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Arbovirus infection

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Arbovirus infection
Classification and external
resources
MeSH D001102
Arbovirus is a shortened name given to viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, or arthropod-
borne viruses [1].
Some Arboviruses are able to cause emergent disease. Arthropods are able to transmit the virus
upon biting allowing the virus to enter the bloodstream which can cause viraemia.
The majority of the Arboviruses are spherical in shape although a few are rod shaped. They are
17-150 nm in diameter and most have an RNA genome (the single exception is African Swine
Fever virus, which has a DNA genome). These viruses do not normally infect humans but if they
do, they usually cause a mild infection such as a fever or a rash. Others however are epidemic
and can cause serious infections such as meningitis and encephalitis that can be fatal.
There are ways of preventing these infections from occurring such as using mosquito repellents
and getting rid of the breeding grounds that mosquitoes use. Insecticides can also be used. People
can also reduce the risk of getting bitten by the mosquito by wearing protective clothing.
The immune system plays a role in defense against the infections. Arboviruses usually stimulate
interferon. Antibodies are made and these can prevent viraemia from occurring. The cell
mediated immunity is also important.
Arbovirus infections can be diagnosed by carrying out ELISA and PCR techniques. Complement
fixation can also be used.
[edit] List of arboviruses (not complete)
• Mosquito-borne disease
○ Chikungunya
○ Dengue fever
○ Ross River virus
○ West Nile virus
○ Yellow fever
○ Japanese Encephalitis
○ La Crosse Encephalitis
○ Murray Valley encephalitis virus
○ Rift Valley fever
○ St. Louis Encephalitis
○ Equine Encephalitis
○ Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) of deer
○ O'nyong'nyong virus
• Tick-borne disease
○ CCHF virus
○ Tick-borne Encephalitis
○ Louping ill virus
v Zoonotic Viral diseases

Arbovirus encephalitis: La Crosse encephalitis (LCV) ·


Bunyaviridae California encephalitis (CEV)
Viral hemorrhagic fever: Rift Valley fever (RVFV)

Arbovirus encephalitis: Japanese encephalitis (JEV) ·


Australian encephalitis (Murray Valley encephalitis virus) ·
Flaviviridae St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) · West Nile fever (WNV)
Viral hemorrhagic fever: Dengue fever (DV)
Mosquito
other: Yellow fever (YFV)

Arbovirus encephalitis: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis


(EEEV) · Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEEV) ·
Togaviridae Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEEV)
Arthropod/ other: Chikungunya (CV) · O'Nyong-nyong fever (OV) ·
(Arbovirus) Ross River fever (RRV)

Viral hemorrhagic fever: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever


Bunyaviridae
(CCHFV)

Arbovirus encephalitis: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV) ·


Powassan encephalitis (PV)
Tick Flaviviridae
Viral hemorrhagic fever: Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHFV) ·
Kyasanur forest disease (KFDV/Alkhurma virus)

Reoviridae Colorado tick fever (CTFV)

Mammal Robovirus Viral hemorrhagic fever: Lassa fever (LV) · Venezuelan


hemorrhagic fever (Guanarito virus) · Argentine
Arenaviridae
hemorrhagic fever (Junin virus) · Bolivian hemorrhagic
fever (Machupo virus)

Puumala virus · Andes virus · Sin Nombre virus · Hantavirus


Bunyaviridae
infection (HV)
VHF: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EV) · Marburg
Filoviridae
hemorrhagic fever (MV)

RhabdoviridaeAustralian bat lyssavirus · Mokola virus · Duvenhage virus


Bat
Menangle · Henipavirus · Borna disease (Borna disease
Bornaviridae
virus)

RhabdoviridaeRabies (RV)
Multiple