Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

9 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- ANSYS USER Material Subroutine USERMAT 1999.pdf
- 02-02ChapGere
- Torsion
- Geometry of Crystals
- Optimized Design and Analysis of Chassis of a Quad bike
- Ge 440104
- From Theory to Practice Design of Excavation Support
- 2001-09-10_ECCMR_Paper
- Guntersville Alabama Presentation_for Valdosta Students
- Nogueira Oliveira Zornberg Azevedo 2008
- A NON-LOCKING COMPOSITE TETRAHEDRON ELEMENT FOR COMBINED FINITE DISCRETE ELEMENT METHOD
- Theory_ STRENGTH of MATERIALS_MechanicsofMaterials
- Smart
- Influence of Ni on Martensitic Phase Transformations in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys 2010 Acta Materialia
- CivE 205 5- Strain Energy
- Mogi Coding
- M1
- HW
- EC_CompositeTetrahedronPaper_ResearchGate_AsSent1(2).pdf
- Graphical Abstract & Highlights of Paper

You are on page 1of 12

DOI 10.1007/s10483-010-1359-7

c Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Applied Mathematics

and Mechanics

(English Edition)

Three dimensional large deformation analysis of phase transformation

in shape memory alloys

Kai-ming XIA ()

1

, Tong-yan PAN ()

2

, Shan-hong LIU ()

3

(1. Division of Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden 80401, USA;

2. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech,

Blackburg, VA 24061, USA;

3. Department of Bridge Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University,

Chongqing 400074, P. R. China)

(Communicated by Xing-ming GUO)

Abstract Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been explored as smart materials and

used as dampers, actuator elements, and smart sensors. An important character of SMAs

is its ability to recover all of its large deformations in mechanical loading-unloading cy-

cles without showing permanent deformation. This paper presents a stress-induced phe-

nomenological constitutive equation for SMAs, which can be used to describe the su-

perelastic hysteresis loops and phase transformation between Martensite and Austenite.

The Martensite fraction of SMAs is assumed to be dependent on deviatoric stress tensor.

Therefore, phase transformation of SMAs is volume preserving during the phase transfor-

mation. The model is implemented in large deformation nite element code and cast in

the updated Lagrangian scheme. In order to use the Cauchy stress and the linear strain

in constitutive laws, a frame indierent stress objective rate has to be used. In this paper,

the Jaumann stress rate is used. Results of the numerical experiments conducted in this

study show that the superelastic hysteresis loops arising with the phase transformation

can be eectively captured.

Key words shape memory alloys, phase transformation, superelasticity, large defor-

mation, nite element

Chinese Library Classication TG113.26, O343.5

2000 Mathematics Subject Classication 74B20

1 Introduction

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have emerged as fascinating materials featuring two desired

engineering properties: shape memory eect and superelasticity. When subjected to cyclic

mechanical loading-unloading, SMAs are capable of recovering all large deformations without

showing permanent deformation; in thermal cyclings, recovering residual strains. A detailed

introduction about SMAs can be found in a review by Birman

[1]

. For most shape memory ma-

terials, the maximum residual strain

[2]

can reach 8%15%. Under such large deformation, large

Received May. 17, 2010 / Revised Jul. 30, 2010

Corresponding to Kai-ming XIA, Ph. D., E-mail: kaiming.xia@gmail.com

1262 Kai-ming XIA, Tong-yan PAN, and Shan-hong LIU

rigid body motion can occur, thereby rendering small strain measure invalid and necessitating

the use of nite strain measures. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize that the deformation of

SMAs could be relatively large during a loading-unloading cycle, which in turn necessities the

clear distinguishing between the reference conguration (undeformed conguration) and the

current or deformed conguration after loading.

As a smart material, SMAs can undergo reversible changes in their crystallographic structure

and are able to recover large strains without introducing irreversible inelastic deformation. This

reversible deformation change can be interpreted as Martensite phase transformation between

Austenite and Martensite. Due to the strong interest in SMAs, some of these constitutive

models have been proposed in literatures [39] during the past two decades. Nearly all these

material models are one-dimensional (1D) phenomenological descriptions that are proposed

based on exclusively experimental observations. As a robust numerical simulation tool, nite

element method has also been used to simulate the superelastic behavior of SMAs. Several

numerical studies have been conducted on nite deformation

[1012]

and small deformation

[58,13]

.

Comparatively, not many can be found on the three-dimensional nite deformation in the open

literature. During the phase transformation, the superelastic constitutive model of SMAs can

be modeled as a J

2

-type generalized plasticity

[3]

, which will exhibit volume preserving phase

transformation. The extension of small deformation to large deformation using the updated

Lagrangian formulation for superelasticity of SMAs is the focus of these methodologies.

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briey describes a phenomenological consti-

tutive equation for superelasticity of SMAs. Section 3 presents the kinematics and weak for-

mulations in the framework of updated Lagrangian conguration. Finite element formulation

is presented in Section 4. And the integration of constitutive equation is discussed in Section

5. With some numerical examples, the performance of the large deformation superelasticity is

examined in Section 6. Concluding remarks are given in Section 7.

2 Phase transformation and superelasticity for SMAs

Among the available models, the one developed by Lubliner and Auricchio

[3]

is based on

generalized plasticity and is the most numerical-oriented one that can be easily implemented

into nonlinear nite element code. Figure 1 illustrates the general superelastic behavior of an

SMA material. The phase transformation function is expressed as an internal evolution equation

in terms of the Martensite volume fraction (0 1) and other material parameters, such as

the Martensite start S

MS

, the Martensite nish S

MF

, the Austenite start S

AS

, and the Austenite

nish S

AF

. The four corresponding axial stress parameters are shown in the left gure of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Superelastic behavior of SMA material

For an SMA structure loaded at a constant temperature higher than A

F

, it will deform elas-

tically until the stress state reach a transformation critical state activating the martensitic phase

transformation. Increasing the load will gradually drive the martensitic phase transformation

towards a complete phase transformation denoted by an internal parameter [0, 1], which is

Three dimensional large deformation analysis of phase transformation in shape memory alloys 1263

used to represent the Martensite fraction within the SMA. The material will be all Austenite

if the internal parameter equals zero and will be all Martensite if the internal parameter is 1.

Once the SMA has become completely martensitic, it recovers the complete elasticity like that

in its initial austenitic state. An unloading will lead to a reverse phase transformation from

Martensite to Austenite.

Figure 2 is used to describe the superelastic behavior of SMAs, which is modeled as a

generalized J

2

-type plasticity and exhibits isochoric deformation. The detailed part of this

model was introduced by Masud and Xia

[13]

. This constitutive model inherits the merit of

the generalized plasticity and describes the diusionless phase transformation as an internal-

variable model of rate-independent inelasticity. For incomplete phase transformation, we have

the corresponding partial phase transformation parameters: Martensite start V

MS

, Martensite

nish V

MF

, Austenite start V

AS

, and Austenite nish V

AF

. The present discussion is limited to

the superelastic behavior of SMAs, only isothermal process is considered here.

Fig. 2 Complete and incomplete phase transformation: AM

The phase transformation function, F (S, ), is assumed to be only dependent on the devia-

toric part of the stress tensor. A 3D nonlinear cosine SMA constitutive model is proposed here,

and the parameter S is dened as

S = s =

s

ij

: s

ij

=

_

2J

2

. (1)

The phase transformation function for a complete and incomplete AM and MA can be

given by F

AM

(, S) and F

MA

(, S), respectively, as

_

F

AM

(, S) =

1

2

[cos a

M

(S V

MF

) + 1] (V

MS

S V

MF

),

F

MA

(, S) = +

1

2

[cos a

A

(S V

AF

) 1] (V

AF

S V

AS

),

(2)

where

a

M

= / (S

MS

S

MF

) , (3)

a

A

= / (S

AS

S

AF

) . (4)

The limiting stresses for the start and the nish of the incomplete transformation are

_

V

MS

= (1

p

) S

MS

+

p

S

AS

,

V

MF

= (1 +

p

) S

AS

+ (1

p

) S

MS

S

AF

arccos (1 2

p

)

a

A

,

(5)

1264 Kai-ming XIA, Tong-yan PAN, and Shan-hong LIU

_

V

AS

= (1

p

) S

MS

+

p

S

AS

,

V

AF

= S

MS

S

MF

+ (1

p

) S

MS

+

p

S

AS

arccos (2

p

1)

a

M

.

(6)

Here,

p

is the updated Martensite fraction during the previous phase transformation MA or

AM. The activation for phase transformations is dened as

_

V

MS

S V

MF

,

S > 0, A M,

V

AF

S V

AS

,

S < 0, M A.

(7)

For a three dimensional analysis, the four parameters: S

MS

, S

MF

, S

AS

, and S

AF

are related to

the uniaxial bounds. The corresponding Kuhn-Tucker forward/reverse phase transformation

conditions are appended to the model

_

0, F

AM

(S, ) 0,

F

AM

(S, ) = 0,

0, F

MA

(S, ) 0,

F

MA

(S, ) = 0.

(8)

The developed cosine constitutive model is based on the following assumptions: the phase

transformations are induced only by the deviatoric part of the stress and aected only by the

deviatoric part of the strain. The evolutionary equation for inelastic strain is given by

I

= e

t

L

x = e

t

L

n, (9)

x =

n, (10)

where e

t

L

is the maximum residuum strain dened by e

t

L

=

_

3/2

L

, n is a unit vector normal

to the phase transformation surface (equivalent to the plastic yield surface) given by

n =

s

s

. (11)

3 Linearized weak form for the updated Lagrangian formulation

Continuum based formulations for large deformation analysis can be written either in the

reference or in the current conguration. Discretization of the formulations written in the

material/referential conguration or in the spatial/current conguration leads to the so-called

total-Lagrangian or the updated-Lagrangian method, respectively. The principle of virtual work

that leads to the energy functional consisting of internal and external work can be expressed in

the reference conguration at time t

0

as

W (u, V

0

) =

_

V0

S : EdV

_

V0

u b

0

dV

_

0

u t

0

d, (12)

where S is the second Piola-Kircho stress tensor and is related to the Cauchy stress tensor

via the standard relation = FSF

T

/J; E is the Green-Lagrange strain tensor and dened by

E

ij

= (u

i,j

+u

j,i

+u

k,i

u

k,j

) /2; b

0

and t

0

are the body force vector and the traction vector in

the reference conguration, respectively. (12) can be linearized and cast in the Newton-Raphson

framework as

W (u,

0

) + D

u

W (u,

0

) u = 0. (13)

Since (12) is linear with respect to the external work expressions, the linearization of the

external virtual work vanishes. Equation (12), however, is nonlinear with respect to the internal

Three dimensional large deformation analysis of phase transformation in shape memory alloys 1265

energy and its linearization leads to the following form:

D

int

W (u, V

0

) u =

_

V0

(E : DS +S : D(E))dV

=

_

V0

E : C : DEdV +

_

V0

S : D(E) dV . (14)

Re-writing (14) in the rate form and pushing forward (14) to the current conguration, the

updated Lagrangian formulation yields

_

Vn+1

(u) : dV +

_

Vn+1

(u) : (

n

1) : (u) dV

=

_

Vn+1

u bdV +

_

n+1

u td

_

Vn+1

(u) :

n

dV. (15)

In order to use the Cauchy stress and the linear strain in constitutive laws, a frame indierent

stress rate is used in (15). For nite deformation, the use of constitutive equations in rate form

is requested. In large-deformation analysis, equations of this type ought to be written in terms

of objective rates to maintain correct rotational transformation properties. Rate constitutive

relations can be alternatively formulated in a material or a spatial setting. The former case

involves rates of material tensors that are always objective. In a spatial formulation, however,

material rates of objective tensors are not objective and objective stress rates are commonly

used, such as the Jaumann stress rate. In a spatial setting, these equations express a relationship

between the objective rate of a spatial stress tensor such as the Cauchy or Kirchho stress

tensor and the rate of deformation. In contrast with small deformation, the strain rate for

small deformation will be replaced by the deformation rate. The Jaumann rate of the Cauchy

stress tensor is used in this study and reads

D

Dt

=

J

+ +

T

= C

J

EI

: D+ +

T

. (16)

The rate of the Cauchy stress tensor is written in terms of the spin invariant Jaumann

stress rate. The superscript J denotes the Jaumann stress rate. The material derivative of

the Cauchy stress consists of two parts: the rate of change due to material response (reected

in the objective rate), and the change of stress due to nite rotation (corresponding to the last

two terms). C

J

EI

is the tangent modulus. D is the rate of deformation and the symmetric part

of the velocity gradient L, which is given by

D =

1

2

_

v +

T

v

_

=

1

2

_

L+L

T

_

= , (17)

=

1

2

_

v

T

v

_

=

1

2

_

LL

T

_

, (18)

is the eective spin rotation with respect to the current conguration, and can be given as

= t =

1

2

_

u

T

u

_

. (19)

The incremental strain with respect to the current conguration is given by

= Dt. (20)

Therefore, the incremental stress tensor takes the form

= t = C

J

EI

: +

_

n

+

n

T

_

. (21)

1266 Kai-ming XIA, Tong-yan PAN, and Shan-hong LIU

Substituting (21) into (15), the updated Lagrangian formulation is obtained based on the Jau-

mann stress rate and reads

_

Vn+1

(u) : C : dV +

_

Vn+1

(u) :

_

n

+

n

T

_

dV

+

_

Vn+1

(u) : (

n

1) : (u) dV

=

_

Vn+1

u bdV +

_

n+1

u td

_

Vn+1

(u) :

n

dV. (22)

The use of the Jaumann stress rate allows for simplifying the stress integration algorithm

and taking the similar solution strategy of small deformation for large deformation. Based

on (22), one can see that the tangent stiness for large deformation includes two parts: the

standard material stiness and the initial stress stiness.

4 Finite element formulations

With the introduction of the nite element interpolation and the discretization of the lin-

earized weak form of (22), the incremental displacement u at any point within the element

can be expressed in terms of nodal degree of freedom as

u = (u)

T

(N)

T

, u

h

= Nu

e

, (23)

h

= Bu

e

,

h

= B

w

u

e

. (24)

Here, e denotes element, is used to denote the rotation of spin tensor and the matrix

form for the components of spin tensor . Substituting (23) through (24) into (22), we obtain

the matrix form of the updated Lagrangian formulation

(K

e

M

+K

e

G

+K

e

) u

e

= R

e

, (25)

where

K

e

M

=

_

V

e

n+1

B

T

CBdV (material stiness), (26)

K

e

G

=

_

V

e

n+1

G

T

( 1) GdV (geometric nonliear part), (27)

K

e

=

_

V

e

n+1

_

B

W

u

_

T

T

dV +

_

V

e

n+1

_

B

W

u

_

T

dV (nite rotation part), (28)

R

e

=

_

V

e

n+1

N bdV +

_

e

n+1

N td

_

V

e

n+1

B

n

dV, (29)

G =

_

N

1

N

i

N

ne

. (30)

(26) through (29) are the standard material, the geometric element stiness matrices, and

the residual vector, respectively. The global stiness matrix can be obtained by assembling the

nite element stiness and residual vector together and given by

NEL

A

e=1

(K

e

M

+K

e

G

+K

e

) u = F

nodal

+

NEL

A

e=1

(R

e

) . (31)

Three dimensional large deformation analysis of phase transformation in shape memory alloys 1267

5 Numerical integration of superelastic constitutive equation

In this numerical study, the stress components are referred to a xed coordinate basis, the

stress at the start of the increment from time t

n

to time t

n+1

must also be rotated to account for

the body rotation that occurs in the increment [1416]. In the superelastic model, the Cauchy

stress is used and expressed in terms of the Jaumann rate, which is denoted by the superscript

J. The additive decomposition of the rate of deformation tensor, D, into elastic and inelastic

parts is assumed to be

D = D

e

+D

I

. (32)

The elastic response is specied by applying the hypoelastic law to the elastic part of the

rate of deformation and reads

J

= C

J

E

: D

e

t = C

J

E

:

_

DD

I

_

t = C

J

E

:

_

I

_

. (33)

The objectivity requires that elastic modulus C

J

E

should be isotropic. Otherwise, it will

change as the material rotates due to its expression in terms of a xed coordinate system by

the push-forward. As the rate of deformation is used to calculate the incremental strain with

respect to the current conguration for large deformation, the return mapping algorithm for

the nite inelasticity is the same as the small strain formulation. A backward Euler integration

algorithm is applied to the superelastic behavior due to the SMA phase transformation. From

the converged solution at time t = t

n

, one can compute the solution at time t = t

n+1

by

integrating the rate constitutive equations. The operator-splitting, elastic-predictor, inelastic-

corrector methods

[16]

were used to integrate the constitutive equation. The two-step algorithm

for phase transformation of SMAs are summarized as follows:

(i) Elastic predictor

We assume that in the interval [t

n

, t

n+1

], no phase transformation occurs. Therefore, the

trial values are

tr

= 0, (34)

tr

n+1

=

n

+ =

n

+

n

n

+

n

T

n

+C

J

EI

: Dt. (35)

If the elastic trial state is admissible, it does not satisfy the conditions for a phase transfor-

mation. Then, it represents the new solution at t

n+1

and the second part of the algorithm is

skipped. If the elastic trial state is not admissible, a correction will be needed to determine the

real solution state.

(ii) Inelastic corrector

Enforcing the satisfaction of the phase transformation constitutive equation, the discrete

phase transformation functions for both directions are given by

_

_

F

AM

=

n

+

1

2

cos(a

M

(S

tr

2Ge

t

L

V

MF

))

1

2

= 0,

F

MA

=

n

+

1

2

cos(a

A

(S

tr

2Ge

t

L

V

0

AS

))

1

2

= 0.

(36)

The scalar parameter denotes the change of Martensite fraction and is computed using

the local Newton-Raphson in Table 1. When taking non-zero values, the incremental inelastic

strain and the Cauchy stress tensor can be updated as

I

= e

t

L

n, (37)

n =

s

s

=

s

tr

s

tr

, (38)

n+1

=

n

+

n

n

+

n

T

n

+C

J

E

:

_

e

t

L

n

_

. (39)

1268 Kai-ming XIA, Tong-yan PAN, and Shan-hong LIU

Also based on literature [14], we have the equivalent relationship as follows:

n

+

n

n

+

n

t

n

= R

n

R

T

. (40)

Therefore, the norm of deviatoric stress tensor is calculated by

S = s = S

tr

2Ge

t

L

. (41)

The tangent modulus can be obtained by taking the derivative of the incremental stress tensor

due to the Jaumann rate,

C

J

EI

=

= K1 1 + 2G

_

1

2Ge

t

L

s

tr

_

I

dev

+ 2G

_

2Ge

t

L

s

tr

e

t

L

_

n n. (42)

The parameter is dependent on the phase transformation direction from AM or MA,

which is given by

=

_

_

a

M

Gsin [a

M

(S

tr

2Ge

t

L

V

MF

)]

1 a

M

Ge

t

L

sin [a

M

(S

tr

2Ge

t

L

V

MF

)]

(for A M) ,

a

A

Gsin

_

a

A

_

S

tr

2Ge

t

L

V

0

AS

_

1 a

A

Ge

t

L

sin [a

A

(S

tr

2Ge

t

L

V

0

AS

)]

(for A M).

(43)

The fourth-order continuum tangent modulus tensor can be used in a similar way as the

conventional elasto-plastic tangent modulus. When SMA is in fully Austenite or fully Marten-

site, the change of the Martensite fraction becomes zero and the elastic material stiness is

recovered.

6 Numerical examples

6.1 Uniaxial test

The aim of this numerical example is to demonstrate large deformation analysis of volume-

preserving stress-induced phase transformation. The specimen is loaded under an axial uniform

displacement control. The geometries and dened boundary conditions of the test specimen

can be seen in Fig. 3. The material properties used for the simulation of the SMA device are

S

MS

=75 MPa, S

MF

= 90 MPa, S

AS

= 70 MPa, S

AF

= 55 MPa, E= 7 500 MPa, = 0.499 9, and

the maximum residual strain is 0.06. In this example, an incomplete and complete phase trans-

formation A M test is investigated, which will validate the eciency of the proposed stress-

induced phase transformation model for SMA. For SMA, the important mechanical behavior is

being able to recover the deformation after unloading, which should exhibit a hysteresis loop

of displacement versus load. This is applicable to incomplete and complete Martensite phase

transformation.

Figure 4 shows the superelastic hysteresis loops for stress versus elongation for incomplete

and complete phase transformation from Austenite to Martensite. Figure 5 presents the Marten-

site fraction versus device elongation. Overall, these results demonstrate the proposed large

deformation superelastic analysis can eectively capture the incomplete and complete phase

transformation and its accompanying superelastic hysteresis loop. Figure 6 shows the axial

stress versus elongation for incomplete and complete phase transformation from Austenite to

Martensite under the loading of compression and tension. Since the phase transformation func-

tion is dependent on the norm of deviatoric stress tensor, the proposed model produces the

similar hysteresis loop under the loading of both compression and tension loads. These two

results clearly verify the performance of the developed model.

Three dimensional large deformation analysis of phase transformation in shape memory alloys 1269

Fig. 3 Uniaxial test with hexahedral mesh

Fig. 4 Uniaxial stress versus elongation for

incomplete and complete Martensite

phase transformation

Fig. 5 Martensite fraction versus elongation

incomplete and complete Martensite

phase transformation

Fig. 6 Axial stress versus elongation for in-

complete and complete phase transfor-

mation from Austenite to Martensite

under the loading of compression and

tension loads

6.2 Three-dimensional cantilever beam bending

Figure 7 shows the nite element mesh of a three-dimensional beam subjected to a shear

loading at the right-front end. The beam is xed at the left-back end. The geometric size of the

beam is 40 mm in length, 4 mm in width, and 10 mm in height. The material properties used for

the simulation of the SMA device are S

MS

=110 MPa, S

MF

=140 MPa, S

AS

=100 MPa, S

AF

=70

MPa, E=7 500 MPa, = 0.35, and the maximum residual strain is 0.06. In this example, the

application of the model for three dimensional beam bending cases will be demonstrated. Both

small deformation and large deformation are investigated.

Figure 8 shows the displacement at the point of initial coordinate (40, 0, 0) with respect to the

external load. It is seen in Fig. 7 that presented large deformation formulation and the stress-

induced constitutive model can eectively predict the superelastic behavior of SMA for this three

dimensional beam bending problem. The hysteresis loop of the displacement-load response at

the node of initial coordinate (40, 0, 0) can be captured. Also, the deformation can be fully

recovered after unloading. The solutions for tip deection obtained from small deformation

formulation and large deformation formulation are shown in Fig. 8. The small deformation

produces relatively larger displacement than large deformation does. It can be easily seen that

large deformation will produce relatively smaller displacement in contrast to that produced

by small deformation. This is due to the fact that the stiness for large deformation has an

additional part of initial stress stiness with respect to the current conguration, which leads

to a relatively small deformation for large deformation analysis. This comparison clearly shows

1270 Kai-ming XIA, Tong-yan PAN, and Shan-hong LIU

the dierence between large deformation and small deformation. The hysteresis loop indicates

that the SMA has energy dissipation capacity and is crucial to its eectiveness in damping

out structural vibration. Figure 9 shows the stress

11

contour projected on the deformed

congurations along with the original conguration at the load, which is equal to 384 N and

631 N, respectively.

For the superelastic behavior of SMAs, Martensite fraction is an important index to measure

the phase transformation. We calculate the Martensite fraction during the phase transforma-

tion at the integral point within elements for post-processing. Figure 10 presents the Martensite

fraction contour projected on deformed congurations for three dierent phase states. It illus-

trates the phase state on the transformation path from Austenite to Martensite. The second

one of Fig. 10 shows the turning point corresponding to the peak loading state, which corre-

sponds to the highest volume of SMAs having phase transformation. All these gures clearly

show that phase transformation only occur in a local area of the bending beam for the ap-

plied external load level. Most of the other area of the beam deforms elastically with no phase

transformation observed. Based on the phase transformation function, this indicates that the

norm of deviatoric stress in this area is higher than S

MS

. These gures clearly show that phase

transformation produced from this superelastic model is reversible and can be fully recovered

after fully unloading.

Fig. 7 Finite element mesh for beam bending

Fig. 8 Tip deection versus load for both small and large deformation methods

Fig. 9 Stress xx contour projected on the deformed conguration

Three dimensional large deformation analysis of phase transformation in shape memory alloys 1271

Fig. 10 Martensite fraction contour projected on the deformed conguration

7 Concluding remarks

In this paper, a three dimensional nite element algorithm for both material and geometric

nonlinearity is developed for simulating the superelasticity of SMAs. An updated Lagrangian

formulation is used that allows the use of the weak forms that, involving integrals, are taken

with respect to the spatial coordinates on the current conguration. The rate of deformation

is used as the measure of strain rate for updated Lagrangian formulation. In order to keep

the principle of objectivity, an objective integration algorithm with Jaumann stress rate is

employed to account for the rotation of the stress in a superimposed rigid body. As a result, the

objective rate of stress to maintain correct rotational transformation properties is maintained,

which allows the use of Cauchy stress and the linear strain in constitutive laws. For large

deformation, two additional stiness terms relating to initial stress are added compared to that

of small deformation. Representative simulations are run for the cases of uniaxial tension and

beam bending. Numerical results show that the derived formulations for both material and

geometric nonlinearities can eectively capture the superelastic response with hysteresis loop

of SMAs.

References

[1] Birman, V. Review of mechanics of shape memory alloy structures. Applied Mechanics Reviews

50, 629645 (1998)

[2] Duerig, T. W., Melton, K. N., Stockel, D., and Wayman, C. M. Engineering Aspects of Shape

Memory Alloys, Butterworth-Heinemann, 137148 (1990)

[3] Lubliner, J. and Auricchio, F. Gerenalized plasticity and shape memory alloys. International

Journal of Solids and Structures 33, 9911003 (1996)

[4] Auricchio, F., Taylor, R. L., and Lubliner, J. Shape-memory alloys: macromodelling and numerical

simulations of the superelastic behavior. Comp. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 146, 281312 (1997)

[5] Barret, D. J. and Sullivan, B. J. A three-dimensional phase transformation model for shape

memory alloys. J. Intel. Mater. Syst. Struct. 6, 831839 (1995)

[6] Brinson, L. C. and Lammering, R. Finite-element analysis of the behavior of shape memory alloys

and their applications. International Journal of Solids and Structures 30, 32613280 (1993)

[7] Qidwai, M. A. and Lagoudas, D. C. Numerical implementation of a shape memory alloy thermome-

chanical constitutive model using return mapping algorithms. International Journal of Numerical

Methods in Engineering 47, 11231168 (2000)

[8] Rengarajan, G., Kumar, R. K., and Reddy, J. N. Numerical modeling of stress induced martensitic

phase transformations in shape memory alloys. International Journal of Solids and Structures 35,

14891513 (1998)

[9] Tanaka, K., Nishimura, F., Hayashi, T., Tobushi, H., and Lexcellent, C. Phenomenological analysis

on subloops and cyclic behavior in shape memory alloys under mechanical and/or thermal loads.

Mechnica of Materials 19, 281292 (1995)

1272 Kai-ming XIA, Tong-yan PAN, and Shan-hong LIU

[10] Masud A., Panahandeh, M., and Aurrichio, F. Finite-strain nite element model for the pseudoe-

lastic behavior of shape memory alloys. Comp. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 148, 2337 (1997)

[11] Auricchio, F. A robust integration-algorithm for a nite-strain shape memory alloy superelastic

model. International Journal of Plasticity 17, 971990 (2001)

[12] Stein, E. and Sagar, G. Theory and nite element computation of cyclic martensitic phase trans-

formation at nite strain. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 74, 131

(2008)

[13] Masud, A. and Xia, K. A variational multiscale method for computational inelasticity: application

to superelasticity in shape memory alloys. Comp. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 195, 45124531

(2006)

[14] Hughes, T. J. R. and Winget, J. Finite rotation eects in numerical integration of rate constitutive

equations arising in large-deformation analysis. International Journal of Numerical Methods in

Engineering 33, 14131449 (1980)

[15] Simo, J. C. and Hughes, T. J. R. Computational Inelasticity, Springer-Verlag, New York (1993)

[16] Belytschko, T., Liu, W. K., and Moran, B. Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures,

John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York (2000)

- ANSYS USER Material Subroutine USERMAT 1999.pdfUploaded bysplee1981
- 02-02ChapGereUploaded byChristina Buckle
- TorsionUploaded byMahmud Muhammad
- Geometry of CrystalsUploaded byg_koko
- Optimized Design and Analysis of Chassis of a Quad bikeUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Ge 440104Uploaded byFelipe Pereira
- From Theory to Practice Design of Excavation SupportUploaded byBajocar
- 2001-09-10_ECCMR_PaperUploaded byDalibor Petkovic
- Guntersville Alabama Presentation_for Valdosta StudentsUploaded byMilija Dmitrovic
- Nogueira Oliveira Zornberg Azevedo 2008Uploaded byLuciuss Ill
- A NON-LOCKING COMPOSITE TETRAHEDRON ELEMENT FOR COMBINED FINITE DISCRETE ELEMENT METHODUploaded byyagebu88
- Theory_ STRENGTH of MATERIALS_MechanicsofMaterialsUploaded byGustav
- SmartUploaded bySanthuCivil
- Influence of Ni on Martensitic Phase Transformations in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys 2010 Acta MaterialiaUploaded byJhonk Figueroa
- CivE 205 5- Strain EnergyUploaded byJohn Doe
- Mogi CodingUploaded byAfifah Nurul Maulina
- M1Uploaded byMelmar Jangerald Sabio
- HWUploaded byDrSn Padhi
- EC_CompositeTetrahedronPaper_ResearchGate_AsSent1(2).pdfUploaded byyagebu88
- Graphical Abstract & Highlights of PaperUploaded byYogesh Dewang
- Problem Set 2Uploaded byJeff Bayed
- 1.0 Introduction (CE-312)Uploaded byjinna
- strain.pdfUploaded byChandra Clark
- Calibrating discrete fracture-network models with a carbonate three-dimensional outcrop fracture network Implications for naturally fractured reservoir modeling.pdfUploaded byEsmeralda Lorens
- Inter Facial Stresses in Plated BeamsUploaded byFarhan Shahid
- epjconf_ICEM14_22007Uploaded byRamesh Kumar
- Plane Strain & Stress AssumptionsUploaded byAbdul Aziz Abdul Majid
- Interfacial debonding and fibre pull-out stressesUploaded bylondemon
- 2015 PARAMBIL Micromechanical Damage Analysis InUploaded byMarcos Manuel Azcaray Rivera
- Weinberg 2016Uploaded byamd mhm

- Fractal SquareUploaded byJose Fernandez
- Micro Foto Graf i AsUploaded byJose Fernandez
- 2006 Int Ansys Conf 43Uploaded byNicholas Waters
- 10 Polymers...(pp.141-146)Uploaded byJose Fernandez
- 08BAXS2007 ANDERSON Thermal ExpansionUploaded byJose Fernandez
- Contadores de PlcUploaded byJose Fernandez
- t7a Iso Uk Parkersales eUploaded byJose Fernandez
- T7 Industriel Sales HY29 0001 UKUploaded byJose Fernandez
- T6 Mobile Sales HY29 0002 UKUploaded byJose Fernandez
- 06 - 750 Series Hand PumpsUploaded byJose Fernandez
- 05 - 3 Piston Cartridge PumpsUploaded byJose Fernandez
- 04 - Miniature Piston PumpsUploaded byingemekanical
- ANSI 87.1 de 2010 (English)Uploaded byJeffreyAAH
- 1785-sg001_-en-pUploaded byJose Fernandez
- PLC5 SpecificationsUploaded byJose Fernandez
- Ab-factorytalkview Hmi TutorialUploaded byyazid32
- Box Counting DimUploaded byJose Fernandez
- Tutorial 6Uploaded byerrante0121
- Tutorial RSView32Uploaded byJose Fernandez
- (2007!08!02) Computer Simulation of Casting Process of Aluminum Wheels -- A Case StudyUploaded byJose Fernandez
- Koch PropertiesUploaded byJose Fernandez
- 8004762g1Uploaded byFabian Francia
- 03 Con1d Mtb PostUploaded byJose Fernandez

- Face Grooving & Turning -User GuideUploaded byrrf_ar
- 7179703-Svetsaren12007Uploaded byVijo Jose
- Yogender ChUploaded byKumar Chandan Jha
- 2. TTT DiagramsUploaded byNwofor Chigozi
- Orthodontic Wires -Properties / orthodontic courses by Indian dental academyUploaded byindian dental academy
- Welding BookUploaded byvis3012
- Introduction to Stainless SteelsUploaded byEswar
- ch11Uploaded bykambletanaji
- Welding of SS GC-08Uploaded bykr_abhijeet72356587
- 423 Teaching Chapter-2a ProcessingUploaded bymuji
- 1Uploaded byapocalypsevoid83
- A New Ferritic-Martensitic Stainless SteelUploaded byiwemetal09
- FastenalTechnicalReferenceGuideUploaded byRamachandran Venkatesh
- CP0069 FullUploaded byAnonymous HbPVYyYlbD
- Interpreting Carburized Case DepthsUploaded bymp87_ing
- 6. Engineering Materials by S K Mondal.pdfUploaded byngaggu93
- libro de fisicaUploaded byRamiro Meza
- SSP421 Body BasicsUploaded bymamuko
- Detailed SyllabusUploaded byAnup Junankar
- A1088-13 Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Complex Phase (CP), Dual Phase (DP) and Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP)Uploaded bytjt4779
- Glenn Bigelow DissertaUploaded bytodd_483718489
- Stress Rupture Behavior of Post Weld Heat Treated 2%281 4 Cr%2d1mo Steel Weld Metal 12495Uploaded byclaude.bouillot3566
- emm 2nd unit notesUploaded byjamunaa83
- MPC20140003_AuthorProofsUploaded byJose Soto
- Stronger SentencesUploaded byWill Kurlinkus
- Material Science Important Questions for AMIE Section-AUploaded byThota Sai Swaroop
- Quenching heat treatment.pdfUploaded bysmani170
- Koyo 特殊環境軸承型錄Uploaded byAlan Tsai
- Che 3330_spring 2012 Hw 5Uploaded byBrett Casserly
- 11 Heat TreatmentUploaded byamokhta