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Cassava is a perennial shrub NUTRITIONAL CONTENT which sometimes reaches the size PER 100 GRAMS OF EDIBLE of a small tree. It stems vary in PORTION color from pale to dirty-white to brown marked by numerous nodes formed by scars left by fallen leaves. Pale to dark-green leaves are fan-shape, with 5 to 9 lobes. Roots of cassava plants are few and swallow and some become storage roots. These are clustered around the base of the plant and extend about 60 cm on all sides. It is for these roots which contain from 15 to 40 percent starch that the crop is cultivated.
Select an open field with sandy loam or clay loam soil. Be sure that the area is not prone to waterlogging; it must be a well-drained soil. Also consider the soil fertility with pH range of 5.5-6.5. Cassava thrives at sea level to 845 meters above sea level. It grows best when planted at the start of the rainy season. LAND PREPARATION
half the d i a m eter of the cortex. Healthy if it is pest free and the diameter of the stem is not less than 1.5cm.
VARIETIES Plant only high yielding varieties and according to needs. For starch, VC-1, VC-2, VC-3, Datu, Lakan or Golden Yellow can be used. For food, or feeds, use only Lakan or Golden Yellow varieties.
Obtain stalks from a healthy stand which is at least eight (8) Prepare field by plowing two to three months old. Rouge-out other times, followed by harrowing when varieties that are mixed with there is enough soil moisture. Make the recommended varieties; if ridges with 15-20 cm high and 75- any. Use a saw or sharp bolo to 100 cm distance between furrows. separate cuttings 20-30cm long.
Keep the stalks for not more than five days, under shade Under favorable conditions, a sinin upright gle root may weigh as much as four PREPARATION OF PLANTSITE SELECTION position. (4) kilos. The number of roots per ING MATERIALS Handle plant at harvest varies from 2 to 7 Cassava is a tropical and subcarefully; each averaging 27.7 to 43.3 cm long tropical plant. It grows in re- Select only fresh, mature or healthy D o n ’ t and from 4.5 to 7.4 cm in diameter. gions with more or less evenly stems. Fresh if the latex or sap throw the distributed rainfall through out comes out within six (6) seconds af- cuttings to the year. An ambient tempera- ter cutting. Mature if the diameter avoid damture that ranges from 25o-30oC. of the pith or cork is not more than 1 2
3 . apply crop rotation or burn all the infested or infected plants. Weed the cassava plant to determine the amount and kind within 2 months after planting. Then weed the plant 4-5 weeks after planting. 4 Plant cuttings in furrows one meter apart. Replant missing hills 2 weeks after Analyze the soil prior to planting planting. WEEDING AND CULTIVATION gle of 45o when the soil is fairly dry. each cutting set at 0.75 to 1 meter apart between ridges and 0. Hill-up ridges 7-8 weeks after planting followed by spot weeding. PLANTING FERTILIZER APPLICATION PEST CONTROL there is no serious pest that attacks the cassava plant and the use of chemicals is not practical or economical. If at least 15cm of the cutting should be buried or covered with soil.have not been analyzed is eight (8) sacks of complete (14-14-14) fertilizer per hectare. The use of compost or organic fertilizer is highly recommended. of cassava is due to inadequate weeding. the populations of the pest increase rapidly causing yield loss reaching as high as 20%.50 to 0. stored yam or “ubi” tubers infested with mealybugs and scale insects shriveled and germination efficiency is reduced. But.75m between hills. The most immediate form of control is the use of chemical pesticides. and in vertical position when plantAt least 80% of failed croppings ing is done during the wet season. possible. of fertilizer needed. Don’t use cuttings stored for more than 5 days. do off-barring and spot weeding 3-4 weeks after planting to effectively control weeds. Apply fertilizer 2-6 weeks after planting at 5-10 cm depth and 15-20cm away from the plant. TIPS: NAMI EXTRACT FOUND MOST EFFECTIVE TO PROTECT CASSAVA AND UBI SEED PIECES Studies show that when cassava or kamoteng kahoy seed pieces (planting materials) are infested with the white fish scale. Weed the plant within two (2) months after planting.age to the nodes. Cultivate when weeds begin to grow. To avoid the attack of pests. The general recommendation for soils which Plant in a slanting position at an an. On the other hand. a mojor pest of cassava. very few farmers treat their seed pieces (panting materials) with chemical pesticides because these are very expensive and have dangerous side effects.
do not just break it off because this method can also cause root damage. Pull the plant gently and don’t drag the roots. In Cassava is a highly perishable crop. Comparison on the effectiveness of the extract and commercial insecticides. Harsoaking the slices of granulated vesting too early results in low Also.against the scale insects showed ing treatment of cassava cuttings comparable results. Its HARVESTING At this time. however. readily available.Do not harvest cassava right after a oscorahispida dennst) was found ness of “Nami” and dimethoate heavy rain or when the soil is too wet. and environmentally safe substitute for chemical pesticides. Asiatic bitter yam or intoxicating yam known as “Nami” in Source: PCARRD Farmnews Tagalog. may be removed by 6-7 months after planting. Dragging can cause bruises and cuts to roots which may lead to early deterioration. like dimethoate in controlling scale insect infestation. separate the roots from the stem using a sharp knife or bolo. leaving the making the roots hard to clean. land unnecessarily to one crop. In separating the root from the plant. the most effective in the pre-plant. turned in the highest root yield and net profit. It also ties the the plants evaluated and biossayed. the methods used in tropical Asia. showed that mortality of the weevil and the yam scale showed that mortality of the weevil increased with higher extract concentrations VISCA researchers found that of while toxicity was enhanced by them to pests. stick easily to the roots espean extended period or repeated cially if the soil is clayey.Field evaluation of the effective. store it properly. To proextracted and used as bait for ani. wet soil particles would boiled tubers in running water for yield and poor eating quality. HOW TO HARVEST If the soil is compact. fact. a piece of “Nami” as big as It start to detoriorate as early as an apple is sufficient to kill a man. make them difficult to store. Cut each root as close to the stem as possible. and “Karot” in Iloko is the chief famine food or tropical Asia. 6 . the water-based extract from the tuber of the asiatic bitter yam (di. Instead. having a high high water content which content alkaloid dioscorine.long its shell-life. prolonging the soaking period. changes of salt water. thus. Leyte studied several plant species with pesticidal properties to find a cheap. treated setts. mals or for eliminating unwanted fish from fishponds. loosen it first. one to three days after harvest see harvest cassava at the right time The poison in “Nami” is often and in the proper way. Use a wooden tool be- cause this can cause lesser root damage than metal tools. The poison. “Gayos” in Bisaya. Harvest cassava at full maturity or however. These are On the other hand. roots roo long in the soil exposes Harvest cassava during relatively 5 dry weather so that you can easily remove the soil particles from the roots. the roots have tuber is poisonous.Researchers at the Visayas College of Agriculture (VISCA) in Baybay. “Nami” and yam setts (planting materials).
much heat causes weight loss and early root deterioration. The length of the clayloam can be used provided it trench varies according to the vol. Absolutely. and slightly sloping. dig trenches preferably riversand or seasand. Cut the woody portion of the roots using a sharp knife or bolo. Among these are the soil storage method and storage of roots in wooden crates. Roots for animal feeds need not be peeled.make a drainage canal. Too just enhance root deterioration. however. prefer. Use the sharp knife or bolo to peel roots intended for the manufacture Hold the root on a slanting position in a clean chopping board or any clean chopping board or any piece of wood if to be used 7 8 . do not ume of roots to store. which should ably shaded. Cut the roots into thin slices not more than 5 mm thick. of starch or lour. don’t leave trench can contain 70-80 kg roots. Arrange mature. If measuring one meter in width and these types of soil are not available. be at least 20 cm wide and 5 cm to 10 cm deeper than the storage trench. Dig the trenches in such a way that thier length will be running downSelct a suitable storage site hill. 30-40 cm in depth. which is well-drained. HOW TO STORE CASSAVA There are several methods of storing cassava.Do not keep cassava in a waterlooged area because roots will decay easily. At the lower end of the trench. MANUAL METHOD: PROCESSING OF CASSAVA CHIPS wash the roots with water remove soil particles and other foreign matter that may contribute to low quality of the end-products. Cover each layer or roots with soil. undamaged roots inside the trenches. A meter long use heavy wet clay to cover the After harvesting. In the selected area.is not too wet. roots because this type of soil could the roots under the sun.
PINIPIG COOKIES INGREDIENTS: 3 cups cassava flour 3 cups fried pinipig 1 tsp baking powder 1 tsp vanilla (optional) 1 cup margarine 1 cup sugar 3 pcs eggs PROCEDURE: 1. 1/2 cup scraped “buko” but not too thickly on the mats. 5. Dry under the oven”. in jute sacks or preferably plastic bags and seal. Slice thinly or shred by means of a papaya shredder. 120and bake further until golden brown. Line a “bilao” or basket with and mix well. 3. Add flour mixture and mix well. Use tubers that are not fibrous. should be allowed to settle. peel and re-wash tuber 3/4 cup sugar after peeling. melted butter. Bake until brown at 177oC (350oF). Line a round pan sinamay cloth and spread the with banana leaves and pour in the mixtture. store them properly sun until crisp or brittle. Drain and coconut milk. The water where the cassava was soaked containes the starch (Step 3). 4 tsp grated cheese 2. Cream margarine and sugar. Sift cassava flour and baking powder. Bake in modrate “palayok When dried chips are not milled shreeded cassava. Soak or wash in enough water to remove part of the starch and Beat egg. add sugar. When almost brown. Grind through a cornmeal grindwith butter and sprinkle top with a to prevent moisture re-absorption. Add eggs one at a time. Pack in dry containers. 1 cup grated cassava 1/2 cup grated or chopped coconut meat 3/4 cup sugar Banana leaves for wrapper 9 10 . Add vanilla. coconut milk. Continue creaming until all eggs have been added. slice thinly using a sharp knife or bolo. Decant off the water and INGREDIENTS: completely dry the starch un der the sund. Pack in air-tight container. Boil in water till done. Add 2 tbsp cheese 4. This is the cassava lining (like thoroughly washed flour. Spread the chips evenly within 24 hours after harvesting.in feed formulation. 2. brush right-away. DIRECT SUN DRYING: CASSAVA FLOUR AND STARCH CASSAVA BIBINGKA. Drop by teaspoon on greased cookie sheets. cover or sacks with cellophane mesh sieve. Mix with pinipig. CASSAVA . Mix cassava and the shredded cassava. 6. Tie by twos with string. PROCEDURE: 3. Wash. 1/2 cup pure coconut milk PREPARATION: 3 tbsp melted shortening STORING DRIED CHIPS: 2 pcs eggs 1. They should be used 1 cup grated fresh cassava to sunlight. fertilizer sacks). 4. CASSAVA SUMAN containers that can be closed. little sugar and remaining cheese Place the chips either in pails with er and pass through a No. PROCEDURE: Mix all ingredients and wrap mixture in banana leaves to desired size. 5. about 10 months old and not INGREDIENTS: Lay bamboo or other woven mats on later than 16 months old after a flat cleared ground fully exposed planting.
Place over slow fire until brown sugar is melted. Beat eggyolk until fluffy. Pour into cuchinta molders or ungreased muffin tins. turn upside down on cake plate. Steam for 5 to 20 minutes. Serve with frated coconut. In a mixing bowl. BUTTER CAKE INGREDIENTS: 1 3/4 cups cassava flour 1 3/4 cups wheat flour 1 cup butter 2 cups sugar 8 pcs eggs less two (2) whites 1 cup diluted milk 4 tsp baking powder PROCEDURE: Sift cassava flour and wheat flour separetely. Pour butter over fruit in pan. Add 1/2 cup of sugar and 2 tbsp of water with calamansi juice. Remove from the fire. Leyte Reference: Storing and Processing of Cassava DA-RFU 9 12 . Beat eggwhites with 1/ 2 cup sugar until stiff. Let it cool for 5 minutes and remove from pans. Add one (1) flour sifted with baking powder. STARCH COOKIES INGREDIENTS: 5 cups cassava atarch 1 cup sugar 1 tsp baking powder 5 pcs eggyolks 3 pcs eggwhites 230 gms butter 1 cup margarine 11 Source: Philippine Root Crops Information Service VISCA. Fold in flour. mix and add baking powder. baybay. beat egg one at a atime. Pour 1 tsp. Add sifted flour mixture alternately with milk. Pour in well-greased nin (9) inch baking pans. Cream butter. 5.CUCHINTA INGREDIENTS: 1 cup cassava flour 1 cup brown sugar 1 1/2 cups water 1 tsp lye few drops of yellow food color or achuete PROCEDURE: 1. of mixture on wellgreased cookie sheets and bake. 2. 4. 3. Lastly fold well-beaten eggwhites. Bake for 20-25 minutes. UPSIDE DOWN CAKE INGREDIENTS: 1 1/2 cup cassava flour 1/4 cup butter and one (1) cup brown sugar 6 pcs eggs 1 cup sugar 6 slices canned pineapples 6 halves canned peaches or mongo PROCEDURE: Place butter. When done. Sift three (3) times. PROCEDURES: Creame the butter or margarine. Fold well-beaten eggwhites in the butter mixture. Separate the yolks from whites of the eggs. when fine. add until fine and fluffy. add sugar. arrange fruits in the pan. Beat both mixture. Bake in moerate oven. blend all the ingredients until thoroughly fine. brown sugar and 1/2 cup syrup of canned fruits in a deep baking pan.