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INTRODUCTION 1. Missile guidance and control: Guidance is that aspect of a missile system, which helps it to decide the direction in which the missile should move. The guidance system is to detect whether the missile is flying above or below, to the left or right, of the required path. It obtains these deviations or errors and sends signals to the control system to reduce these errors to zero. The task of the control system therefore is to maneuver the missile quickly and efficiently making use of these signals. 2. Classification: The missile control methods can be broadly classified under aerodynamic control and thrust vector control. Aerodynamic control can be further classified into Cartesian and polar control methods while thrust vector control can be further classified under gimbaled motors, flexible nozzles (ball and socket), interference methods (spoilers/vanes), secondary fluid or gas injection and vernier engines (external or extra engines). We will first discuss aerodynamic control methods. AERODYNAMIC CONTROL 3. Motion of a missile: The missile has a total of six degrees of freedom of movement. Out of these, three are translational or linear about the three axis viz x,y and z; while the other degrees are rotational about the three axes and termed as pitch, yaw and roll. Pitch is the turn of missile when it climbs up or down. Yaw is its turn to left or right. The roll is when the missile rotates about its longitudinal axis i.e., one running from nose to tail. (a) Cartesian Control: In a Cartesian system, the guidance angular error detector produces two signals, a left-right signal and an up-down signal, which are transmitted to the missile. The method is also called skid to turn (STT) method. Here there are two pairs of control surfaces. Hence there will be two lift forces acting in perpendicular directions simultaneously and independently say Fx and Fy. The resultant of Fx and Fy, say F, will help missile to move towards target.
(b) Polar Control: The same information could be expressed in polar coordinates i.e., R and Φ. The usual method is to regard the signal as a command to roll through an angle Φ measured from the vertical and then to maneuver outwards by means of the missile’s elevators. The method is called polar control or twist and steer method or bank to turn (BTT) method. Here there is just one pair of control surface as in aircraft. Hence lift is produced in only one plane. To achieve the aim of reaching the target, the missile will roll by and so lift changes from say L to L’. L’ is proportional to the range R of the target. L
COMPARISON OF POLAR AND CARTESIAN CONTROL METHODS 4. Advantages of Polar Control over Cartesian control: (a) Weight is less due to elimination of one pair of control surfaces. (b) Drag also is less due to only one pair of control surfaces. (c) Due to the above reasons, payload can be increased. 5. The disadvantages of Polar control are:(a) Controlled maneuvers are not precise since roll, yaw and pitch are simultaneously coupled or roll, pitch and yaw are cross-coupled. Due to this, the system becomes a multivariable system with three inputs and three outputs. Hence calculation of output is not very accurate and the maneuver will not be precise. Let us consider how course is altered in a glider or aeroplane that follow polar control. (i) First the ailerons are used to bank i.e., roll by an angle Φ.
(ii) Simultaneously, elevators are used to slightly increase the lift force so that the vertical component of lift (which will be less than original lift L) equals the weight. Thus the horizontal component of lift will equal to the total lift times sin Φ. This causes the flight path to change whereas the heading of the aircraft (attitude) will remain the same (sideslip).
Vertical component of lift
Horizontal component of lift
(iii) To avoid this sideslip and bring the aircraft to the required heading, a small amount of rudder is applied in an attempt to make the general airflow directly along the fore and aft axis of the aircraft and in the plane of the wings. Thus there will be no net side force. (iv) This is the preferred method of maneuvering since lifting forces are most efficiently generated perpendicular to the wings: the lift-to-drag ratio is a maximum in this condition. Also from the passenger’s point of view this is comfortable maneuver since the total force he experiences is always symmetrically through the seat of his pants. (v) Thus it is found that the polar control is a slow process since the full maneuver cannot take place until the full bank angle is achieved. This might not be acceptable with some systems designed to hit fast moving targets. (vi) Also it is not a very precise method of maneuvering since if the elevators are moved at the same time as the ailerons, there will be some movement in the plane perpendicular to the desired one. If one waits until banking is complete, there is an additional delay. (vii) 6. Hence majority of missiles use Cartesian control method.
The advantages of Cartesian control are: -
(a) Pitch and yaw channels can be considered as independent twodimensional problem with roll being zero unless purposefully introduced. Hence system is more accurate. (b) Thus Cartesian method is a quicker method of moving laterally in any one direction. Also analysis of the performance of Cartesian system is simpler. (c) Polar control cannot be used where roll stabilization is required.(in case of homers where high roll rate may disturb the homing head). ROLL CONTROL 7. A missile tends to roll, during its flight due to the following: (a) Airframe misalignments. (b) Asymmetrical loading of the lifting and control surfaces at supersonic speeds. (c) Atmospheric disturbances, if the missile is made to fly close to the sea or ground.
8. Necessity For Roll Control. Unlike the freely rolling missiles, there are many occasions where in there is a requirement to roll stabilise (position or rate) the missile. They are: (a) When a missile is guided by radar at a low angle over the ground or sea, vertically polarised guidance commands and vertically polarised aerials are used in the missiles to counter ground or sea reflections. (b) Sea skimming missiles using radio altimeter, which should remain pointed downwards. (c) Missiles using homing guidance. Excessive roll of the missile would result in damage of the homing head and also errors in target co-ordinate computation. (d) (e) (f) Missiles using polarised or unidirectional warheads. Twist and Steer (polar control) requires strict roll position stabilisation. Excessive roll also results in cross coupling of guidance demands and implementation due to inherent lag of servos.
9. It is therefore necessary to decide whether the missile can be allowed to roll or not, depending on the role/guidance of the missile. Missiles on the basis of rolling can be classified as (a) Freely rolling missiles. (b) Roll position stabilised missiles.
Roll rate controlled missiles.
10. Freely Rolling Missiles. Freely rolling missiles are allowed to roll freely, without any restraint. However, with the freely rolling missiles, guidance and control becomes difficult. This is due to the fact that there is no clear demarcation of rudders and elevators. Due to this, issue and correct implementation of guidance signals (steering orders) by the control system becomes erroneous. 11. This complication is tackled by using “resolvers”. Freely rolling missiles have ‘roll gyro’ and a ‘resolver’. (a) The induction resolver consists of a rotor and a stator, each with two windings whose electrical axes are at 900 to each other. (b) The secondary voltages, which result, are proportional to the sine and cosine of the shaft angle. (c) The rotor is held stationary in space by means of a ‘roll gyro’ and the stator is allowed to rotate/roll with the missile. (d) The guidance commands (up-down or left-right) are given to each of the primary windings of the rotor. Due to the rotation/rolling of the missile about the roll axis, induced voltages are produced in the stator winds (secondary), which is a function of the roll angle φ. The output of each winding of the stator is given to the rudders and elevators for the left-right or up-down movement. If the guidance command of V1 is given for the up-down movement, then the elevators servos would receive a command proportional to V1cosφ and the rudder servos receive – V1sinφ; where φ is the angle by which the missile has rolled. AERODYNAMIC LATERAL CONTROL 12. With a Cartesian control system, the pitch control system is made identical to the yaw control system. Hence we need to discuss one channel only and with missiles, lateral movement usually means up-down or left-right. With polar control one rolls and elvates and lateral control equivalent will apply for elevation channel only. Stability 13. Static stability. When considering the lateral forces and moments on missiles, let us consider the combined normal forces due to incidence on the body, wings and control surfaces as acting through a point on the body called the center of pressure (c.p.) and regard the control surfaces as permanently locked in the central position. The center of gravity (c.g.) of the missile is the point where all the mass of the missile is concentrated. The distance of the c.p. to the c.g. is called static margin.
(a) The system is stable if any disturbance is applied to the body results in a moment that tends to oppose or decrease the disturbance. This will be the case when the c.p. is behind c.g. and the missile is said to be statically stable. (b) If the c.p. is ahead of the c.g., then the missile is said to be unstable since any disturbance applied to the body results in a moment about the c.g. which tends to increase the disturbance. (c) If c.p. and c.g. coincide, then the missile is neutrally stable. In this case, if any disturbance is applied to the missile, the missile will assume a new position and remain stable. (d) In a statically stable missile, since lateral force and hence lateral maneuver by aerodynamic means is obtained by aerodynamic means is obtained by exerting a moment on the body such that some correction is applied it follows that if the static margin is excessive, the missile is unnecessarily stable and control moments will be relatively ineffective in producing a sizeable maneuver. Thus there has to be a compromise between stability and maneuverability. 14. Dynamic stability. Now consider a missile whose forward speed is constant, with a steady body and wing incidence of α (AOA) and a control surface movement from the central position of ζ and that motion is in horizontal plane only without any roll and effects of gravity are zero in this plane. (a) The normal force N due to the body, wings and rear control surfaces acts through c.p. But there will be an additional force Nc due to the control surfaces being deflected by an amount ζ. Let this force act at a distance lc from the c.g. (b) Neglecting the small damping moment due to the fact that the missile is executing a steady turn, dynamic equilibrium is said to have been attained if the rudder moment (or moment generated by control surface) Nclc is numerically equal to moment generated by normal force, Nx where x is the static margin, i.e., Nclc = Nx (c) Since x is typically 5 % or less of the body length a small change in the static margin can significantly affect the maneuverability of the missile. For example, for a constant value of Nc, if x increases then N decreases i.e., an increase in static margin reduces maneuverability. (d) If the missile has no autopilot (i.e.,no instrument feedback) a sizeable static margin has to be allowed to ensure stability while with instrument feedback or autopilot being available, zero or even negative static margins can be used thus assisting maneuverability. However it is to be noted that c.p. varies with AOA and Mach number.
Considering the missile as point mass, the force N produced by the wings and the body will be larger than the force Nc produced by the control surface and found to follow a circular or parabolic curve where N = mv2/r where r = radius of turn Centrifugal acceleration a = v2/r (force = ma) = N/m or (v/r)v = N/m or angular velocity (γ) x v = N/m Thus angular velocity = N/m. The factor N/m decides on capability of the missile to generate a high or low g maneuver (since force is also equal to mg, N/m = g). Higher the g, lower the maneuverability. The radius of turn is inversely proportional to N. Thus maneuverability depends on aerodynamic configuration of the missile also.
The following four conditions of stability exist: (a) Statically Stable Dynamically Stable (SSDS) System: -
System is statically stable since initial tendency is to go to equilibrium and also dynamically stable since with time it tends to go to equilibrium. (b) Statically stable Dynamically Unstable (SSDNS) System: -
Statically Stable Dynamically Unstable (SSDU) System: -
Statically and Dynamically Unstable SUDU) System: -
(e) Hence the fact that the missile has to be statically stable for dynamic stability is necessary but not sufficient condition.
Comparison of Forward and Tail Control 20. In tail control, c.p. is behind c.g. and N and Nc are oriented opposite to each other (N in upward direction and Nc in downward direction). Whereas, in forward or canard control, c.p. is ahead of c.g. and N and Nc are in the same directions (upwards). Thus the net force NT in case of tail control will be N – Nc and in case of forward control N + Nc. 21. Advantages of forward control are: (a) Maneuverability of forward control missile is higher than that with tail control since NT produced (N+Nc) is greater than that of tail control(N-Nc). (b) The speed of response is higher with forward control and missile starts nose-up immediately since control surfaces move in same direction. Whereas with tail control since control surfaces move in opposite directions, there is a lag and hence speed of response is low. (c) Forward control is a minimum phase transfer function model that is easy to design; whereas tail control is a non-minimum phase transfer function model for which design of compensator is difficult. 22. But most missiles have tail control due to following drawbacks in forward control: (a) Downwash and wake effects. Local Mach number is proportional to square of velocity of air and hence reduces near the wings due to turbulence (downwash) created by the presence of forward control surfaces. Since wings produce maximum lift, this will affect lift produced and hence affect maneuverability. Also this may cause roll reversal when the torque generated by wing becomes greater than that produced by control surfaces. (Crossconfiguration reduces this downwash effect). Hence canards are not used for roll control. (b) Location of two pairs of control surfaces difficult due to homing head being placed in the same region thus creating problem for placement of actuating mechanism.
SUMMARY OF AERODYNAMIC DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS TYPE OF CONTROL WING CONTROL ADVANTAGES FAST CONTROL LOW TRIM α RELATIVELY GOOD PACKAGING FEATURE BENEFICIAL DOWNWASH FROM CANARD DEFLECTION FOR CONTROL DISADVANTAGES HIGH HINGE MOMENTS SEVERE SERVO POWER REQD NON-LINEAR AERODYNAMICS LARGE INDUCED ROLLING MOMENTS CG TRAVEL CRITICAL HIGH DRAG LARGE DOWNWASH DECREASES TAIL CONTRIBUTION TO STATIC STABILITY NO SIMPLE LATERAL CONTROL RELATIVELY LARGE BODY BENDING MOMENTS HIGH CONTROL RATES REQUIRED HIGH CONTROL RATES RELATIVELY HIGH TRIM α SLOW RESPONSE NEGATIVE CNδ (INITIAL FORCE IN WRONG DIRECTION) PACKAGING PROBLEMS PACKAGING PROBLEMS POOR LATERAL CONTROL HIGH TRIM α
GOOD PACKAGING FEATURE LOW HINGE MOMENTS FAIRLY LINEAR AERODYNAMICS CG TRAVEL NOT CRITICAL FACILITATES DESIGN CHANGES LOW DRAG LOW TAIL LOADS LOW TAIL HINGE MOMENTS LOW BODY BENDING MOMENTS FAIRLY LINEAR AERODYNAMICS
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