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DETERMINANTS

4.1 Overview

To every square matrix A = [aij] of order n, we can associate a number (real or complex) called determinant of the matrix A, written as det A, where aij is the (i, j)th element of A. If A

a b , then determinant of A, denoted by |A| (or det A), is given by c d

|A| =

a c

b d

= ad bc.

Remarks

(i) (ii) Only square matrices have determinants. For a matrix A, A is read as determinant of A and not, as modulus of A.

Let A = [a] be the matrix of order 1, then determinant of A is defined to be equal to a.

a b Let A = [aij] = be a matrix of order 2. Then the determinant of A is defined c d as: det (A) = |A| = ad bc.

The determinant of a matrix of order three can be determined by expressing it in terms of second order determinants which is known as expansion of a determinant along a row (or a column). There are six ways of expanding a determinant of order 3 corresponding to each of three rows (R1, R2 and R3) and three columns (C1, C2 and C3) and each way gives the same value.

66

MATHEMATICS

a11 a21 a31 a12 a22 a32 a13 a23 a33

a22 |A| = a11 (1)1+1 a 32 a23 a12 2+1 + a (1) 21 a33 a32 a13 a12 3+1 + a (1) 31 a33 a22 a13 a23

= a11(a22 a33 a23 a32) a21 (a12 a33 a13 a32) + a31 (a12 a23 a13 a22) Remark In general, if A = kB, where A and B are square matrices of order n, then |A| = kn |B|, n = 1, 2, 3.

For any square matrix A, |A| satisfies the following properties. (i) (ii) |A| = |A|, where A = transpose of matrix A. If we interchange any two rows (or columns), then sign of the determinant changes. If any two rows or any two columns in a determinant are identical (or proportional), then the value of the determinant is zero. Multiplying a determinant by k means multiplying the elements of only one row (or one column) by k. If we multiply each element of a row (or a column) of a determinant by constant k, then value of the determinant is multiplied by k. If elements of a row (or a column) in a determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more elements, then the given determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more determinants.

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

DETERMINANTS

67

(vii)

If to each element of a row (or a column) of a determinant the equimultiples of corresponding elements of other rows (columns) are added, then value of determinant remains same.

Notes: (i) If all the elements of a row (or column) are zeros, then the value of the determinant is zero. (ii) If value of determinant becomes zero by substituting x = , then x is a factor of . (iii) If all the elements of a determinant above or below the main diagonal consists of zeros, then the value of the determinant is equal to the product of diagonal elements.

Area of a triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is given by

x1 1 x2 2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 . y3 1

(i) Minor of an element aij of the determinant of matrix A is the determinant obtained by deleting ith row and jth column, and it is denoted by Mij. Co-factor of an element aij is given by Aij = (1)i+j Mij. Value of determinant of a matrix A is obtained by the sum of products of elements of a row (or a column) with corresponding co-factors. For example |A| = a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13. (iv) If elements of a row (or column) are multiplied with co-factors of elements of any other row (or column), then their sum is zero. For example, a11 A21 + a12 A22 + a13 A23 = 0.

(ii) (iii)

(i) The adjoint of a square matrix A = [aij]nn is defined as the transpose of the matrix

68

MATHEMATICS

[aij]nn, where Aij is the co-factor of the element aij. It is denoted by adj A.

a11 a21 a31 a12 a22 a32 a13 a23 , then adj A a33 A11 A12 A13 A 21 A 22 A 23 A 31 A 32 , where Aij is co-factor of aij. A 33

If A

A (adj A) = (adj A) A = |A| I, where A is square matrix of order n. A square matrix A is said to be singular or non-singular according as |A| = 0 or |A| 0, respectively. If A is a square matrix of order n, then |adj A| = |A|n1. If A and B are non-singular matrices of the same order, then AB and BA are also nonsingular matrices of the same order. The determinant of the product of matrices is equal to product of their respective determinants, that is, |AB| = |A| |B|. If AB = BA = I, where A and B are square matrices, then B is called inverse of A and is written as B = A1. Also B1 = (A1)1 = A.

(viii) A square matrix A is invertible if and only if A is non-singular matrix. (ix) If A is an invertible matrix, then A1 =

1 (adj A) |A|

(i) Consider the equations: a1x + b1 y + c1 z = d1 a2x + b2 y + c2 z = d2 a3x + b3 y + c3 z = d3, In matrix form, these equations can be written as A X = B, where

a1 a A= 2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 , X c3 x y and B z d1 d2 d3

(ii)

DETERMINANTS

69

(iii) (iv)

A system of equations is consistent or inconsistent according as its solution exists or not. For a square matrix A in matrix equation AX = B (a) (b) (c) If |A| 0, then there exists unique solution. If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B 0, then there exists no solution. If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B = 0, then system may or may not be consistent.

4.2

Solved Examples

2x 5 8 x 6 5 , then find x. 8 3

Solution We have

2x 5 8 x

6 5 . This gives 8 3

2x2 40 = 18 40

x2 = 9

1 zx y

x = 3.

1 x

Example 2 If = 1 y

x2

1 z

1 y , 1 = yz x z2

2

Solution We have

1 yz x

1 1 zx xy y z

1 yz 1 zx 1 xy

x y z

x = 1 y xyz z

x2 y2 z2

70

MATHEMATICS

x 1 x2 xyz y 1 y2 = xyz z 1 z2

Interchanging C1 and C2

1 x

x2 y2 z2

(1) 1 y 1 z

1 + = 0

cosec 2 cot 42

2

cot 2 cosec 40

2

1 1 = 0. 2

cosec 2 cot 2 1 cot

2

cot 2

2

1 1 2

cot 2

2

cosec 0

1 cosec 40

0 cosec 1 = 0 0 40 2

x p q

p q x q = (x p) (x2 + px 2q2) q x

x p p x 0

p q x q q x

1 p q ( x p) 1 x q 0 q x

DETERMINANTS

71

0 p + x 2q = ( x p) 1 x q 0 q x

Applying R1 R1 + R2

( x p) ( px x 2 2q 2 ) = ( x p) ( x 2 px 2q 2 )

Example 5 If

is equal to zero.

a b a c 0 b a b c 0 c a c b

b a c a (1) a b 0 c b a c b c 0

3

=0

or

=0

Example 6 Prove that (A1) = (A)1, where A is an invertible matrix. Solution Since A is an invertible matrix, so it is non-singular. We know that |A| = |A|. But |A| 0. So |A| 0 Now we know that AA1 = A1 A = I. Taking transpose on both sides, we get (A1) A = A (A1) = (I) = I Hence (A1) is inverse of A, i.e., (A)1 = (A1) Long Answer (L.A.) i.e. A is invertible matrix.

Example 7 If x = 4 is a root of

72

MATHEMATICS

x 4 x 4 x 4 1 1 . x x 3 2

Taking (x + 4) common from R1, we get

1 1 1 ( x 4) 1 x 1 3 2 x

Applying C2 C2 C1, C3 C3 C1, we get

1 0 0 ( x 4) 1 x 1 0 . 3 1 x 3

Expanding along R1,

x = 4, 1, 3 Example 8 In a triangle ABC, if

1 1 sin A

2

1 1 sin B

2

1 1 sin C

2

0 ,

1 1 sin A 1 1 sin B 1 1 sin C

Solution Let =

DETERMINANTS

73

R3 R3 R2

1 1 sin A

0 sin B sin A

Expanding along R1, we get = (sinB sinA) (sin2C sin2B) (sinC sin B) (sin2B sin2A) = (sinB sinA) (sinC sinB) (sinC sin A) = 0 either sinB sinA = 0 or sinC sinB or sinC sinA = 0 A = B or B = C or C = A

3 2 sin 3 7 8 cos 2 11 14 2

0 , then sin = 0 or

1 . 2

3 5 10

or or or

2 [5 (2 + 7 sin3) 10 (cos2 + 4sin3)] = 0 2 + 7sin3 2cos2 8sin3 = 0 2 2cos 2 sin 3 = 0 sin (4sin2 + 4sin 3) = 0

74

MATHEMATICS

or or

1 (Why ?). 2

Objective Type Questions Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the Example 10 and 11.

Ax x2 1 y z

2 2

Example 10 Let

By Cz

1 and 1

A x zy

B y zx

C z , then xy

(A) (C)

1 = 1 = 0

A x zy

(B) (D)

1

None of these A =B C

Ax

B C y z zx xy

x y z

yz zx xy

x2 1 y2 1 z2 1

Ax

x2 y2 z

2

1 By xyz Cz

xyz By = xyz Cz

2, 2

2,1

1, 2,

DETERMINANTS

75

cos x sin x 0

Expanding along R3, we have

= (siny cosy) = 2 1 sin y 2 1 cos y 2

= Hence 2

2 sin (y 4 )

2.

Fill in the blanks in each of the Examples 12 to 14. Example 12 If A, B, C are the angles of a triangle, then

sin 2 A cotA 1 sin 2 B sin C

2

cotB 1 cotC 1

................

Solution Answer is 0. Apply R2 R2 R1, R3 R3 R1. 23 + 3 Example 13 The determinant = 15 + 46 3 + 115 Solution Answer is 0.Taking C1 C3 Example 14 5 5 15 5 10 is equal to ............... 5

The value of the determinant

76

MATHEMATICS

2

2

Solution = 0. Apply C1 C1 + C2 + C3. State whether the statements in the Examples 15 to 18 is True or False. Example 15 The determinant

is independent of x only.

Solution True. Apply R1 R1 + sinyR2 + cosy R3, and expand Example 16 The value of

1

n n

1

n+ 2 n+ 2

1

n+ 4 n+ 4

C1 C2

C1 C2

C1 C2

is 8.

Solution True

Example 17

If A

A adj. A

81 0 0 0 81 0 . 0 0 81

Solution : False.

DETERMINANTS

77

Example 18 If A

0 1 3 1 2 x , A 1 2 3 1

1 2 1 2 1 2

4 3 y

5 2 3 2 1 2

then x = 1, y = 1. Solution True 4.3 EXERCISE Short Answer (S.A.) Using the properties of determinants in Exercises 1 to 6, evaluate:

x2 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1

1.

2.

a x y z x a y z x y a z

xy 2 0 zy

2

xz 2 yz 0

2

3x

4.

3.

x y x z

2

x x

y z

x y 3y y z

x z z y 3z

5.

x 4 x x x x 4 x x x x 4

6.

2a 2a a b c 2b 2b b c a 2c 2c c a b

y2 z2 yz zx xy y z x z x y 0

y

8.

z z y z

z x x x

7.

z x

2

2 2 2

y x y

4 xyz

x y

78

MATHEMATICS

9.

a 2 2a 2a 1 1 2a 1 a 2 1 3 3 1

(a 1)3

10. 11.

x1 y1 1 3a 4 y2 1 = 4 . y3 1

2

12.

13.

4 x 4 x 4 x If 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x

14.

ar 1 ar 7 ar 11 ar 5 ar 11 ar 17 ar 9 ar 15 is independent of r. ar 21

15. 16.

Show that the points (a + 5, a 4), (a 2, a + 3) and (a, a) do not lie on a straight line for any value of a. Show that the ABC is an isosceles triangle if the determinant

DETERMINANTS

79

17.

Find A if A

Long Answer (L.A.) 1 2 0 1 If A = 2 1 2 , find A . 0 1 1 Using A 1 , solve the system x 2y = 10 , 2x y z = 8 , 2y + z = 7. 19. of linear of equations equations

18.

20.

Given A

2 4 2

2 2 1

4 4 ,B 5

1 2 0

bc a 2 ca b 2 ab c 2 bc a 2 ab c 2 bc a 2 is divisible by a + b + c and find the ca b 2

21.

22.

2 Prove that ca b

ab c 2

quotient.

80

MATHEMATICS

xa

yb za xc

zc

a b

23.

If x + y + z = 0, prove that yc zb

xb = xyz c a b ya b c a

Objective Type Questions (M.C.Q.) Choose the correct answer from given four options in each of the Exercises from 24 to 37. 24. If

2x 5 8 x 6 7 2 , then value of x is 3

(A) (C)

(B) (D)

3

6

25.

(A) (C) a3 + b3 + c 3 a3 + b3 + c3 3abc (B) (D) 3 bc none of these

26.

The area of a triangle with vertices (3, 0), (3, 0) and (0, k) is 9 sq. units. The value of k will be (A) (C) 9 9

b2 ab b c

2

(B) (D)

bc ac ab equals

3 6

27.

The determinant ab a

a b b2

bc ac

c a ab a 2

(A) (C)

abc (bc) (c a) (a b) (a + b + c) (b c) (c a) (a b)

DETERMINANTS

81

28.

sin x cos x cos x The number of distinct real roots of cos x sin x cos x cos x cos x sin x

0 in the interval

x is 4 4

(A) (C) 29. 0 1 (B) (D) 2 3

(A) (C) 0 1 (B) (D) 1 f (t ) 2t , then lim 2 is equal to t 0 t t (B) (D) 1 3 1 None of these

30.

31.

1 1 1 cos

1 1 sin 1

1 1 is ( is real number) 1

3 2

2 3 4

(A)

1 2

(B)

(C)

(D)

82

MATHEMATICS

0

32. If f (x) = x a x b (A) (C) f (a) = 0 f (0) = 0

x a 0 x c

x b x c , then 0

(B) (D) f (b) = 0 f (1) = 0

33.

2 If A = 0 2 1 1

(A) (C)

3 5 , then A1 exists if 3

(B) (D)

=2 2

adj A = |A|. A1 (AB)1 = B1 A1

2

None of these

34.

If A and B are invertible matrices, then which of the following is not correct? (A) (C) (B) (D) det(A)1 = [det (A)]1 (A + B)1 = B1 + A1

35.

x1 + y1 + z1 is (A) (C) xyz x y z (B) (D) x1 y1 z1 1

36.

(A) (C) 9x2 (x + y) 3y2 (x + y)

x y x x 2y

(B) (D)

x 2y x y is x

9y2 (x + y) 7x2 (x + y)

DETERMINANTS

83

37.

sum of these number is (A) (C) 4 4 (B) (D) 5 9

Fill in the blanks 38. If A is a matrix of order 3 3, then |3A| = _______ . 39. If A is invertible matrix of order 3 3, then |A1 | _______ .

2x 2 x

2

2x 2 x 3 x 3 x 4x 4 x

1 1 is 1

40.

3 x 3 x 4x 4 x

equal to _______.

0 cos sin 0 = _________. If cos2 = 0, then cos sin sin 0 cos

2

If A is a matrix of order 3 3, then (A2)1 = ________. If A is a matrix of order 3 3, then number of minors in determinant of A are ________. The sum of the products of elements of any row with the co-factors of corresponding elements is equal to _________.

45.

0 yx zx xyz 0 z y xz yz 0

46.

= __________.

84

MATHEMATICS

(1 + x)17

47. If f ( x ) =

(1 + x)19 (1 + x) 29 (1 + x) 43

(1 + x) 23 (1 + x) 41

A = ________. State True or False for the statements of the following Exercises: 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

A3

1

= A

1 3

(aA)1 =

|A1| |A|1 , where A is non-singular matrix. If A and B are matrices of order 3 and |A| = 5, |B| = 3, then |3AB| = 27 5 3 = 405. If the value of a third order determinant is 12, then the value of the determinant formed by replacing each element by its co-factor will be 144.

x +1 x + 2 x + a x + 2 x + 3 x + b = 0 , where a, b, c are in A.P. x + 3 x + 4 x+c

53.

54.

|adj. A| = |A|2 , where A is a square matrix of order two. sin A cos A sin A + cos B The determinant sin B cos A sin B+ cos B is equal to zero. sin C cos A sin C + cos B

55.

56.

x a If the determinant y b z c

order 3, each element of which contains only one term, then the value of K is 8.

DETERMINANTS

85

57.

Let

a b c

p q r

p+ x a+ x a+ p x y 16 , then 1 = q + y b + y b + q = 32 . r + z c+ z c+r z

58.

is

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