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Building Codes for Design of Post-Tensioned Buildings

Major Building Codes and Source of Design Information

International Building Code


(IBC 2009) ACI-318 2011 ASCE -07

European Code (EC2 EN2002)


Numerous Post-Tensioning
Institute Reports (PTI USA)

Concrete Society Report (TR43)


Dr Bijan O Aalami
Professor Emeritus,
San Francisco State University Principal, ADAPT Corporation

Specialty Literature (ADAPT)

www.adaptsoft.com

Common Requirements Post-Tensioning Design Design or adequacy evaluation of post-tensioned structures consists of the following steps

POSTPOST-TENSIONING IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SERVICE CONDITION Crack control Limitation on representative

hypothetical tensile stresses Minimum bonded reinforcement Crack mitigation schemes detailing for restraint of supports Tendon and rebar arrangement Deflection control Span to deflection ratio Limitation on concrete compressive stress Allowance for creep and shrinkage Durability Cover to tendon Use of special hardware Fire resistivity Cover to tendon Vibrations Limitation on span to depth ratio

Serviceability Check (SLS) Strength Check (ULS) Initial (transfer of prestressing)

POSTPOST-TENSIONING IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION STRENGTH (SAFETY) CONDITION OVERALL Design capacity greater than design moment (Capacity to be greater than demand) Minimum bonded reinforcement for ductility
SLAB d

POSITION OF REINFORCEMENT TO RESIST COLUMN MOMENT


REBAR STRIP h 1.5d COLUMN 1.5h 1.5h REBAR STRIP

DROP 1.5d

(a) SLAB WITH DROP

(b) FLAT PLATE

Design capacity greater than Cracking Moment (applicable to most cases) Safe transfer of column moment to slab Follow code prescription for tendon and rebar detailing arrangement (not column strip/middle strip) LOCAL Force transfer at anchorage (bursting steel) Detailing to avoid blow out of concrete
DESIGN STRIP REBAR STRIP

SLAB

FRAME DIRECTION
COLUMN

(c) VIEW OF A SLAB JOINT

Position the reinforcement within the narrow band identified as rebar strip

POSTPOST-TENSIONING IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION INITIAL (TRANSFER) CONDITION At time of stressing,

Load Combinations

Service Condition
Total Load (frequent) Typically 1.0D + 1.0L + 1.0 PT
Used to check tension and compression stresses in concrete

Tendon has its maximum force; concrete is at its weakest strength; and live load to counteract prestressing is absent

Hence the member is likely to experience stresses more severe than when in service

Sustained Load (quasi permanent) Code requirement for crack and creep control at initial condition

1.0D + K*L + 1.0 PT


K is less than 1 Primarily to check compression stresses in concrete Deflection in service condition

Add rebar when representative (hypothetical) tension stresses exceed a threshold Do not exceed representative hypothetical compressive stresses

Load Combinations

POSTPOST-TENSIONING IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Strength (safety) condition


Factored combinations of:

Safety factor for strength


Different code specified design load
factors

Dead (1.2 to 1.4) Live (1.3 to 1.6) Hyperstatic (Secondary) due


prestressing with factor 1

to

Either

Reliability in the properties of the


material used (most building codes) concrete (typically 0.65) nonprestressed steel (0.85 0.95) prestressing steel (0.85)

Initial (transfer) condition


Factored combinations of:

OR

Selfweight (1.0) Prestressing (1.15)

Reliability in the analysis procedure


(US building codes) bending 0.90 shear 0.75 axial 0.70

Design for Strength Ductility Requirements of All Codes


COMPRESSION REBAR a MAX PRESTRESSING REQUIRED TENSILE REBAR (1) PRESTRESSING ADEQUATE (2) PRESTRESSING PLUS TENSION REBAR MAX TENSILE REBAR

IBC 2009; ACI 318-11 Service Condition Design is based on the


classification of members into the following classes

REBAR TO BALANCE FORCE OF COMPRESSION REBAR (3)

Class U (uncracked)
ft <= 7.5 fc ; (0.625 fc)

PRESTRESSING AND TENSION REBAR NOT ADEQUATE

Class T (transition)
7.5 fc < ft <=12 fc (0.625 fc < ft <=1.0 fc )

REQUIRED COMPRESSION REBAR a MAX a MAX EXCESSIVE PRESTRESSING a MAX MAX COMPRESSION REBAR

REBAR TO BALANCE ADDED TENSILE REBAR

Class C (cracked)
(6)

(4) OVERREINFORCED, DESIGN BASED ON COMPRESSION ZONE

(5) PRESTRESSING AND COMPRESSION REBAR

ft > 12 fc (ft > 1.0 fc )


ft = tensile stress under sustained service load condition Values in parenthesis refer to SI units (N, mm)

PRESTRESSING AND COMPRESSION REBAR NOT ADEQUATE

Limit depth of compression zone

Service Condition Deflection calculation


For Class U, use gross-section For Class T, use bilinear moment
properties, or Ie For class C, use cracked section properties, or bilinear moment, or Ie

IBC 2009; ACI-318 Load Combinations for Strength Check


D L E W Hyp = Dead Loads = Live Loads = Earthquake Effects = Wind Effects = Hyperstatic Effects Due to Prestressing

Dead and Live

Two-way systems shall be


designed as Class U Stresses are calculated using
uncracked section

U = 1.4D + 1.0 Hyp U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 1.0 Hyp


Dead, Live and Wind

(9-1) (9-2)

One-way systems may be designed


as Class U, T or C Stress calculation

U = 1.2D + 1.6Lr+ 0.8W + 1.0 Hyp U = 1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6W + 1.0 Hyp U = 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.0 Hyp
Dead, Live and Earthquake

(9-3) (9-4) (9-6)

For class U and T, calculate stresses using


uncracked section (gross cross-sectional properties) For Class C, use cracked section for stress calculation; control crack width and check for skin rebar

U = 1.2D + 1.0L+ 1.0E + 1.0Hyp U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.0Hyp

(9-5) (9-7)

IBC and ACI 318s Other Considerations Crack Width Control and Rebar Spacing Based on Detailing not Crack Width Calculation
For Class C flexural members rebar requirement and spacing shall meet the crack width control provisions of nonprestressed members ( section 10.6.4) modified for prestressing (section 18.4.4.1)

Strength Reduction Factor for Bending and Compression


c= dt = depth of compression zone distance of extreme compression fiber to the extreme tension reinforcement

STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR

0.9

0.65 0 0.375 c/d t 0.600

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