BLUE TONGUE (Sore muzzle, Pseudo foot and mouth disease, Muzzle diseases) INTRODUCTION • • • Non contagious diseases

Arthropod borne viral diseases of sheep and other ruminants Endemic in some areas

CLASSIFICATION

Baltimore group- GroupIII double stranded RNA viruses Family- Reoviridae Genus- Orbivirus Species- Blue tongue virus

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Term- Reo means Respiratory Enteric Orphan viruses. MORPHOLOGY •

70-85nm in diameter Not enveloped, not ether sensitive. Icosahedral symmetry Capsid- two layersOuter capsid- two proteins-VP2 and VP5. VP2 major neutralizing antigen and determinant of serotype specificity. Core- VP7, VP3, three minor proteins and RNA VP7 –major determinant serotype specificity

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VP7- attach to insect cells 10 segments of double stranded RNA

RNA – Methylated cap, no poly tail

RESISTANCE • •

Lipid resistance Acid labile, slow freezing at -10 to-20˚C Inactivated- 50˚c /3 hours or 60˚C/15 minutes Β-propiolactone, Iodophores, phenolic compounds inactivate the virus. Very stable in blood stored at 20˚C Agglutinates mammalian RBCs

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SEROTYPES

14 serogroups- 24 serotypes Differentiated by immunological tests Cross reactions between BT and EHD serogroups.

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CULTIVATION • Embryonated chicken eggs and cell culture systems →ECE-route –yolksac-incubate at 33.5˚C. Embryos die in 2to 7 days. Haemorrhagescherry red appearance.

→Cell culturesystems like BHK-21, African green monkey kidney and Aedes albopictus cells. • Cytopathic effects-antigen capture ELISA, Immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase or virus neutralization tests.

PATHOGENESIS

Hosts-all ruminants mainly sheep. Cattle- reservoir host Distribution- Africa, America,Australia and Southern Asia and Oceania. Transmission- by Culicoides, also by semen, embryos and transplacentally. Mechanical – contaminated needles and equipment Incubation period- 7-10 days Morbidity- 100 percent,Mortality-0 to 50 percent Abortogenic and teratogenic properties

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Virus entry into host ↓ Initial replication in hematopoietic cells ↓ Viremia ↓ Subsequent replication in endothelial cells ↓ Swelling of endothelial cells and necrosis ↓ Edema, haemorrhages ↓

Thrombosis and infarction

SYMPTOMS

Oral buccal mucosa vascular affection and Reproductive syndrome

SHEEP • • •

Pyrexia-41.6-41.7˚C Excess salivation, frothing in mouth Arched back Sloughing of hooves Rapid weight loss Prostration and death Abortions, stillbirths and weak “dummy lamb”live births.

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CATTLE • • • • Mild hyperemia- buccal cavity and coronary band Vesicular lesions – ulcerations Hyperesthesia Production loss

GOAT • Inapparent affection

LESIONS • •

Depends on 1) strains of virus 2)individual animal and breed susceptibility 3) Environment factors Prominent lesions- facial oedema, edematous ears, and dry, crusty exudate over the nostrils. Oral lesions: Hyperemia, edema, cyanosis,multiple haemorrhages, swelling, erosions and ulcers of tongue and lateral surface of teeth.

Foot lesions:

Congestion of skin with oedema and PMN infiltration.

Skeletal muscle: 1. Haemorrhage and necrotic foci. 2. Haemorrhage in abomasums, duodenum and myocarditis. 3. Serosanguinous fluid in pericardium

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Fatty liver Large congested kidney Pulmonary edema and congestion New born lambs: Hydranencephaly Abnormal development of cerebellum and spinal cord

DIAGNOSIS • • Field diagnosis Isolation and identification 1. Clinical materials 2. Isolation systems
3. Immunological tests:

a. Serogrouping b. Serotyping 4. Nucleic acid detection methods:

Serological tests: 1. CFT 2. AGID TEST 3. Competitive ELISA

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS • • • • • FMD Pasteurellosis IBRT BVD-MD Epizootic haemorrhagic diseases of deer

TREATMENT

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Not effective, only supportive To minimize animal stress and bacterial infection

CONTROL AND ERADICATION •

Vector control Vaccination – endaemic areas. No inactivated or subunit vaccines available

ZOONOTIC IMPORTANCE • No known human infection associated with BTV.