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General Certificate of

Secondary Education

Specification B

Specimen and Past Papers and Mark Schemes

Examiners’ Reports

Teachers’ Guide

This specification will be published annually on the AQA Website (www.aqa.org.uk). If there

are any changes to the specification centres will be notified in print as well as on the Website.

The version on the Website is the definitive version of the specification.

In the Spring Term before the start of the course, details of any year-specific information, such

as set tests, theme/topics, will be notified to centres in print and on the Website.

COPYRIGHT

AQA retains the copyright on all its publications, including the specimen units and mark

schemes/teachers guides. However, the registered centres for AQA are permitted to copy material

from this booklet for their own internal use, with the following exception: AQA cannot give

permission to centres to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal

use within the centre.

The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance is a Company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales 3644723 and a registered

charity number 1073334. Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.

Dr Michael Cresswell, Director General.

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Contents

Background Information

2 Specification at a Glance 9

Scheme of Assessment

4 Introduction 13

5 Aims 15

6 Assessment Objectives 16

7 Scheme of Assessment 17

Subject Content

9 Module 1 25

10 Module 2 31

11 Module 3 33

12 Module 4 44

13 Module 5 48

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Opportunities for Generating Evidence 67

20 Standardisation 82

21 Administrative Procedures 83

22 Moderation 84

25 Administrative Procedures 87

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Appendices

A Grade Descriptions 91

B Formulae Sheets 94

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Background Information

of Secondary Education

Following a review of the National Curriculum requirements, and the

establishment of the National Qualifications Framework, all the unitary

awarding bodies revised their GCSE syllabuses for examination in 2003.

1.1 National Qualifications GCSE has the following broad equivalence to General National

Framework Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ).

Two GCSE Grades D-G One (Double Award) DD-GG One 3-Unit GNVQ Foundation†

Grades A*-C One (Double Award) A*A*-CC Intermediate††

Four GCSE Grades D-G Two (Double Award) DD-GG One 6-Unit GNVQ Foundation

Grades A*-C Two (Double Award) A*A*-CC Intermediate

† only available until 2003

†† only available until 2005

1.2 Changes at GCSE

Key Skills All GCSE specifications must identify, as appropriate, opportunities for

generating evidence on which candidates may be assessed in the “main”

Key Skills of Communication, Application of Number and Information

Technology at the appropriate level(s). Also, where appropriate, they must

identify opportunities for developing and generating evidence for

addressing the “wider” Key Skills of Improving own Learning and

Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving.

Spiritual, moral, ethical, All specifications must identify ways in which the study of the subject

social, cultural, can contribute to an awareness and understanding of these issues.

environmental, health and

safety and European Issues

opportunities to apply and develop their ICT capacity through the use

of ICT tools to support their learning. In each specification candidates

will be required to make effective use of ICT in ways appropriate to the

needs of the subject.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

question papers targeted at three tiers of grades, i.e. A* - C (Higher),

B – E (Intermediate) and D – G (Foundation).

attainment. In GCSE Mathematics (Modular) each candidate may

enter for each individual module at a different tier of entry. However,

the final range of grades available to a candidate is determined by the

tier of entry for Module 5. Candidates who fail to achieve the mark

for the lowest grade available at each tier of Module 5 will be recorded

as unclassified (U).

Curriculum subject. Each GCSE specification must signpost, where

appropriate, opportunities for developing citizenship knowledge, skills

and understanding.

Criteria

• Internal assessment comprises two tasks:

the AO4 weighting;

context of AO2 and/or AO3 and counts as half of the AO1

weighting.

• The other half of the AO1 and AO4 weightings are assessed in the

written papers.

particularly in AO4, whilst other subject content has been deleted.

problems are required.

has been increased to about one third, leaving the remaining marks

balanced across grades D, E and F.

Programme of Study.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

2 Specification at a Glance

Mathematics B (Modular)

Option T and Option X

• This is one of two specifications offered by AQA. Specification A

is a traditional linear scheme; Specification B is modular and is

suitable for both pre-16 and post-16 candidates.

• There are three tiers of assessment, Foundation (D-G),

Intermediate (B-E) and Higher (A*-C).

• Centres in Northern Ireland/Wales must refer to the Statement in

Section 8.1 of this specification.

Intermediate Tier Module 1

Higher Tier Written Paper 11% of the total assessment

2 × 25 minutes (All tiers)

Modules 1, 3 and 5 Section A – Calculator

are available in all Section B – Non-calculator

three tiers Module 2

See entry code Coursework (AO4 task) 10% of the total assessment

information in

section 3.2 Either Or

OPTION T OPTION X

Centre-Set or AQA-Set task AQA-Set task

Centre-Marked AQA-Marked

Module 3

Written Paper 19% of the total assessment

2 × 40 minutes (All tiers)

Section A – Calculator

Section B – Non-calculator

Module 4

Coursework (AO1 task) 10% of the total assessment

Either Or

OPTION T OPTION X

Centre-Set or AQA-Set task AQA-Set task

Centre-Marked AQA-Marked

Module 5

Written papers 50% of the total assessment

Non-calculator

Foundation tier 1 hour

Intermediate and Higher tiers 1 hour 15 minutes

Calculator

Foundation tier 1 hour

Intermediate and Higher tiers 1 hour 15 minutes

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

and Entry Details

3.1 Availability of Assessment Specification B is a modular assessment of GCSE Mathematics

Units designed to be taken over a one or two year course of study. To offer

maximum flexibility to centres and to suit different teaching

programmes, Modules 1 to 4 can be taken in any order and candidates

can enter at different tiers for the different modules. Module 5 is the

certificating module and must be taken in the final examination series.

This is to meet the QCA requirement that at least 50% of the

qualification is externally examined at the end of the course.

Examinations based on this specification will be available as follows:

Series Availability of

Availability of Modules

Certification

March _ _

All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers

June All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers

Intermediate Intermediate

November All tiers All tiers All tiers All tiers tier only tier only

3.2 Entry Codes Normal entry requirements apply, but the following information

should be noted.

an entry for the overall subject award, 3302, must be submitted by 21

February for the June examination or 7 October for the November

examination.

to examination centres in a separate document.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3.3 Prohibited Combinations Candidates entering for Module 5 of this Specification are prohibited

from entering for any other GCSE Mathematics specification that will

be certificated in the same examination series.

particular examination series.

the subject area to which it belongs.

Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more than one

GCSE qualification with the same classification code, will have only

one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and

College Performance Tables.

3.4 Private Candidates Private candidates should normally enter for Specification B Option

X. Specification B Option T is only available for private candidates

where:

coursework, or,

• the candidate has a coursework module mark that can be carried

forward (see Section 26.5).

Guidance for Private Candidates.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

3.5 Special Consideration Special consideration may be requested for candidates whose work has

been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. The

appropriate form and all relevant information should be forwarded to

the AQA office which deals with such matters for the centre

concerned. Special arrangements may be provided for candidates with

special needs.

Details are available from AQA and centres should ask for a copy of

Candidates with Special Assessment Needs, Special Arrangements and Special

Conditions.

3.6 Language of Examinations All assessment will be through the medium of English. Assessment

materials will not be available in Welsh or Gaeilge.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Scheme of Assessment

4 Introduction

4.1 National Criteria This AQA GCSE (modular) in Mathematics: (B) complies with the

following:

• the GCSE Subject Criteria for Mathematics;

• the GCSE and GCE A/AS Code of Practice;

• the GCSE Qualification Specific Criteria;

• the Arrangements for the Statutory Regulation of External

Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: Common

Criteria.

Specification A is a traditional scheme and is a development of the

former NEAB GCSE Mathematics syllabus A and SEG GCSE

Mathematics syllabus 2510T and 2510X. Specification B is a modular

scheme suitable for both pre-16 and post-16 candidates; it is a

development of the former SEG GCSE Modular Mathematics

syllabus 2540.

Specification A and Specification B have common coursework tasks;

this allows candidates the flexibility to move from one scheme of

assessment to the other.

4.3 Specification B There are two options within Specification B, allowing alternative

approaches for the Internal Assessment (coursework) Modules 2 and

4. In Option T centres may choose from the bank of coursework

tasks provided by AQA or they may set their own coursework tasks;

centres mark their own coursework tasks with moderation of

candidates’ coursework by AQA. In Option X centres must choose

from the bank of coursework tasks provided by AQA (AQA-Set tasks)

and candidates’ coursework is marked by AQA (see appendices C and

D).

Mathematics is essentially a holistic subject, and as such should be

taught in this way with appropriate connections being made between

the sections on Number and algebra, Shape, space and measures, and

Handling data, as required in the National Curriculum. For example

Number underpins the whole of Mathematics. Modular Mathematics

Specification B is designed to be more reflective of the way in which

candidates are likely to revise for examinations when they tend to

cover just one area of Mathematics at a time. Specification B allows

candidates to take modules early in the course based on Handling data

(AO4) and the mainly number part of Number and algebra (AO2). The

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

and this concentrates on the mainly algebraic part of Number and algebra

(AO2) and the whole of Space, shape and measures (AO3). The

coursework has been separated into two further modules to allow for

increased flexibility as to when the tasks are submitted.

Division into discrete topic areas gives candidates much more insight

into their strengths and weaknesses. Specification B provides a natural

link between KS3/KS4 (which are taught holistically) and A-level

where Mathematics is examined in discrete topic areas, but not

necessarily taught as such. The modular nature of the specification

can allow candidates who fail to obtain a GCSE Grade C at KS4 to

carry forward some of their module results into post-16 education.

Specification B used in a post-16 centre gives links to Free-

Standing Mathematics Qualifications (FSMQs) and the Key Skill of

Application of Number, and in some cases this could lead to co-teaching

opportunities.

4.4 Prior level of attainment and There is progression of material through all levels at which the subject

recommended prior learning is studied. This specification therefore builds on the Key Stage 3

Programme of Study.

It is also expected that candidates will have reached the required level

of literacy through study at Key Stage 3.

Framework. As such, GCSE Mathematics provides progression from

Key Stage 3 to GCE A/AS Mathematics or further study at Advanced

or Advanced Subsidiary level in other subjects or further study at

GNVQ level, or directly into employment.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

5 Aims

The aims set out below are consistent with the 1999 National

Curriculum Order for Mathematics and the GCSE Criteria for

Mathematics. Most of the aims are reflected in the Assessment

Objectives; others are not because they cannot be readily translated

into assessment objectives.

a. consolidate their understanding of mathematics;

b. be confident in their use of mathematics;

c. extend their use of mathematical vocabulary, definitions and formal

reasoning;

d. develop the confidence to use mathematics to tackle problems in the

work place and everyday life;

e. take increasing responsibility for the planning and execution of their

work;

f. develop an ability to think and reason mathematically;

g. learn the importance of precision and rigour in mathematics;

h. make connections between different areas of mathematics;

i. realise the application of mathematics in the world around them;

j. use ICT appropriately;

k. develop a firm foundation for appropriate further study.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

6 Assessment Objectives

6.1 Assessment Objectives A course based on this specification requires candidates to demonstrate

their knowledge, understanding and skills in the following assessment

objectives. These relate to the knowledge, skills and understanding in

the Programme of Study.

assessed in contexts provided by the other assessment objectives.

6.2 Quality of Written This specification does not formally assess quality of written

Communication communication.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

7 Scheme of Assessment

7.1 Assessment Units The Scheme of Assessment has a modular structure. The subject

Option T and Option X content of the specification is assessed by five separate modules which

comprise the following components.

(Section A – Calculator)

(Section B – Non-Calculator)

Foundation Tier 2 x 25 minutes

Intermediate Tier 2 x 25 minutes

Higher Tier 2 x 25 minutes

11 % of the total assessment 2 x 20 marks

Assesses AO4 (Handling data).

All questions are compulsory. Question and answer booklet.

10 % of the total assessment 24 marks

one task set and marked by the one task, selected from a bank of

centre tasks provided by AQA, and

marked by AQA (Appendix C)

Coursework task set in the context of AO4 (Handling data).

(Section A – Calculator)

(Section B – Non-Calculator)

Foundation Tier 2 x 40 minutes

Intermediate Tier 2 x 40 minutes

Higher Tier 2 x 40 minutes

19 % of the total assessment 2 x 32 marks

Assesses mainly the number part of AO2 (Number and algebra).

All questions are compulsory. Question and answer booklet.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

10 % of the total assessment 24 marks

One task set and marked by the one task, selected from a bank of

centre tasks provided by AQA, and

marked by AQA (Appendix D)

Coursework task set in the context of AO2 and/or AO3.

(Terminal Module) Paper 1 (Non-Calculator)

Foundation Tier 60 marks 1 hour

Intermediate Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins

Higher Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins

25 % of the total assessment

Written Paper

Paper 2 (Calculator)

Foundation Tier 60 marks 1 hour

Intermediate Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins

Higher Tier 70 marks 1 hour 15 mins

25 % of the total assessment

Both papers assess the mainly algebra part of AO2 (Number and

algebra) and the whole of AO3 (Shape, space and measures).

All questions are compulsory.

Question and answer booklet.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

7.2 Weighting of Assessment The approximate relationship between the relative percentage

Objectives weighting of the Assessment Objectives and the overall Scheme of

Assessment is shown in the following table.

Assessment

Assessment

Objectives Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Objectives (%)

(Written) (Coursework) (Written) (Coursework) (Written)

AO1 Using and

applying mathematics 1* 2* 10 7* 20

AO2 Number and

algebra 17 23 40

AO3 Shape, space and

measures 20 20

Overall Weighting of

Modules (%) 11 10 19 10 50 100

the other Assessment Objectives covered by the Module. Thus 10%

of the total written paper assessment will also assess Using and Applying

Mathematics within the contexts of the questions.

Candidates’ marks for each module are scaled to achieve the correct

weightings.

7.3 Written papers The written papers at the Intermediate and Higher tiers offer balanced

assessment across the grades available at those tiers. At Foundation

tier about one third of the marks are allocated to grade G and the

remaining marks are balanced across grades D, E and F.

Common questions will be set on papers at adjacent tiers. Some

questions will be designed to assess the unprompted solution of multi-

step problems.

In Modules 1 and 3, the written papers are divided into 2 separate

sections. The first section is the calculator paper and this is issued to

candidates at the beginning of the examination. After this section has

been completed (after 25 minutes for Module 1 and 40 minutes for

Module 3) candidates are instructed to place their calculators beneath

their seat. The second section (the non-calculator paper) is then

issued. At the end of the examination, the two sections are tagged

together and the papers are collected in.

Module 5 written papers are taken on two separate days, with the non-

calculator paper on the first day and the calculator paper on the

second day.

Formulae sheets for the Foundation, Intermediate and Higher tier

papers of Module 5 are provided in Appendix B.

On the non-calculator papers the use of a calculator, slide rules,

logarithmic tables and all other aids is forbidden. On the calculator

papers, candidates will be required to demonstrate the effective use of

a calculator.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

7.4 Calculators Candidates will be expected to have a suitable electronic calculator for

use with the calculator papers. The calculator should possess the

following as a minimum requirement:

• Foundation tier – four rules and a square, square root, brackets,

reciprocal and power function and a memory facility;

• Intermediate and Higher tiers – as for Foundation tier together

with a constant function, standard form and appropriate

exponential, trigonometric and statistical functions.

Further guidance on regulations relating to calculators can be obtained

from Instructions for the Conduct of Examinations.

7.5 Coursework modules Apart from the choice of coursework tasks and the method of

assessment, the nature of the Coursework Modules 2 and 4 is the same

for Option T and Option X. Information about the administrative

arrangements for Option T Modules 2 and 4 can be found in Section

21 and for Option X Modules 2 and 4 in Section 25. AQA set tasks

can be found in Appendices C and D of this specification.

7.6 Entry policy Centres are encouraged to enter candidates aiming to achieve grades

E, F and G for the Foundation tier, grades C and D for the

Intermediate tier and grades A*, A and B for the Higher tier.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Subject Content

8.1 Introduction There are three tiers of entry for GCSE Mathematics candidates:

Foundation, Intermediate and Higher. In the National Curriculum,

published in 1999, the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study was directed

into two tiers. The division of the Programme of Study into three

tiers in the subject content of this specification is common to all

Awarding Bodies. Thus:

the subject content of the Foundation tier is based on the Foundation

Programme of Study but does not include the grade C material;

the subject content of the Intermediate tier is based on the Higher

Programme of Study but does not include the grade A and A*

material;

the subject content of the Higher tier is based on the Higher

Programme of Study but does not include the grade D (or lower)

material.

In general, the Intermediate tier content of the specification subsumes

the Foundation tier content. However, questions on the Intermediate

tier do not focus directly on material that is outside the grade range of

the tier. Similarly, the Higher tier content subsumes the Intermediate

and Foundation tier content, but questions on the examination papers

for the Higher tier do not focus directly on material that is outside the

grade range of the tier.

This GCSE Specification has been written against the Key Stage 4

Programme of Study for England. Candidates entering for this GCSE

in Northern Ireland and Wales must be taught all the material required

by the National Curriculum in their own country.

8.2 Assessment Objectives Within the modules of this specification the subject content is

presented under the following Assessment Objectives.

The Assessment Objective AO1 (Using and applying mathematics) is

assessed in contexts provided by the other Assessment Objectives.

2. Numbers and the number system

3. Calculations

4. Solving numerical problems

5. Equations, formulae and identities

6. Sequences, functions and graphs

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

2. Geometrical reasoning

3. Transformations and coordinates

4. Measures and construction

2. Specifying the problem and planning

3. Collecting data

4. Processing and representing data

5. Interpreting and discussing results

This includes all of the subject content from AO4 (Handling data) of

the National Curriculum for Mathematics, divided into three tiers of

entry.

Module 2

section of AO4 (Handling data). The marking criteria are given in

Section 17.5.

Module 3

This includes the mainly number subject content from AO2 (Number

and algebra) of the National Curriculum. At the Foundation and

Intermediate tiers, only number topics are examined in this module.

At the Higher tier some algebra topics are also examined.

Module 4

sections of AO2 (Number and algebra) and/or AO3 (Shape, space and

measures). The marking criteria are given in Section 17.6.

Module 5

This includes the mainly algebra subject content from AO2 (Number

and Algebra) and all of the subject content from AO3 (Shape, Space and

Measures). At the Foundation and Intermediate tiers selected number

topics from AO2 (Number and algebra) are also assessed. At the Higher

tier only the algebra topics from AO2 (Number and algebra) are assessed

in this module.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

8.4 Breadth of Study In addition to the required knowledge, skills and understanding, the

National Curriculum Programme of Study also specifies the Breadth

of Study expected.

Foundation Tier Pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding

through:

a. extending mental and written calculation strategies and using efficient

procedures confidently to calculate with integers, fractions, decimals,

percentages, ratio and proportion;

b. solving a range of familiar and unfamiliar problems, including those

drawn from real-life contexts and other areas of the curriculum;

c. activities that provide frequent opportunities to discuss their work, to

develop reasoning and understanding and to explain their reasoning

and strategies;

d. activities focused on developing short chains of deductive reasoning

and correct use of the ‘=’ sign;

e. activities in which they do practical work with geometrical objects,

visualise them and work with them mentally;

f. practical work in which they draw inferences from data, consider how

statistics are used in real life to make informed decisions, and

recognise the difference between meaningful and misleading

representations of data;

g. activities focused on the major ideas of statistics, including using

appropriate populations and representative samples, using different

measurement scales, using probability as a measure of uncertainty,

using randomness and variability, reducing bias in sampling and

measuring, and using inference to make decisions;

h. substantial use of tasks focused on using appropriate ICT (for

example, spreadsheets, databases, geometry or graphic packages),

using calculators correctly and efficiently, and knowing when not to

use a calculator.

Intermediate/Higher Tiers Pupils should be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding

through:

a. activities that ensure they become familiar with and confident using

standard procedures for the range of calculations appropriate to this

level of study;

b. solving familiar and unfamiliar problems in a range of numerical,

algebraic and graphical contexts and in open-ended and closed form;

c. using standard notations for decimals, fractions, percentages, ratio and

indices;

d. activities that show how algebra, as an extension of number using

symbols, gives precise form to mathematical relationships and

calculations;

e. activities in which they progress from using definitions and short

chains of reasoning to understanding and formulating proofs in

algebra and geometry;

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

statistical problems in which they draw inferences from data and

consider the uses of statistics in society;

g. choosing appropriate ICT tools and using these to solve numerical and

graphical problems, to represent and manipulate geometrical

configurations and to present and analyse data.

8.5 Subject Content Presentation The subject content for each module is shown in three columns,

representing the Programmes of Study for Key Stage 4 divided into

three tiers of entry. The subject content is taken directly from the

Statutory Orders for Mathematics.

To maintain the coherence of the topics, the statements have been

given in full for each tier. Where the wording is almost the same as

the previous tier with just a small addition, the additional material is in

bold type face. In the Module 3 Foundation and Intermediate tiers the

statements for some number topics are shown in Module 3 but are

shaded to show that they are not examined until Module 5. The

statements are then repeated in Module 5.

For each of the written paper modules, Modules 1, 3 and 5, the using

and applying statements are given at the beginning. These statements

will be mainly tested, and indeed some can only be tested, in the

coursework tasks. However, 10% of the total written paper

assessment also has to assess using and applying mathematics within

the contexts of questions appropriate to that paper.

Each statement is referenced to the appropriate statement in the

Foundation or Higher Programme of Study.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

9 Module 1

AO4: Handling data

1. Using and applying handling data

Problem solving

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

4F1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling

data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems:

(i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions

in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what

inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what

data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data

format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed

(ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources,

including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and

secondary sources secondary sources secondary sources

(iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data

into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the

problem problem problem

(iv) interpret and discuss: answer the initial question by (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial

drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data

4F1b identify what further information is needed to pursue 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in

a particular line of enquiry statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness

(these strategies should address the scale and (these strategies should address the scale and

4F1c select and organise the appropriate mathematics and manageability of the tasks, and should consider manageability of the tasks, and should consider

resources to use for a task whether the mathematics and approach used are whether the mathematics and approach used are

4F1d review progress while working; check and evaluate delivering the most appropriate solutions) delivering the most appropriate solutions)

solutions

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

4F1e interpret, discuss and synthesise information

presented in a variety of forms

4F1f communicate mathematically, including using ICT, 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the

making use of diagrams and related explanatory text use of an increasing range of diagrams and related use of an increasing range of diagrams and related

explanatory text, on the selection of their explanatory text, on the selection of their

mathematical presentation, explaining its mathematical presentation, explaining its purpose

purpose and approach, and on the use of and approach, and on the use of symbols to convey

symbols to convey statistical meaning statistical meaning

Reasoning

4F1h apply mathematical reasoning, explaining inferences 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and

and deductions justifying inferences and deductions, justifying justifying inferences and deductions, justifying

arguments and solutions arguments and solutions

4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when

solving statistical problems solving statistical problems

4F1i explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for

cause and effect when analysing data relationships between variables when analysing relationships between variables when analysing data

data

4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the 4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the

effects that varying the assumptions could have on effects that varying the assumptions could have on

the conclusions drawn from data analysis the conclusions drawn from data analysis

Pupils should be taught to:

4F2a see that random processes are unpredictable 4H2a see that random processes are unpredictable

4F2b identify questions that can be addressed by statistical 4H2b identify key questions that can be addressed by

methods statistical methods

4F2c discuss how data relate to a problem 4H2c discuss how data relate to a problem; identify 4H2c identify possible sources of bias and plan to

possible sources of bias and plan to minimise it minimise it

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

4F2d identify which primary data they need to collect and 4H2d identify which primary data they need to collect and 4H2d select and justify a sampling scheme and a

in what format, including grouped data, considering in what format, including grouped data, considering method to investigate a population, including

appropriate equal class intervals appropriate equal class intervals random and stratified sampling

4F2e design an experiment or survey; decide what 4H2e design an experiment or survey; decide what 4H2e decide what primary and secondary data to use

secondary data to use primary and secondary data to use

3. Collecting data

Pupils should be taught to:

4F3a design and use data-collection sheets for grouped 4H3a collect data using various methods, including

discrete and continuous data; collect data using observation, controlled experiment, data logging,

various methods, including observation, controlled questionnaires and surveys

experiment, data logging, questionnaires and surveys

4F3b gather data from secondary sources, including 4H3b gather data from secondary sources, including

printed tables and lists from ICT-based sources printed tables and lists from ICT-based sources

4F3c design and use two-way tables for discrete and 4H3c design and use two-way tables for discrete and

grouped data grouped data

4H3d deal with practical problems such as non-response or 4H3d deal with practical problems such as non-response or

missing data missing data

Pupils should be taught to:

4F4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, pie charts 4H4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, pie charts 4H4a draw and produce, using paper and ICT, cumulative

for categorical data, and diagrams for continuous for categorical data, and diagrams for continuous frequency tables and diagrams, box plots and

data, including line graphs for time series, scatter data, including line graphs (time series), scatter histograms for grouped continuous data

graphs, frequency diagrams and stem-and-leaf graphs, frequency diagrams, stem-and-leaf diagrams,

diagrams cumulative frequency tables and diagrams, box

plots

4F4b calculate mean, range and median of small data sets see 4H4e see 4H4e

with discrete and then continuous data; identify the

modal class for grouped data

hij 27

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

4F4c understand and use the probability scale

4F4d understand and use estimates or measures of 4H4b understand and use estimates or measures of 4H4b understand and use estimates or measures of

probability from theoretical models (including probability from theoretical models, or from relative probability from theoretical models, or from relative

equally likely outcomes) frequency frequency

4F4e list all outcomes for single events, and for two 4H4c list all outcomes for single events, and for two

successive events, in a systematic way successive events, in a systematic way

4F4f identify different mutually exclusive outcomes and 4H4d identify different mutually exclusive outcomes and

know that the sum of the probabilities of all these know that the sum of the probabilities of all these

outcomes is 1 outcomes is 1

4H4e find the median, quartiles and interquartile range for 4H4e find the median, quartiles and interquartile range for

large data sets and calculate the mean for large data large data sets and calculate the mean for large data

sets with grouped data sets with grouped data

4H4f calculate an appropriate moving average 4H4f calculate an appropriate moving average

4H4g know when to add or multiply two probabilities:

if A and B are mutually exclusive, then the

probability of A or B occurring is P(A) + P(B),

whereas if A and B are independent events, the

probability of A and B occurring is P(A) × P(B)

4H4h use tree diagrams to represent outcomes of 4H4h use tree diagrams to represent outcomes of

compound events, recognising when events are compound events, recognising when events are

independent independent

4F4h draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what 4H4i draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what 4H4i draw lines of best fit by eye, understanding what

these represent these represent these represent

4H4j use relevant statistical functions on a calculator or 4H4j use relevant statistical functions on a calculator or

spreadsheet spreadsheet

28 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

4F5a relate summarised data to the initial questions 4H5a relate summarised data to the initial questions

4F5b interpret a wide range of graphs and diagrams and 4H5b interpret a wide range of graphs and diagrams and 4H5b identify seasonality and trends in time series

draw conclusions draw conclusions; identify seasonality and trends

in time series

4F5c look at data to find patterns and exceptions 4H5c look at data to find patterns and exceptions

4F5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the 4H5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the 4H5d compare distributions and make inferences, using the

shapes of distributions and measures of average and shapes of distributions and measures of average and shapes of distributions and measures of average and

range spread, including median and quartiles spread, including median and quartiles; understand

frequency density

4F5e consider and check results and modify their 4H5e consider and check results and modify their

approach if necessary approach if necessary

4F5f have a basic understanding of correlation as a 4H5f appreciate that correlation is a measure of the 4H5f appreciate that correlation is a measure of the

measure of the strength of the association between strength of the association between two variables; strength of the association between two variables;

two variables; identify correlation or no correlation distinguish between positive, negative and zero distinguish between positive, negative and zero

using lines of best fit correlation using lines of best fit; appreciate correlation using lines of best fit; appreciate that

that zero correlation does not necessarily imply zero correlation does not necessarily imply ‘no

‘no relationship’ but merely ‘no linear relationship’ but merely ‘no linear relationship’

relationship’

4F5g use the vocabulary of probability to interpret results 4H5g use the vocabulary of probability to interpret results

involving uncertainty and prediction involving uncertainty and prediction [for example,

‘there is some evidence from this sample that …’]

4F5h compare experimental data and theoretical 4H5h compare experimental data and theoretical

probabilities probabilities

4F5i understand that if they repeat an experiment, they 4H5i understand that if they repeat an experiment, they

may – and usually will – get different outcomes, and may – and usually will – get different outcomes, and

that increasing sample size generally leads to better that increasing sample size generally leads to better

estimates of probability and population estimates of probability and population parameters

characteristics

4F5j discuss implications of findings in the context of the

problem

hij 29

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

4F5k interpret social statistics including index numbers

[for example, the General Index of Retail Prices];

time series [for example, population growth]; and

survey data [for example, the National Census]

30 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

10 Module 2

AO4: Handling data

1. Using and applying handling data

Problem solving

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

4F1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling 4H1a carry out each of the four aspects of the handling

data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems: data cycle to solve problems:

(i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions (i) specify the problem and plan: formulate questions

in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what in terms of the data needed, and consider what

inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what inferences can be drawn from the data; decide what

data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data data to collect (including sample size and data

format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed format) and what statistical analysis is needed

(ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources, (ii) collect data from a variety of suitable sources,

including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and including experiments and surveys, and primary and

secondary sources secondary sources secondary sources

(iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data (iii) process and represent the data: turn the raw data

into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the into usable information that gives insight into the

problem problem problem

(iv) interpret and discuss: answer the initial question by (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial (iv) interpret and discuss the data: answer the initial

drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data question by drawing conclusions from the data

4F1b identify what further information is needed to pursue 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in 4H1b select the problem-solving strategies to use in

a particular line of enquiry statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness statistical work, and monitor their effectiveness

(these strategies should address the scale and (these strategies should address the scale and

4F1c select and organise the appropriate mathematics and

manageability of the tasks, and should consider manageability of the tasks, and should consider

resources to use for a task

whether the mathematics and approach used are whether the mathematics and approach used are

4F1d review progress while working; check and evaluate delivering the most appropriate solutions) delivering the most appropriate solutions)

solutions

hij 31

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

4F1e interpret, discuss and synthesise information

presented in a variety of forms

4F1f communicate mathematically, including using ICT, 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the 4H1c communicate mathematically, with emphasis on the

making use of diagrams and related explanatory text use of an increasing range of diagrams and related use of an increasing range of diagrams and related

explanatory text, on the selection of their explanatory text, on the selection of their

mathematical presentation, explaining its mathematical presentation, explaining its purpose

purpose and approach, and on the use of and approach, and on the use of symbols to convey

symbols to convey statistical meaning statistical meaning

Reasoning

4F1h apply mathematical reasoning, explaining inferences 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 4H1d apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and

and deductions justifying inferences and deductions, justifying justifying inferences and deductions, justifying

arguments and solutions arguments and solutions

4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when 4H1e identify exceptional or unexpected cases when

solving statistical problems solving statistical problems

4F1i explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for 4H1f explore connections in mathematics and look for

cause and effect when analysing data relationships between variables when analysing relationships between variables when analysing data

data

4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the 4H1g recognise the limitations of any assumptions and the

effects that varying the assumptions could have on effects that varying the assumptions could have on

the conclusions drawn from data analysis the conclusions drawn from data analysis

32 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

11 Module 3

AO2: Number and Algebra

1. Using and applying number and algebra

Problem solving

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

2F1a select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques

efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing and strategies to solve problems of increasing

problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic complexity, involving numerical and algebraic

manipulation manipulation

2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in

order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give

reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular

approaches approaches

2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps

before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their

choice of methods

2F1c use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem

– identifying the variable, setting up an equation,

solving the equation and interpreting the solution in

the context of the problem

2F1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations;

use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy;

operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in

certain calculations

Assessed in Module 5

hij 33

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communicating

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using

information presented in a variety of forms an increasing range of mathematical language and an increasing range of mathematical language and

notation notation

2F1g use a range of strategies to create numerical, 2H1f use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f move from one form of representation to another to

algebraic or graphical representations of a problem establishing algebraic or graphical representations of get different perspectives on the problem

and its solution a problem and its solution; move from one form of

representation to another to get different

perspectives on the problem

2F1h present and interpret solutions in the context of the 2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the

original problem original problem

2F1f use notation and symbols correctly and consistently 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently

within a given problem within a given problem

2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice

of mathematical presentation of mathematical presentation; present a concise,

reasoned argument

Reasoning

2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j understand the importance of a counter-example;

algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular identify exceptional cases when solving problems

that substitute numbers for letters], investigating case may be generalised further and understand the

whether particular cases can be generalised further, importance of a counter-example; identify

and understanding the importance of a counter- exceptional cases when solving problems

example

2H1k understand the difference between a practical 2H1k understand the difference between a practical

demonstration and a proof demonstration and a proof

2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive

reasoning

Assessed in Module 5

34 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and

assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the

limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the

effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the

solution to a problem solution to a problem

Integers

Pupils should be taught to:

2F2a use their previous understanding of integers and 2H2a use their previous understanding of integers and 2H2a use the concepts and vocabulary of highest common

place value to deal with arbitrarily large positive place value to deal with arbitrarily large positive factor, least common multiple, prime number and

numbers and round them to a given power of 10; numbers and round them to a given power of 10; prime factor decomposition

understand and use positive numbers, both as understand and use negative integers both as

positions and translations on a number line; order positions and translations on a number line; order

integers; use the concepts and vocabulary of factor integers; use the concepts and vocabulary of factor

(divisor), multiple and common factor (divisor), multiple, common factor, highest

common factor, least common multiple, prime

number and prime factor decomposition

2F2b use the terms square, positive square root, cube; use 2H2b use the terms square, positive square root, negative 2H2b use index laws for multiplication and division of

index notation for squares, cubes and powers of 10 square root, cube and cube root; use index notation integer powers; use standard index form, expressed

and index laws for multiplication and division of in conventional notation and on a calculator display

integer powers; use standard index form,

expressed in conventional notation and on a

calculator display

Assessed in Module 5

hij 35

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Fractions

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2F2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a 2H2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a

fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fraction by cancelling all common factors; order

fractions by rewriting them with a common fractions by rewriting them with a common

denominator denominator

Decimals

2F2d use decimal notation and recognise that each 2H2d recognise that each terminating decimal is a fraction 2H2d recognise that recurring decimals are exact fractions,

terminating decimal is a fraction [for example, 137 ]; recognise that

[for example, 0.137 = 1000 and that some exact fractions are recurring decimals

137 ]; order decimals

0.137 = 1000 recurring decimals are exact fractions, and that [for example, 17 = 0.142857142857…]

some exact fractions are recurring decimals [for

example, 17 = 0.142857142857…]; order decimals

Percentages

2F2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts 2H2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts

per 100’ and use this to compare proportions; per 100’, and interpret percentage as the operator ‘so

interpret percentage as the operator ‘so many many hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10

hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 parts parts per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 15 × Y]

15

per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 × Y]; use

percentage in real-life situations [for example,

commerce and business, including rate of inflation,

VAT and interest rates]

Ratio

2F2f use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest 2H2f use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest 2H2f use ratio notation, including reduction to its simplest

form and its various links to fraction notation [for form and its various links to fraction notation form and its various links to fraction notation

example, in maps and scale drawings, paper sizes and

gears]

Assessed in Module 5

36 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3. Calculations

Number operations and the relationships between them

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

2F3a add, subtract, multiply and divide integers and then 2H3a multiply or divide any number by powers of 10, and 2H3a multiply or divide any number by a number between

any number; multiply or divide any number by any positive number by a number between 0 and 1; 0 and 1; find the prime factor decomposition of

powers of 10, and any positive number by a number find the prime factor decomposition of positive positive integers; understand ‘reciprocal’ as

between 0 and 1 integers; understand ‘reciprocal’ as multiplicative inverse, knowing that any non-zero

multiplicative inverse, knowing that any non- number multiplied by its reciprocal is 1 (and that

zero number multiplied by its reciprocal is 1 zero has no reciprocal, because division by zero is

(and that zero has no reciprocal, because not defined); multiply and divide by a negative

division by zero is not defined); multiply and number; use index laws to simplify and calculate the

divide by a negative number; use index laws to value of numerical expressions involving

simplify and calculate the value of numerical multiplication and division of integer, fractional and

expressions involving multiplication and negative powers; use inverse operations,

division of integer powers; use inverse understanding that the inverse operation of

operations raising a positive number to power n is raising

the result of this operation to power n1

2F3b use brackets and the hierarchy of operations 2H3b use brackets and the hierarchy of operations

2F3c calculate a given fraction of a given quantity [for 2H3c calculate a given fraction of a given quantity, 2H3c distinguish between fractions with denominators that

example, for scale drawings and construction of expressing the answer as a fraction; express a given have only prime factors of 2 and 5 (which are

models, down payments, discounts], expressing the number as a fraction of another; add and subtract represented by terminating decimals), and other

answer as a fraction; express a given number as a fractions by writing them with a common fractions (which are represented by recurring

fraction of another; add and subtract fractions by denominator; perform short division to convert a decimals); convert a recurring decimal to a fraction

writing them with a common denominator; perform simple fraction to a decimal; distinguish between [for example, 0.142857142857… = 17 ]

short division to convert a simple fraction to a fractions with denominators that have only

decimal prime factors of 2 and 5 (which are represented

by terminating decimals), and other fractions

(which are represented by recurring decimals)

2F3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative 2H3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative 2H3d understand and use unit fractions as multiplicative

inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication inverses [for example, by thinking of multiplication

by 15 as division by 5]; multiply and divide a fraction by 15 as division by 5; or multiplication by 67 as by 67 as multiplication by 6 followed by division by 7

by an integer, and multiply a fraction by a unit multiplication by 6 followed by division by 7 (or vice (or vice versa)]; multiply and divide a given fraction

fraction versa)], multiply and divide a given fraction by an by a unit fraction and by a general fraction

integer, by a unit fraction and by a general fraction

hij 37

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

2F3e convert simple fractions of a whole to percentages of 2H3e convert simple fractions of a whole to percentages of 2H3e understand the multiplicative nature of percentages

the whole and vice versa [for example, analysing the whole and vice versa; then understand the as operators [for example, a 15% increase in value Y,

diets, budgets or the costs of running, maintaining multiplicative nature of percentages as operators followed by a 15% decrease is calculated as

and owning a car] [for example, a 15% increase in value Y, followed by 1.15 × 0.85 × Y]; calculate an original amount

a 15% decrease is calculated as 1.15 × 0.85 × Y]; when given the transformed amount after a

calculate an original amount when given the percentage change; reverse percentage problems [for

transformed amount after a percentage change; example, given that a meal in a restaurant costs £36

reverse percentage problems [for example, given with VAT at 17.5%, its price before VAT is

that a meal in a restaurant costs £36 with VAT at calculated as £ 1.36

175

]

17.5%, its price before VAT is calculated as £ 1.36

175

]

2F3f divide a quantity in a given ratio [for example, share 2H3f divide a quantity in a given ratio 2H3f divide a quantity in a given ratio

£15 in the ratio of 1:2]

Mental methods

2F3g recall all positive integer complements to 100 2H3g recall integer squares from 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 and the 2H3g recall integer squares from 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 and the

[for example, 37 + 63 = 100]; recall all multiplication corresponding square roots, the cubes of 2, 3, 4, 5 corresponding square roots, the cubes of 2, 3, 4, 5

facts to 10 × 10, and use them to derive quickly the and 10 and 10, the fact that n0 = 1 and n-1 = n1 for

corresponding division facts; recall the cubes of 2, 3,

4, 5 and 10, and the fraction-to-decimal conversion positive integers n [for example,100 = 1; 9-1 = 19 ],

of familiar simple fractions [for example, the corresponding rule for negative numbers

1, 1, 1, 1 , 1 , 1, 2, 1 ] 1

1 ], n 2 = n and

1

n 3 = 3 n for any positive number n [for example,

1 1

25 2 = 5 and 64 3 = 4 ]

Assessed in Module 5

38 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

2F3h round to the nearest integer and to one significant 2H3h round to a given number of significant figures; 2H3h round to a given number of significant figures;

figure; estimate answers to problems involving develop a range of strategies for mental calculation; convert between ordinary and standard index form

decimals derive unknown facts from those they know; convert representations [for example,

2F3i develop a range of strategies for mental calculation; between ordinary and standard index form 0.1234 = 1.234 × 10-1], converting to standard index

derive unknown facts from those they know [for representations [for example, form to make sensible estimates for calculations

example, estimate 85 ]; add and subtract numbers 0.1234 = 1.234 × 10-1], converting to standard index involving multiplication and/or division

form to make sensible estimates for calculations

mentally with up to two decimal places [for example,

involving multiplication and/or division

13.76 – 5.21, 20.08 + 12.4]; multiply and divide

numbers with no more than one decimal digit,

[for example, 14.3 × 4, 56.7 ÷ 7] using the

commutative, associative, and distributive laws and

factorisation where possible, or place value

adjustments

Written methods

2F3j use standard column procedures for addition and

subtraction of integers and decimals

2F3k use standard column procedures for multiplication

of integers and decimals, understanding where to

position the decimal point by considering what

happens if they multiply equivalent fractions

2F3l use efficient methods to calculate with fractions, 2H3i use efficient methods to calculate with fractions,

including cancelling common factors before carrying including cancelling common factors before carrying

out the calculation, recognising that, in many cases, out the calculation, recognising that, in many cases,

only a fraction can express the exact answer only a fraction can express the exact answer

2F3m solve simple percentage problems, including increase 2H3j solve percentage problems, including increase and 2H3j solve percentage problems, [for example, simple

and decrease [for example, VAT, annual rate of decrease [for example, simple interest, VAT, annual interest, VAT, annual rate of inflation]; and reverse

inflation, income tax, discounts] rate of inflation]; and reverse percentages percentages

hij 39

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

2F3n solve word problems about ratio and proportion,

including using informal strategies and the unitary

method of solution [for example, given that m

identical items cost £y, then one item costs £ my and

y

n items cost £(n × m ), the number of items that

can be bought for £z is z × my ]

2H3k represent repeated proportional change using a 2H3k represent repeated proportional change using a

multiplier raised to a power [for example, compound multiplier raised to a power [for example, compound

interest] interest]

2H3l calculate an unknown quantity from quantities that 2H3l calculate an unknown quantity from quantities that

vary in direct proportion vary in direct or inverse proportion

2H3m calculate with standard index form [for example, 2H3m calculate with standard index form [for example,

2.4 × 107 × 5 × 103 = 12 × 1010 = 1.2 × 1011, 2.4 × 107 × 5 × 103 = 12 × 1010 = 1.2 × 1011,

(2.4 × 107) ÷ (5 × 103) = 4.8 × 103] (2.4 × 107) ÷ (5 × 103) = 4.8 × 103]

2H3n use surds and π in exact calculations, without a 2H3n use surds and π in exact calculations, without a

calculator calculator; rationalise a denominator such as

1 3

=

3 3

Calculator methods

2F3o use calculators effectively; know how to enter 2H3o use calculators effectively and efficiently; know how 2H3o use calculators effectively and efficiently, know how

complex calculations and use function keys for to enter complex calculations; use an extended to enter complex calculations; use an extended range

reciprocals, squares and powers range of function keys, including of function keys, including trigonometrical and

trigonometrical and statistical functions relevant statistical functions relevant across this programme

across this programme of study of study

2F3p enter a range of calculations, including those

involving measures [for example, time calculations in

which fractions of an hour must be entered as

fractions or as decimals]

Assessed in Module 5

40 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

2F3q understand the calculator display, interpreting it 2H3p understand the calculator display, knowing when to

correctly [for example, in money calculations, or interpret the display, when the display has been

when the display has been rounded by the rounded by the calculator, and knowing not to round

calculator], and knowing not to round during the during the intermediate steps of a calculation

intermediate steps of a calculation

2H3q use calculators, or written methods, to calculate the

upper and lower bounds of calculations, particularly

when working with measurements

2H3r use standard index form display and know how to 2H3r use standard index form display and know how to

enter numbers in standard index form enter numbers in standard index form

2H3s use calculators for reverse percentage calculations by 2H3s use calculators for reverse percentage calculations by

doing an appropriate division doing an appropriate division

2H3t use calculators to explore exponential growth and

decay [for example, in science or geography], using a

multiplier and the power key

Pupils should be taught to:

2F4a draw on their knowledge of the operations and the 2H4a draw on their knowledge of operations and inverse 2H4a draw on their knowledge of operations and inverse

relationships between them, and of simple integer operations (including powers and roots), and of operations (including powers and roots), and of

powers and their corresponding roots, to solve methods of simplification (including factorisation methods of simplification (including factorisation

problems involving ratio and proportion, a range of and the use of the commutative, associative and and the use of the commutative, associative and

measures including speed, metric units, and distributive laws of addition, multiplication and distributive laws of addition, multiplication and

conversion between metric and common imperial factorisation) in order to select and use suitable factorisation) in order to select and use suitable

units, set in a variety of contexts strategies and techniques to solve problems and strategies and techniques to solve problems and

word problems, including those involving ratio and word problems, including those involving ratio and

2F4b select appropriate operations, methods and strategies

proportion, repeated proportional change, fractions, proportion, repeated proportional change, fractions,

to solve number problems, including trial and

percentages and reverse percentages, surds, measures percentages and reverse percentages, inverse

improvement where a more efficient method to find

and conversion between measures, and compound proportion, surds, measures and conversion

the solution is not obvious

measures defined within a particular situation between measures, and compound measures defined

within a particular situation

Assessed in Module 5

hij 41

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

2F4c use a variety of checking procedures, including 2H4b check and estimate answers to problems; select and 2H4b check and estimate answers to problems; select and

working the problem backwards, and considering justify appropriate degrees of accuracy for answers to justify appropriate degrees of accuracy for answers to

whether a result is of the right order of magnitude problems; recognise limitations on the accuracy of problems; recognise limitations on the accuracy of

data and measurements data and measurements

2F4d give solutions in the context of the problem to an

appropriate degree of accuracy, interpreting the

solution shown on a calculator display, and

recognising limitations on the accuracy of data and

measurements

Use of symbols

Pupils should be taught to:

2F5a assessed in Module 5 2H5a assessed in Module 5 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter

symbols in algebra, using the correct notational

conventions for multiplying or dividing by a given

number, and knowing that letter symbols represent

definite unknown numbers in equations [for

example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or variables

in formula [for example, V = IR], general,

unspecified and independent numbers in identities

[for example, (x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1, for all x] and in

functions they define new expressions or quantities

by referring to known quantities [for example,

3

y = 2 – 7x, f(x) = x ; y = 1x with x ≠ 0]

2F5b assessed in Module 5 2H5b assessed in Module 5 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic

entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules

of generalised arithmetic [for example,

a(b + c) = ab + ac]; manipulate algebraic expressions

by collecting like terms

2H5c assessed in Module 5 2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’

and ‘expression’

42 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2H5h set up and use equations to solve word and other

problems involving direct proportion or inverse

proportion

1

[for example, y ∝ x, y ∝ x2, y∝ x , y∝ 1

], and relate

x2

algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the

equations

Quadratic functions

Pupils should be taught to:

2H6e assessed in Module 5 2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic

functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then

more general quadratic functions [for example,

x2 – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a

quadratic equation from the graph of the

corresponding quadratic function; find the

intersection points of the graphs of a linear and

quadratic function, knowing that these are the

approximate solutions of the corresponding

simultaneous equations representing the linear and

quadratic functions

hij 43

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

12 Module 4

AO2: Number and algebra

1. Using and applying number and algebra

Problem solving

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

2F1a select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques

efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing and strategies to solve problems of increasing

problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic complexity, involving numerical and algebraic

manipulation manipulation

2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in

order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give

reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular

approaches approaches

2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps

before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their

choice of methods

2F1c use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem

– identifying the variable, setting up an equation,

solving the equation and interpreting the solution in

the context of the problem

2F1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations;

use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy;

operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in

certain calculations

44 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Communicating

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using

information presented in a variety of forms an increasing range of mathematical language and an increasing range of mathematical language and

notation notation

2F1g use a range of strategies to create numerical, 2H1f use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f move from one form of representation to another to

algebraic or graphical representations of a problem establishing algebraic or graphical representations of get different perspectives on the problem

and its solution a problem and its solution; move from one form of

representation to another to get different

perspectives on the problem

2F1h present and interpret solutions in the context of the 2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the

original problem original problem

2F1f use notation and symbols correctly and consistently 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently

within a given problem within a given problem

2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice

of mathematical presentation of mathematical presentation; present a concise,

reasoned argument

Reasoning

2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j understand the importance of a counter-example;

algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular identify exceptional cases when solving problems

that substitute numbers for letters], investigating case may be generalised further and understand the

whether particular cases can be generalised further, importance of a counter-example; identify

and understanding the importance of a counter- exceptional cases when solving problems

example

2H1k understand the difference between a practical 2H1k understand the difference between a practical

demonstration and a proof demonstration and a proof

2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive

reasoning

2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and

assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the

limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the

effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the

solution to a problem solution to a problem

hij 45

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

1. Using and applying shape, space and measures

Problem solving

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

3F1a select problem-solving strategies and resources, 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in

including ICT tools, to use in geometrical work, and geometrical work, and consider and explain the geometrical work, and consider and explain the

monitor their effectiveness extent to which the selections they made were extent to which the selections they made were

appropriate appropriate

3F1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem-

solving strategies to solve complex problems solving strategies to solve more complex solving strategies to solve more complex geometrical

geometrical problems problems

3F1c identify what further information is needed to solve 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry,

a geometrical problem; break complex problems justifying their decisions to follow or reject

down into a series of tasks particular approaches

Communicating

3F1d interpret, discuss and synthesise geometrical

information presented in a variety of forms

3F1e communicate mathematically, by presenting and 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a

organising results and explaining geometrical critical examination of the presentation and critical examination of the presentation and

diagrams organisation of results, and on effective use of organisation of results, and on effective use of

symbols and geometrical diagrams symbols and geometrical diagrams

3F1f use geometrical language appropriately 3H1e use precise formal language and exact methods for

analysing geometrical configurations

3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical

presentation presentation

46 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Reasoning

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and 3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and

proofs proofs

3F1i apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from

justifying inferences and deductions brief mathematical explanations towards full brief mathematical explanations towards full

justifications in more complex contexts justifications in more complex contexts

3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional 3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional

constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask

questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’ questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’

3F1j show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical 3H1h show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical

problem problem

3H1i state constraints and give starting points when 3H1i state constraints and give starting points when

making deductions making deductions

3H1j understand the necessary and sufficient conditions

under which generalisations, inferences and solutions

to geometrical problems remain valid

hij 47

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

13 Module 5

AO2: Number and Algebra

1. Using and applying number and algebra

Problem solving

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

2F1a select and use suitable problem-solving strategies and 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques 2H1a select and use appropriate and efficient techniques

efficient techniques to solve numerical and algebraic and strategies to solve problems of increasing and strategies to solve problems of increasing

problems complexity, involving numerical and algebraic complexity, involving numerical and algebraic

manipulation manipulation

2H1b identify what further information may be required in 2H1b identify what further information may be required in

order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give

reasons for following or rejecting particular reasons for following or rejecting particular

approaches approaches

2F1b break down a complex calculation into simpler steps 2H1c break down a complex calculation into simpler steps

before attempting to solve it before attempting a solution and justify their

choice of methods

2F1c use algebra to formulate and solve a simple problem

– identifying the variable, setting up an equation,

solving the equation and interpreting the solution in

the context of the problem

2F1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations; 2H1d make mental estimates of the answers to calculations;

use checking procedures, including use of inverse present answers to sensible levels of accuracy;

operations; work to stated levels of accuracy understand how errors are compounded in

certain calculations

Assessed in Module 3

48 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Communicating

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2F1e interpret and discuss numerical and algebraic 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using 2H1e discuss their work and explain their reasoning using

information presented in a variety of forms an increasing range of mathematical language and an increasing range of mathematical language and

notation notation

2F1g use a range of strategies to create numerical, 2H1f use a variety of strategies and diagrams for 2H1f move from one form of representation to another to

algebraic or graphical representations of a problem establishing algebraic or graphical representations of get different perspectives on the problem

and its solution a problem and its solution; move from one form of

representation to another to get different

perspectives on the problem

2F1h present and interpret solutions in the context of the 2H1g present and interpret solutions in the context of the

original problem original problem

2F1f use notation and symbols correctly and consistently 2H1h use notation and symbols correctly and consistently

within a given problem within a given problem

2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice 2H1i examine critically, improve, then justify their choice

of mathematical presentation of mathematical presentation; present a concise,

reasoned argument

Reasoning

2F1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j explore, identify, and use pattern and symmetry in 2H1j understand the importance of a counter-example;

algebraic contexts [for example, using simple codes algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular identify exceptional cases when solving problems

that substitute numbers for letters], investigating case can be generalised further and understand the

whether particular cases can be generalised further, importance of a counter-example; identify

and understanding the importance of a counter- exceptional cases when solving problems

example

2H1k understand the difference between a practical 2H1k understand the difference between a practical

demonstration and a proof demonstration and a proof

2F1k show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l show step-by-step deduction in solving a problem 2H1l derive proofs using short chains of deductive

reasoning

2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and 2H1m recognise the significance of stating constraints and

assumptions when deducing results; recognise the assumptions when deducing results; recognise the

limitations of any assumptions that are made and the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the

effect that varying the assumptions may have on the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the

solution to a problem solution to a problem

hij 49

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Integers

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

2F2a use the concepts and vocabulary of factor (divisor), 2H2a assessed in Module 3 2H2a assessed in Module 3

multiple and common factor

2F2b use the terms square, positive square root, cube; use 2H2b use the terms square, positive square root, negative 2H2b assessed in Module 3

index notation for squares, cubes and powers of 10 square root, cube and cube root; use index notation

and index laws for multiplication and division of

integer powers; use standard index form,

expressed in conventional notation and on a

calculator display

Fractions

2F2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a 2H2c understand equivalent fractions, simplifying a

fraction by cancelling all common factors; order fraction by cancelling all common factors; order

fractions by rewriting them with a common fractions by rewriting them with a common

denominator denominator

Decimals

2F2d use decimal notation 2H2d assessed in Module 3 2H2d assessed in Module 3

Percentages

2F2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts 2H2e understand that ‘percentage’ means ‘number of parts

per 100’ and use this to compare proportions; per 100’, and interpret percentage as the operator ‘so

interpret percentage as the operator ‘so many many hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10

hundredths of’ [for example, 10% means 10 parts parts per 100 and 15% of Y means 100 15 × Y]

50 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3. Calculations

Number operations and the relationships between them

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

2F3a add, subtract, multiply and divide integers and then 2H3a assessed in Module 3 2H3a assessed in Module 3

any number; multiply or divide any number by

powers of 10, and any positive number by a number

between 0 and 1

2F3b use brackets and the hierarchy of operations 2H3b assessed in Module 3

Mental methods

2F3g recall all positive integer complements to 100 2H3g assessed in Module 3 2H3g assessed in Module 3

[for example, 37 + 63 = 100]; recall all multiplication

facts to 10 × 10, and use them to derive quickly the

corresponding division facts; recall the cubes of 2, 3,

4, 5 and 10

Calculator methods

2F3o use calculators effectively; use function keys for 2H3o assessed in Module 3 2H3o assessed in Module 3

reciprocals, squares and powers

Pupils should be taught to:

2F4a draw on their knowledge of simple integer powers 2H4a assessed in Module 3 2H4a assessed in Module 3

and their corresponding roots, to solve problems

hij 51

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Use of symbols

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

2F5a distinguish the different roles played by letter 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter 2H5a distinguish the different roles played by letter

symbols in algebra, knowing that letter symbols symbols in algebra, using the correct notational symbols in algebra, using the correct notational

represent definite unknown numbers in equations conventions for multiplying or dividing by a conventions for multiplying or dividing by a given

[for example, 5x + 1 = 16], defined quantities or given number, and knowing that letter symbols number, and knowing that letter symbols represent

variables in formulae [for example, V = IR], general, represent definite unknown numbers in equations definite unknown numbers in equations [for

unspecified and independent numbers in identities [for example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or example, x2 + 1 = 82], defined quantities or variables

[for example, 3x + 2x = 5x, for all values of x] and in variables in formulae [for example, V = IR], general, in formulae [for example, V = IR], general,

functions they define new expressions or quantities unspecified and independent numbers in identities unspecified and independent numbers in identities

2 2

by referring to known quantities [for example, [for example, (x + 1) = x + 2x + 1, for all x], and in [for example, (x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1, for all x], and in

y = 2x] functions they define new expressions or quantities functions they define new expressions or quantities

by referring to known quantities [for example, by referring to known quantities [for example,

3 1 3

y = 2 – 7x; f(x) = x ; y = x with x ≠ 0] y = 2 – 7x; f(x) = x ; y = 1x with x ≠ 0]

2F5b understand that the transformation of algebraic 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic 2H5b understand that the transformation of algebraic

expressions obeys and generalises the rules of entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules entities obeys and generalises the well-defined rules

arithmetic; manipulate algebraic expressions by of generalised arithmetic [for example, of generalised arithmetic [for example,

collecting like terms, by multiplying a single term a(b + c) = ab + ac]; expand the product of two a(b + c) = ab + ac]; expand the product of two linear

over a bracket, and by taking out single term linear expressions [for example, expressions [for example,

common factors [for example, (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 3x + 2]; manipulate algebraic (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 3x + 2]; manipulate algebraic

x + 5 – 2x – 1 = 4 – x; 5(2x + 3) = 10x + 15; expressions by collecting like terms, multiplying a expressions by collecting like terms, multiplying a

x 2 + 3x = x ( x + 3) ] single term over a bracket, taking out common single term over a bracket, taking out common

factors [for example, 9x – 3 = 3(3x – 1)], factorising factors [for example, 9x – 3 = 3(3x – 1)], factorising

quadratic expressions, including the difference quadratic expressions, including the difference of

of two squares [for example, x2 – 9 = (x + 3)(x – 3)], two squares [for example, x2 – 9 = (x + 3)(x – 3)], and

and cancelling common factors in rational cancelling common factors in rational expressions

expressions [for example,

2

[for example, 2(x + 1)2/(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)]

2(x + 1) /(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)]

2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’, 2H5c know the meaning of and use the words ‘equation’,

‘formula’, ‘identity’ and ‘expression’ ‘formula’, ‘identity’ and ‘expression’

52 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Index notation

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2F5c use index notation for simple integer powers; 2H5d use index notation for simple integer powers, and 2H5d use simple instances of index laws [for example,

2

substitute positive and negative numbers into simple instances of index laws [for example, x3 × x2 = x5; xx3 = x-1; (x2)3 = x6]

expressions such as 3x2 + 4 and 2x3 3 2 5 x2 -1 2 3 6

x × x = x ; x3 = x ; (x ) = x ]; substitute positive

and negative numbers into expressions such as

3x2 + 4 and 2x3

Equations

2H5e set up simple equations [for example, find the angle 2H5e set up simple equations [for example, find the angle a

a in a triangle with angles a, a + 10, a + 20]; solve in a triangle with angles a, a + 10, a + 20]; solve

simple equations [for example, 5x = 7; 11 – 4x = 2; simple equations [for example, 5x = 7; 11 – 4x = 2;

3(2x + 1) = 8; 2(1 – x) = 6(2 + x); 4x2 = 49; 3 = 12x ] 3(2x + 1) = 8; 2(1 – x) = 6(2 + x); 4x2 = 49; 3 = 12x ]

by using inverse operations or by transforming both by using inverse operations or by transforming both

sides in the same way sides in the same way

Linear Equations

2F5e solve linear equations, with integer coefficients, in 2H5f solve linear equations in one unknown, with integer 2H5f solve linear equations in one unknown, with integer

which the unknown appears on either side or on or fractional coefficients, in which the unknown or fractional coefficients, in which the unknown

both sides of the equation; solve linear equations appears on either side or on both sides of the appears on either side or on both sides of the

that require prior simplification of brackets, equation; solve linear equations that require prior equation

including those that have negative signs occurring simplification of brackets, including those that have

anywhere in the equation, and those with a negative negative signs occurring anywhere in the equation,

solution and those with a negative solution

hij 53

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Formulae

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2F5f use formulae from mathematics and other subjects 2H5g use formulae from mathematics and other subjects 2H5g use formulae from mathematics and other subjects

expressed initially in words and then using letters and [for example, formulae for the area of a triangle or a [for example, formulae for the area of a triangle or a

symbols [for example, formulae for the area of a parallelogram, area enclosed by a circle, volume of parallelogram, area enclosed by a circle, volume of a

triangle, the area enclosed by a circle, a prism, volume of a cone]; substitute numbers prism, volume of a cone]; substitute numbers into a

wage earned = hours worked × rate per hour]; into a formula; change the subject of a formula, formula; change the subject of a formula, including

substitute numbers into a formula; derive a formula including cases where the subject occurs twice, cases where the subject occurs twice, or where a

[for example, convert temperatures between degrees or where a power of the subject appears [for power of the subject appears [for example, find r,

2

Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius, find the perimeter of example, find r, given that A = πr , find x given given that A = πr 2 , find x given y = mx + c];

a rectangle given its area A and the length l of one y = mx + c]; generate a formula [for example, find generate a formula [for example, find the perimeter

side] the perimeter of a rectangle given its area A and the of a rectangle given its area A and the length l of one

length l of one side] side]

2H5i find the exact solution of two simultaneous 2H5i find the exact solution of two simultaneous

equations in two unknowns by eliminating a variable, equations in two unknowns by eliminating a variable,

and interpret the equations as lines and their and interpret the equations as lines and their

common solution as the point of intersection common solution as the point of intersection

2H5j solve simple linear inequalities in one variable, and 2H5j solve simple linear inequalities in one variable, and

represent the solution set on a number line; solve represent the solution set on a number line; solve

several linear inequalities in two variables and find several linear inequalities in two variables and find

the solution set the solution set

Quadratic equations

2H5k solve quadratic equations by factorisation 2H5k solve quadratic equations by factorisation,

completing the square and using the quadratic

formula

54 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2H5l solve exactly, by elimination of an unknown, two

simultaneous equations in two unknowns, one of

which is linear in each unknown, and the other is

linear in one unknown and quadratic in the other

[for example, solve the simultaneous equations

y = 11x – 2 and y = 5x2], or where the second is of

the form x2 + y2 = r2

Numerical methods

2H5m use systematic trial and improvement to find 2H5m use systematic trial and improvement to find

approximate solutions of equations where there is no approximate solutions of equations where there is no

simple analytical method of solving them [for simple analytical method of solving them [for

example, x3 – x = 900] example, x3 – x = 900]

Sequences

Pupils should be taught to:

2F6a generate terms of a sequence using term-to-term and 2H6a generate common integer sequences (including 2H6a generate common integer sequences (including

position-to-term definitions of the sequence sequences of odd or even integers, squared sequences of odd or even integers, squared integers,

integers, powers of 2, powers of 10, triangular powers of 2, powers of 10, triangular numbers); use

numbers); generate terms of a sequence using term- linear expressions to describe the nth term of an

to-term and position-to-term definitions of the arithmetic sequence, justifying its form by reference

sequence; use linear expressions to describe the to the activity or context from which it was

nth term of an arithmetic sequence, justifying its generated

form by reference to the activity or context from

which it was generated

hij 55

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2F6b use the conventions for coordinates in the plane; 2H6b use conventions for coordinates in the plane; plot 2H6b recognise (when values are given for m and c) that

plot points in all four quadrants; plot graphs of points in all four quadrants; recognise (when equations of the form y = mx + c correspond to

functions in which y is given explicitly in terms of x values are given for m and c) that equations of straight-line graphs in the coordinate plane

[for example, y = 2x + 3], or implicitly [for example, the form y = mx + c correspond to straight-line

x + y = 7] graphs in the coordinate plane; plot graphs of

functions in which y is given explicitly in terms of x

(as in y = 2x + 3), or implicitly (as in x + y = 7)

2F6c construct linear functions from real-life problems

and plot their corresponding graphs; discuss and

interpret graphs arising from real situations

2H6c find the gradient of lines given by equations of the 2H6c find the gradient of lines given by equations of the

form y = mx + c (when values are given for m and c); form y = mx + c (when values are given for m and c);

understand that the form y = mx + c represents a understand that the form y = mx + c represents a

straight line and that m is the gradient of the line, and straight line and that m is the gradient of the line, and

c is the value of the y-intercept; explore the gradients c is the value of the y-intercept; explore the gradients

of parallel lines [for example, know that the lines of parallel lines and lines perpendicular to these

represented by the equations y = –5x and y = 3 – 5x lines [for example, know that the lines represented

are parallel, each having gradient (–5)] by the equations y = –5x and y = 3 – 5x are parallel,

each having gradient (–5) and that the line with

equation y = 5x is perpendicular to these lines

and has gradient 1 ]

5

2F6e interpret information presented in a range of linear 2H6d construct linear functions and plot the 2H6d construct linear functions and plot the

and non-linear graphs [for example, graphs corresponding graphs arising from real-life corresponding graphs arising from real-life

describing trends, conversion graphs, distance-time problems; discuss and interpret graphs modelling problems; discuss and interpret graphs modelling

graphs, graphs of height or weight against age, real situations [for example, distance-time graph for a real situations [for example, distance-time graph for a

graphs of quantities that vary against time, such as particle moving with constant speed, the depth of particle moving with constant speed, the depth of

employment] water in a container as it empties, the velocity-time water in a container as it empties, the velocity-time

graph for a particle moving with constant graph for a particle moving with constant

acceleration] acceleration]

56 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Quadratic functions

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic 2H6e generate points and plot graphs of simple quadratic

functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then functions [for example, y = x2; y = 3x2 + 4], then

more general quadratic functions [for example, more general quadratic functions [for example,

2 2

y = x – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a y = x – 2x + 1]; find approximate solutions of a

quadratic equation from the graph of the quadratic equation from the graph of the

corresponding quadratic function corresponding quadratic function

Other functions

2H6f plot graphs of simple cubic functions [for example, 2H6f plot graphs of simple cubic functions [for example,

3 3

y = x ], the reciprocal function y = 1x with x ≠ 0, y = x ], the reciprocal function y = 1x with x ≠ 0, the

using a spreadsheet or graph plotter as well as pencil exponential function y = kx for integer values of

and paper; recognise the characteristic shapes of all x and simple positive values of k [for example,

these functions

( )x ], the circular functions y = sinx

y = 2 x ; y = 12

and y = cosx, using a spreadsheet or graph plotter as

well as pencil and paper; recognise the characteristic

shapes of all these functions

Transformation of functions

2H6g apply to the graph of y = f(x) the transformations

y = f(x) + a, y = f(ax), y = f(x + a), y = af(x) for

linear, quadratic, sine and cosine functions f(x)

Loci

2H6h construct the graphs of simple loci 2H6h construct the graphs of simple loci, including the

circle x2 + y2 = r2 for a circle of radius r centred

at the origin of coordinates; find graphically the

intersection points of a given straight line with

this circle and know that this corresponds to

solving the two simultaneous equations

representing the line and the circle

hij 57

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

1. Using and applying shape, space and measures

Problem solving

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

Pupils should be taught to:

3F1a select problem-solving strategies and resources, 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in 3H1a select the problem-solving strategies to use in

including ICT tools, to use in geometrical work, and geometrical work, and consider and explain the geometrical work, and consider and explain the

monitor their effectiveness extent to which the selections they made were extent to which the selections they made were

appropriate appropriate

3F1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem- 3H1b select and combine known facts and problem-

solving strategies to solve complex problems solving strategies to solve more complex solving strategies to solve more complex geometrical

geometrical problems problems

3F1c identify what further information is needed to solve 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry 3H1c develop and follow alternative lines of enquiry,

a geometrical problem; break complex problems justifying their decisions to follow or reject

down into a series of tasks particular approaches

Communicating

3F1d interpret, discuss and synthesise geometrical

information presented in a variety of forms

3F1e communicate mathematically, by presenting and 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a 3H1d communicate mathematically, with emphasis on a

organising results and explaining geometrical critical examination of the presentation and critical examination of the presentation and

diagrams organisation of results, and on effective use of organisation of results, and on effective use of

symbols and geometrical diagrams symbols and geometrical diagrams

3F1f use geometrical language appropriately 3H1e use precise formal language and exact methods for

analysing geometrical configurations

3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical 3F1g review and justify their choices of mathematical

presentation presentation

58 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Reasoning

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and 3F1h distinguish between practical demonstrations and

proofs proofs

3F1i apply mathematical reasoning, explaining and 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from 3H1f apply mathematical reasoning, progressing from

justifying inferences and deductions brief mathematical explanations towards full brief mathematical explanations towards full

justifications in more complex contexts justifications in more complex contexts

3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional 3H1g explore connections in geometry; pose conditional

constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask constraints of the type ‘If … then …’, and ask

questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’ questions ‘What if …?’ or ‘Why?’

3F1j show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical 3H1h show step-by-step deduction in solving a geometrical

problem problem

3H1i state constraints and give starting points when 3H1i state constraints and give starting points when

making deductions making deductions

3H1j understand the necessary and sufficient conditions

under which generalisations, inferences and solutions

to geometrical problems remain valid

2. Geometrical reasoning

Angles

Pupils should be taught to:

3F2a recall and use properties of angles at a point, angles

on a straight line (including right angles),

perpendicular lines, and opposite angles at a vertex

3F2b distinguish between acute, obtuse, reflex and right

angles; estimate the size of an angle in degrees

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

3F2c use parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding 3H2a distinguish between lines and line segments; use 3H2a distinguish between lines and line segments

angles, understand the properties of parallelograms parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding

and a proof that the angle sum of a triangle is 180 angles, understand the consequent properties of

degrees; understand a proof that the exterior angle of parallelograms and a proof that the angle sum of a

a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at triangle is 180 degrees; understand a proof that the

the other two vertices exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the

interior angles at the other two vertices

3F2d use angle properties of equilateral, isosceles and 3H2b use angle properties of equilateral, isosceles and

right-angled triangles; understand congruence; right-angled triangles; understand congruence;

explain why the angle sum of any quadrilateral is explain why the angle sum of any quadrilateral is 360

360 degrees degrees

3F2e use their knowledge of rectangles, parallelograms and

triangles to deduce formulae for the area of a

parallelogram, and a triangle, from the formula for

the area of a rectangle

3F2f recall the essential properties of special types of 3H2c recall the definitions of special types of

quadrilateral, including square, rectangle, quadrilateral, including square, rectangle,

parallelogram, trapezium and rhombus; classify parallelogram, trapezium and rhombus; classify

quadrilaterals by their geometric properties quadrilaterals by their geometric properties

3F2g calculate and use the sums of the interior and 3H2d calculate and use the sums of the interior and

exterior angles of quadrilaterals, pentagons and exterior angles of quadrilaterals, pentagons and

hexagons; calculate and use the angles of regular hexagons; calculate and use the angles of regular

polygons polygons

3H2e understand and use SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS

conditions to prove the congruence of triangles

using formal arguments, and to verify standard ruler

and compass constructions

3H2f understand, recall and use Pythagoras’ theorem in 3H2f understand, recall and use Pythagoras’ theorem in

2-D problems; investigate the geometry of cuboids 2-D , then 3-D problems; investigate the geometry

including cubes, and shapes made from cuboids of cuboids including cubes, and shapes made from

cuboids, including the use of Pythagoras’

theorem to calculate lengths in three dimensions

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3H2g understand similarity of triangles and of other plane 3H2g understand similarity of triangles and of other plane

figures, and use this to make geometric inferences; figures, and use this to make geometric inferences;

understand, recall and use trigonometrical understand, recall and use trigonometrical

relationships in right-angled triangles, and use these relationships in right-angled triangles, and use these

to solve problems, including those involving to solve problems, including those involving

bearings bearings, then use these relationships in 3-D

contexts, including finding the angles between a

line and a plane (but not the angle between two

planes or between two skew lines); calculate the

area of a triangle using 12 ab sin C ; draw, sketch

and describe the graphs of trigonometric

functions for angles of any size, including

transformations involving scalings in either or

both the x and y directions; use the sine and

cosine rules to solve 2-D and 3-D problems

Properties of circles

3F2i recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of 3H2h recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of 3H2h recall the definition of a circle and the meaning of

related terms, including centre, radius, chord, related terms, including centre, radius, chord, related terms, including sector and segment;

diameter, circumference, tangent and arc; understand diameter, circumference, tangent, arc, sector and understand that the tangent at any point on a circle is

that inscribed regular polygons can be constructed segment; understand that the tangent at any perpendicular to the radius at that point; understand

by equal division of a circle point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius at and use the fact that tangents from an external point

that point; understand and use the fact that are equal in length; explain why the perpendicular

tangents from an external point are equal in from the centre to a chord bisects the chord; prove

length; explain why the perpendicular from the and use the facts that the angle subtended by an arc

centre to a chord bisects the chord; understand at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended

that inscribed regular polygons can be constructed at any point on the circumference, the angle

by equal division of a circle; use the facts that the subtended at the circumference by a semicircle is a

angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a right angle, that angles in the same segment are

circle is twice the angle subtended at any point equal, and that opposite angles of a cyclic

on the circumference, the angle subtended at quadrilateral sum to 180 degrees; prove and use the

the circumference by a semicircle is a right alternate segment theorem

angle, that angles in the same segment are

equal, and that opposite angles of a cyclic

quadrilateral sum to 180 degrees

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

3-D shapes

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

3F2j explore the geometry of cuboids (including cubes),

and shapes made from cuboids

3F2k use 2-D representations of 3-D shapes and analyse 3H2i use 2-D representations of 3-D shapes and analyse 3H2i solve problems involving surface areas and volumes

3-D shapes through 2-D projections and cross- 3-D shapes through 2-D projections and cross- of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres;

sections, including plan and elevation sections, including plan and elevation; solve solve problems involving more complex shapes

problems involving surface areas and volumes of and solids, including segments of circles and

prisms and cylinders frustums of cones

Specifying transformations

Pupils should be taught to:

3F3a understand that rotations are specified by a centre 3H3a understand that rotations are specified by a centre 3H3a use any point as the centre of rotation; measure the

and an (anticlockwise) angle; rotate a shape about the and an (anticlockwise) angle; use any point as the angle of rotation using fractions of a turn or degrees;

origin; measure the angle of rotation using right centre of rotation; measure the angle of rotation understand that translations are specified by giving a

angles or simple fractions of a turn; understand that using right angles, fractions of a turn or degrees; vector

reflections are specified by a mirror line, at first using understand that reflections are specified by a (mirror)

a line parallel to an axis; understand that translations line such as y = x or y = –x line; understand that

are specified by a distance and direction, and translations are specified by giving a distance and

enlargements by a centre and positive scale factor direction (or a vector), and enlargements by a centre

and positive scale factor

Properties of transformations

3F3b recognise and visualise rotations, reflections and 3H3b recognise and visualise rotations, reflections and 3H3b transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by

translations, including reflection symmetry of 2-D translations, including reflection symmetry of 2-D combinations of translation, rotation and reflection;

and 3-D shapes, and rotation symmetry of 2-D and 3-D shapes, and rotation symmetry of 2-D use congruence to show that translations,

shapes; transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by shapes; transform triangles and other 2-D shapes by rotations and reflections preserve length and

translation, rotation and reflection, recognising that translation, rotation and reflection and angle, so that any figure is congruent to its

these transformations preserve length and angle, so combinations of these transformations; image under any of these transformations;

that any figure is congruent to its image under any of distinguish properties that are preserved under distinguish properties that are preserved under

these transformations particular transformations particular transformations

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

3F3c recognise, visualise and construct enlargements of 3H3c recognise, visualise and construct enlargements of 3H3c use positive fractional and negative scale factors

objects using positive scale factors greater than one; objects; understand from this that any two circles

understand from this that any two circles and any and any two squares are mathematically similar,

two squares are mathematically similar, while, in while, in general, two rectangles are not, then use

general, two rectangles are not positive fractional scale factors

3F3d recognise that enlargements preserve angle but not 3H3d recognise that enlargements preserve angle but not 3H3d understand the difference between formulae for

length; identify the scale factor of an enlargement as length; identify the scale factor of an enlargement as perimeter, area and volume by considering

the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding dimensions; understand and use the effect of

line segments and apply this to triangles; understand line segments; understand the implications of enlargement on areas and volumes of shapes

the implications of enlargement for perimeter; use enlargement for perimeter; use and interpret maps and solids

and interpret maps and scale drawings and scale drawings; understand the difference

between formulae for perimeter, area and

volume by considering dimensions

Coordinates

3F3e understand that one coordinate identifies a point on 3H3e understand that one coordinate identifies a point on 3H3e given the coordinates of the points A and B,

a number line, two coordinates identify a point in a a number line, that two coordinates identify a point calculate the length AB

plane and three coordinates identify a point in space, in a plane and three coordinates identify a point in

using the terms '1-D', '2-D' and '3-D'; use axes and space, using the terms '1-D', '2-D' and '3-D'; use axes

coordinates to specify points in all four quadrants; and coordinates to specify points in all four

locate points with given coordinates; find the quadrants; locate points with given coordinates; find

coordinates of points identified by geometrical the coordinates of points identified by geometrical

information [for example, find the coordinates of the information; find the coordinates of the midpoint of

fourth vertex of a parallelogram with vertices at the line segment AB, given the points A and B, then

(2, 1) (–7, 3) and (5, 6)]; find the coordinates of the calculate the length AB

mid-point of the line segment AB, given points A

and B

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Vectors

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

3H3f understand and use vector notation 3H3f understand and use vector notation; calculate, and

represent graphically the sum of two vectors, the

difference of two vectors and a scalar multiple of

a vector; calculate the resultant of two vectors;

understand and use the commutative and

associative properties of vector addition; solve

simple geometrical problems in 2-D using vector

methods

Measures

Pupils should be taught to:

3F4a interpret scales on a range of measuring instruments, 3H4a use angle measure [for example, use bearings to 3H4a know that measurements using real numbers depend

including those for time and mass; convert specify direction]; know that measurements using on the choice of unit; recognise that measurements

measurements from one unit to another; know real numbers depend on the choice of unit; given to the nearest whole unit may be inaccurate by

rough metric equivalents of pounds, feet, miles, pints recognise that measurements given to the up to one half in either direction; understand and use

and gallons; make sensible estimates of a range of nearest whole unit may be inaccurate by up to compound measures, including speed and density

measures in everyday settings one half in either direction; convert

measurements from one unit to another;

3F4b understand angle measure using the associated

understand and use compound measures,

language [for example, use bearings to specify

including speed and density

direction]

3F4c understand and use speed

64 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Construction

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

3F4d measure and draw lines to the nearest millimetre, and 3H4b draw approximate constructions of triangles and

angles to the nearest degree; draw triangles and other other 2-D shapes, using a ruler and protractor, given

2-D shapes using a ruler and protractor, and given information about side lengths and angles; construct

information about their side lengths and angles; specified cubes, regular tetrahedra, square-based

understand, from their experience of constructing pyramids and other 3-D shapes

them, that triangles satisfying SSS, SAS, ASA and

RHS are unique, but SSA triangles are not; construct

cubes, regular tetrahedra, square-based pyramids and

other 3-D shapes from given information

3F4e use straight edge and compasses to do standard 3H4c use a straight edge and compasses to do standard 3H4c use a straight edge and compasses to do standard

constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a constructions, including an equilateral triangle with a

given side given side, the midpoint and perpendicular given side, the midpoint and perpendicular bisector

bisector of a line segment, the perpendicular of a line segment, the perpendicular from a point to

from a point to a line, the perpendicular from a a line, the perpendicular from a point on a line, and

point on a line, and the bisector of an angle the bisector of an angle

Mensuration

3F4f find areas of rectangles, recalling the formula, 3H4d find the surface area of simple shapes by using the 3H4d find the surface area of simple shapes by using the

understanding the connection to counting squares formulae for the areas of triangles and rectangles; formulae for the areas of triangles and rectangles;

and how it extends this approach; recall and use the find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and

formulae for the area of a parallelogram and a understanding the connection to counting cubes and understanding the connection to counting cubes and

triangle; find the surface area of simple shapes using how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of

the area formulae for triangles and rectangles; right prisms and of shapes made from cubes and right prisms; convert between volume measures

calculate perimeters and areas of shapes made from cuboids; convert between volume measures including cm3 and m3; calculate the lengths of arcs

triangles and rectangles 3 3

including cm and m ; find circumferences of circles and the areas of sectors of circles

and areas enclosed by circles, recalling relevant

3F4g find volumes of cuboids, recalling the formula and

formulae

understanding the connection to counting cubes and

how it extends this approach; calculate volumes of

shapes made from cubes and cuboids

3F4h find circumferences of circles and areas enclosed by

circles, recalling relevant formulae

3F4i convert between area measures, including cm2 and

m2, and volume measures, including cm3 and m3

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Loci

Foundation tier Intermediate tier Higher tier

3H4e find loci, both by reasoning and by using ICT to 3H4e find loci, both by reasoning and by using ICT to

produce shapes and paths [for example, a region produce shapes and paths [for example, a region

bounded by a circle and an intersecting line] bounded by a circle and an intersecting line]

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

and Providing Opportunities for

Generating Evidence

14.1 Introduction The Key Skills Qualification requires candidates to demonstrate levels

of achievement in the Key Skills of Communication, Application of Number

and Information Technology.

The units for the ‘wider’ Key Skills of Improving own Learning and

Performance, Working with Others and Problem Solving are also available.

The acquisition and demonstration of ability in these ‘wider’ Key Skills

is deemed highly desirable for all candidates, but they do not form part

of the Key Skills Qualification.

Copies of the Key Skills Units may be down loaded from the QCA

web site (www.qca.org.uk/keyskills).

The units for each Key Skill comprise three sections:

B What you must do.

C Guidance.

GCSE Mathematics (Modular) can be offered opportunities to

develop and generate evidence of attainment in aspects of the Key

Skills of Communication, Application of Number, Information Technology,

Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with Others and Problem

Solving. Areas of study and learning that can be used to encourage the

acquisition and use of Key Skills, and to provide opportunities to

generate evidence for Part B of the units, are signposted below.

14.2 Key Skills Opportunities in The signposting which follows indicates the opportunities to acquire

Mathematics (Modular) and produce evidence of the Key Skills in AO2-4. AO1, Using and

applying mathematics which is assessed in the context of AO2-3, also

provides opportunities.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Communication Level 1

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

C1.1 Take part in discussions ü ü ü

C1.2 Read and obtain information ü ü ü

C1.3 Write different types of documents

Communication Level 2

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

C2.1a Contribute to discussions ü ü ü

C2.1b Give a short talk ü ü ü

C2.2 Read and summarise information ü ü ü

C2.3 Write different types of documents

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

N1.1 Interpret information from different

ü ü ü

sources

N1.2 Carry out calculations ü ü ü

N1.3 Interpret results and present findings ü ü ü

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

N2.1 Interpret information from different

ü ü ü

sources

N2.2 Carry out calculations ü ü ü

N2.3 Interpret results and present findings ü ü ü

68 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

IT1.1 Find, explore and develop

ü ü ü

information

IT1.2 Present information, including text,

ü ü ü

numbers and images

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

IT2.1 Search for and select information ü ü ü

IT2.2 Explore and develop information

ü ü ü

and derive new information

IT2.3 Present combined information,

ü ü ü

including text, numbers and images

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

LP1.1 Confirm short-term

targets and plan how ü ü ü

these will be met

LP1.2 Follow plan to meet

targets and improve ü ü ü

performance

LP1.3 Review progress and

ü ü ü

achievements

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

LP2.1 Help set short-term targets and plan

ü ü ü

how these will be met

LP2.2 Use plan and support from others,

ü ü ü

to meet targets

LP2.3 Review progress and identify

ü ü ü

evidence of achievements

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

WO1.1 Confirm what needs to be done

ü ü ü

and who is to do it

WO1.2 Work towards agreed objectives ü ü ü

WO1.3 Identify progress and suggest

ü ü ü

improvements

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

WO2.1 Plan work and confirm working

ü ü ü

arrangements

WO2.2 Work cooperatively towards

ü ü ü

achieving identified objectives

WO2.3 Exchange information on progress

and agree ways of improving work ü ü ü

with others

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

PS1.1 Confirm understanding of given

ü ü ü

problems

PS1.2 Plan and try out ways of solving

ü ü ü

problems

PS1.3 Check if problems have been

ü ü ü

solved and describe the results

What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating

Evidence in Subject Content

AO2 AO3 AO4

PS2.1 Identify problems and come up

ü ü ü

with ways of solving them

PS2.2 Plan and try out options ü ü ü

PS2.3 Apply given methods to check if

problems have been solved and ü ü ü

describe the results

opportunities to acquire and produce evidence of the Key Skills

through this specification. Such opportunities are dependent on the

detailed course of study delivered within centres.

14.3 Further Guidance More specific guidance and examples of tasks that can provide

evidence of single Key Skills, or composite tasks that can provide

evidence of more than one Key Skill, are given in the AQA

specification support material, particularly the Teachers’ Guide.

14.4 Exemptions for the Key Skills GCSE A*- C examination performance on this specification provides

Qualification exemptions for the external test in Application of Number at Level 2.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Cultural and Other Issues

15.1 Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Mathematics provides opportunities to promote:

Social, Cultural and Other • spiritual development, through explaining the underlying mathematical

Issues principles behind some of the natural forms and patterns in the

world around us;

• moral development, helping pupils recognise how logical reasoning

can be used to consider the consequences of particular decisions

and choices helping them learn the value of mathematical truth;

• social development, through helping pupils work together productively

on complex mathematical tasks and helping them see that the

result is often better than could be achieved separately;

• cultural development, through helping pupils appreciate that

mathematical thought contributes to the development of our

culture and is becoming increasingly central to our highly

technological future, and through recognising that mathematicians

from many cultures have contributed to the development of

modern day mathematics.

15.2 European Dimension AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the

European Community in preparing this specification and associated

specimen papers.

15.3 Environmental Issues AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the

European Community and the Report Environmental Responsibility: An

Agenda for Further and Higher Education 1993 in preparing this

specification and associated specimen papers.

15.4 Citizenship Coursework tasks, particularly those for AO4 Handling data, promote

the skills of enquiry and communication. They also encourage the skill

of participation and responsible action in the educational

establishment and/or communication.

15.5 Avoidance of Bias AQA has taken great care in the preparation of this specification and

associated specimen papers to avoid bias of any kind.

15.6 Health and Safety Coursework tasks, particularly those for AO4 Handling data provide

opportunities to promote Health and Safety issues.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

15.7 ICT (a) Pupils should be given opportunities to apply and develop

their ICT capability through the use of ICT tools to support

their learning in mathematics.

being taught to :

synthesising the information to meet their needs and

developing an ability to question its accuracy, bias and

plausibility;

refine their work and enhance its quality and accuracy;

through electronic media;

critically on its quality, as it progresses.

• thinking skills, through developing pupils’ problem-solving skills

and deductive reasoning;

• financial capability, through applying mathematics to problems set in

financial contexts;

• enterprise and entrepreneurial skills, through developing pupils’ abilities

to apply mathematics in science and technology, in economics and

in risk assessment;

• work related learning, through developing pupils’ abilities to use and

apply mathematics in workplace situations and in solving real-life

problems.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Modules

16.1 Introduction There are two alternative approaches to the assessment of the

coursework modules:

• Option T centres may choose from a bank of coursework tasks

provided by AQA or they set their own coursework tasks; centres

then mark the coursework tasks with moderation of candidates’

coursework by AQA;

• Option X centres choose from the bank of coursework tasks

provided by AQA in this specification and candidates’ coursework

is marked by AQA.

Apart from the choice of coursework tasks and the method of

assessment, the nature of the coursework is the same for Option T

and Option X. The following details apply to both Option T and

Option X. It is not necessary to use the same option for both tasks.

The details for the coursework are also common to GCSE

Mathematics Specification A.

16.2 Module 2 Module 2 assesses the Handling data task (AO4 task) which must be set

in the context of AO4. Candidates are expected to submit one task

only. Tasks based on probability only, without data handling, are

unlikely to score well on these criteria and should be avoided.

Simulation activities are acceptable provided that they lead to statistical

tasks rather than probability tasks. Candidates may choose to use

statistical information from the Internet or other sources. The

Assessment Criteria for the AO4 task are given in section 17.5. The

AO4 task is marked out of a total of 24 marks. The coursework task

is expected to take approximately two weeks to complete, including

lesson and homework time. It is not permissible for the Handling data

project (AO4 task) to be re-used as the Module 4 coursework task.

16.3 Module 4 The Using and Applying Mathematics task (AO1 task) submitted for

Module 4 must be set in the context of AO2 and/or AO3. One task

is expected, however, candidates may submit up to two tasks in order

to satisfy the assessment criteria for AO1. The Assessment Criteria

for the AO1 task are given in section 17.6. The AO1 task is marked

out of a total of 24 marks and if two tasks are submitted, the better

mark in each strand should be used. The coursework task is expected

to take approximately two weeks to complete, including lesson and

homework time.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

16.4 General Module 2 and Module 4 will be offered three times a year in the

March, June and November examination series. Centres may choose

the most appropriate examination series to submit the tasks for

assessment. Centres may enter candidates for Module 2 and for

Module 4 in different examination series. For example, centres may

enter candidates for Module 2 in the June of year 10 and for Module 4

in the June of year 11.

teaching and learning process. It must not be regarded as an

additional or separate part of this process. Therefore it is important

that the scheme of work includes activities designed to develop the

strands that are assessed in Module 2 and Module 4. The Module 2

AO4 coursework task provides an opportunity for candidates to carry

out an extended piece of work using Handling data skills. The Module

4, AO1 coursework task provides an opportunity for candidates to

conduct an extended piece of work which enhances their

understanding of the mathematics of AO2 and/or AO3. Candidates

are expected to use appropriate mathematical skills to investigate and

carry out the tasks. These skills may involve the use of practical

equipment and computers where appropriate to the tasks. Tasks

should be chosen so that they are appropriate for the candidate and,

by their nature, do not limit the mark that can be awarded.

Coursework also provides an appropriate method for generating

evidence for the six Key Skills: Communication, Application of Number,

Information Technology, Improving own Learning and Performance, Working with

Others and Problem Solving.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Coursework Modules

17.1 Introduction There are two different sets of assessment criteria, one for each of the

coursework modules. For Module 2 (AO4 task) the assessment

criteria for Handling data are used and for Module 4 (AO1 task) the

assessment criteria for Using and applying mathematics are used.

17.2 Module 2 Candidates will be assessed in terms of their attainment in each of the

Handling data (AO4 task) following three strands which correspond to the Programme of Study

for Handling data at National Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4.

Strand Maximum mark

1 Specify the problem and plan 8

2 Collect, process and represent data 8

3 Interpret and discuss results 8

Maximum total mark 24

The score in each of the three strands should be that which reflects

the best performance by the candidate in that strand. These marks

should be totalled to give a mark out of 24.

The criteria are to be used as best fit indicative descriptions and the

statements within them are not to be taken as hurdles. This means

candidates’ work should be assessed in relation to the criteria taken as

holistic descriptions of performance. The first consideration is which

of the descriptions in each strand best describes the work in a

candidate’s project. Once that is established, the final step is to decide

between the lower and the higher tier mark available for that

description; this decision may well involve looking again at the criteria

above and below the selected best fitting criterion. It is not

appropriate to take each statement in each description and regard it as

a separate assessment criterion. Nor is it necessary to consider

whether the majority of the statements within a criterion have been

met.

A mark of 0 should be awarded if a candidate’s work fails to satisfy the

requirements for 1 mark.

Descriptions for higher marks subsume those for lower marks.

Where there are references to ‘at least the level detailed in the handling

data paragraph of the grade description for grade X ’ , work which uses

no technique beyond the specified grade is indicative of the lower of

the two marks. To obtain the higher of the two marks requires

processing and analysis using techniques that best fit a more

demanding standard.

In these criteria, there is an intended approximate link between 7

marks and grade A, 5 marks and grade C and 3 marks and grade F.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

17.3 Module 4 Candidates will be assessed in terms of their attainment in each of the

Using and Applying following three strands which correspond to the three areas of the

Mathematics (AO1 task) Programme of Study for Using and applying mathematics at National

Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4.

1 Making and monitoring decisions to 8

solve problems

2 Communicating mathematically 8

reasoning

Maximum total mark 24

The score in each of the three strands should be that which reflects

the best performance by the candidate in that strand. These marks

should be totalled to give a mark out of 24.

The criteria are to be used as best fit indicative descriptions and the

statements within them are not to be taken as hurdles. It is necessary,

however, for the majority of the statement to be met for the mark to

be awarded.

The mark descriptions within a strand are designed to be broadly

hierarchical. This means that, in general, a description at a particular

mark subsumes those at lower marks. Therefore the mark awarded

may not be supported by direct evidence of achievement of lower

marks in each strand.

It is assumed that tasks which allow higher marks will involve a more

sophisticated approach and/or treatment.

The AO1 coursework task must be set in the context of AO2 (Number

and algebra) and/or AO3 (Shape, space and measures).

In these criteria, there is an intended approximate link between 7

marks and grade A, 5 marks and grade C and 3 marks and grade F.

17.4 Reporting of the Coursework The mark out of a total of 24 awarded for each Module is reported on

Modules a Uniform Mark Scale (see section 26.3). The rules for re-sitting and

carrying forward the coursework modules are also given in Sections

26.5 and 26.6.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Strand 1 Strand 2 Strand 3

Specify the problem and plan Collect, process and represent data Interpret and discuss results

1-2 Candidates choose a simple well-defined problem. Their aims Candidates collect data with limited relevance to the problem and Candidates comment on patterns in the data. They

have some clarity. The appropriate data to collect are plan. The data are collected or recorded with little thought given to summarise the results they have obtained but make little

reasonably obvious. An overall plan is discernible and some processing. Candidates use calculations of the simplest kind. The attempt to relate the results to the initial problem.

attention is given to whether the plan will meet the aims. The results are frequently correct. Candidates present information and

structure of the report as a whole is loosely related to the results in a clear and organised way. The data presentation is

aims. sometimes related to their overall plan.

3-4 Candidates choose a problem involving routine use of simple Candidates collect data with some relevance to the problem and Candidates comment on patterns in the data and any

statistical techniques and set out reasonably clear aims. plan. The data are collected or recorded with some consideration exceptions. They summarise and give a reasonably correct

Consideration is given to the collection of data. Candidates given to efficient processing. Candidates use straightforward and interpretation of their graphs and calculations. They attempt

describe an overall plan largely designed to meet the aims and largely relevant calculations involving techniques of at least the level to relate the summarised data to the initial problem, though

structure the project report so that results relating to some of detailed in the handling data paragraph of the grade description for some conclusions may be incorrect or irrelevant. They make

the aims are brought out. Where appropriate, they use a grade F. The results are generally correct. Candidates show some attempt to evaluate their strategy.

sample of adequate size. understanding of situations by describing them using statistical

concepts, words and diagrams. They synthesise information

presented in a variety of forms. Their writing explains and informs

their use of diagrams, which are usually related to their overall plan.

They present their diagrams correctly, with suitable scales and titles.

5-6 Candidates consider a more complex problem. They choose Candidates collect largely relevant and mainly reliable data. The Candidates comment on patterns in the data and suggest

appropriate data to collect and state their aims in statistical data are collected in a form designed to ensure that they can be reasons for exceptions. They summarise and correctly

terms with the selection of an appropriate plan. Their plan is used. Candidates use a range of more demanding, largely relevant interpret their graphs and calculations, relate the summarised

designed to meet the aims and is well described. Candidates calculations that include techniques of at least the level detailed in data to the initial problem and draw appropriate inferences.

consider the practical problems of carrying out the survey or the handling data paragraph of the grade description for grade C. Candidates use summary statistics to make relevant

experiment. Where appropriate, they give reasons for The results are generally correct and no obviously relevant comparisons and show an informal appreciation that results

choosing a particular sampling method. The project report is calculation is omitted. There is little redundancy in calculation or may not be statistically significant. Where relevant, they allow

well structured so that the project can be seen as a whole. presentation. Candidates convey statistical meaning through precise for the nature of the sampling method in making inferences

and consistent use of statistical concepts that is sustained about the population. They evaluate the effectiveness of the

throughout the work. They use appropriate diagrams for overall strategy and make a simple assessment of limitations.

representing data and give a reason for their choice of presentation,

explaining features they have selected.

7-8 Candidates work on a problem requiring creative thinking and Candidates collect reliable data relevant to the problem under Candidates comment on patterns and give plausible reasons

careful specification. They state their aims clearly in statistical consideration. They deal with practical problems such as non- for exceptions. They correctly summarise and interpret

terms and select and develop an appropriate plan to meet response, missing data or ensuring secondary data are appropriate. graphs and calculations. They make correct and detailed

these aims giving reasons for their choice. They foresee and Candidates use a range of relevant calculations that include inferences from the data concerning the original problem

plan for practical problems in carrying out the survey or techniques of at least the level detailed in the handling data using the vocabulary of probability. Candidates appreciate the

experiment. Where appropriate, they consider the nature and paragraph of the grade description for grade A. These calculations significance of results they obtain. Where relevant, they allow

size of sample to be used and take steps to avoid bias. Where are correct and no obviously relevant calculation is omitted. for the nature and size of the sample and any possible bias in

appropriate, they use techniques such as control groups, or Numerical results are rounded appropriately. There is no making inferences about the population. They evaluate the

pre-tests of questionnaires or data sheets, and refine these to redundancy in calculation or presentation. Candidates use language effectiveness of the overall strategy and recognise limitations

enhance the project. The project report is well structured and and statistical concepts effectively in presenting a convincing of the work done, making suggestions for improvement.

the conclusions are related to the initial aims. reasoned argument. They use an appropriate range of diagrams to They comment constructively on the practical consequences

summarise the data and show how variables are related. of the work.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

17.6 Module 4 (AO1 task) – Assessment criteria for Using and Applying Mathematics

Strand 1): Strand 2: Strand 3:

Making and monitoring decisions to solve problems Communicating mathematically Developing skills of mathematical reasoning

1 Candidates try different approaches and find ways of Candidates discuss their mathematical work and are Candidates show that they understand a general

overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving beginning to explain their thinking. They use and statement by finding particular examples that match it.

problems. They are beginning to organise their work and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams.

check results.

2 Candidates are developing their own strategies for Candidates present information and results in a clear and Candidates search for a pattern by trying out ideas of

solving problems and are using these strategies both in organised way, explaining the reasons for their their own.

working within mathematics and in applying presentation.

mathematics to practical contexts.

3 In order to carry through tasks and solve mathematical Candidates show understanding of situations by Candidates make general statements of their own,

problems, candidates identify and obtain necessary describing them mathematically using symbols, words based on evidence they have produced, and give an

information; they check their results, considering and diagrams. explanation of their reasoning.

whether these are sensible.

4 Candidates carry through substantial tasks and solve Candidates interpret, discuss and synthesise information Candidates are beginning to give a mathematical

quite complex problems by breaking them down into presented in a variety of mathematical forms. Their justification for their generalisations; they test them by

smaller, more manageable tasks. writing explains and informs their use of diagrams. checking particular cases.

5 Starting from problems or contexts that have been Candidates examine critically and justify their choice of Candidates justify their generalisations or solutions,

presented to them, candidates introduce questions of mathematical presentation, considering alternative showing some insight into the mathematical structure

their own, which generate fuller solutions. approaches and explaining improvements they have of the situation being investigated. They appreciate the

made. difference between mathematical explanation and

experimental evidence.

6 Candidates develop and follow alternative approaches. Candidates convey mathematical meaning through Candidates examine generalisations or solutions

They reflect on their own lines of enquiry when consistent use of symbols. reached in an activity, commenting constructively on

exploring mathematical tasks; in doing so they introduce the reasoning and logic employed, and make further

and use a range of mathematical techniques. progress in the activity as a result.

7 Candidates analyse alternative approaches to problems Candidates use mathematical language and symbols Candidates' reports include mathematical justifications

involving a number of features or variables. They give accurately in presenting a convincing reasoned argument. explaining their solutions to problems involving a

detailed reasons for following or rejecting particular lines number of features or variables.

of enquiry.

8 Candidates consider and evaluate a number of Candidates use mathematical language and symbols Candidates provide a mathematically rigorous

approaches to a substantial task. They explore efficiently in presenting a concise reasoned argument. justification or proof of their solution to a complex

extensively a context or area of mathematics with which problem, considering the conditions under which it

they are unfamiliar. They apply independently a range of remains valid.

appropriate mathematical techniques.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Option T – Centre-Assessed

Modules 2 and 4

Centre-Assessed Modules

18.1 Introduction Centres following Option T may choose from the AQA-set tasks or

may choose their own tasks based on the guidance provided in the

Teachers’ Guide and coursework support materials.

The AQA-set tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005 for Module 2 are

given in Appendix C and those for Module 4 in Appendix D.

AQA-set tasks may be removed or added from year to year. It is

therefore essential that candidates wishing to submit work under

Option X use current versions.

Teachers should note that in the AQA-set Handling Data tasks the

word ‘hypothesis’ is used for a general prediction which is to be

tested.

It is important that teachers consider very carefully all types of

activities which will provide valid evidence of achievement. The

activities in which candidates are involved should be designed to

make reasonable demands and to enable positive achievement to be

demonstrated in relation to the assessment criteria. The tasks chosen

therefore must be open to investigation by a variety of different

methods, and open to investigations that permit candidates to

demonstrate their best attainment in all three strands of the marking

criteria.

Teachers will find it helpful to refer to the assessment criteria when

designing tasks. It is particularly important to ensure that the tasks

chosen do not limit the mark that can be achieved by the candidate.

18.2 Advice on group activities For the AO4 task it is permissible for candidates to collect data as a

group or class. It is important that teachers ensure that the analysis

and writing up of this work is carried out individually by candidates,

so that the requirements of the specification are met.

18.3 Coursework Advisers Coursework Advisers are available to assist centres with any matters

relating to coursework.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

19.1 Supervision of Candidates’ Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions

Work which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to

be authenticated. If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done

outside the centre, sufficient work must take place under direct

supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole

work with confidence.

19.2 Guidance by the Teacher The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned.

Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that

given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record

Form.

19.3 Unfair Practice At the start of the course, the supervising teacher is responsible for

informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice.

Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation

of coursework to be submitted for assessment, and must understand

that to present material copied directly from books or other sources

without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.

Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. The penalties for

malpractice are set out in the AQA General Regulations.

19.4 Authentication of Candidates’ Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations

Work confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's

own. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the

specified conditions, and records details of any additional assistance.

Sample Candidate Record Forms for Option T are provided in

Appendix E. Current Candidate Record Forms are available separately on

the AQA website under Administration/Procedures/Coursework

Administration.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

20 Standardisation

20.1 Standardising Meetings Annual standardising meetings for both Specification A and

Specification B will usually be held in the autumn term. Centres

entering candidates for the first time must send a representative to a

meeting. Attendance is also mandatory in the following cases:

specification requirements;

• where the nature of coursework tasks set by a centre has been

inappropriate;

• where a significant adjustment has been made to a centre’s marks

in the previous year’s examination.

meetings support will be provided for centres in the development of

appropriate coursework tasks and assessment procedures.

20.2 Internal Standardisation of The centre is required to standardise the assessments across different

Marking teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates at the centre

have been judged against the same standards. If two or more teachers

are involved in marking a component, one teacher must be designated

as responsible for internal standardisation. Common pieces of work

must be marked on a trial basis and differences between assessments

discussed at a training session in which all teachers involved must

participate. The teacher responsible for standardising the marking

must ensure that the training includes the use of reference and archive

materials such as work from a previous year or examples provided by

AQA. The centre is required to send to the moderator the Centre

Declaration Sheet, duly signed, to confirm that the marking of centre-

assessed work at the centre has been standardised. If only one teacher

has undertaken the marking, that person must sign this form.

A specimen Centre Declaration Sheet is provided in Appendix E.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

21 Administrative Procedures

21.1 Evidence to support the During the course teachers should keep records of their assessments

award of marks in a form which facilitates the complete and accurate submission of

the final assessments at the end of the course.

When the assessments are complete, the marks awarded under each of

the assessment criteria must be entered on the Candidate Record Form,

with supporting information given in the spaces provided. A

specimen Candidate Record Form for Module 2 and for Module 4

appears in Appendix E; the exact design may be modified before the

operational version is issued and the correct year’s Candidate Record

Forms should always be used.

The candidates’ work must be marked according to the assessment

21.2 Recording Assessments

criteria set out in Sections 17.5 and 17.6. The marks and supporting

information must be recorded in accordance with the instructions in

Section 21.3. The completed Candidate Record Form for each candidate

must be attached to the work and made available to AQA on request.

The total component mark for each candidate must be submitted to

21.3 Submitting Marks and Sample

AQA on the mark sheets provided or by Electronic Data Interchange

Work for Moderation (EDI) by the specified date and copies sent to the Moderator. Centres

will be informed which candidates’ work is required in the samples to

be submitted to the moderator.

21.4 Problems with Individual Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of

Candidates candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make

up missed assessments.

Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work

has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances.

Information about the procedure is issued separately.

If work is lost, AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the

loss, how it occurred, and who was responsible for the loss. AQA will

advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. Where special

help which goes beyond normal learning support is given, AQA must

be informed so that such help can be taken into account when

assessment and moderation take place.

Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course

sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment.

Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move

takes place. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre

should take responsibility for assessment. If it occurs late in the

course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the

previous centre. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible

stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

21.5 Retaining Evidence The centre must retain the work of all candidates, with Candidate Record

Forms attached, under secure conditions from the time it is assessed, to

allow for the possibility of an enquiry upon results. The work may be

returned to candidates after the issue of results provided that no

enquiry upon results is to be made which will include re-moderation of

the coursework component. If an enquiry upon results is to be made,

the work must remain under secure conditions until requested by

AQA.

22 Moderation

22.1 Moderation Procedures Moderation of the coursework is by inspection of a sample of

candidates' work, sent by post from the centre to a moderator

appointed by AQA. The centre marks must be submitted to AQA

and the sample of work must reach the moderator by the specified

date in the year in which the qualification is awarded.

The evidence must be presented in a clear and helpful way for the

moderator. The candidates’ work must be annotated to identify, as

precisely as possible, where in the work the relevant criteria have been

satisfied so that the reasons why marks have been awarded are clear.

Details must also be given of the context within which the work was

done, to enable the moderator to judge the attainment inherent in the

work.

Following the re-marking of the sample work, the moderator’s marks

are compared with the centre marks to determine whether any

adjustment is needed to bring the centre’s assessments into line with

standards generally. In some cases it may be necessary for the

moderator to call for the work of other candidates. In order to meet

this possible request, centres must have available the coursework and

Candidate Record Form of every candidate entered for the examination

and be prepared to submit it on demand. Mark adjustments will

normally preserve the centre’s order of merit but, where major

discrepancies are found, AQA reserves the right to alter the order of

merit.

22.2 Post-Moderation Procedures On publication of the GCSE results, the centre is supplied with details

of the final marks for the coursework component.

with a report form from the moderator giving feedback to the centre

on the appropriateness of the tasks set, the accuracy of the

assessments made, and the reasons for any adjustments to the marks.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Option X - AQA-Assessed

Modules 2 and 4

AQA-Assessed Modules

23.1 Introduction Centres following Option X must select coursework tasks from the

bank of AQA-set tasks provided in Appendix C for Module 2 or

Appendix D for Module 4.

The AQA-set tasks and Mark Schemes will be published each year.

Tasks may be removed or added from year to year. It is therefore

essential that the latest version is used each year.

Teachers should note that in the AQA-set Handling Data tasks the

word ‘hypothesis’ is used for a general prediction which is to be tested.

23.2 Advice on group activities For the AO4 task it is permissible for candidates to collect data as a

group or class. It is important that teachers ensure that the analysis

and writing up of this work is carried out individually by candidates, so

that the requirements of the specification are met.

23.3 Coursework Advisers Coursework Advisers are available to assist centres with any matters

relating to coursework. Details will be provided when AQA knows

which centres are following the specification.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

24.1 Supervision of Candidates’ Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions

Work which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to

be authenticated. If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done

outside the centre, sufficient work must take place under direct

supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole

work with confidence.

course with a tutorial college, or attend a part-time course at a school

or college, may have their work authenticated by their tutor.

Candidates who do not have a tutor must make arrangements to carry

out the tasks at their examination centre. In this case, the work should

be supervised and the examination officer must sign the declaration

that all the work has been carried out by the candidate.

24.2 Guidance by the Teacher The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned.

Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that

given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record

Form.

24.3 Unfair Practice At the start of the course, the supervising teacher is responsible for

informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice.

Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation

of coursework to be submitted for assessment, and must understand

that to present material copied directly from books or other sources

without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.

Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. The penalties for

malpractice are set out in the AQA General Regulations.

24.4 Authentication of Candidates’ Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations

Work confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's

own. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the

specified conditions, and records details of any additional assistance.

Appendix E. Current Candidate Record Forms are available separately on

the AQA website under Administration/Procedures/Coursework

Administration.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

25 Administrative Procedures

25.1 Evidence of attainment Where there is ephemeral evidence of attainment, which does not

form part of the candidate’s written record, brief notes of each

candidate’s achievement in these skill areas should be supplied, with

the coursework, to AQA.

25.2 Problems with Individual Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of

Candidates candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make

up missed assessments.

Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work

has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances.

Information about the procedure is issued separately.

If work is lost, AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the

loss, how it occurred, and who was responsible for the loss. AQA will

advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. Where special

help which goes beyond normal learning support is given, AQA must

be informed so that such help can be taken into account when

assessment and moderation take place.

Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course

sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment.

Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move

takes place. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre

should take responsibility for assessment. If it occurs late in the

course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the

previous centre. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible

stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

26.1 Qualification Title The qualification based on this specification has the following title:

AQA GCSE (modular) in Mathematics: (B).

26.2 Grading System The qualification will be graded on an 8 point grade scale A*, A, B, C,

D, E, F, G.

The written paper modules are offered at three tiers of entry:

Foundation tier, Intermediate tier and Higher tier. For candidates

entered for the Foundation tier, grades D-G are available. For

candidates entered for the Intermediate tier, grades B-E are available.

For candidates entered for the Higher tier, grades A*-C are available.

Candidates may enter for each individual module at a different tier of

entry. However, the final range of grades available to a candidate is

determined by the tier of entry of Module 5.

26.3 The determination of For each module, candidates’ results are reported on a Uniform Mark

candidates’ final grades Scale which is related to grades by means of the following

correspondence.

Mark range Grade

59 - 66 A*

53 - 58 A

46 - 52 B

40 - 45 C

33 - 39 D

26 - 32 E

20 - 25 F

13 - 19 G

0 - 12 U

Mark range Grade

54 - 60 A*

48 - 53 A

42 - 47 B

36 - 41 C

30 - 35 D

24 - 29 E

18 - 23 F

12 - 17 G

0 - 11 U

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Mark range Grade

103 - 114 A*

91 - 102 A

80 - 90 B

68 - 79 C

57 - 67 D

46 - 56 E

34 - 45 F

23 - 33 G

0 - 22 U

Mark range Grade

270 - 300 A*

240 - 269 A

210 - 239 B

180 - 209 C

150 - 179 D

120 - 149 E

90 - 119 F

60 - 89 G

0 - 59 U

the module by using the grade boundaries set by the awarding

committee. For example, a candidate who achieved the minimum raw

mark required for grade B on Module 1 receives a uniform mark of 46.

(The marks required for each grade are published annually in the report

on the examination.)

A candidate cannot obtain a uniform mark corresponding to a grade

which is above the range for the tier. For example, on Module 1 a

candidate entered for the Foundation tier (grade range D-G) cannot

obtain a uniform mark higher than 39, even if he/she achieves the

maximum (raw) marks for the paper.

On individual modules there is a small ‘safety net’ for candidates who

fail to reach the minimum mark required for the lowest grade available

in the tier. For example, on Module 1 a candidate entered for the

Intermediate tier (grade range B-E) who just fails to reach the standard

required for grade E does not obtain zero uniform marks. However,

centres should note that such a candidate will normally be awarded

fewer uniform marks than a Foundation tier candidate who reaches

the same standard.

A candidate’s overall uniform mark is obtained by adding together the

uniform marks for the five modules. This overall mark is then

converted to a grade by means of the following correspondence.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Mark range Grade

540 - 600 A*

480 - 539 A

420 - 479 B

360 - 419 C

300 - 359 D

240 - 299 E

180 - 239 F

120 - 179 G

candidate’s tier of entry for Module 5. For example, a candidate

entering Module 5 at the Intermediate tier (grade range B - E), and

with uniform marks of 55, 48, 94, 50 and 234 for Modules 1, 2, 3, 4

and 5 respectively, receives a total uniform mark of 481, which

corresponds to a grade A, but the candidate is awarded grade B since

this is the highest grade available on the Intermediate tier. Candidates

achieving less than the minimum uniform mark for the lowest grade

on the tier of entry for Module 5 will receive an Unclassified result.

26.4 Shelf-Life of Module Results The shelf-life of individual module results, prior to the award of the

qualification, is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification.

26.5 Re-taking Modules and Modules 2 and 4, and each tier of Modules 1 and 3, may be re-taken

carrying forward of Module once before certification of the qualification. The best result for each

Results module will count towards the final award.

may, on request, re-use results from Modules 1-4, but Module 5 must

be taken again. For Modules 2 and 4 the two most recent results, and

for Modules 1 and 3 the two most recent results from each tier, will be

considered, and the best of these results will count towards the final

award. For example, if a candidate attempts Module 1 once at the

Higher tier and twice at the Intermediate tier before first certification,

then once more at the Intermediate tier before certificating again, the

Higher tier attempt and the second and third Intermediate tier

attempts are eligible to count towards the final award. In the case of

Module 5 the most recent attempt will always be the one that counts.

times. There is no limit to the number of times a result for Modules

1-4 may be re-used.

26.6 Minimum Requirements Candidates will be graded on the basis of work submitted for

assessment.

26.7 Awarding and Reporting The regulatory authorities, in consultation with GCSE Awarding

bodies, have developed a Code of Practice for GCSE qualifications

introduced in September 2000. This specification complies with the

grading, awarding and certification requirements of the revised Code

of Practice.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Appendices

A Grade Descriptions

Grade descriptions are provided to give a general indication of the

standards of achievement likely to have been shown by candidates

awarded particular grades. The descriptions must be interpreted in

relation to the content in the specification; they are not designed to

define that content. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon

the extent to which the candidate has met the assessment objectives

overall. Shortcomings in some aspects of the candidates’ performance

in the examination may be balanced by better performances in others.

Grade A Candidates give reasons for the choices they make when investigating

within mathematics itself or when using mathematics to analyse tasks:

these reasons explain why particular lines of enquiry or procedures are

followed and others rejected. Candidates apply the mathematics they

know in familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Candidates use

mathematical language and symbols effectively in presenting a

convincing reasoned argument. Their reports include mathematical

justifications, explaining their solutions to problems involving a

number of features or variables.

determine the bounds of intervals. Candidates understand and use

direct and inverse proportion. They manipulate algebraic formulae,

equations and expressions, finding common factors and multiplying

two linear expressions. In simplifying algebraic expressions, they use

rules of indices for negative and fractional values. In finding formulae

that approximately connect data, candidates express general laws in

symbolic form. They solve problems using intersections and gradients

of graphs.

Candidates sketch the graphs of sine, cosine and tangent functions for

any angle, and generate and interpret graphs based on these functions.

Candidates use sine, cosine and tangent of angles of any size, and

Pythagoras’ theorem when solving problems in two and three

dimensions. They use the conditions for congruent triangles in formal

geometric proofs. They calculate lengths of circular arcs and areas of

sectors, and calculate the surface area of cylinders and volumes of

cones and spheres.

different methods of sampling and different sample sizes may affect

the reliability of conclusions drawn; they select and justify a sample

and method to investigate a population. They recognise when and

how to work with probabilities associated with independent and

mutually exclusive events.

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Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Grade C Starting from problems or contexts that have been presented to them,

candidates refine or extend the mathematics used to generate fuller

solutions. They give a reason for their choice of mathematical

presentation, explaining features they have selected. Candidates justify

their generalisations, arguments or solutions, showing some insight

into the mathematical structure of the problem. They appreciate the

difference between mathematical explanation and experimental

evidence.

multiply and divide mentally. They solve numerical problems

involving multiplication and division with numbers of any size using a

calculator efficiently and appropriately. They understand the effects of

multiplying and dividing by numbers between 0 and 1. They

understand and use the equivalencies between fractions, decimals and

percentages and calculate using ratios in appropriate situations. They

understand and use proportional changes. Candidates find and

describe in symbols the next term or the nth term of a sequence,

where the rule is quadratic; they multiply two expressions of the form

(x + n); they simplify the corresponding quadratic expressions. They

solve simple polynomial equations by trial and improvement and

represent inequalities using a number line. They formulate and solve

linear equations with whole number coefficients. They manipulate

simple algebraic formulae, equations and expressions. Candidates use

algebraic and graphical methods to solve simultaneous linear equations

in two variables.

polygons and properties of intersecting and parallel lines. They

understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem when solving problems in

two-dimensions. Candidates find areas and circumferences of circles.

They calculate lengths, areas and volumes in plane shapes and right

prisms. Candidates enlarge shapes by a positive whole number or

fractional scale factor. They appreciate the imprecision of

measurement and recognise that a measurement given to the nearest

whole number may be inaccurate by up to one half in either direction.

They understand and use compound measures such as speed.

hypotheses and test them. They determine the modal class and

estimate the mean, median and range of a set of grouped data,

selecting the statistic most appropriate to their line of enquiry. They

use measures of average and range with associated frequency

polygons, as appropriate, to compare distributions and make

inferences. They draw a line of best fit on a scatter diagram by

inspection. Candidates understand relative frequency as an estimate of

probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments.

92 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

candidates identify and obtain necessary information; they check their

results, considering whether these are sensible. Candidates show

understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using

symbols, words and diagrams. They draw simple conclusions of their

own and give an explanation of their reasoning.

divide whole numbers and decimals by 10, 100 and 1000. They order,

add and subtract negative numbers in context. They use all four

operations with decimals to two places. They reduce a fraction to its

simplest form by cancelling common factors and solve simple

problems involving ratio and direct proportion. They calculate

fractional or percentage parts of quantities and measurements, using a

calculator where necessary. Candidates understand and use an

appropriate non-calculator method for solving problems involving

multiplying and dividing any three-digit by any two-digit number. In

solving problems with or without a calculator, candidates check the

reasonableness of their results by reference to their knowledge of the

context or to the size of the numbers, by applying inverse operations

or by estimating using approximations. Candidates explore and

describe number patterns and relationships including multiple, factor

and square. They construct, express in symbolic form, and use simple

formulae involving one or two operations.

candidates measure and draw angles as accurately as practicable and

use language associated with angle. They know the angle sum of a

triangle and that of angles at a point. They identify all the symmetries

of 2-D shapes. They know the rough metric equivalents of imperial

units still in daily use and convert one metric unit to another. They

make sensible estimates of a range of measures in relation to everyday

situations. Candidates calculate areas of rectangles and right-angled

triangles, and volumes of cuboids.

compare two simple distributions using the range and one of the

mode, median or mean. They interpret graphs and diagrams, including

pie charts, and draw conclusions. They understand and use the

probability scale from 0 to 1. Candidates make and justify estimates of

probability by selecting and using a method based on equally likely

outcomes or on experimental evidence as appropriate. They

understand that different outcomes may result from repeating an

experiment.

hij 93

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Foundation Tier

94 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Intermediate Tier

hij 95

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Higher Tier

96 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Module 2 (2005)

The following are the tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005.

Details of the AQA-set tasks will be published annually.

Context

AO4 This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.

It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing

hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

1 Reaction Times

reactions than other people.

his friends.

different ways in which reaction times can be

affected

Investigate further.

hij 97

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO4 Context

This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.

It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing

hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

2 Guestimate

Sarah then said that people estimate the length of lines

better than the size of angles.

• Write down a hypothesis to test how well people

estimate

• Design and carry out an investigation to test your

hypothesis

Investigate further.

98 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context

AO4 This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.

It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing

hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

3 Memory Game

a tray and covered them with a cloth.

the tray. She removed the cloth for 30 seconds and let

them look at the objects.

asked her friends to write down as many objects as

they could remember.

like this

hypothesis

Investigate further.

hij 99

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Context

AO4

This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.

It would be most suitably done when candidates have covered

scatter graphs, plotting graphs of real experimental values, and

graphs of rates of change over time; in addition to work on setting

up and testing hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

4 Pulse Rate

Not everyone has the same pulse rate – and pulse rate can

be affected by a number of different things.

be affected

ways in which pulse rate can be affected

Investigate further.

100 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context

AO4

This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.

It would normally follow on from work on setting up and testing

hypotheses, and statistical analysis.

magazine. They each contain 100 words and he

counts the lengths of all the words.

shortest words.

newspapers and magazines

hypothesis

Investigate further.

hij 101

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Module 4 (2005)

The following are the tasks for submission in 2004 and 2005.

Details of the AQA-set tasks will be published annually.

Context

AO1 This task is most suitable for Foundation and/or Intermediate candidates.

It would normally follow on from work on sequences and algebraic equations.

Calculators will have to be used and this task offers a good opportunity to use

a spreadsheet.

6 Add 2 Divide by 5

Write down

your result

Investigate further.

102 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context

AO1

This task is most suitable for Foundation and/or Intermediate candidates.

It could follow on from work on sequences.

2 Trios

to form a trio.

For example:

(1, 2, 2) is a trio whose sum is 1 + 2 + 2 = 5

and

Investigate further.

hij 103

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO1 Context

This task is most suitable for Intermediate and/or Higher candidates.

It would normally follow on from work on sequences and fractions.

3 Fraction Differences

1 1 1 1 1 1 … …

1 2 3 4 5 6

consecutive fractions:

1 1 1 1 1 … …

2 6 12 20 30

fractions in her second series:

1 1 … …

3 12

Investigate further.

104 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context

AO1

This task is most suitable for Intermediate and/or Higher candidates.

It would normally follow on from trigonometry work on the sine and

cosine rules. It provides an opportunity to use these in a practical situation.

4 Tangled Triangles

value of the area:perimeter ratio for triangles.

measurements of 40, 60 and 80 – but forgets to say

what units were used, and whether they were angles

or sides.

area:perimeter ratio?

Investigate further.

hij 105

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

AO1 Context

This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry. It

would normally follow work on mensuration of different shapes and it

provides an opportunity to use trigonometry and algebraic manipulation.

5 Equable Shapes

• the perimeter

and

• the area

have the same numerical value.

Investigate further.

106 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Context

AO1

This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.

It can be completed by simple number manipulation or by algebraic methods.

6 Number Grid

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

• Find the product of the top left number and the

bottom right number in this box

• Do the same with the top right and bottom left

numbers

• Calculate the difference between these products

Investigate further.

hij 107

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Context

AO1

This task is accessible to all candidates regardless of tier of entry.

Candidates may tackle problems practically by making shapes or use

numerical or algebraic methods. It provides an opportunity for

candidates to use mensuration skills.

7 Trays

A net of a tray made from a piece of card measuring

18cm by 18cm is shown below:

Side

Base

Side

18 cm

[drawn to scale]

the same as the area of the four sides, the volume of

the tray will be a maximum”.

Investigate further.

108 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

E Record Forms

Samples of the Centre Declaration Sheet and Candidate Record Forms are given on the following pages.

hij 109

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Centre-assessed work

Qualification: ✔ GNVQ FSMQ

Skills

This is to certify that marks/assessments have been given in accordance with the requirements of the

specification and that every reasonable step has been taken to ensure that the work presented is that of

the candidates named.

Any assistance given to candidates beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in

the specification has been recorded on the Candidate Record Form(s) and has been taken into account. The

marks/assessments given reflect accurately the unaided achievement of the candidates.

Teacher 2: ………………………………………… Teacher 5: ………………………………………..

Teacher 3:…………………………………………. Teacher 6: ………………………………………..

(continue overleaf if necessary)

Each centre must standardise assessment across different teachers/assessors and teaching groups to ensure

that all candidates at the centre have been judged against the same standards.

If two or more teachers/assessors are involved in marking/assessing, one of them must be designated as

responsible for standardising the assessments of all teachers/assessors at the centre.

(a) the procedure described in the specification has been followed at this centre to ensure that the

assessments are of the same standard for all candidates; or

(b) I have marked/assessed the work of all candidates.

This form should be completed and sent to the moderator with the sample of centre-assessed work.

110 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Centre-assessed work

Candidate Record Form

2004

GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 2 (Option T) 3302

Centre name: ......................................................................................... Centre no:

1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the

production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................

2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or

information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are

clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without

acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTICE TO CANDIDATE

The work you submit for assessment must be your own.

If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you

cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

Declaration by candidate

I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any help

apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre

or sent to the moderator as required.

PTO

hij 111

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

This side is to be completed by the teacher

Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in section 87 of the specification.

Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations

on the candidate’s work and in the spaces provided below.

Project title:

Max. Mark

Strand Criteria for award of marks Key evidence

mark awarded

1 Specify the problem and 8

plan

2 Collect, process and 8

represent data

3 Interpret and discuss 8

results

Total mark 24

Concluding comments

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole

and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

112 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Centre-assessed work

Candidate Record Form

2004

GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 4 (Option T) 3302

Centre name: .......................................................................................... Centre no:

1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in

the production of this work? (Write YES or NO).............................

2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or

information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are

clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without

acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTICE TO CANDIDATE

The work you submit for assessment must be your own.

If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you

cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

Declaration by candidate

I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any

help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre

or sent to the moderator as required.

PTO

hij 113

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

This side is to be completed by the teacher

Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in section 87 of the specification.

Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations

on the candidate’s work and in the spaces provided below.

Project title:

Max. Mark

Strand Criteria for award of marks Key evidence

mark awarded

1 Making and monitoring 8

decisions to solve problems

2 Communicating 8

mathematically

3 Developing skills of 8

mathematical reasoning

Total mark 24

Concluding comments

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and

beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

114 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AQA-assessed work

Candidate Record Form

2004

Centre name: .......................................................................................... Centre no:

1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in

the production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................

2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or

information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are

clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without

acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTICE TO CANDIDATE

The work you submit for assessment must be your own.

If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you

cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

Declaration by candidate

I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any

help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and sent to the examiner

PTO

hij 115

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Teachers are strongly advised to provide comments as evidence of mathematical or statistical thinking

where this is not clearly communicated in the work. This may be done in the body of the script or on a

separate sheet.

Project title:

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a

whole and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Module 2 – AO4 task

Final assessed

Strand Key evidence

score (0–8)

1

Examiner’s initials

116 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

AQA-assessed work

Candidate Record Form

2004

GCSE Mathematics B (Modular) Module 4 (Option X) 3302

Centre name: .......................................................................................... Centre no:

1. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in

the production of this work? (Write YES or NO) ............................

2. If you have answered YES, give details below. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3. If you have used any books, information leaflets or other materials (e.g. videos, software packages or

information from the Internet) to help you complete this work, you must list these below, unless they are

clearly acknowledged in the work itself. To present material copied from books or other sources without

acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

The work you submit for assessment must be your own.

If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you, or if you

cheat in any other way, you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.

I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). I have produced the attached work without any

help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet.

This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and sent to the examiner

PTO

hij 117

Mathematics B (Modular) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination

Teachers are strongly advised to provide comments as evidence of mathematical or statistical thinking

where this is not clearly communicated in the work. This may be done in the body of the script or on a

separate sheet.

Project title:

Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole

and beyond that described in the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Module 4 – AO1 task

Final assessed

Strand Key evidence

score (0–8)

1

Examiner’s initials

118 hij

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2005 examination - Mathematics B (Modular)

Qualifications

The subject content of this Specification is identical, though differently

structured, to that of AQA GCSE Mathematics Specification A.

GCSE Statistics.

modules of GCSE Mathematics (Modular) Specification B, Free-

Standing Mathematics Qualifications (FSMQs) and the Key Skill of

Application of Number. In some post-16 centres candidates on the

different courses may be grouped together.

obtained from AQA (Guildford) as separate booklets.

hij 119

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