establishing algebraic or graphical representations of a problem and its solution; move from one form of representation to another to get different perspectives on the problem

2F1h 2F1f

present and interpret solutions in the context of the original problem use notation and symbols correctly and consistently within a given problem

2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the original problem 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently within a given problem 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice of mathematical presentation 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice of mathematical presentation; present a concise, reasoned argument

Reasoning 2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes that substitute numbers for letters], investigating whether particular cases can be generalised further, and understanding the importance of a counterexample 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular case may be generalised further and understand the importance of a counter-example; identify exceptional cases when solving problems understand the importance of a counter-example; identify exceptional cases when solving problems

2H1k understand the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof 2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem

2H1k understand the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive reasoning

2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the solution to a problem solution to a problem

hij

45

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

**AO3: Shape, space and measures
**

1. Using and applying shape, space and measures

Problem solving Foundation tier 3F1a Intermediate tier Higher tier 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in geometrical work, and consider and explain the extent to which the selections they made were appropriate 3H1b select and combine known facts and problemsolving strategies to solve more complex geometrical problems 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry, justifying their decisions to follow or reject particular approaches

Pupils should be taught to: select problem-solving strategies and resources, 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in including ICT tools, to use in geometrical work, and geometrical work, and consider and explain the monitor their effectiveness extent to which the selections they made were appropriate select and combine known facts and problemsolving strategies to solve complex problems identify what further information is needed to solve a geometrical problem; break complex problems down into a series of tasks 3H1b select and combine known facts and problemsolving strategies to solve more complex geometrical problems 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry

3F1b

3F1c

Communicating 3F1d 3F1e interpret, discuss and synthesise geometrical information presented in a variety of forms communicate mathematically, by presenting and organising results and explaining geometrical diagrams use geometrical language appropriately 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical presentation 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a critical examination of the presentation and organisation of results, and on effective use of symbols and geometrical diagrams 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a critical examination of the presentation and organisation of results, and on effective use of symbols and geometrical diagrams 3H1e use precise formal language and exact methods for analysing geometrical configurations 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical presentation

3F1f

46

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Reasoning Foundation tier 3F1h 3F1i apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and justifying inferences and deductions 3H1f Intermediate tier distinguish between practical demonstrations and proofs apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from brief mathematical explanations towards full justifications in more complex contexts 3F1h 3H1f Higher tier distinguish between practical demonstrations and proofs apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from brief mathematical explanations towards full justifications in more complex contexts

3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’ 3F1j show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical 3H1h show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical problem problem 3H1i state constraints and give starting points when making deductions

3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’

3H1i 3H1j

state constraints and give starting points when making deductions understand the necessary and sufficient conditions under which generalisations, inferences and solutions to geometrical problems remain valid

hij

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

13

AO2: Number and Algebra

Module 5

**1. Using and applying number and algebra
**

Problem solving Foundation tier 2F1a Intermediate tier Higher tier 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques and strategies to solve problems of increasing complexity, involving numerical and algebraic manipulation

Pupils should be taught to: select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic manipulation

2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular approaches approaches 2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their choice of methods use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem – identifying the variable, setting up an equation, solving the equation and interpreting the solution in the context of the problem make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy; operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in certain calculations

2F1c

2F1d

Assessed in Module 3

48

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Communicating Foundation tier 2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic information presented in a variety of forms use a range of strategies to create numerical, algebraic or graphical representations of a problem and its solution Intermediate tier 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using an increasing range of mathematical language and notation 2H1f Higher tier 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using an increasing range of mathematical language and notation move from one form of representation to another to get different perspectives on the problem

2F1g

use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f establishing algebraic or graphical representations of a problem and its solution; move from one form of representation to another to get different perspectives on the problem

2F1h 2F1f

present and interpret solutions in the context of the original problem use notation and symbols correctly and consistently within a given problem

2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the original problem 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently within a given problem 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice of mathematical presentation 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice of mathematical presentation; present a concise, reasoned argument

Reasoning 2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes that substitute numbers for letters], investigating whether particular cases can be generalised further, and understanding the importance of a counterexample 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular case can be generalised further and understand the importance of a counter-example; identify exceptional cases when solving problems understand the importance of a counter-example; identify exceptional cases when solving problems

2H1k understand the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof 2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem

2H1k understand the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive reasoning

2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the solution to a problem solution to a problem

hij

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

**2. Numbers and the number system
**

Integers Foundation tier 2F2a Pupils should be taught to: use the concepts and vocabulary of factor (divisor), multiple and common factor Intermediate tier 2H2a assessed in Module 3 Higher tier 2H2a assessed in Module 3

Powers and roots 2F2b use the terms square, positive square root, cube; use index notation for squares, cubes and powers of 10 2H2b use the terms square, positive square root, negative 2H2b assessed in Module 3 square root, cube and cube root; use index notation and index laws for multiplication and division of integer powers; use standard index form, expressed in conventional notation and on a calculator display

Fractions 2F2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fractions by rewriting them with a common denominator 2H2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fractions by rewriting them with a common denominator

Decimals 2F2d use decimal notation 2H2d assessed in Module 3 2H2d assessed in Module 3

Percentages 2F2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts 2H2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts per 100’, and interpret percentage as the operator ‘so per 100’ and use this to compare proportions; many hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 interpret percentage as the operator ‘so many 15 hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 parts parts per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 × Y] 15 per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 × Y]

50

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3. Calculations

Number operations and the relationships between them Foundation tier 2F3a Intermediate tier Higher tier 2H3a assessed in Module 3

Pupils should be taught to: add, subtract, multiply and divide integers and then 2H3a assessed in Module 3 any number; multiply or divide any number by powers of 10, and any positive number by a number between 0 and 1 use brackets and the hierarchy of operations 2H3b assessed in Module 3

2F3b

Mental methods 2F3g recall all positive integer complements to 100 2H3g assessed in Module 3 [for example, 37 + 63 = 100]; recall all multiplication facts to 10 × 10, and use them to derive quickly the corresponding division facts; recall the cubes of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 2H3g assessed in Module 3

Calculator methods 2F3o use calculators effectively; use function keys for reciprocals, squares and powers 2H3o assessed in Module 3 2H3o assessed in Module 3

**4. Solving numerical problems
**

2F4a Pupils should be taught to: draw on their knowledge of simple integer powers and their corresponding roots, to solve problems 2H4a assessed in Module 3 2H4a assessed in Module 3

hij

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

**5. Equations, formulae and identities
**

Use of symbols Foundation tier 2F5a Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to: 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter distinguish the different roles played by letter 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter symbols in algebra, using the correct notational symbols in algebra, knowing that letter symbols symbols in algebra, using the correct notational conventions for multiplying or dividing by a given represent definite unknown numbers in equations conventions for multiplying or dividing by a number, and knowing that letter symbols represent given number, and knowing that letter symbols [for example, 5x + 1 = 16], defined quantities or definite unknown numbers in equations [for represent definite unknown numbers in equations variables in formulae [for example, V = IR], general, example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or variables unspecified and independent numbers in identities [for example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or variables in formulae [for example, V = IR], general, in formulae [for example, V = IR], general, [for example, 3x + 2x = 5x, for all values of x] and in unspecified and independent numbers in identities unspecified and independent numbers in identities functions they define new expressions or quantities [for example, (x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1, for all x], and in [for example, (x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1, for all x], and in by referring to known quantities [for example, functions they define new expressions or quantities functions they define new expressions or quantities y = 2x] by referring to known quantities [for example, by referring to known quantities [for example, 3 3 1 with x ≠ 0] y = 2 – 7x; f(x) = x ; y = x y = 2 – 7x; f(x) = x ; y = 1 with x ≠ 0] x understand that the transformation of algebraic expressions obeys and generalises the rules of arithmetic; manipulate algebraic expressions by collecting like terms, by multiplying a single term over a bracket, and by taking out single term common factors [for example, x + 5 – 2x – 1 = 4 – x; 5(2x + 3) = 10x + 15; x 2 + 3x = x ( x + 3) ] 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules of generalised arithmetic [for example, of generalised arithmetic [for example, a(b + c) = ab + ac]; expand the product of two a(b + c) = ab + ac]; expand the product of two linear linear expressions [for example, expressions [for example, (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 3x + 2]; manipulate algebraic (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 3x + 2]; manipulate algebraic expressions by collecting like terms, multiplying a expressions by collecting like terms, multiplying a single term over a bracket, taking out common single term over a bracket, taking out common factors [for example, 9x – 3 = 3(3x – 1)], factorising factors [for example, 9x – 3 = 3(3x – 1)], factorising quadratic expressions, including the difference quadratic expressions, including the difference of of two squares [for example, x2 – 9 = (x + 3)(x – 3)], two squares [for example, x2 – 9 = (x + 3)(x – 3)], and and cancelling common factors in rational cancelling common factors in rational expressions expressions [for example, [for example, 2(x + 1)2/(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)] 2 2(x + 1) /(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)] 2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’, ‘formula’, ‘identity’ and ‘expression’ 2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’, ‘formula’, ‘identity’ and ‘expression’

2F5b

52

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Index notation Foundation tier 2F5c use index notation for simple integer powers; substitute positive and negative numbers into expressions such as 3x2 + 4 and 2x3 Intermediate tier Higher tier

2H5d use index notation for simple integer powers, and 2H5d use simple instances of index laws [for example, 2 simple instances of index laws [for example, x3 × x2 = x5; x 3 = x-1; (x2)3 = x6] x 3 2 5 x2 -1 2 3 6 x × x = x ; x3 = x ; (x ) = x ]; substitute positive and negative numbers into expressions such as 3x2 + 4 and 2x3

Equations 2H5e set up simple equations [for example, find the angle 2H5e set up simple equations [for example, find the angle a a in a triangle with angles a, a + 10, a + 20]; solve in a triangle with angles a, a + 10, a + 20]; solve simple equations [for example, 5x = 7; 11 – 4x = 2; simple equations [for example, 5x = 7; 11 – 4x = 2; 3(2x + 1) = 8; 2(1 – x) = 6(2 + x); 4x2 = 49; 3 = 12 ] 3(2x + 1) = 8; 2(1 – x) = 6(2 + x); 4x2 = 49; 3 = 12 ] x x by using inverse operations or by transforming both by using inverse operations or by transforming both sides in the same way sides in the same way Linear Equations 2F5e solve linear equations, with integer coefficients, in which the unknown appears on either side or on both sides of the equation; solve linear equations that require prior simplification of brackets, including those that have negative signs occurring anywhere in the equation, and those with a negative solution 2H5f solve linear equations in one unknown, with integer or fractional coefficients, in which the unknown appears on either side or on both sides of the equation; solve linear equations that require prior simplification of brackets, including those that have negative signs occurring anywhere in the equation, and those with a negative solution 2H5f solve linear equations in one unknown, with integer or fractional coefficients, in which the unknown appears on either side or on both sides of the equation

hij

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Formulae Foundation tier 2F5f Intermediate tier Higher tier

use formulae from mathematics and other subjects 2H5g use formulae from mathematics and other subjects 2H5g use formulae from mathematics and other subjects expressed initially in words and then using letters and [for example, formulae for the area of a triangle or a [for example, formulae for the area of a triangle or a symbols [for example, formulae for the area of a parallelogram, area enclosed by a circle, volume of parallelogram, area enclosed by a circle, volume of a triangle, the area enclosed by a circle, a prism, volume of a cone]; substitute numbers prism, volume of a cone]; substitute numbers into a wage earned = hours worked × rate per hour]; into a formula; change the subject of a formula, formula; change the subject of a formula, including substitute numbers into a formula; derive a formula including cases where the subject occurs twice, cases where the subject occurs twice, or where a [for example, convert temperatures between degrees or where a power of the subject appears [for power of the subject appears [for example, find r, 2 Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius, find the perimeter of given that A = πr 2 , find x given y = mx + c]; example, find r, given that A = πr , find x given a rectangle given its area A and the length l of one generate a formula [for example, find the perimeter y = mx + c]; generate a formula [for example, find side] of a rectangle given its area A and the length l of one the perimeter of a rectangle given its area A and the side] length l of one side]

Simultaneous linear equations 2H5i find the exact solution of two simultaneous 2H5i equations in two unknowns by eliminating a variable, and interpret the equations as lines and their common solution as the point of intersection solve simple linear inequalities in one variable, and represent the solution set on a number line; solve several linear inequalities in two variables and find the solution set 2H5j find the exact solution of two simultaneous equations in two unknowns by eliminating a variable, and interpret the equations as lines and their common solution as the point of intersection solve simple linear inequalities in one variable, and represent the solution set on a number line; solve several linear inequalities in two variables and find the solution set

2H5j

Quadratic equations 2H5k solve quadratic equations by factorisation 2H5k solve quadratic equations by factorisation, completing the square and using the quadratic formula

54

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Simultaneous linear and quadratic equations Foundation tier Intermediate tier 2H5l Higher tier solve exactly, by elimination of an unknown, two simultaneous equations in two unknowns, one of which is linear in each unknown, and the other is linear in one unknown and quadratic in the other [for example, solve the simultaneous equations y = 11x – 2 and y = 5x2], or where the second is of the form x2 + y2 = r2

Numerical methods 2H5m use systematic trial and improvement to find 2H5m use systematic trial and improvement to find approximate solutions of equations where there is no approximate solutions of equations where there is no simple analytical method of solving them [for simple analytical method of solving them [for example, x3 – x = 900] example, x3 – x = 900]

**6. Sequences, functions and graphs
**

Sequences 2F6a Pupils should be taught to: generate terms of a sequence using term-to-term and 2H6a generate common integer sequences (including 2H6a generate common integer sequences (including position-to-term definitions of the sequence sequences of odd or even integers, squared sequences of odd or even integers, squared integers, integers, powers of 2, powers of 10, triangular powers of 2, powers of 10, triangular numbers); use numbers); generate terms of a sequence using termlinear expressions to describe the nth term of an arithmetic sequence, justifying its form by reference to-term and position-to-term definitions of the to the activity or context from which it was sequence; use linear expressions to describe the nth term of an arithmetic sequence, justifying its generated form by reference to the activity or context from which it was generated

hij

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Graphs of linear functions Foundation tier 2F6b Intermediate tier Higher tier 2H6b recognise (when values are given for m and c) that equations of the form y = mx + c correspond to straight-line graphs in the coordinate plane

2H6b use conventions for coordinates in the plane; plot use the conventions for coordinates in the plane; points in all four quadrants; recognise (when plot points in all four quadrants; plot graphs of values are given for m and c) that equations of functions in which y is given explicitly in terms of x the form y = mx + c correspond to straight-line [for example, y = 2x + 3], or implicitly [for example, graphs in the coordinate plane; plot graphs of x + y = 7] functions in which y is given explicitly in terms of x (as in y = 2x + 3), or implicitly (as in x + y = 7) construct linear functions from real-life problems and plot their corresponding graphs; discuss and interpret graphs arising from real situations

2F6c

2H6c find the gradient of lines given by equations of the 2H6c find the gradient of lines given by equations of the form y = mx + c (when values are given for m and c); form y = mx + c (when values are given for m and c); understand that the form y = mx + c represents a understand that the form y = mx + c represents a straight line and that m is the gradient of the line, and straight line and that m is the gradient of the line, and c is the value of the y-intercept; explore the gradients c is the value of the y-intercept; explore the gradients of parallel lines [for example, know that the lines of parallel lines and lines perpendicular to these lines [for example, know that the lines represented represented by the equations y = –5x and y = 3 – 5x are parallel, each having gradient (–5)] by the equations y = –5x and y = 3 – 5x are parallel, each having gradient (–5) and that the line with x equation y = 5 is perpendicular to these lines and has gradient Interpret graphical information 2F6e interpret information presented in a range of linear and non-linear graphs [for example, graphs describing trends, conversion graphs, distance-time graphs, graphs of height or weight against age, graphs of quantities that vary against time, such as employment] 2H6d construct linear functions and plot the 2H6d construct linear functions and plot the corresponding graphs arising from real-life corresponding graphs arising from real-life problems; discuss and interpret graphs modelling problems; discuss and interpret graphs modelling real situations [for example, distance-time graph for a real situations [for example, distance-time graph for a particle moving with constant speed, the depth of particle moving with constant speed, the depth of water in a container as it empties, the velocity-time water in a container as it empties, the velocity-time graph for a particle moving with constant graph for a particle moving with constant acceleration] acceleration]

1 5

]

56

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Quadratic functions Foundation tier Intermediate tier 2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then more general quadratic functions [for example, 2 y = x – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a quadratic equation from the graph of the corresponding quadratic function Other functions 2H6f plot graphs of simple cubic functions [for example, 2H6f 3 y = x ], the reciprocal function y = 1 with x ≠ 0, x using a spreadsheet or graph plotter as well as pencil and paper; recognise the characteristic shapes of all these functions plot graphs of simple cubic functions [for example, 3 y = x ], the reciprocal function y = 1 with x ≠ 0, the x exponential function y = kx for integer values of x and simple positive values of k [for example,

y = 2x ; y = 1 2

Higher tier 2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then more general quadratic functions [for example, 2 y = x – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a quadratic equation from the graph of the corresponding quadratic function

( )x ], the circular functions y = sinx

and y = cosx, using a spreadsheet or graph plotter as well as pencil and paper; recognise the characteristic shapes of all these functions Transformation of functions 2H6g apply to the graph of y = f(x) the transformations y = f(x) + a, y = f(ax), y = f(x + a), y = af(x) for linear, quadratic, sine and cosine functions f(x) Loci 2H6h construct the graphs of simple loci 2H6h construct the graphs of simple loci, including the circle x2 + y2 = r2 for a circle of radius r centred at the origin of coordinates; find graphically the intersection points of a given straight line with this circle and know that this corresponds to solving the two simultaneous equations representing the line and the circle

hij

57

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

**AO3: Shape, space and measures
**

1. Using and applying shape, space and measures

Problem solving Foundation tier 3F1a Intermediate tier Higher tier 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in geometrical work, and consider and explain the extent to which the selections they made were appropriate 3H1b select and combine known facts and problemsolving strategies to solve more complex geometrical problems 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry, justifying their decisions to follow or reject particular approaches

Pupils should be taught to: select problem-solving strategies and resources, 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in including ICT tools, to use in geometrical work, and geometrical work, and consider and explain the monitor their effectiveness extent to which the selections they made were appropriate select and combine known facts and problemsolving strategies to solve complex problems identify what further information is needed to solve a geometrical problem; break complex problems down into a series of tasks 3H1b select and combine known facts and problemsolving strategies to solve more complex geometrical problems 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry

3F1b

3F1c

Communicating 3F1d 3F1e interpret, discuss and synthesise geometrical information presented in a variety of forms communicate mathematically, by presenting and organising results and explaining geometrical diagrams use geometrical language appropriately 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical presentation 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a critical examination of the presentation and organisation of results, and on effective use of symbols and geometrical diagrams 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a critical examination of the presentation and organisation of results, and on effective use of symbols and geometrical diagrams 3H1e use precise formal language and exact methods for analysing geometrical configurations 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical presentation

3F1f

58

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Reasoning Foundation tier 3F1h 3F1i apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and justifying inferences and deductions 3H1f Intermediate tier distinguish between practical demonstrations and proofs apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from brief mathematical explanations towards full justifications in more complex contexts 3F1h 3H1f Higher tier distinguish between practical demonstrations and proofs apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from brief mathematical explanations towards full justifications in more complex contexts

3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’ 3F1j show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical 3H1h show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical problem problem 3H1i state constraints and give starting points when making deductions

3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’

3H1i 3H1j

state constraints and give starting points when making deductions understand the necessary and sufficient conditions under which generalisations, inferences and solutions to geometrical problems remain valid

2. Geometrical reasoning

Angles 3F2a Pupils should be taught to: recall and use properties of angles at a point, angles on a straight line (including right angles), perpendicular lines, and opposite angles at a vertex distinguish between acute, obtuse, reflex and right angles; estimate the size of an angle in degrees

3F2b

hij

59

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Properties of triangles and other rectilinear shapes Foundation tier 3F2c Intermediate tier Higher tier

use parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding 3H2a distinguish between lines and line segments; use 3H2a distinguish between lines and line segments angles, understand the properties of parallelograms parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding and a proof that the angle sum of a triangle is 180 angles, understand the consequent properties of degrees; understand a proof that the exterior angle of parallelograms and a proof that the angle sum of a a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at triangle is 180 degrees; understand a proof that the the other two vertices exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices use angle properties of equilateral, isosceles and right-angled triangles; understand congruence; explain why the angle sum of any quadrilateral is 360 degrees use their knowledge of rectangles, parallelograms and triangles to deduce formulae for the area of a parallelogram, and a triangle, from the formula for the area of a rectangle recall the essential properties of special types of quadrilateral, including square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezium and rhombus; classify quadrilaterals by their geometric properties calculate and use the sums of the interior and exterior angles of quadrilaterals, pentagons and hexagons; calculate and use the angles of regular polygons 3H2c recall the definitions of special types of quadrilateral, including square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezium and rhombus; classify quadrilaterals by their geometric properties 3H2d calculate and use the sums of the interior and exterior angles of quadrilaterals, pentagons and hexagons; calculate and use the angles of regular polygons 3H2e understand and use SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS conditions to prove the congruence of triangles using formal arguments, and to verify standard ruler and compass constructions 3H2f understand, recall and use Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D problems; investigate the geometry of cuboids including cubes, and shapes made from cuboids 3H2f understand, recall and use Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D , then 3-D problems; investigate the geometry of cuboids including cubes, and shapes made from cuboids, including the use of Pythagoras’ theorem to calculate lengths in three dimensions 3H2b use angle properties of equilateral, isosceles and right-angled triangles; understand congruence; explain why the angle sum of any quadrilateral is 360 degrees

3F2d

3F2e

3F2f

3F2g

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier

Intermediate tier 3H2g understand similarity of triangles and of other plane figures, and use this to make geometric inferences; understand, recall and use trigonometrical relationships in right-angled triangles, and use these to solve problems, including those involving bearings

Higher tier 3H2g understand similarity of triangles and of other plane figures, and use this to make geometric inferences; understand, recall and use trigonometrical relationships in right-angled triangles, and use these to solve problems, including those involving bearings, then use these relationships in 3-D contexts, including finding the angles between a line and a plane (but not the angle between two planes or between two skew lines); calculate the area of a triangle using 1 ab sin C ; draw, sketch 2 and describe the graphs of trigonometric functions for angles of any size, including transformations involving scalings in either or both the x and y directions; use the sine and cosine rules to solve 2-D and 3-D problems

Properties of circles 3F2i recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of 3H2h recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of 3H2h recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of related terms, including centre, radius, chord, related terms, including centre, radius, chord, related terms, including sector and segment; diameter, circumference, tangent and arc; understand diameter, circumference, tangent, arc, sector and understand that the tangent at any point on a circle is that inscribed regular polygons can be constructed segment; understand that the tangent at any perpendicular to the radius at that point; understand by equal division of a circle point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius at and use the fact that tangents from an external point that point; understand and use the fact that are equal in length; explain why the perpendicular tangents from an external point are equal in from the centre to a chord bisects the chord; prove length; explain why the perpendicular from the and use the facts that the angle subtended by an arc centre to a chord bisects the chord; understand at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended that inscribed regular polygons can be constructed at any point on the circumference, the angle by equal division of a circle; use the facts that the subtended at the circumference by a semicircle is a angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a right angle, that angles in the same segment are circle is twice the angle subtended at any point equal, and that opposite angles of a cyclic on the circumference, the angle subtended at quadrilateral sum to 180 degrees; prove and use the the circumference by a semicircle is a right alternate segment theorem angle, that angles in the same segment are equal, and that opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral sum to 180 degrees

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3-D shapes Foundation tier 3F2j 3F2k explore the geometry of cuboids (including cubes), and shapes made from cuboids use 2-D representations of 3-D shapes and analyse 3-D shapes through 2-D projections and crosssections, including plan and elevation 3H2i use 2-D representations of 3-D shapes and analyse 3H2i 3-D shapes through 2-D projections and crosssections, including plan and elevation; solve problems involving surface areas and volumes of prisms and cylinders solve problems involving surface areas and volumes of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres; solve problems involving more complex shapes and solids, including segments of circles and frustums of cones Intermediate tier Higher tier

**3. Transformations and coordinates
**

Specifying transformations 3F3a Pupils should be taught to: understand that rotations are specified by a centre 3H3a understand that rotations are specified by a centre 3H3a use any point as the centre of rotation; measure the and an (anticlockwise) angle; rotate a shape about the and an (anticlockwise) angle; use any point as the angle of rotation using fractions of a turn or degrees; origin; measure the angle of rotation using right centre of rotation; measure the angle of rotation understand that translations are specified by giving a angles or simple fractions of a turn; understand that using right angles, fractions of a turn or degrees; vector reflections are specified by a mirror line, at first using understand that reflections are specified by a (mirror) a line parallel to an axis; understand that translations line such as y = x or y = –x line; understand that are specified by a distance and direction, and translations are specified by giving a distance and enlargements by a centre and positive scale factor direction (or a vector), and enlargements by a centre and positive scale factor

Properties of transformations 3F3b recognise and visualise rotations, reflections and 3H3b recognise and visualise rotations, reflections and 3H3b transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by translations, including reflection symmetry of 2-D translations, including reflection symmetry of 2-D combinations of translation, rotation and reflection; and 3-D shapes, and rotation symmetry of 2-D and 3-D shapes, and rotation symmetry of 2-D use congruence to show that translations, shapes; transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by shapes; transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by rotations and reflections preserve length and translation, rotation and reflection, recognising that translation, rotation and reflection and angle, so that any figure is congruent to its these transformations preserve length and angle, so combinations of these transformations; image under any of these transformations; that any figure is congruent to its image under any of distinguish properties that are preserved under distinguish properties that are preserved under these transformations particular transformations particular transformations

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Foundation tier 3F3c recognise, visualise and construct enlargements of objects using positive scale factors greater than one; understand from this that any two circles and any two squares are mathematically similar, while, in general, two rectangles are not

Intermediate tier 3H3c recognise, visualise and construct enlargements of objects; understand from this that any two circles and any two squares are mathematically similar, while, in general, two rectangles are not, then use positive fractional scale factors

Higher tier 3H3c use positive fractional and negative scale factors

3F3d

recognise that enlargements preserve angle but not 3H3d recognise that enlargements preserve angle but not 3H3d understand the difference between formulae for length; identify the scale factor of an enlargement as length; identify the scale factor of an enlargement as perimeter, area and volume by considering the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding dimensions; understand and use the effect of line segments and apply this to triangles; understand line segments; understand the implications of enlargement on areas and volumes of shapes the implications of enlargement for perimeter; use enlargement for perimeter; use and interpret maps and solids and interpret maps and scale drawings and scale drawings; understand the difference between formulae for perimeter, area and volume by considering dimensions

Coordinates 3F3e understand that one coordinate identifies a point on 3H3e understand that one coordinate identifies a point on 3H3e given the coordinates of the points A and B, a number line, two coordinates identify a point in a a number line, that two coordinates identify a point calculate the length AB plane and three coordinates identify a point in space, in a plane and three coordinates identify a point in using the terms '1-D', '2-D' and '3-D'; use axes and space, using the terms '1-D', '2-D' and '3-D'; use axes coordinates to specify points in all four quadrants; and coordinates to specify points in all four locate points with given coordinates; find the quadrants; locate points with given coordinates; find coordinates of points identified by geometrical the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information [for example, find the coordinates of the information; find the coordinates of the midpoint of fourth vertex of a parallelogram with vertices at the line segment AB, given the points A and B, then (2, 1) (–7, 3) and (5, 6)]; find the coordinates of the calculate the length AB mid-point of the line segment AB, given points A and B

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Vectors Foundation tier 3H3f Intermediate tier understand and use vector notation 3H3f Higher tier understand and use vector notation; calculate, and represent graphically the sum of two vectors, the difference of two vectors and a scalar multiple of a vector; calculate the resultant of two vectors; understand and use the commutative and associative properties of vector addition; solve simple geometrical problems in 2-D using vector methods

**4. Measures and construction
**

Measures 3F4a Pupils should be taught to: interpret scales on a range of measuring instruments, 3H4a use angle measure [for example, use bearings to 3H4a know that measurements using real numbers depend specify direction]; know that measurements using including those for time and mass; convert on the choice of unit; recognise that measurements real numbers depend on the choice of unit; measurements from one unit to another; know given to the nearest whole unit may be inaccurate by recognise that measurements given to the rough metric equivalents of pounds, feet, miles, pints up to one half in either direction; understand and use nearest whole unit may be inaccurate by up to and gallons; make sensible estimates of a range of compound measures, including speed and density one half in either direction; convert measures in everyday settings measurements from one unit to another; understand angle measure using the associated understand and use compound measures, language [for example, use bearings to specify including speed and density direction] understand and use speed

3F4b

3F4c

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Construction Foundation tier 3F4d Intermediate tier Higher tier

measure and draw lines to the nearest millimetre, and 3H4b draw approximate constructions of triangles and angles to the nearest degree; draw triangles and other other 2-D shapes, using a ruler and protractor, given 2-D shapes using a ruler and protractor, and given information about side lengths and angles; construct information about their side lengths and angles; specified cubes, regular tetrahedra, square-based understand, from their experience of constructing pyramids and other 3-D shapes them, that triangles satisfying SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS are unique, but SSA triangles are not; construct cubes, regular tetrahedra, square-based pyramids and other 3-D shapes from given information use straight edge and compasses to do standard 3H4c use a straight edge and compasses to do standard 3H4c use a straight edge and compasses to do standard constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a given side given side, the midpoint and perpendicular given side, the midpoint and perpendicular bisector bisector of a line segment, the perpendicular of a line segment, the perpendicular from a point to from a point to a line, the perpendicular from a a line, the perpendicular from a point on a line, and point on a line, and the bisector of an angle the bisector of an angle

3F4e

Mensuration 3F4f find areas of rectangles, recalling the formula, 3H4d find the surface area of simple shapes by using the 3H4d find the surface area of simple shapes by using the understanding the connection to counting squares formulae for the areas of triangles and rectangles; formulae for the areas of triangles and rectangles; and how it extends this approach; recall and use the find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and formulae for the area of a parallelogram and a understanding the connection to counting cubes and understanding the connection to counting cubes and triangle; find the surface area of simple shapes using how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of the area formulae for triangles and rectangles; right prisms and of shapes made from cubes and right prisms; convert between volume measures calculate perimeters and areas of shapes made from cuboids; convert between volume measures including cm3 and m3; calculate the lengths of arcs 3 and m3; find circumferences of circles and the areas of sectors of circles triangles and rectangles including cm and areas enclosed by circles, recalling relevant find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and formulae understanding the connection to counting cubes and how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of shapes made from cubes and cuboids find circumferences of circles and areas enclosed by circles, recalling relevant formulae convert between area measures, including cm2 and m2, and volume measures, including cm3 and m3

3F4g

3F4h 3F4i

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Loci Foundation tier Intermediate tier 3H4e find loci, both by reasoning and by using ICT to produce shapes and paths [for example, a region bounded by a circle and an intersecting line] Higher tier 3H4e find loci, both by reasoning and by using ICT to produce shapes and paths [for example, a region bounded by a circle and an intersecting line]

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Key Skills and Other Issues 14 Key Skills – Teaching, Developing and Providing Opportunities for Generating Evidence

Introduction The Key Skills Qualification requires candidates to demonstrate levels of achievement in the Key Skills of Communication, Application of Number and Information Technology. The units for the ‘wider’ Key Skills of Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving are also available. The acquisition and demonstration of ability in these ‘wider’ Key Skills is deemed highly desirable for all candidates, but they do not form part of the Key Skills Qualification. Copies of the Key Skills Units may be down loaded from the QCA web site (www.qca.org.uk/keyskills). The units for each Key Skill comprise three sections: A B C What you need to know. What you must do. Guidance. Candidates following a course of study based on this Specification for GCSE Mathematics (Modular) can be offered opportunities to develop and generate evidence of attainment in aspects of the Key Skills of Communication, Application of Number, Information Technology, Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving. Areas of study and learning that can be used to encourage the acquisition and use of Key Skills, and to provide opportunities to generate evidence for Part B of the units, are signposted below. 14.2 Key Skills Opportunities in Mathematics (Modular) The signposting which follows indicates the opportunities to acquire and produce evidence of the Key Skills in AO2-4. AO1, Using and applying mathematics which is assessed in the context of AO2-3, also provides opportunities.

14.1

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Communication Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 C1.1 Take part in discussions C1.2 Read and obtain information C1.3 Write different types of documents Communication Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 C2.1a Contribute to discussions C2.1b Give a short talk C2.2 Read and summarise information C2.3 Write different types of documents Application of Number Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 N1.1 Interpret information from different sources N1.2 Carry out calculations N1.3 Interpret results and present findings Application of Number Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 N2.1 Interpret information from different sources N2.2 Carry out calculations N2.3 Interpret results and present findings ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü ü ü AO3 ü ü AO4 ü ü

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Information Technology Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 IT1.1 Find, explore and develop information IT1.2 Present information, including text, numbers and images Information Technology Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 IT2.1 Search for and select information IT2.2 Explore and develop information and derive new information IT2.3 Present combined information, including text, numbers and images ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü ü ü AO3 ü ü AO4 ü ü

Improving own Learning and Performance Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 LP1.1 Confirm short-term targets and plan how these will be met LP1.2 Follow plan to meet targets and improve performance LP1.3 Review progress and achievements ü AO3 ü AO4 ü

ü ü

ü ü

ü ü

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Improving own Learning and Performance Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 LP2.1 Help set short-term targets and plan how these will be met LP2.2 Use plan and support from others, to meet targets LP2.3 Review progress and identify evidence of achievements Working with Others Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 WO1.1 Confirm what needs to be done and who is to do it WO1.2 Work towards agreed objectives WO1.3 Identify progress and suggest improvements Working with Others Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 WO2.1 Plan work and confirm working arrangements WO2.2 Work cooperatively towards achieving identified objectives WO2.3 Exchange information on progress and agree ways of improving work with others ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü

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Problem Solving Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 PS1.1 Confirm understanding of given problems PS1.2 Plan and try out ways of solving problems PS1.3 Check if problems have been solved and describe the results Problem Solving Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content AO2 PS2.1 Identify problems and come up with ways of solving them PS2.2 Plan and try out options PS2.3 Apply given methods to check if problems have been solved and describe the results ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü ü ü ü AO3 ü ü ü AO4 ü ü ü

The signposting in the twelve tables above represents the possible opportunities to acquire and produce evidence of the Key Skills through this specification. Such opportunities are dependent on the detailed course of study delivered within centres. 14.3 Further Guidance More specific guidance and examples of tasks that can provide evidence of single Key Skills, or composite tasks that can provide evidence of more than one Key Skill, are given in the AQA specification support material, particularly the Teachers’ Guide. GCSE A*- C examination performance on this specification provides exemptions for the external test in Application of Number at Level 2.

14.4

Exemptions for the Key Skills Qualification

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15

15.1 Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social, Cultural and Other Issues

**Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social, Cultural and Other Issues
**

Mathematics provides opportunities to promote: • spiritual development, through explaining the underlying mathematical principles behind some of the natural forms and patterns in the world around us; moral development, helping pupils recognise how logical reasoning can be used to consider the consequences of particular decisions and choices helping them learn the value of mathematical truth; social development, through helping pupils work together productively on complex mathematical tasks and helping them see that the result is often better than could be achieved separately; cultural development, through helping pupils appreciate that mathematical thought contributes to the development of our culture and is becoming increasingly central to our highly technological future, and through recognising that mathematicians from many cultures have contributed to the development of modern day mathematics.

•

•

•

15.2

European Dimension

AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community in preparing this specification and associated specimen papers. AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community and the Report Environmental Responsibility: An Agenda for Further and Higher Education 1993 in preparing this specification and associated specimen papers. Coursework tasks, particularly those for AO4 Handling data, promote the skills of enquiry and communication. They also encourage the skill of participation and responsible action in the educational establishment and/or communication. AQA has taken great care in the preparation of this specification and associated specimen papers to avoid bias of any kind. Coursework tasks, particularly those for AO4 Handling data provide opportunities to promote Health and Safety issues.

15.3

Environmental Issues

15.4

Citizenship

15.5 15.6

Avoidance of Bias Health and Safety

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15.7

ICT

(a)

Pupils should be given opportunities to apply and develop their ICT capability through the use of ICT tools to support their learning in mathematics. Pupils should be given opportunities to support their work by being taught to : (i) find things out from a variety of sources, selecting and synthesising the information to meet their needs and developing an ability to question its accuracy, bias and plausibility; develop their ideas using ICT tools to amend and refine their work and enhance its quality and accuracy; exchange and share information, both directly and through electronic media; review, modify and evaluate their work, reflecting critically on its quality, as it progresses.

(b)

(ii) (iii) (iv) 15.8 Other issues

Mathematics provides opportunities to promote: • • • thinking skills, through developing pupils’ problem-solving skills and deductive reasoning; financial capability, through applying mathematics to problems set in financial contexts; enterprise and entrepreneurial skills, through developing pupils’ abilities to apply mathematics in science and technology, in economics and in risk assessment; work related learning, through developing pupils’ abilities to use and apply mathematics in workplace situations and in solving real-life problems.

•

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**Internal Assessment (Coursework) 16 Nature of the Coursework Modules
**

Introduction There are two alternative approaches to the assessment of the coursework modules: • Option T centres may choose from a bank of coursework tasks provided by AQA or they set their own coursework tasks; centres then mark the coursework tasks with moderation of candidates’ coursework by AQA; Option X centres choose from the bank of coursework tasks provided by AQA in this specification and candidates’ coursework is marked by AQA.

16.1

•

Apart from the choice of coursework tasks and the method of assessment, the nature of the coursework is the same for Option T and Option X. The following details apply to both Option T and Option X. It is not necessary to use the same option for both tasks. The details for the coursework are also common to GCSE Mathematics Specification A. 16.2 Module 2 Module 2 assesses the Handling data task (AO4 task) which must be set in the context of AO4. Candidates are expected to submit one task only. Tasks based on probability only, without data handling, are unlikely to score well on these criteria and should be avoided. Simulation activities are acceptable provided that they lead to statistical tasks rather than probability tasks. Candidates may choose to use statistical information from the Internet or other sources. The Assessment Criteria for the AO4 task are given in section 17.5. The AO4 task is marked out of a total of 24 marks. The coursework task is expected to take approximately two weeks to complete, including lesson and homework time. It is not permissible for the Handling data project (AO4 task) to be re-used as the Module 4 coursework task. The Using and Applying Mathematics task (AO1 task) submitted for Module 4 must be set in the context of AO2 and/or AO3. One task is expected, however, candidates may submit up to two tasks in order to satisfy the assessment criteria for AO1. The Assessment Criteria for the AO1 task are given in section 17.6. The AO1 task is marked out of a total of 24 marks and if two tasks are submitted, the better mark in each strand should be used. The coursework task is expected to take approximately two weeks to complete, including lesson and homework time.

16.3

Module 4

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16.4

General

Module 2 and Module 4 will be offered three times a year in the March, June and November examination series. Centres may choose the most appropriate examination series to submit the tasks for assessment. Centres may enter candidates for Module 2 and for Module 4 in different examination series. For example, centres may enter candidates for Module 2 in the June of year 10 and for Module 4 in the June of year 11. It is intended that coursework should be an integral part of the teaching and learning process. It must not be regarded as an additional or separate part of this process. Therefore it is important that the scheme of work includes activities designed to develop the strands that are assessed in Module 2 and Module 4. The Module 2 AO4 coursework task provides an opportunity for candidates to carry out an extended piece of work using Handling data skills. The Module 4, AO1 coursework task provides an opportunity for candidates to conduct an extended piece of work which enhances their understanding of the mathematics of AO2 and/or AO3. Candidates are expected to use appropriate mathematical skills to investigate and carry out the tasks. These skills may involve the use of practical equipment and computers where appropriate to the tasks. Tasks should be chosen so that they are appropriate for the candidate and, by their nature, do not limit the mark that can be awarded. Coursework also provides an appropriate method for generating evidence for the six Key Skills: Communication, Application of Number, Information Technology, Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving.

16.5

Philosophy

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17

17.1 Introduction

**Assessment Criteria for the Coursework Modules
**

There are two different sets of assessment criteria, one for each of the coursework modules. For Module 2 (AO4 task) the assessment criteria for Handling data are used and for Module 4 (AO1 task) the assessment criteria for Using and applying mathematics are used. Candidates will be assessed in terms of their attainment in each of the following three strands which correspond to the Programme of Study for Handling data at National Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4. Strand 1 2 3 Specify the problem and plan Collect, process and represent data Interpret and discuss results Maximum total mark Maximum mark 8 8 8 24

17.2

Module 2 Handling data (AO4 task)

The score in each of the three strands should be that which reflects the best performance by the candidate in that strand. These marks should be totalled to give a mark out of 24. The criteria are to be used as best fit indicative descriptions and the statements within them are not to be taken as hurdles. This means candidates’ work should be assessed in relation to the criteria taken as holistic descriptions of performance. The first consideration is which of the descriptions in each strand best describes the work in a candidate’s project. Once that is established, the final step is to decide between the lower and the higher tier mark available for that description; this decision may well involve looking again at the criteria above and below the selected best fitting criterion. It is not appropriate to take each statement in each description and regard it as a separate assessment criterion. Nor is it necessary to consider whether the majority of the statements within a criterion have been met. A mark of 0 should be awarded if a candidate’s work fails to satisfy the requirements for 1 mark. Descriptions for higher marks subsume those for lower marks. Where there are references to ‘at least the level detailed in the handling data paragraph of the grade description for grade X ’ , work which uses no technique beyond the specified grade is indicative of the lower of the two marks. To obtain the higher of the two marks requires processing and analysis using techniques that best fit a more demanding standard. In these criteria, there is an intended approximate link between 7 marks and grade A, 5 marks and grade C and 3 marks and grade F.

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17.3

Module 4 Using and Applying Mathematics (AO1 task)

Candidates will be assessed in terms of their attainment in each of the following three strands which correspond to the three areas of the Programme of Study for Using and applying mathematics at National Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4. Strand 1 2 3 Making and monitoring decisions to solve problems Communicating mathematically Developing skills of mathematical reasoning Maximum total mark Maximum mark 8 8 8 24

The score in each of the three strands should be that which reflects the best performance by the candidate in that strand. These marks should be totalled to give a mark out of 24. The criteria are to be used as best fit indicative descriptions and the statements within them are not to be taken as hurdles. It is necessary, however, for the majority of the statement to be met for the mark to be awarded. The mark descriptions within a strand are designed to be broadly hierarchical. This means that, in general, a description at a particular mark subsumes those at lower marks. Therefore the mark awarded may not be supported by direct evidence of achievement of lower marks in each strand. It is assumed that tasks which allow higher marks will involve a more sophisticated approach and/or treatment. The AO1 coursework task must be set in the context of AO2 (Number and algebra) and/or AO3 (Shape, space and measures). In these criteria, there is an intended approximate link between 7 marks and grade A, 5 marks and grade C and 3 marks and grade F. 17.4 Reporting of the Coursework Modules The mark out of a total of 24 awarded for each Module is reported on a Uniform Mark Scale (see section 26.3). The rules for re-sitting and carrying forward the coursework modules are also given in Sections 26.5 and 26.6.

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17.5 1-2

**Module 2 (AO4 task) – Assessment criteria for Handling data
**

Strand 1 Specify the problem and plan Strand 2 Collect, process and represent data Strand 3 Interpret and discuss results

3-4

Candidates choose a simple well-defined problem. Their aims have some clarity. The appropriate data to collect are reasonably obvious. An overall plan is discernible and some attention is given to whether the plan will meet the aims. The structure of the report as a whole is loosely related to the aims. Candidates choose a problem involving routine use of simple statistical techniques and set out reasonably clear aims. Consideration is given to the collection of data. Candidates describe an overall plan largely designed to meet the aims and structure the project report so that results relating to some of the aims are brought out. Where appropriate, they use a sample of adequate size.

5-6

Candidates consider a more complex problem. They choose appropriate data to collect and state their aims in statistical terms with the selection of an appropriate plan. Their plan is designed to meet the aims and is well described. Candidates consider the practical problems of carrying out the survey or experiment. Where appropriate, they give reasons for choosing a particular sampling method. The project report is well structured so that the project can be seen as a whole.

7-8

Candidates work on a problem requiring creative thinking and careful specification. They state their aims clearly in statistical terms and select and develop an appropriate plan to meet these aims giving reasons for their choice. They foresee and plan for practical problems in carrying out the survey or experiment. Where appropriate, they consider the nature and size of sample to be used and take steps to avoid bias. Where appropriate, they use techniques such as control groups, or pre-tests of questionnaires or data sheets, and refine these to enhance the project. The project report is well structured and the conclusions are related to the initial aims.

Candidates collect data with limited relevance to the problem and plan. The data are collected or recorded with little thought given to processing. Candidates use calculations of the simplest kind. The results are frequently correct. Candidates present information and results in a clear and organised way. The data presentation is sometimes related to their overall plan. Candidates collect data with some relevance to the problem and plan. The data are collected or recorded with some consideration given to efficient processing. Candidates use straightforward and largely relevant calculations involving techniques of at least the level detailed in the handling data paragraph of the grade description for grade F. The results are generally correct. Candidates show understanding of situations by describing them using statistical concepts, words and diagrams. They synthesise information presented in a variety of forms. Their writing explains and informs their use of diagrams, which are usually related to their overall plan. They present their diagrams correctly, with suitable scales and titles. Candidates collect largely relevant and mainly reliable data. The data are collected in a form designed to ensure that they can be used. Candidates use a range of more demanding, largely relevant calculations that include techniques of at least the level detailed in the handling data paragraph of the grade description for grade C. The results are generally correct and no obviously relevant calculation is omitted. There is little redundancy in calculation or presentation. Candidates convey statistical meaning through precise and consistent use of statistical concepts that is sustained throughout the work. They use appropriate diagrams for representing data and give a reason for their choice of presentation, explaining features they have selected. Candidates collect reliable data relevant to the problem under consideration. They deal with practical problems such as nonresponse, missing data or ensuring secondary data are appropriate. Candidates use a range of relevant calculations that include techniques of at least the level detailed in the handling data paragraph of the grade description for grade A. These calculations are correct and no obviously relevant calculation is omitted. Numerical results are rounded appropriately. There is no redundancy in calculation or presentation. Candidates use language and statistical concepts effectively in presenting a convincing reasoned argument. They use an appropriate range of diagrams to summarise the data and show how variables are related.

Candidates comment on patterns in the data. They summarise the results they have obtained but make little attempt to relate the results to the initial problem.

Candidates comment on patterns in the data and any exceptions. They summarise and give a reasonably correct interpretation of their graphs and calculations. They attempt to relate the summarised data to the initial problem, though some conclusions may be incorrect or irrelevant. They make some attempt to evaluate their strategy.

Candidates comment on patterns in the data and suggest reasons for exceptions. They summarise and correctly interpret their graphs and calculations, relate the summarised data to the initial problem and draw appropriate inferences. Candidates use summary statistics to make relevant comparisons and show an informal appreciation that results may not be statistically significant. Where relevant, they allow for the nature of the sampling method in making inferences about the population. They evaluate the effectiveness of the overall strategy and make a simple assessment of limitations.

Candidates comment on patterns and give plausible reasons for exceptions. They correctly summarise and interpret graphs and calculations. They make correct and detailed inferences from the data concerning the original problem using the vocabulary of probability. Candidates appreciate the significance of results they obtain. Where relevant, they allow for the nature and size of the sample and any possible bias in making inferences about the population. They evaluate the effectiveness of the overall strategy and recognise limitations of the work done, making suggestions for improvement. They comment constructively on the practical consequences of the work.

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17.6

1

**Module 4 (AO1 task) – Assessment criteria for Using and Applying Mathematics
**

Strand 1): Making and monitoring decisions to solve problems Candidates try different approaches and find ways of overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving problems. They are beginning to organise their work and check results. Candidates are developing their own strategies for solving problems and are using these strategies both in working within mathematics and in applying mathematics to practical contexts. In order to carry through tasks and solve mathematical problems, candidates identify and obtain necessary information; they check their results, considering whether these are sensible. Candidates carry through substantial tasks and solve quite complex problems by breaking them down into smaller, more manageable tasks. Starting from problems or contexts that have been presented to them, candidates introduce questions of their own, which generate fuller solutions. Strand 2: Communicating mathematically Candidates discuss their mathematical work and are beginning to explain their thinking. They use and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams. Candidates present information and results in a clear and organised way, explaining the reasons for their presentation. Candidates show understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using symbols, words and diagrams. Candidates interpret, discuss and synthesise information presented in a variety of mathematical forms. Their writing explains and informs their use of diagrams. Candidates examine critically and justify their choice of mathematical presentation, considering alternative approaches and explaining improvements they have made. Candidates convey mathematical meaning through consistent use of symbols. Strand 3: Developing skills of mathematical reasoning Candidates show that they understand a general statement by finding particular examples that match it.

2

Candidates search for a pattern by trying out ideas of their own.

3

Candidates make general statements of their own, based on evidence they have produced, and give an explanation of their reasoning. Candidates are beginning to give a mathematical justification for their generalisations; they test them by checking particular cases. Candidates justify their generalisations or solutions, showing some insight into the mathematical structure of the situation being investigated. They appreciate the difference between mathematical explanation and experimental evidence. Candidates examine generalisations or solutions reached in an activity, commenting constructively on the reasoning and logic employed, and make further progress in the activity as a result. Candidates' reports include mathematical justifications explaining their solutions to problems involving a number of features or variables. Candidates provide a mathematically rigorous justification or proof of their solution to a complex problem, considering the conditions under which it remains valid.

4

5

6

7

8

Candidates develop and follow alternative approaches. They reflect on their own lines of enquiry when exploring mathematical tasks; in doing so they introduce and use a range of mathematical techniques. Candidates analyse alternative approaches to problems involving a number of features or variables. They give detailed reasons for following or rejecting particular lines of enquiry. Candidates consider and evaluate a number of approaches to a substantial task. They explore extensively a context or area of mathematics with which they are unfamiliar. They apply independently a range of appropriate mathematical techniques.

Candidates use mathematical language and symbols accurately in presenting a convincing reasoned argument.

Candidates use mathematical language and symbols efficiently in presenting a concise reasoned argument.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

**Option T – Centre-Assessed Modules 2 and 4 18 Guidance on Setting the Centre-Assessed Modules
**

Introduction Centres following Option T may choose from the AQA-set tasks or may choose their own tasks based on the guidance provided in the Teachers’ Guide and coursework support materials. The AQA-set tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005 for Module 2 are given in Appendix C and those for Module 4 in Appendix D. AQA-set tasks may be removed or added from year to year. It is therefore essential that candidates wishing to submit work under Option X use current versions. Teachers should note that in the AQA-set Handling Data tasks the word ‘hypothesis’ is used for a general prediction which is to be tested. It is important that teachers consider very carefully all types of activities which will provide valid evidence of achievement. The activities in which candidates are involved should be designed to make reasonable demands and to enable positive achievement to be demonstrated in relation to the assessment criteria. The tasks chosen therefore must be open to investigation by a variety of different methods, and open to investigations that permit candidates to demonstrate their best attainment in all three strands of the marking criteria. Teachers will find it helpful to refer to the assessment criteria when designing tasks. It is particularly important to ensure that the tasks chosen do not limit the mark that can be achieved by the candidate. 18.2 Advice on group activities For the AO4 task it is permissible for candidates to collect data as a group or class. It is important that teachers ensure that the analysis and writing up of this work is carried out individually by candidates, so that the requirements of the specification are met. Coursework Advisers are available to assist centres with any matters relating to coursework.

18.1

18.3

Coursework Advisers

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19

19.1 Supervision of Candidates’ Work

**Supervision and Authentication
**

Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to be authenticated. If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done outside the centre, sufficient work must take place under direct supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole work with confidence. The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned. Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record Form. At the start of the course, the supervising teacher is responsible for informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice. Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation of coursework to be submitted for assessment, and must understand that to present material copied directly from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. The penalties for malpractice are set out in the AQA General Regulations. Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's own. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the specified conditions, and records details of any additional assistance. Sample Candidate Record Forms for Option T are provided in Appendix E. Current Candidate Record Forms are available separately on the AQA website under Administration/Procedures/Coursework Administration.

19.2

Guidance by the Teacher

19.3

Unfair Practice

19.4

Authentication of Candidates’ Work

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20

20.1 Standardising Meetings

Standardisation

Annual standardising meetings for both Specification A and Specification B will usually be held in the autumn term. Centres entering candidates for the first time must send a representative to a meeting. Attendance is also mandatory in the following cases: • • • where there has been a serious misinterpretation of the specification requirements; where the nature of coursework tasks set by a centre has been inappropriate; where a significant adjustment has been made to a centre’s marks in the previous year’s examination.

After the first year, attendance is at the discretion of centres. At these meetings support will be provided for centres in the development of appropriate coursework tasks and assessment procedures. 20.2 Internal Standardisation of Marking The centre is required to standardise the assessments across different teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates at the centre have been judged against the same standards. If two or more teachers are involved in marking a component, one teacher must be designated as responsible for internal standardisation. Common pieces of work must be marked on a trial basis and differences between assessments discussed at a training session in which all teachers involved must participate. The teacher responsible for standardising the marking must ensure that the training includes the use of reference and archive materials such as work from a previous year or examples provided by AQA. The centre is required to send to the moderator the Centre Declaration Sheet, duly signed, to confirm that the marking of centreassessed work at the centre has been standardised. If only one teacher has undertaken the marking, that person must sign this form. A specimen Centre Declaration Sheet is provided in Appendix E.

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21

21.1 Evidence to support the award of marks

Administrative Procedures

During the course teachers should keep records of their assessments in a form which facilitates the complete and accurate submission of the final assessments at the end of the course. When the assessments are complete, the marks awarded under each of the assessment criteria must be entered on the Candidate Record Form, with supporting information given in the spaces provided. A specimen Candidate Record Form for Module 2 and for Module 4 appears in Appendix E; the exact design may be modified before the operational version is issued and the correct year’s Candidate Record Forms should always be used.

21.2

Recording Assessments

The candidates’ work must be marked according to the assessment criteria set out in Sections 17.5 and 17.6. The marks and supporting information must be recorded in accordance with the instructions in Section 21.3. The completed Candidate Record Form for each candidate must be attached to the work and made available to AQA on request.

21.3

The total component mark for each candidate must be submitted to Submitting Marks and Sample AQA on the mark sheets provided or by Electronic Data Interchange Work for Moderation (EDI) by the specified date and copies sent to the Moderator. Centres will be informed which candidates’ work is required in the samples to be submitted to the moderator. Problems with Individual Candidates Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make up missed assessments. Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. Information about the procedure is issued separately. If work is lost, AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the loss, how it occurred, and who was responsible for the loss. AQA will advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. Where special help which goes beyond normal learning support is given, AQA must be informed so that such help can be taken into account when assessment and moderation take place. Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment. Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move takes place. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre should take responsibility for assessment. If it occurs late in the course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the previous centre. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases.

21.4

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21.5

Retaining Evidence

The centre must retain the work of all candidates, with Candidate Record Forms attached, under secure conditions from the time it is assessed, to allow for the possibility of an enquiry upon results. The work may be returned to candidates after the issue of results provided that no enquiry upon results is to be made which will include re-moderation of the coursework component. If an enquiry upon results is to be made, the work must remain under secure conditions until requested by AQA.

22

22.1 Moderation Procedures

Moderation

Moderation of the coursework is by inspection of a sample of candidates' work, sent by post from the centre to a moderator appointed by AQA. The centre marks must be submitted to AQA and the sample of work must reach the moderator by the specified date in the year in which the qualification is awarded. The evidence must be presented in a clear and helpful way for the moderator. The candidates’ work must be annotated to identify, as precisely as possible, where in the work the relevant criteria have been satisfied so that the reasons why marks have been awarded are clear. Details must also be given of the context within which the work was done, to enable the moderator to judge the attainment inherent in the work. Following the re-marking of the sample work, the moderator’s marks are compared with the centre marks to determine whether any adjustment is needed to bring the centre’s assessments into line with standards generally. In some cases it may be necessary for the moderator to call for the work of other candidates. In order to meet this possible request, centres must have available the coursework and Candidate Record Form of every candidate entered for the examination and be prepared to submit it on demand. Mark adjustments will normally preserve the centre’s order of merit but, where major discrepancies are found, AQA reserves the right to alter the order of merit.

22.2

Post-Moderation Procedures

On publication of the GCSE results, the centre is supplied with details of the final marks for the coursework component. The candidates' work is returned to the centre after the examination with a report form from the moderator giving feedback to the centre on the appropriateness of the tasks set, the accuracy of the assessments made, and the reasons for any adjustments to the marks. Some candidates' work may be retained by AQA for archive purposes.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

**Option X - AQA-Assessed Modules 2 and 4 23 Guidance on Setting the AQA-Assessed Modules
**

Introduction Centres following Option X must select coursework tasks from the bank of AQA-set tasks provided in Appendix C for Module 2 or Appendix D for Module 4. The AQA-set tasks and Mark Schemes will be published each year. Tasks may be removed or added from year to year. It is therefore essential that the latest version is used each year. Teachers should note that in the AQA-set Handling Data tasks the word ‘hypothesis’ is used for a general prediction which is to be tested. 23.2 Advice on group activities For the AO4 task it is permissible for candidates to collect data as a group or class. It is important that teachers ensure that the analysis and writing up of this work is carried out individually by candidates, so that the requirements of the specification are met. Coursework Advisers are available to assist centres with any matters relating to coursework. Details will be provided when AQA knows which centres are following the specification.

23.1

23.3

Coursework Advisers

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24

24.1 Supervision of Candidates’ Work

**Supervision and Authentication
**

Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to be authenticated. If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done outside the centre, sufficient work must take place under direct supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole work with confidence. Private candidates who follow Option X and follow an open-learning course with a tutorial college, or attend a part-time course at a school or college, may have their work authenticated by their tutor. Candidates who do not have a tutor must make arrangements to carry out the tasks at their examination centre. In this case, the work should be supervised and the examination officer must sign the declaration that all the work has been carried out by the candidate.

24.2

Guidance by the Teacher

The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned. Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record Form. At the start of the course, the supervising teacher is responsible for informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice. Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation of coursework to be submitted for assessment, and must understand that to present material copied directly from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. The penalties for malpractice are set out in the AQA General Regulations. Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's own. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the specified conditions, and records details of any additional assistance. Sample Candidate Record Forms for Option X are provided in Appendix E. Current Candidate Record Forms are available separately on the AQA website under Administration/Procedures/Coursework Administration.

24.3

Unfair Practice

24.4

Authentication of Candidates’ Work

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25

25.1 Evidence of attainment

Administrative Procedures

Where there is ephemeral evidence of attainment, which does not form part of the candidate’s written record, brief notes of each candidate’s achievement in these skill areas should be supplied, with the coursework, to AQA. Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make up missed assessments. Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. Information about the procedure is issued separately. If work is lost, AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the loss, how it occurred, and who was responsible for the loss. AQA will advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. Where special help which goes beyond normal learning support is given, AQA must be informed so that such help can be taken into account when assessment and moderation take place. Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment. Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move takes place. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre should take responsibility for assessment. If it occurs late in the course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the previous centre. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases.

25.2

Problems with Individual Candidates

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

**Awarding and Reporting 26
**

26.1 26.2 Qualification Title Grading System

**Grading, Shelf-Life and Re-Sits
**

The qualification based on this specification has the following title: AQA GCSE (modular) in Mathematics: (B). The qualification will be graded on an 8 point grade scale A*, A, B, C, D, E, F, G. The written paper modules are offered at three tiers of entry: Foundation tier, Intermediate tier and Higher tier. For candidates entered for the Foundation tier, grades D-G are available. For candidates entered for the Intermediate tier, grades B-E are available. For candidates entered for the Higher tier, grades A*-C are available. Candidates may enter for each individual module at a different tier of entry. However, the final range of grades available to a candidate is determined by the tier of entry of Module 5.

26.3

The determination of candidates’ final grades

For each module, candidates’ results are reported on a Uniform Mark Scale which is related to grades by means of the following correspondence. Module 1 Mark range 59 - 66 53 - 58 46 - 52 40 - 45 33 - 39 26 - 32 20 - 25 13 - 19 0 - 12 Modules 2 and 4 Mark range 54 - 60 48 - 53 42 - 47 36 - 41 30 - 35 24 - 29 18 - 23 12 - 17 0 - 11 A* A B C D E F G U (Maximum uniform mark = 66) Grade A* A B C D E F G U (Maximum uniform mark = 60)

Grade

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Module 3 Mark range 103 - 114 91 - 102 80 - 90 68 - 79 57 - 67 46 - 56 34 - 45 23 - 33 0 - 22 Module 5 Mark range 270 - 300 240 - 269 210 - 239 180 - 209 150 - 179 120 - 149 90 - 119 60 - 89 0 - 59

(Maximum uniform mark = 114) Grade A* A B C D E F G U (Maximum uniform mark = 300) Grade A* A B C D E F G U

A candidate’s uniform mark is calculated from his/her raw mark for the module by using the grade boundaries set by the awarding committee. For example, a candidate who achieved the minimum raw mark required for grade B on Module 1 receives a uniform mark of 46. (The marks required for each grade are published annually in the report on the examination.) A candidate cannot obtain a uniform mark corresponding to a grade which is above the range for the tier. For example, on Module 1 a candidate entered for the Foundation tier (grade range D-G) cannot obtain a uniform mark higher than 39, even if he/she achieves the maximum (raw) marks for the paper. On individual modules there is a small ‘safety net’ for candidates who fail to reach the minimum mark required for the lowest grade available in the tier. For example, on Module 1 a candidate entered for the Intermediate tier (grade range B-E) who just fails to reach the standard required for grade E does not obtain zero uniform marks. However, centres should note that such a candidate will normally be awarded fewer uniform marks than a Foundation tier candidate who reaches the same standard. A candidate’s overall uniform mark is obtained by adding together the uniform marks for the five modules. This overall mark is then converted to a grade by means of the following correspondence.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Overall Mark range 540 - 600 480 - 539 420 - 479 360 - 419 300 - 359 240 - 299 180 - 239 120 - 179 Grade A* A B C D E F G

(Maximum uniform mark = 600)

The final grade must be in a range which is available for the candidate’s tier of entry for Module 5. For example, a candidate entering Module 5 at the Intermediate tier (grade range B - E), and with uniform marks of 55, 48, 94, 50 and 234 for Modules 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively, receives a total uniform mark of 481, which corresponds to a grade A, but the candidate is awarded grade B since this is the highest grade available on the Intermediate tier. Candidates achieving less than the minimum uniform mark for the lowest grade on the tier of entry for Module 5 will receive an Unclassified result. 26.4 26.5 Shelf-Life of Module Results Re-taking Modules and carrying forward of Module Results The shelf-life of individual module results, prior to the award of the qualification, is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. Modules 2 and 4, and each tier of Modules 1 and 3, may be re-taken once before certification of the qualification. The best result for each module will count towards the final award. Candidates who wish to re-take the qualification after first certification may, on request, re-use results from Modules 1-4, but Module 5 must be taken again. For Modules 2 and 4 the two most recent results, and for Modules 1 and 3 the two most recent results from each tier, will be considered, and the best of these results will count towards the final award. For example, if a candidate attempts Module 1 once at the Higher tier and twice at the Intermediate tier before first certification, then once more at the Intermediate tier before certificating again, the Higher tier attempt and the second and third Intermediate tier attempts are eligible to count towards the final award. In the case of Module 5 the most recent attempt will always be the one that counts. Candidates may take the whole qualification an unlimited number of times. There is no limit to the number of times a result for Modules 1-4 may be re-used. 26.6 26.7 Minimum Requirements Awarding and Reporting Candidates will be graded on the basis of work submitted for assessment. The regulatory authorities, in consultation with GCSE Awarding bodies, have developed a Code of Practice for GCSE qualifications introduced in September 2000. This specification complies with the grading, awarding and certification requirements of the revised Code of Practice. hij

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

**Appendices A Grade Descriptions
**

Grade descriptions are provided to give a general indication of the standards of achievement likely to have been shown by candidates awarded particular grades. The descriptions must be interpreted in relation to the content in the specification; they are not designed to define that content. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon the extent to which the candidate has met the assessment objectives overall. Shortcomings in some aspects of the candidates’ performance in the examination may be balanced by better performances in others. Grade A Candidates give reasons for the choices they make when investigating within mathematics itself or when using mathematics to analyse tasks: these reasons explain why particular lines of enquiry or procedures are followed and others rejected. Candidates apply the mathematics they know in familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Candidates use mathematical language and symbols effectively in presenting a convincing reasoned argument. Their reports include mathematical justifications, explaining their solutions to problems involving a number of features or variables. Candidates understand and use rational and irrational numbers. They determine the bounds of intervals. Candidates understand and use direct and inverse proportion. They manipulate algebraic formulae, equations and expressions, finding common factors and multiplying two linear expressions. In simplifying algebraic expressions, they use rules of indices for negative and fractional values. In finding formulae that approximately connect data, candidates express general laws in symbolic form. They solve problems using intersections and gradients of graphs. Candidates sketch the graphs of sine, cosine and tangent functions for any angle, and generate and interpret graphs based on these functions. Candidates use sine, cosine and tangent of angles of any size, and Pythagoras’ theorem when solving problems in two and three dimensions. They use the conditions for congruent triangles in formal geometric proofs. They calculate lengths of circular arcs and areas of sectors, and calculate the surface area of cylinders and volumes of cones and spheres. Candidates interpret and construct histograms. They understand how different methods of sampling and different sample sizes may affect the reliability of conclusions drawn; they select and justify a sample and method to investigate a population. They recognise when and how to work with probabilities associated with independent and mutually exclusive events.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Grade C

Starting from problems or contexts that have been presented to them, candidates refine or extend the mathematics used to generate fuller solutions. They give a reason for their choice of mathematical presentation, explaining features they have selected. Candidates justify their generalisations, arguments or solutions, showing some insight into the mathematical structure of the problem. They appreciate the difference between mathematical explanation and experimental evidence. In making estimates candidates round to one significant figure and multiply and divide mentally. They solve numerical problems involving multiplication and division with numbers of any size using a calculator efficiently and appropriately. They understand the effects of multiplying and dividing by numbers between 0 and 1. They understand and use the equivalencies between fractions, decimals and percentages and calculate using ratios in appropriate situations. They understand and use proportional changes. Candidates find and describe in symbols the next term or the nth term of a sequence, where the rule is quadratic; they multiply two expressions of the form (x + n); they simplify the corresponding quadratic expressions. They solve simple polynomial equations by trial and improvement and represent inequalities using a number line. They formulate and solve linear equations with whole number coefficients. They manipulate simple algebraic formulae, equations and expressions. Candidates use algebraic and graphical methods to solve simultaneous linear equations in two variables. Candidates solve problems using angle and symmetry properties of polygons and properties of intersecting and parallel lines. They understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem when solving problems in two-dimensions. Candidates find areas and circumferences of circles. They calculate lengths, areas and volumes in plane shapes and right prisms. Candidates enlarge shapes by a positive whole number or fractional scale factor. They appreciate the imprecision of measurement and recognise that a measurement given to the nearest whole number may be inaccurate by up to one half in either direction. They understand and use compound measures such as speed. Candidates construct and interpret frequency diagrams. They specify hypotheses and test them. They determine the modal class and estimate the mean, median and range of a set of grouped data, selecting the statistic most appropriate to their line of enquiry. They use measures of average and range with associated frequency polygons, as appropriate, to compare distributions and make inferences. They draw a line of best fit on a scatter diagram by inspection. Candidates understand relative frequency as an estimate of probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Grade F

In order to carry through tasks and solve mathematical problems, candidates identify and obtain necessary information; they check their results, considering whether these are sensible. Candidates show understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using symbols, words and diagrams. They draw simple conclusions of their own and give an explanation of their reasoning. Candidates use their understanding of place value to multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals by 10, 100 and 1000. They order, add and subtract negative numbers in context. They use all four operations with decimals to two places. They reduce a fraction to its simplest form by cancelling common factors and solve simple problems involving ratio and direct proportion. They calculate fractional or percentage parts of quantities and measurements, using a calculator where necessary. Candidates understand and use an appropriate non-calculator method for solving problems involving multiplying and dividing any three-digit by any two-digit number. In solving problems with or without a calculator, candidates check the reasonableness of their results by reference to their knowledge of the context or to the size of the numbers, by applying inverse operations or by estimating using approximations. Candidates explore and describe number patterns and relationships including multiple, factor and square. They construct, express in symbolic form, and use simple formulae involving one or two operations. When constructing models and when drawing, or using shapes, candidates measure and draw angles as accurately as practicable and use language associated with angle. They know the angle sum of a triangle and that of angles at a point. They identify all the symmetries of 2-D shapes. They know the rough metric equivalents of imperial units still in daily use and convert one metric unit to another. They make sensible estimates of a range of measures in relation to everyday situations. Candidates calculate areas of rectangles and right-angled triangles, and volumes of cuboids. Candidates understand and use the mean of discrete data. They compare two simple distributions using the range and one of the mode, median or mean. They interpret graphs and diagrams, including pie charts, and draw conclusions. They understand and use the probability scale from 0 to 1. Candidates make and justify estimates of probability by selecting and using a method based on equally likely outcomes or on experimental evidence as appropriate. They understand that different outcomes may result from repeating an experiment.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

B Foundation Tier

Formulae Sheets for Module 5

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Intermediate Tier

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Higher Tier

96

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

C

**AQA-Set Coursework Tasks for Module 2 (2005)
**

The following are the tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005. Details of the AQA-set tasks will be published annually.

AO4

Context This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

1

Reaction Times

Grandad told Simon that some people have slower reactions than other people. Simon decided to test the reaction times of some of his friends. • Write down a hypothesis for him to test • Design and carry out an investigation to find out different ways in which reaction times can be affected

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO4

Context This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

2

Guestimate

Sarah asked a sample of people to estimate

• the length of this line

• the size of this angle Sarah then said that people estimate the length of lines better than the size of angles. • Write down a hypothesis to test how well people estimate • Design and carry out an investigation to test your hypothesis

Investigate further.

98

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AO4

Context This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

3

Memory Game

Ranjir collected 16 different objects. She put them on a tray and covered them with a cloth. She gathered some of her friends and sat them round the tray. She removed the cloth for 30 seconds and let them look at the objects. After 30 seconds she covered the objects again and asked her friends to write down as many objects as they could remember. • Write down a hypothesis to test in a memory game like this • Design and carry out an investigation to test your hypothesis

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO4

Context This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It would be most suitably done when candidates have covered scatter graphs, plotting graphs of real experimental values, and graphs of rates of change over time; in addition to work on setting up and testing hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

4

Pulse Rate

Not everyone has the same pulse rate – and pulse rate can be affected by a number of different things.

• Write a hypothesis about how someone’s pulse rate can be affected • Design and carry out an investigation to show different ways in which pulse rate can be affected

Investigate further.

100

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AO4

5

**Read All About It
**

Suresh is comparing magazines and newspapers. He chooses a passage from one newspaper and one magazine. They each contain 100 words and he counts the lengths of all the words. Suresh then says that the magazine has the shortest words. • Write a hypothesis about the length of words in newspapers and magazines • Design and carry out an investigation to test your hypothesis

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

D

**AQA-Set Coursework Tasks for Module 4 (2005)
**

The following are the tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005. Details of the AQA-set tasks will be published annually.

AO1

Context This task is most suitable for Foundation and/or Intermediate candidates. It would normally follow on from work on sequences and algebraic equations. Calculators will have to be used and this task offers a good opportunity to use a spreadsheet.

1

Round and Round

6

Add 2

Divide by 5

Write down your result

Investigate further.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AO1

Context This task is most suitable for Foundation and/or Intermediate candidates. It could follow on from work on sequences.

2

Trios

Three whole numbers, greater than zero, can be used to form a trio.

For example: (1, 2, 2) is a trio whose sum is 1 + 2 + 2 = 5 and (2, 1, 2) is a different trio whose sum is also 5. How many trios can you find with a sum of 5?

Investigate further.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO1

Context This task is most suitable for Intermediate and/or Higher candidates. It would normally follow on from work on sequences and fractions.

3

Fraction Differences

Ruth was investigating fraction differences. She wrote down this sequence of fractions: 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 … …

Then she worked out the differences between the consecutive fractions: 1 2 1 6 1 12 1 20 1 30 … …

Then she worked out the differences between the fractions in her second series: 1 3 1 12 … …

Investigate further.

104

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AO1

Context This task is most suitable for Intermediate and/or Higher candidates. It would normally follow on from trigonometry work on the sine and cosine rules. It provides an opportunity to use these in a practical situation.

4

Tangled Triangles

Two students are discussing how to find the biggest value of the area:perimeter ratio for triangles. One of them suggests that this can be done with measurements of 40, 60 and 80 – but forgets to say what units were used, and whether they were angles or sides. Which triangle gives the biggest value for the area:perimeter ratio?

Investigate further.

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105

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO1

Context This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It would normally follow work on mensuration of different shapes and it provides an opportunity to use trigonometry and algebraic manipulation.

5

Equable Shapes

An equable shape is one in which: • the perimeter and • the area have the same numerical value. Find out what you can about these shapes.

Investigate further.

106

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AO1

Context This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It can be completed by simple number manipulation or by algebraic methods.

6

Number Grid

Look at this number grid:

1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91

2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92

3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93

4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94

5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95

6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96

7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97

8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98

9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

• A box is drawn round four numbers • Find the product of the top left number and the bottom right number in this box • Do the same with the top right and bottom left numbers • Calculate the difference between these products

Investigate further.

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107

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO1

Context This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. Candidates may tackle problems practically by making shapes or use numerical or algebraic methods. It provides an opportunity for candidates to use mensuration skills.

7

Trays

A shopkeeper asks a company to make some trays. A net of a tray made from a piece of card measuring 18cm by 18cm is shown below:

Side

Base

Side 18 cm

[drawn to scale]

The shopkeeper says, “When the area of the base is the same as the area of the four sides, the volume of the tray will be a maximum”. Investigate this claim.

Investigate further.

108

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

E

Record Forms

Samples of the Centre Declaration Sheet and Candidate Record Forms are given on the following pages.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Centre-assessed work

**Centre Declaration Sheet
**

Qualification: ✔

ELC GCSE GCE GNVQ VCE FSMQ Key Skills

Specification title: ………………………………………………………………………………

Unit code(s): ………………………

Centre name: ………………………………………………………………………

Centre no:

**Authentication of candidates’ work
**

This is to certify that marks/assessments have been given in accordance with the requirements of the specification and that every reasonable step has been taken to ensure that the work presented is that of the candidates named. Any assistance given to candidates beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification has been recorded on the Candidate Record Form(s) and has been taken into account. The marks/assessments given reflect accurately the unaided achievement of the candidates.

Signature(s) of teacher(s) responsible for assessment

Teacher 1:………………………………………… Teacher 2: ………………………………………… Teacher 3:………………………………………….

**Teacher 4: ……………………………………….. Teacher 5: ……………………………………….. Teacher 6: ………………………………………..
**

(continue overleaf if necessary)

Internal standardisation of marking

Each centre must standardise assessment across different teachers/assessors and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates at the centre have been judged against the same standards. If two or more teachers/assessors are involved in marking/assessing, one of them must be designated as responsible for standardising the assessments of all teachers/assessors at the centre.

I confirm that

[tick either (a) or (b)]

(a) the procedure described in the specification has been followed at this centre to ensure that the assessments are of the same standard for all candidates; or (b) I have marked/assessed the work of all candidates. Signed: ……………………………………………………………………… Date: …………………………

Signature of Head of Centre: …………………………………………………………… Date: ……………………… This form should be completed and sent to the moderator with the sample of centre-assessed work.

110

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Centre-assessed work

**Candidate Record Form
**

2004

**GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 2 (Option T) 3302
**

Centre name: Candidate name: ......................................................................................... .................................................................................. Centre no: Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the candidate Sources of advice and information 1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................ 2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… NOTICE TO CANDIDATE The work you submit for assessment must be your own. If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned. Declaration by candidate I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet. Candidate’s signature: ....................................................................................................... Date: ..................................

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre or sent to the moderator as required. PTO hij

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name:

..................................................................................

Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the teacher Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in section 87 of the specification. Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations on the candidate’s work and in the spaces provided below. Project title: Module 2 – AO4 (one task only)

Strand Criteria for award of marks Max. mark Mark awarded Key evidence

1 2 3

Specify the problem and plan Collect, process and represent data Interpret and discuss results Total mark

8 8 8

24

Concluding comments

Details of additional assistance given (if any)

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

**Teacher’s signature: ………………………………………………………………………
**

112

Date: ……………………………… hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Centre-assessed work

**Candidate Record Form
**

2004

**GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 4 (Option T) 3302
**

Centre name: Candidate name: .......................................................................................... ................................................................................... Centre no: Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the candidate Sources of advice and information 1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the production of this work? (Write YES or NO)............................. 2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… NOTICE TO CANDIDATE The work you submit for assessment must be your own. If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned. Declaration by candidate I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet. Candidate’s signature: ...................................................................................................... Date: ...................................

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre or sent to the moderator as required. PTO hij

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name:

..................................................................................

Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the teacher Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in section 87 of the specification. Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations on the candidate’s work and in the spaces provided below. Project title:

**Module 4 – AO1 task
**

Strand Criteria for award of marks Max. mark Mark awarded Key evidence

1 2 3

Making and monitoring decisions to solve problems Communicating mathematically Developing skills of mathematical reasoning Total mark

8 8 8

24

Concluding comments

**Details of additional assistance given (if any)
**

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Teacher’s signature: ………………………………………………………………………

Date: ………………………………

114

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AQA-assessed work

**Candidate Record Form
**

2004

**GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 2 (Option X) 3302
**

Centre name: Candidate name: .......................................................................................... .................................................................................. Centre no: Candidate no:

This side is to be completed by the candidate Sources of advice and information 1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................ 2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… NOTICE TO CANDIDATE The work you submit for assessment must be your own. If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned. Declaration by candidate I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet. Candidate’s signature: ....................................................................................................... Date: ..................................

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and sent to the examiner PTO

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name:

..................................................................................

Candidate no:

Teachers are strongly advised to provide comments as evidence of mathematical or statistical thinking where this is not clearly communicated in the work. This may be done in the body of the script or on a separate sheet. Declaration by the teacher Project title:

Details of additional assistance given (if any)

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Teacher’s signature: ………………………………………………………………………

Date: ………………………………..

**To be marked by the examiner Module 2 – AO4 task
**

Strand Key evidence Final assessed score (0–8)

1 2 3

Total score (max. 24)

Examiner’s initials

116

hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AQA-assessed work

**Candidate Record Form
**

2004

**GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 4 (Option X) 3302
**

Centre name: .......................................................................................... .................................................................................. Centre no: Candidate no:

Candidate name:

This side is to be completed by the candidate. Sources of advice and information 1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................ 2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… NOTICE TO CANDIDATE The work you submit for assessment must be your own. If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned. Declaration by candidate I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet. Candidate’s signature: ....................................................................................................... Date: ..................................

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and sent to the examiner PTO

hij

117

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Candidate name:

..................................................................................

Candidate no:

Teachers are strongly advised to provide comments as evidence of mathematical or statistical thinking where this is not clearly communicated in the work. This may be done in the body of the script or on a separate sheet. Declaration by the teacher Project title:

Details of additional assistance given (if any)

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Teacher’s signature: ………………………………………………………………………

Date: ………………………………..

**To be marked by the examiner Module 4 – AO1 task
**

Strand Key evidence Final assessed score (0–8)

1 2 3 Total mark (max. 24) Examiner’s initials

118

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

F

**Overlaps with other Qualifications
**

The subject content of this Specification is identical, though differently structured, to that of AQA GCSE Mathematics Specification A. There is some overlap between Module 1 of this specification and GCSE Statistics. There is a considerable overlap of skills and content between the modules of GCSE Mathematics (Modular) Specification B, FreeStanding Mathematics Qualifications (FSMQs) and the Key Skill of Application of Number. In some post-16 centres candidates on the different courses may be grouped together. Further information about the links between these subjects can be obtained from AQA (Guildford) as separate booklets.

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