CARTILAGE & BONE

WHY ARE THESE CT’S?
• Both have:
– Cells, extracellular fibers, and matrix
• Collagen & Elastic fibers • Glycoproteins: Gel-like matrix Gel• Fib bl t-t Fibroblast type cells Fibroblastll
– Chondroblasts/osteoblasts – Osteoblasts/osteocytes

• Both have:
– General functions of mechanical & physiological support and protection t d t ti
• Structural framework • Reserves of Ca & P

• Interrelated with other CT’s in history and development

CARTILAGE TYPES
• HYALINE: The “archetype” cartilage g
– Mechanical support: – Covers articulating surfaces of bones bones – Model for formation of the skeleton – Plays a role in repair of fractures

• ELASTIC:
– Found where resilience and springiness needed

• FIBROUS:
– Very limited; transitional form

HYALINE CARTILAGE

“Hyalos’, = “glassy” Appearance in gross specimens Most common type yp Other types are variations on the theme

Basic cell type
– Can arise from reredifferentiate d fibroblasts

Makes fibers and matrix
– Appropriate type variations

Enclosed in lacunae clustered as isogenous groups
– Cells of IG have a common precursor

Division vs rate of matrix formation determines spacing

CHONDROCYTES

ISOGENOUS GROUPS
• Original cell splits
– Daughter cells produce matrix “wall” – Daughter cells g split and process repeats

If matrix growth > division, groups division far apart If matrix growth < division, groups ,g p closer together
– Groups not always obvious!

GROWTH PATTERNS: INTERSTITIAL
• Existing chondrocytes y make more matrix If division doesn’t keep pace, spacing of groups i f increases If division is fast, distribution more uniform
– ISOGENOUS GROUPS STILL EXIST

– Embryonic cartilage more uniform than adult

GROWTH PATTERNS: APPOSITIONAL

Occurs at edges of cartilaginous structures Cells in perichondrium differentiate into chondrocytes Matrix is made and laid down, lacunae formed Shape of structure can be changed g May be localized
– Same process as interstitial growth: different location!

PERICHONDRIUM • Cartilage almost always surrounded by a dense fibrous CT, • Cells of perichondrium are CHONDROCHONDROGENIC and important in growth • Cells derived from fibroblast f fib bl t line

ELASTIC CARTILAGE • Fibers primarily elastic
– Not much collagen g

• Confers flexibility and shape p retention • Chondrocytes larger and g isogenous groups closely spaced

Examples: epiglottis, pinna, larynx

FIBROUS CARTILAGE
• • • • Lacunae sparse, often incomplete Matrix limited but present Fibrous element predominant “Transitional” form between f b t cartilage and true fibrous CT Limited to a few sites: sites: pubic symphisis and intervertebral discs

CARTILAGE REPAIR
• Cartilage has very limited repair capability
– Cartilage is AVASCULAR!
• Dependent on diffusion kinetics

– If chondrocytes live, matrix can be replaced live – Chondrocyte loss means loss of structure

• Some limited regeneration by differentiation of cells from perichondrium
– Injury to articular cartilage not a good thing: no j y g g g perichondrium! – Usual “repair” by fibrosis & collagen proliferation

• Calcification may occur

BONE
• MOST DYNAMIC O OF ALL TISSUES SSU S • Remodeled continuously y throughout life • Cellular contribution determines properties i
– Volume of cells is small – Fibrous & matrix components vital

• FUNCTIONS:
– Protection:
• Brain, spinal cord, and internal organs g

• Sites of attachment for muscles and tendons • Houses hemopoietic tissue • Storehouse of calcium and l i d phosphorus

“BONE” vs “BONES”
• GROSS & HISTOLOGICAL terms • “Shell” of “Sh ll” f histologically compact bone; p ; • “Core” of histologically spongy bone bone • Merge into each other

BONES ARE NOT “NAKED”
• Articular HYALINE cartilage i • Outer surface invested by a tough CT covering
– PERIOSTEUM
• Analogous to perichondrium • Has fibroblasts • No periosteum at articular surfaces

• PERIOSTEUM HAS OSTEOGENIC POTENTIAL
– Appositional growth shapes th h bones

ANATOMIC BONE SECTION: SECTION IN THREE DIMENSIONS

THE OSTEON
• Basic unit of compact bone • C li d i l structure of Cylindrical t t f concentric lamellae • Osteonal canal a passageway f BV’s, for BV’ nerves, lymphatics • All osteons are potentially in contact p t ti ll i t t with each other • Lamellae composed of collagen fib ll fibers impregnated and hardened

OSTEON IN 3-D 3• C ll Collagen fibers arranged at d t right angles • Osteocytes embedded in lamellae
– In lacunae

• Endosteum is active cellular layer

OSTEON REPLACEMENT
• Renewal is continuous & predictable • Old osteons become interstitial systems

BLOOD SUPPLY
• Arteries penetrate from periosteum • Ramify through osteonal and lateral canals • Perforate to marrow cavity
– Spongy bone nourished b i h d by diffusion

• Veins follow return route

LATERAL CANALS
• Connect adjacent osteons • Route BV’s, etc., through hard material • Innermost reach the marrow cavity • Outermost reach the subsubperiosteal space

OSTEOGENESIS
• THE FIRST PRINCIPLE: New bone PRINCIPLE: y p y p f always develops by replacement of a prepre-existing connective tissue • THE SECOND PRINCIPLE: PRINCIPLE: Regardless of what pre-existing CT is prereplaced, the process of bone formation and the cells involved are the f d h ll l d h same • THE THIRD PRINCIPLE: B h modes PRINCIPLE: Both d can occur simultaneously in the same osteogenic area

ENDOCHONDRAL OSTEOGENESIS

• Replacement of pre- i i pre-existing hyaline cartilage by bone

ENDOCHONDRAL OSTEOGENESIS

• Replacement of pre- i i pre-existing hyaline cartilage by bone

INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSTEOGENESIS
Replacement of pre-existing non-cartilage CT by bone prenon-

– NO cartilage model – Embryonic CT – Classic example is some flat bones of the skull

ENDOCHONDRAL vs INTRAMEMBRANOUS MODES
• BOTH PROCESSES ARE ESSENTIALLY THE SAME
– S Same cells participate and do the same things ll ti i t d d th thi

• AT BIOCHEMICAL & CELLULAR LEVEL SAME EVENTS OCCUR
– Differences:
• • • • SITE of activity y ORGANIZATION of activity NUMBERS of centers of ossification WHAT is replaced

ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
•Cartilage model laid down •Blood vessels enter from perichondrium •Cells with osteogenic capacity “invade” it “i d ” •Centers of ossification set up p •Cartilage replaced in an orderly manner

ENDOCHONDRAL OSTEOGENESIS

GROWTH PLATES

MRI image from a 5-year-old yearchild showing distal (femur) and proximal p (tibia) growth plates

• Resting cells divide • Rate of division di i i exceeds rate of matrix synthesis y • Cells line up in rows p • HyperHypertrophy ensues

•Cells stop dividing, die dividing die, and enlarge •Matrix thins, lacunae open •Cartilage is provisionally i i ll calcified •Calcified cartilage is replaced by new p y bone •New bone immediately remodeled

GROWTH PLATE

BONE CELLS: OSTEOBLAST
• Active bone FORMING cell • Arise from fibroblast line or stem cells • Makes & calcifies fibers & matrix • In rows along bone • Polarized, basophilic b hili • Eventually become y osteocytes

BONE CELLS: THE OSTEOCYTE

• “Mature” phase of life cycle • Osteoblasts enclose themselves in lacunae and transit to this stage • A “maintenance” cell • Plays an active role in calcium metabolism • Maintains communication with all others

NUTRIENT &WASTE TRANSPORT
• DIFFUSION CANNOT WORK • Resident cell in lacunae between lamellae • Small channels radiate from each lacuna through the hard h d material i l • These are routes for passage
– Gap Junctions essential

OSTEOCLAST
• BONE-ERODING BONEcell
– From the monocyte, NOT fibroblast line – Syncytial: arise from Syncytial: fusion of precursors – Same origin as macrophages

• Large & multinucleated • Abundant in areas undergoing resorption • Strongly reactive for lysosomal enzymes y • “Frothy” look from large #s of lysosomes

STRIKING A BALANCE
• Bone cell activity is normally under very tight control • Hormonal, nutritional, and other factors are important • Balance between building activity of osteoblasts and removal by osteoclasts bl d lb l keeps anatomic bones “normal” in shape and makeup • Disease, malnutrition, parasitization, etc. can affect this balance • Age of the animal also must be considered

PUTTING IT TOGETHER: FRACTURE REPAIR
• A nice example of coordination and integration of endochondral and intramembranous osteogenesis • Involves CT of periosteum as well as bone • Demonstrates plasticity of bone and responsiveness to insult • SAME PROCESSES ARE USED AS IN DE NOVO OSTEOGENESIS

FEMURS FROM A FOX SQUIRREL, ONE WITH A HEALED BREAK

EVENTS IN FRACTURE REPAIR

Chapel Of The Bones
Capuchin Church p Of The Immaculate Conception Rome