JEWS' COLLEGE PUBLICATIONS No. 10

THE OLD

RABBINIC

DOCTRINE OF GOD
I. THE NAMES & ATTRIBUTES OF GOD
BY

A. MARMORSTEIN, PH.D., RABBI

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON HUMPHREY MILFORD 1927

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS London Edinburgh Glasgow Copenhagen New York Toronto Melbourne Capetown Bombay Calcutta Madras Shanghai
HUMPHREY MTLFORD

Publisher to the University

Printed in Great Britain

PREFACE
THE treatment of our subject requires no special apology or recommendation. There is as yet no comprehensive work dealing with our subject, which is somewhat surprising, considering its importance. The great masters of Jewish studies paved the path for grouping the works and classifying the teachers of the Haggadic literature. They left many branches of these studies untouched. Among these the theological conceptions and teachings have rightly the first claim. The first chapter of the Old-Rabbinic theology has to be devoted to the doctrine of God. The teachings of the Rabbis about God are like a mirror of the Jewish soul: without them the Jew, his history and glory, his suffering and joy, cannot be understood. These teachers exercised a greater influence on the world than some writers and scholars think, or would fain make others believe. We hope that this contribution to Rabbinic theology will help to prove the vitality of the old, dead teachers of Judaism. We regret that the work has to be printed in two parts. That this part, dealing with the names and attributes of God, can appear is due to Mr. S. Japhet, the esteemed Chairman of the Council of the Jews' College, whose kindness is hereby gratefully acknowledged. We have also to thank my friend, the Rev. R. Birch-Hoyle, A.T.S., Baptist minister, Belvedere (Kent), for his valuable assistance given me in reading the manuscript and proofs of my work.
A . MARMORSTEIN. LONDON, 218t

April,

1927.

.

. IV. . III. (5) Truth (6) Justice (7) Goodness (8) Purity and Holiness . . B. THE NAMES OF GOD I.CONTENTS PAGES INTRODUCTION A. The Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton The Names of God in the Bible The Rabbinic Synonyms for God The Sources 7-16 17-145 17-40 41-53 54-107 108-147 J48-217 148-153 153-160 160-176 176-179 179-181 181-196 196-208 208-217 . THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD (1) Omnipresence (2) Omniscience (3) Omnipotence (4) The Eternity of God . . II.

or AdRN = Agadath Bereshith. Buber. ed. Κ. Pes. = Monatsschrift für die Geschichte und Wissenschaft des MGWJ M.R. Epstein. Friedmann. S. r. ed. ‫ =־‬Pesikta. = Pesikta rabbati. Cant. ‫־‬ = ‫ ־‬Berakhoth.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Aboth dRN. S. Hoffmann. = Exodus rabba. = Lamentations rabba. ed. Ber. R. ed. = Mekhilta. É. Buber. Β = Babylonian Talmud. Eliezer. Pal. = Revue des Etudes Juives. Ps. Friedmann. or F. = Baba Kamma. ‫ =־‬Leviticus rabba. Tanhuma = Theodor. Tos. r. ed. Fried mann. = Midrash Tannaim. Β. = Jerushalmi. Lam. Α. Th. = Zeitschrift f u r Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft ZAW = Zeitschrift f ü r Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft. Β. Tadshe = Midrash Tadshe. =‫ ־‬Aboda Zara. = Canticles rabba. B. ed. Eccl. Mekh. — Midrash Samuel. = Mishnah. H. Frankfurt a. Tor. ‫=־‬ Tosefta. Nathan. = ed. r. Koh. Ag. Simon ben Johai. Buber. M. or =‫ ־‬Torath Kohanim. Z. Deut. r. Exod.E. Friedmann. Pirke R. = ed. Ruth r. H. Μ. = Palestinian Talmud. Buber. O. ed. Pes. B. Gen. Β. ed. =‫ ־‬Deuteronomy rabba.Zuckermandel. also Pal.R. = Bends Jonathan Targum on the Pentateuch. Theodor. Hoffmann. Warsaw. = Hebräische Bibliographie. M. M. Schecliter. y. ed. = Mekhilta R. Sam. Β. Ber. ZfNW . r. = Ruth rabba. ed. — Genesis rabba. [Judentums.E. Num. b. M. ‫ =־‬Buber. = Baba Bathra. Sifre T. = Ecclesiastes rabba. M. S. = Baba Mezia. = Aboth di R. or = Seder Elijahu rabba or zutta. = Midrash Psalms. ed. J. = Rosh Ha Shanah. B. r. Buber ( = B). = Numbers r. Lev. K. ed. 1‫־‬. = Pirke di R. ed.Z. J . R.J. ed. r. ed. E. r. Jon. Tan. Β or Bab.

.. 128). 1884. Ix. N. 24-31. pp. 4 . see Num. preachers and study. of themselves. as to Abraham. without teachers and books. 44. EÉJ. Levy. recognized and arrived at the knowledge of God the Creator. Cant ed. b.‫מרשי רשומות‬ The old allegorists distinctly point out the twofold aim of the Haggada : the recognition of God. ‫מגורת ה מ א ו ר‬. 14.p. 1*. Krotoschin. v. worth while to consult these anticipators of present-day ! sifre Deut. Yoma 75 A. ed. i. Berlin. ed.. 2 For instance. S. 64.INTRODUCTION IF thou desirest to recognize Him who spake and the world was created. r. learn Haggada. R. 32 a . and the following in God's ways. Neumark. The popularity of the Haggada is often emphasized. Mekh. or the imitatio Dei. Abraham. JQRN. therefore. v. M. Ned.2 The Haggada is still the best teacher to make the human Divine and the Divine human. 51 A. 39. on the allegorists. ‫דורשי ר ש ו מ ו ת א ו מ ר י ם רצונך ש ת כ י ר מ^ ש א מ ר‬ ‫והיה העולם ל מ ו ד ה ג ד ה ש מ ת ו ך כ ך א ת ה מ כ י ר א ת הקב״ה ו מ ד ב ק ב ד ר כ י ו‬. Modern thought concerning the philosophy of religion draws nearer to this conception of the real function of belief and religion. 230 . 8 . The neglect of haggadic studies leads to the disregard of the works of God and to the destruction of the operation of His hands. Ps. It is true that the very same Haggada knows of persons who. I. Job. 1914. Ag.. 13. Tannaim. 61. Hezekiah. and cleave unto His ways. the providence and love of God. V. 38. Jacob Lauterbach.‫האסיף‬. and Sifre. Philo considers the recognitio dei the ultimate aim of human life. p. v. 1 . M. Pal. the essence and attributes. 19. also Gen. 179 ff. Accordingly Haggada teaches the existence and unity. Midr. 74 A. as to R. Ps.' These words are quoted in the name of the old interpreters of signs called. for through it thou wilt recognize God. p. Other passages pointing out this function of the Haggada will be dealt with in the course of this essay. Finn. Bacher. 1 . 4 . and the Messiah. pp. 1. Maybaum Festschrift. Joshua ben Levi says : ‫כי ל א יבינו א ל פ ע ל ת ה ׳ ו א ל מ ע ש ה ידיו י ה ר ס ם ו ל א יבנם א ל ו‬ ‫ ה א ג ד ו ת‬. 1 . 46 A. ‫וזהו א ח ד מ ד ׳ בני א ד ם ש מ ע צ מ ם ה כ י ר ו ל ה ק ב ״ ה איוב חזקיה ו מ ל ך ה מ ש י ח‬. v. 6 ( v . 291-383. 46 B. 85 A. ρ. § 49. i. ch. 33. Joshua ben Levi's attitude towards the Haggada. Grünhufc. Aboth R. Here we may refer to Midrash Psalms. 94. Amoriier. p. 2 . ‫ש מ ת ו ך כ ך א ת ה מ כ י ר א ת מ י ש א מ ר והיה ה ע ו ל ם‬ ‫ומדבק בדרכיו‬. i. It seems. 28. Buber. pp. 503-531 and D.

unbiased and partial. It is no mean task to collect and explain all the sayings gathered from the Rabbinic sources on these subjects. have been made in the last thirty or forty years to describe or distort the religion of the Jews in the first century of the current era. and in the second place to making use of that imperfect knowledge with utterly wrong methods of application. Their whole lives. The phrase 4 Gotttrunlcenheit rightly used or not of Spinoza. His creation and omnipresence. His relation to the world and man. The causes of this great failure may be explained in various ways. One is rightly surprised at the meagre result and the lack of success achieved by the long rows of books which fill the libraries. estimâting or criticizing the sayings and teachings of the Jewish teachers concerning the doctrine of God ? No proper valuation of the religious life of an age or a community can be attempted by scholars without seeing and examining the teachings about God on such themes as His essence and existence. Some of them appear to be uncouth. Many attempts. or containing references concerning God. In the first four centuries Palestine and Babylon produced many examples of that type of men and women who were inebriated with the glory and majesty of God. generally and individually. were devoted and dedicated to God. His universality and particular relation to Israel. His providence. His Fatherhood and Rulership. To our thinking it is desirable to analyse and* expound these teachings in a work dealing with the Old-Rabbinic doctrine of God. from the cradle to the grave. His omnipotence and omniscience. It is due primarily to want of thorough Rabbinic knowledge. His justice and love. serious and superficial. scholarly and otherwise. There is scarcely a page in the many hundred folios of Old Rabbinic literature without at least some lines expressing one or more doctrines.ίο NAMES AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD tendencies on the subject of religion generally. Is it not amazing that we possess no complete work describing and analysing. . is applicable to many of the Scribes.

Every religion worth its name needs at least some of them. some are deposits from primitive ways of thinking. We follow the historical method. became the common treasure of all civilized religions. Neither apologetical nor polemical motives influence our aims. accompanies Haggadic lore. A good deal of true religious thought. All Rabbinic teachings on the most manifold aspects and subjects of this doctrine will be treated in the following pages. advanced and proclaimed by those unassuming and quiet teachers of Judaea and Galilee. We treat the themes arising out of our material in chronological order. and these modify ancient beliefs. Having weighed the words of hundreds of teachers of the first four centuries. and the latter inspires the former with awe. History. There are different ways of placing these doctrines before students and scholars. The advance and decline of culture and civilization equally contribute their share to shaking old‫׳‬established dogmas and result in formulating and altering ancient opinions concerning the Supreme Being.INTRODUCTION II others sublime . and His relation to the children of men and the world. one is justly entitled to pronounce the verdict of history that without this contribution no religious enlightenment is to be thought . having examined their advanced position in theology and their references to the doctrine of God in the Bible. Yet very often contemporary philosophy and theology help us to find the real meaning of Rabbinic teachings. The visible world throws its deep shadows upon the invisible. Ages of peace and prosperity present different problems of thought from those of war and suffering. some strike us as the climax of theological or philosophical teachings. Gnostic. with its good and bad effects. How far our present-day belief and doctrine is behind or ahead of the old Rabbinic doctrine of God is not the present writer's wish or task to discuss. as well as Christian influence can be traced in many words and sayings of our literature. having listened at the fount of the ever fresh waters to the life-giving force of their words. Pagan.

there is no class of men in the world to whom the idea of God was so near. we may refer to Cynics or Epicureans for criticism of heathendom and idolatry. they may have assimilated pagan philosophical thoughts. Neither Zoroaster nor Buddha. We may point to Plato for parallels. neither Jesus nor Paul. by spreading and preaching. but the teaching derived from them sounds quite new and original. love. can reveal God in a worthier way than that paved by these Scribes. deepening and amplifying the doctrine of God. purity. the ordinary Jew is equipped with a philosophy of religion which is not inferior to any other. they may have even adapted Babylonian or Egyptian. theological speculations. Greek or Barbarian myths and legends. yet they do not diminish the individuality of Rabbinic thought. whose longing for God so ardent. The majority of them are and will remain the living instances of religion in its most accomplished and perfect embodiment. Both have deeper causes and are not without inner connexion with the doings of men and happenings of the world. and ever deepening piety. neither Origen nor Augustine can teach religion. We are not partial and biased in attributing the chief place in performing this duty on the part of the teachers of religion to the leading and moving spirits of the Jewish people—the immortal Tannaim and Amoraim ! . Teachers of religion have the enviable and arduous task to stand firm in both cases. deeds and meditations. There were. The teachers of Judaism may have adopted foreign ideas. we may cite the Stoics for some parables. Thanks to these treasures of religious thoughts. and will be times when the hearts of people will burn with desire to seek and see God. whose zeal to do Gods will so keen. and holiness so supreme in all their actions and thoughts. however advanced and impressive. are. For one thing is perfectly certain.ίο NAMES AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD of. goodness. Likewise there are movements and periods when the masses turn shamefacedly away from their Father in Heaven. as in the much-despised and unjustly judged Scribes. justice. whose ideal of piety. affirming and enriching.

sublime and primitive. the prophets. known and unknown. homilists and thinkers. in the seen and unseen world. there is no aspect of primitive or advanced religious thought which has ever agitated the . we are now able to arrange and classify with some method the sources according to the times and countries of their origin. about God. Thanks to the studies and works of the great masters of the last century. How far they touch our present religious needs and troubles can be read between the lines of their writings. Consequently. Worldly success. though they very often have been underrated. first of all. £ How little mental conditions have changed in these last eighteen hundred years or so !‫ י‬The Rabbis had to face almost the same problems and answer the same questions as arise nowadays. and piety cannot be overrated. missed no opportunity of airing and emphasizing their views about God. How far their answers and points of view hold good to-day is another question altogether* The same is the case with some of their own doctrines which on their part gave rise to new problems and difficulties. The Divinity was felt by them. Yet there are still many difficulties to be tackled. earthly honour is a very poor arbiter ! This work endeavours to present the doctrine of God according to the sources of information as preserved in the ancient writings of the Rabbinic teachers and sages. gems of Midrashic lore. Jews and Judaism have shared the same fate. and to the scholarly editions of old. Halakhists and Haggadists. in the shadow of life and beyond the grave could be imagined without Him. was present in their homes and schools. There are. The numerous teachers. On the whole one cannot but exclaim. glorified their life. ethics. What does that matter ? The law. lost and rediscovered. sanctified their work—no space or moment of existence.INTRODUCTION II Their contributions to the development of the teachings concerning God and religion. Their lines are full of teachings. the many hundred folios of this vast literature which have to be searched anew.

The sages of the Middle Ages. the great teacher of Cordova starts with the anthropomorphic conceptions in the Scriptures. The vastness of our material is not the only trouble. Both methods can be easily justified. Whilst Sa'adya begins his work with the problems of the existence and unity of God. their cultural and reKgious standard. must never be lost sight of. these external sources of knowledge have to be considered in the same way as human feelings and longings for the unseen or supernatural. Therefore. between Palestine and Babylon. paying not the slightest attention to the places and times of their origin. These considerations account also for some striking facts we shall meet with in the course of our discussion. Life with its new and old problems and riddles cannot be divorced from the philosophy or theology of the surrounding world.12 NAMES AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD mind of man and has a bearing on Divinity and Godhead to which those sages remained indifferent. one cannot arrive at a just estimate. Otherwise. from Sa'adya to Maimonides. There are different ways of placing the wealth of Rabbinical material on this subject before the reader. who developed a philosophy of religion. We have to weigh and measure with the just ephah of the past and just hin of the future. Writers generally speak of Rabbinic belief. The local and temporal conditions of the teachers. Each saying must be judged in relation to the time and country of its teacher. between South and North. viz. in dealing with the highest and sublimest questions regarding God. They do not see the differences between theological conceptions of the Tannaitic teachers and those of the Amoraic period. Rabbinic doctrines. Alexandria and Jerusalem. We . as if they were held generally. and to which they did not contribute their proper share in elucidating or developing them. treating one subject or side issue in one generation and neglecting it at other times. We limit our subject to the Rabbinic material and use the historical method. are the best examples of the influence of their age on their theology.

INTRODUCTION have to begin with the Names of God. Some points are shrouded in obscurity. dealing first with the use of the old biblical names as far as they are still used in our period and understood by the spokesmen of our time. others may become clearer by investigation. Names were in antiquity of greater importance than they are at present. A similar controversy arose afterwards around the use of the name Elohim and even as to the substitution of the Tetragrammaton. Nowhere is the creative genius of the pious scribes more at its best than in . which invites entrance to all who want to come nearer to God. discarded altogether. development. supplanted by others. This led us to investigate the various Names applied by the Scribes to God. how much more with the Name of God. A bitter struggle between Hellenists and Hasidim centred around the pronunciation of the Divine Name. and abandonment of a divine name contain the history of more than one religious movement. or did the religious genius of the people invent them ? Are they revealed by the Deity to the chosen ones ? Why are they. Here a wealthy sanctuary of the most treasured religious ideas and doctrines is opened to us. which reveal a strange contrast between the feelings of the present on one side and that of more remote centuries on the other side. How did these Names originate ? Were they born under foreign influences. after a time. popularity. It is a step in the evolution of religious thought and intellectual development. the Name κατ έξοχήν ! The origin. or relegated into dark corners of magic or prayers 1 The history of the Divine Names in our literature offers a good many observations on and explanations of these questions. powerful and of the greatest importance for the well-being or ill-luck of a person. To the primitive mind a name is a mystery. The sacredness and awe of a name is the subject of many investigations. We notice a very far-reaching difference between Palestinian and Alexandrian theology concerning the Tetragrammaton. That being the case with the name of an ordinary person.

or writers reverted to the oldest Name.ίο NAMES AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD this long list. that the Biblical names gave way to names designating God as the High. and Psalmists. Prophets. to the Attributes of God. Heaven. was made necessary. owing to external influences and internal movements. reached a height which entitles it to head all the higher religious systems of antiquity.. ‫המקום‬ till the beginning of the third century c. in spite of all the crudities and blame attached to it by biased and short-sighted critics. especially when reviewing our literary documents. The burden of our proof had to be put on such works which are at our disposal either in critical editions or on the Talmudic text which support our contention in an unexpected manner. This is noticed in other domains of the Haggada generally and of our doctrine especially. Fortunately we are enabled to fix the dates of these changes. when the great change. The attributes of the divine being are in all advanced religions the points which differentiate between one religious form and the other. The names 6 Heaven or ' High ' Highest ‫ י‬were in vogue til] the Hasmonean period. This would be even more generally recognized when . &c. between monotheistic religions and polytheistic forms of worship. Some of them occur in great variety. They teach us further. Later on even this Name was altered to ‫השם‬. The Names lead us to the second part of our doctrine. They were discarded in their turn by the term ‫( המקום‬the omnipresent) till this Name 6 became so holy that it was replaced by . likewise to single out more recent material in the old Tannaitic sources. There is no contest of opinions on the generally recognized fact that the religion of the Pentateuch. Elohim. Our texts are unfortunately in such a condition that not much reliance can be placed on them. E. We are now enabled to fix the ages of older anonymous sayings interspersed in later Midrashic works. This history of the Divine Name or Names in our literary documents reveals many new aspects of Rabbinic theology.‫הקב״ה‬the Holy One blessed be He We see here a development from the concrete to the abstract.

The gods. Omnipotence. and not as it is. Owing to technical reasons this work had to be divided into two parts. but some Mexican deity or Tibetan wise man. the Rabbis' teaching. These Attributes show: the climax of the purest conception of the deity. There. Justice. But. and Holiness are so many landmarks on the road leading to God. Some of the problems and attributes are so complex that the whole material can be judged only in connexion with the second part. Purity. the Pharisees ! That is enough to make it ignored or misjudged. Were it not Israel's heritage. Omniscience. The Attributes are of the utmost influence on human society and institutions. God's Omnipresence. Even Zeus is the victim of some tricks which he cannot control or help. as in many other walks of life. the Jews' glory. well. the adoration of the whole civilized world would be assured to it.INTRODUCTION II speaking of the religion of the Rabbis. Yet most of them are specially to be pointed out. Our ideal life. and the existence of God. The fuller discussion of this point is part of the subject of the third chapter. finds its corroboration. Truth. The second part will deal with the problem of anthropomorphism and anthropopathism. Some of them are to be met with in cruder forms of religious systems. the relation of God to man and God to the world. it is the religion of the Jews!—moreover of the Rabbis. Benevolence. Then there is the ugly feature of the dying or reviving gods. the old truth of 4 the wisdom of the poor which is despised. will help all God-seeking people in their longing for a religious form of worship freed from all shackles of polytheism which still bind their religious outlook. The conclusion will give a survey of the contributions of the Scribes from . even the highest of them. the unity of God. dealing with the anthropomorphism and imitation of God. cannot be imagined as everywhere present or allpowerful. life as it ought to be. is modelled upon attributes we ascribe to God. if properly understood. the Scribes. Eternity. We are firmly convinced that the teachings of the Scribes of the purity and holiness of God.

and man's drawing nearer to and developing clearer the most important problem of the mind— God—on the other. Whilst history aims at the description and study of the life and development of man. based on the experience of seekers of God. Jewish poetry. and remains up to this day. and anxious for the future. see Him. God was through the ages. Our time is looking for God. help others to find Him. May this modest contribution. theology's subject is God. searching after the Divine. Jewish scholarship. Jewish philosophy. Historical theology has for its task to show the place of religion and its influence on society on one side. Jewish mysticism.ίο NAMES AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD Simon the Just to the last of the Haggadists of the Amoraic period. the beginning and end of Jewish thought. Jewish life. and last but not least. to the doctrine of God. . The first step to recognize Him is to investigate the history of the Divine Names in Old-Rabbinic Theology. hoping for redemption. and imitate Him. Jewish teaching. dissatisfied with the past. longing for the unseen.

5 and Hermes Trismegistus. v.3 Maxim of Tyre.. 7 Philo follows the footsteps of the Seventy.8 Christian apologists emphasize this teaching again and again. Origen. 75. 139 ff. qu. 1909. Strom. 8. Jahrhundert des Heils. Geschichtliche Darstellung der jüd-alex. Justin. Greek philosophy. Tatian. J. Ps. 3 . 18. 2. Cohort. Melito. ν also Hennecke. 1834. ‫ י‬Geffcken. Leipzig. 21 . i.2 Seneca. What was the attitude of the Palestinian teachers towards this apparently accepted philosophic dogma of their age ? The influence of Greek philosophy is felt in the LXX. was taught by Aristotle. i. 45. 12. 27-32. Judenchristentunij p. cit. Religions-Philosophie. 3 . Zeller. 6 5. 39. Clem. ii.Α. Apol.. 1907. who wrote for heathens. Jewish Alexandrinian theology. p. Halle. Ltbl. 9 Aristides. THE NAMES OF GOD I. 7. Leipzig. v. 2 Β . could not divert their attention from a teaching which was current in their days and countries. 8. 1849. Zwei Griechische Apologeten. loc. 38. 24. Or. Die Philosophie der Griechen. Geffcken. cit.6 The Seventy altered in several places the Hebrew text of the Scriptures in order to reconcile the philosophy of their adopted country with the doctrines of their ancestral faith... Dähne.4 403.10. 2 . iv. 191. . ii. Felix.4 Celsus. loc. Dio. p. 6. Uepi Κόσμου.1 That God has no name. Or. Dähne. 10 . xii.9 Apparently. The Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. i. 1. 4. 148 ff. also Gfrörer. 10. 18. 8 v. 3 4 5 Nat. Christians and Jews. 53 7 v. Christian apology and Gnostic lore concur in the idea of God's namelessness. Min.

one dares to mention His name at an ordinary time he is guilty of death. dispelled many recent mistakes. i. 375 . De vita Mos. p. 287. not to speak of blaspheming the name of the Lord of all creatures and gods. 614. mutât. 1045 f.10 to curse the name of false gods. 20). according to Philo. ' I adjure thee by the sacred name which is not uttered in any place/ This is the old reading of Maspero: kv τω άδντω. i. ' not even in the Temple \ Deissmann 12 considers it ' absolutely impossible that any one having any kind of sympathy with Judaism whatever could assert that the Holy Name was not pronounced in the Temple \ There is no doubt that the date of this exorcism was very old. If. Philo repeats himself very often. and verified many old traditions. The Elephantine papyri taught many new things. De Somn. . These Jews had a sanctuary dedicated to their God ‫ \הו‬Many of the names found in that highly interesting collection 10 11 12 De vita Mos. Biblical Studies.18 THE NAMES OF GOD They see in Lev. 24. 1901. ii. De nom. a prohibition of pronouncing the divine name (ονομάζων Se το ονομα κυρίου θανάτω θ αν ατούσθω). Moses forbade. and reflects the conditions on which the LXX is based. The writer of the Aristeas letter did not exaggerate in reporting that there were Jewish colonies in Egypt long before Alexander the Great. especially on subjects dear to him. Philo. Yet there was a time when this prohibition was entirely unknown among the Jews in Egypt as well as in Babylon. not to mention Palestine. 15 f. Josephus. however. Edinburgh. in order that his pupils should not get used to treating lightly the name of God. He held with his teachers of philosophy that no name can adequately give an idea or expression of God. 683. and Aquila (et denominans nomen dei morte morietur) agree with their Greek Bible. where the important saying is inserted : ορκίζω σ6 το âyiov ονομα δ ού Xeyerai (lines 19.11 New material is gained from the Magic Tablet of Adrumetum. because these designations require the highest respect and the deepest reverence.

p. Onkelos agrees with R. . 115.16. The Tosefta reads:18. Aramäische Papyrus aus Elephantine. ‫מחסיה‬. A. 1898. We are told that the priests. p. or stopped for a short period. dating from the time of Artaxerxes I up to Darius Hystaspis we find many names ending with ‫יה‬. .. i. 24. R. R. Jonathan adds. 4‫ ו\הו‬Neither in Egypt. who was not immune from foreign influences. v.‫יהודון‬. after the death of Simon the Just. 329. note . Leipzig. Levi.. 1 The Tetragrammaton and its uses 1 in Journal of Jewish Lore and Philosophy. κ . derived from ‫ ק׳‬1‫נוקב ש‬. 1910. Β2 . 148 A. ‫גמריה‬. also. The view must have been foreign to the teachers of the Mishna that the Name of God must not be pronounced. 2. cit. 17 v. The Jews in Babylonia in the time of Ezra and Nthemia accordiiig to Babylonian Inscriptions.‫יהו&מע‬. nor in Babylonia.. Aramaic Papyri. ed. Blau. L.‫בל מ י ש ה ו א מ פ ר ש ש מ ו ש ל הקב״ד‬ ‫חייב מ י ת ה‬. cf. 10c. London. Daiclies. In the Babylonian documents of Nippur. v. iv. f. however.‫ברם מאן דמפרש ומחרף שמאיקטול‬ ‫ י‬He who pronounces the Name with blasphemy is guilty of death '. No. Jews* Coll. 1911.‫יהוטל‬. 18 ed. also S. either ceased altogether. Kohler. Das Altjüd.E. which is equal with Jawa. Levi. Oxf. till the third century A. 24. p. 1923. ‫גדליהו בר ש ב ת א י‬. Yet there was a time when the Hellenistic rule was well-known and observed in Palestine. xviii. 16 Sanh. ‫ירניה‬. The Aramaic version of Ps. ‫מלכיה‬. the Tetragrammaton. a teacher of the third century.C. did the Jews know or keep a law prohibiting the use of God's name. Gedaljawa. Budapest. W 13 Cf. According to the Mishna16 only the blasphemer is guilty of death. pp. K. Ungnad.17 to use ' the Name ' in pronouncing the blessing. from the third century B. adopted literally this view in saying : 4 He who pronounces God's name is guilty of death. in ordinary conversation or greetings. Lev. 19-32. Levi.C. JRAS1920. v. p.' 15 This Haggadist.THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON 19 begin or end with ‫ מזו‬or 13‫יה‬. Zauberwesen. Publ.‫אביהו‬ ‫יהוישמע‬. v. Buber. and Jama. 170. 18 pesikta R. Zuckermandel. Son o/Sabbatai. such a prohibition existed and was partly observed. 55 Β.‫ומת נמנעו חבירע מלברךבשם‬ MS. must have known the LXX.E. Ungnad-Sachau. Yet. 14 Cf. iii f. Cowley.

p. of the Midrash ha‫־‬Gadol preserved the reading ‫מ ל ב ר ך ב ש ם ה מ פ ו ר ש‬ ‫ ב מ ק ד ש‬. We read in the Mishna Sotah : 22 ‫במקדש אומר את‬ ‫השם בכתבו ובגבולין בכינוי‬.22a In Sifre 23 the subject is discussed by two scholars belonging to the school of R. Besides the MS. 85. The text ‫ מ ש מ ת‬. In the Babylonian Talmud 19 the reading agrees with the Tosefta. also M. 263.. expounding : ' Wherever 1 reveal myself unto thee. 24.e. 6.g. ‫רשיו‬. 1900. S. R. 23 Num. Graetz based his theory on Tos.23) with the Name (‫)בשם המפורש‬. in the Sanctuary. derived from Exod.R. and Ozar Nehmad. 22 » Mekh. i. This information contradicts many other traditions of the Mishna. ν.J.‫ דור דור וד‬i. Graetz. They agree with the rule codified in the Mishna : ' Thus shall ye bless the children of Israel' (Num. The second teacher is inclined to base this law on Exod. 73 B. p. however. b. seeing the decline of faith and fear of God. There is a consensus of 20 b. Josiah and R. yet instead of ‫ חביריו‬we read ‫אחיו הנהנים‬. 1857. 24. 'my name'. Literaturblatt. § 39. Sotah. 115. does not indicate or allow any difference between ‫ מ ק ד ש‬and ‫גבולין‬. v. ch. Talmud. outside the Temple by its substitute. the ‫שם המפורש‬. 82-83. who thought that the proliibition of pronouncing the Tetragrammaton after the death of Simon was limited to the synagogues outside the Temple (!‫)בגבולי‬. in Ralimer's Jücl. vi. 13. Weims21 says : ' We do not know the special reason for this reform. Geiger20 connects this historical tradition with the information derived from Hellenistic sources. thou shalt pronounce My Name i. note. iii. according to which the pronunciation of the divine name was strictly prohibited. 20. a law is quoted : ‫מ כ א ן א מ ר ו ש ם ה מ פ ו ר ש א ס ו ר ל ה א מ ר‬ ‫בגבולין‬. 22 38 b. Jonathan. al 19 . Urschiift. Yoma 49 B.20 THE NAMES OF GOD and edd. considered neither themselves nor their contemporaries worthy of proclaiming or of hearing the name of God'.. The Boraita is also quoted in the Pal. 20. v. Ishmael. 56. MGWJ. Königsberger. e. e. read ‫משמת שמעון הצדיק פסקו מלברך בשם‬. Therefore the first-named Tannaite derives it from the word ‫שמי‬. In the Sanctuary the priests said the Tetragrammaton according to its writing. but it is quite clear that the priests. 117. There must have been previously a law which objected to this custom. yet the last sentence is omitted. p.

r. we learn that according to these Rabbis the Name was pronounced in the Temple by the priests. Kid. which together with the text of the Sifre : S. This openly contradicts the first report.‫כה תברכו בשם המפורד‬ ‫אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא‬ ‫ תיל ושמו את שמי על בני‬/‫בכינו‬ ‫ישראל ואני אברכם בשם המיותר לי‬ ‫יכול אף בנבוליץ נאמר באז ושמו‬ ‫את שמי ונאמר להלן לשום את שמו‬ ‫מה להל. 38 A. R. בשם המפורש מבאן אמרו‬ ‫במקדש בשם המפורש ובמדינך» בכינוי‬ . Yoma iii. . ‫ אתה‬. 71 A. We can cite R. Jonathan. ‫כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם‬ ‫ אתה אומר בשם המפורש‬. Sotah.‫המפורש‬ ‫או אינו אלא בכינוי ת״ל ושמו את‬ ‫שמי על בני ישראל בשם המפורש‬ . and that of R.‫ובגבולין בכינוי דברי ר׳ יאשיה‬ hamphorash Temple the of this conwe put here Num. 7.T H E PRONUNCIATION OF T H E TETRAGRAMMATON 21 opinion as to the prohibition of using the Shem outside the Temple. Tarphon was of priestly descent.10. the priests/ 24 The Name was said. Josiah is ascribed to R. and relates: Once I followed my uncle to say the priestly blessing. lit. caused to be swallowed) the Name with the tune of his brethren. and Cant.‫דברי ר׳ יאשיה‬ A third version is given in B. yet in the service of the Name was pronounced. Tarphon. Jonathan to R. where the view of R. when the opposition to the rule of the priests grew stronger. who tells us as an eyewitness that the priests used to pronounce the Name in the Temple. 3. Later on. that the Scribes of the second century discussed a theoretic question or an archaeological point which had no practical value. r. One must not assume. also Pal. and I have heard that he mixed (‫מבליע‬. The fuller version troversy is preserved in Num. but not distinctly. . R. 11. saw the Temple service. and I inclined my ear near the High Priest. Josiah. however. a compromise was 24 B. v. 11. We must assume that after Simon the Just the name of God was not pronounced. Anyhow.

divine name. but ‫בהבלעה‬. the confession of the High Priest is introduced by ‫( אנא השם‬iii. The term ‫ ודצם‬obviates the idea that the High Priest had merely used a. 2. i. 7 A. of course. They instituted that people should greet their fellow men ‫בשם‬ * by the Name \ The date of this arrangement must be very old. which were sanctioned by Heaven. ‫מ א מ ר על איזה‬ ‫ תנועות רוחניות בדורו ש ל ר׳ יהושע בן ל ד‬in Mélanges offerts à M. 109. 4. Pal. Levi enumerates it among the rules instituted by the Rabbis. In the very Mishna it is put together with practices in the Temple. and not distinctly.25 The importance attached to the innovation is rather surprising. Joshua b. 296. 40. Levi that three things were decreed by the earthly authorities and God agreed with them : the tithes. p. M. and with the discharging of the duties of the tithes during the time of the Second Temple. contains several institutions which are of the greatest importance for the knowledge of the intellectual movements of the first century. 1926. which. b. Marmorstein. 7 . There is a further passage which exhibits the same difficulty.22 THE NAMES OF GOD affected . The passage occurs many times in the ancient Rabbinic writings. ed. 1 4 c . before the destruction of the Second Temple. p. Berakhoth. also Marmorstein. 5. Joshua b. . i-xvi. upsets the report about the usage after the death of Simon. Midrash Haseroth. vi. R. the name of God should be pronounced in the priestly blessing. i v. Israel Lévy. This is understood by most of our commentators as r e f e r r i n ο g to the Name. The High ο Priest pronounced the Name according to its writing. M. Tanhuma Buber. Maccoth 2 3 . and the reading of the Scroll of Esther. The date of this arrangement must coincide with that of 25 v. therefore. 2) and ‫( אנא בשם‬vi. Ber. Meg. In the service of the Day of Atonement. which is described in the ancient treatise of the Mishna called Joma. ed. 2). b. v. greeting by the name of God. Psalms. 8. Ruth r. ix. or the substitute for the. R. note 167. pp. Paris. Buber. Simon relates in the name of R. It must date back. It ranges together with the arrangements for the reading of the Scroll of Esther on Purim.

J. and t h e latter in MGWJ. was often discussed and pointed out. δ. d. L. c. Mordecai. Yet the Israelites voluntarily reserved the privilege of paying these duties. L. and a . The subject is of so much importance for the questions here dealt with that the texts must be examined. Abun adds in the name of R. their ancestors.THE PRONUNCIATION OF T H E TETRAGRAMMATON 23 the other two reforms. i. The rearrangement of the tithes by Ezra. The weight of the proofs cited for the support or the antiquity of the rule enhances its meaning. upon which the references to Boaz and Gideon are given. p. (b) ‫מגילת אסתר‬. The chronological difficulties and impossibilities do not worry the teachers of the Haggada. Talmud cites the sentence in the name of R. (d) ‫מעשרות‬. In Midr. the arrangements about the tithes. here c is omitted altogether. We have now to consider the approximate dates of these innovations. the order being δ. and b. b. 138. or the three young men respectively. b. i. has ‫ג׳ דברים גזרו ב״ר‬ ‫ מטן והסכים ב״דשל מעלה עמהן‬1‫של‬. t h e f o r m e r s Geschichte des Volkes Israel. L. and Esther.L. Tanhuma in the name of the Rabbanan. J. reports the saying by R. in the order of d. Tanh. who bestowed them on the priests that returned with him to the ancient homestead. 23. Psalms the saying is by R.26 We may 26 v. and (c) ‫שאילת שלום בשם‬. The Pal. .. 100 ff. J· b. The order is d. Ben Levi. The three decrees are : (a) ‫חרמה‬ ‫של יריחו‬. All reports agree that the duty of the tithes ceased to operate with the destruction of the first Temple. First of all..e. mentions as author R. The Rabbis of the third century see in the saying of Jeremiah a reference to Athaliah. especially by Herzfeld and Graetz. and after the exile of the Israelites into a strange land. Pal. Ruth r. The order of the decrees is c. Talmud calls the author of our statement R. J. Simon in the name of R. and d.9 1886. c. a is given in the name of Rabbanan. The Bab.b. 27 is first cited (who thought to make my people forget my Name). It is noteworthy that here the verse Jer. Joshua of the South (‫)דרומא‬. and punished the Le vi tes who preferred Babylon to the land of . R. 6.

J. The frequency of both in the Haggadah of the period hints at the decline of the performance of this commandment. They are. in the third century call attention to the innovation of the tithes 1 It was surely not pure historical interest or archaeological zeal to bring these things to the notice of scholars and laymen alike? The cause is quite simple. b.27 Thereon R. why did R. to establish its proper place. We find a report that in the days of this great teacher a movement originated to abolish the existing practice of giving the tithes to the priests. for instance. 27 Pal. It was arranged by Ezra. the High Priest. such as occur. We believe that this innovation was introduced in opposition to the priests. apart from few minor points. anonymous and without controversies. and the teachers endeavoured. In the third century again the book was subjected to many criticisms. the Jewish teachers saw in it an ancient work of the members of the Synagoga magna.24 THE NAMES OF GOD take for granted that we have before us a very ancient arrangement. and expatiate on the great sin of neglecting this singular observance. J. drew the attention of the people to the sac redness of this institution. one may ask. yet sanctioned by the heavenly court. dating probably from the time of Ezra. from the time when Johanan. b. b. We turn now to the second institution in the saying of of R. by God Himself! The preachers of the third century exhort by various rhetorical methods at their disposal the merits of discharging this duty. in connexion with the Feast of the Maccabees. introduced his reforms. The rules concerning the reading of the Scroll date back to the last two centuries preceding the destruction of the Temple. L. J. Whatever higher or lower critics may finally suggest about the date of the composition of the Book of Esther. Yet. L. if later. For our purpose it may be sufficient to say that this innovation must have been of very high antiquity. . The same is the case with the pronunciation of the Name in greetings. as in the case of the tithes. L. Maaser Slieni 56 B. or. who after the death of Simon.

the Pal.28 The ‫ בשם‬in the greetings must have a similar meaning. but never in the provinces. Yet one difficult and weighty argument cannot and must not be overlooked ! We think of the fact that in the Tannaitic sources. Isaac. R. even in common greetings. ascribes a similar saying to R. having always in view an opposition to this usage.‫ אדני‬Thirdly. Tarphon. b. they were commanded to change the Tetragrammaton into the substitute of it—29. where substitutes were used. we are informed by a reliable eye-witness—R. Talmud. the priests ! According to the Jerushalmi v. by ‫ נ כ ת ב ביה ונקרא ב א ״ ד‬. and he tells us. 29 28 . the teachers re-established the old usage of pronouncing the Divine Name in the Temple. and heard that he mingled (‫ )הבלעה‬the Name with the tune of his brethren. Pes. if this usage was not permitted in the divine service in the synagogues. Nahman b. held that God has no name. it is the answer of ‫ ה ה ו א ס ב א‬to R. they succeeded with their reform. or under the misuse of the Name for magical practices prohibited the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. Tamid vii.THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON 25 under Greek influence and Hellenistic teaching. Kid. The Mishna emphasizes. Moreover. as we learnt above. stood listening near the High Priest. 28 B. 71A. how can we assume that the use of the Tetragrammaton was unscrupulously permitted in ordinary greetings ? Secondly. After a long struggle. Sanh. Aha. that the Name was pronounced in the Sanctuary according to its writing.‫ל א בעולם הזה העולם ה ב א העוהז‬ ‫ א ב ל לעולם ה ב א בולו א ח ד נקרא‬/ ‫נ כ ת ב ב י ר ד ה״י ונקרא ב א ל ף ד ל ו‬ ‫ ב י ר ד ה׳יי ונכתב ביו״ד "יה‬. Abina's question . Well. Jacob b. a priest—who minutely watched and carefully observed the Blessing pronounced by the High Priest in the Temple. we find clearly stated that the Name was pronounced according to the writing in the Sanctuary only. who explains Abba Shaul's sentence. even in the lessons from the Scriptures. 2. which will be discussed later on. 50 A . v. otherwise the whole institution appears superfluous and meaningless. we referred to above. that he once followed his uncle to the platform (‫)דוכן‬.

. among those who have no share in future life. Perls and Dr. That is the general experience and observation. Sanh. 23. this saying is mentioned in the name of R. Dr. Perls saw that our Boraita is defective and unusual. 14. who were also great scholars. Szidon. 101 B. Schechter. 31 vii. How shall we imagine that ordinary people in the street were permitted to pronounce the Name in their greetings ? Finally. 35. however. 32 Magyar Zsido Szemle. cf. which is a commentary to the previous saying. We can. and directed his attention towards the High Priest. p. 207 if. depicting the conditions of the good old times.‫מבליעין אותה ביניהן שני והנה בועז ופו‬. Aboth R N. as it is written. 1895. Some readings limit this prohibition to countries outside Palestine. Abba Shaul registers those who utter the Name by its letters. ed. i. 16. and xiii. 1. We agree that the style of the Boraita is not what we are used to in Tannaitic sayings of a similar type. These begin with ‫בראשונה‬. It seems that even in the Temple the pronunciation was not distinct. dealt with this Boraita in the Hungarian Jewish Review. we learn that the antithesis was : M.32 Dr. xii. 348-56. i. Sanh. ed. Johanan ben Nuri. 54. and put the state of the present circumstances. Zuckermandel. however. This we certainly accept. nor do we find satisfactory the solution advanced by his critic.26 THE NAMES OF GOD we have to put it that R. adding to it the changed law or rule. The High Priest tried to utter the Name in such a way that the people listening to the blessing should not hear the same distinctly. 11. consent neither to his suggestion. 1896.‫בראשונה שהיתר‬ ‫ ואומר יי עמך נבור חחיל‬. From ΗίΙΙβΓβ sentence. χ. Tarphon stood among the priests his brethren in the same row. The Tosefta reads : ‫ תורה משתכחת מישראל היו זקנים‬.31 Two eminent Rabbis. &c. Here the antithesis is missing. Ber. 33 . As to the manner of pronouncing the Name.20 What was his attitude toward the injunction in the Mishna of Berakhot ? All these questions and arguments can be settled if we examine the relation of the Tosefta to our Mishna. there is a consensus of all reports. e. p. 17.

gathered from the Mishna and Tosefta. We cannot agree to this for various reasons. 4. and Judges 6. 119. it seems obscure what the verses referring to Boaz and Gideon are to prove in their present context. Perls. Examining the Mishna.‫שיהא אדם שואל את שלום חבירו בשם שנ‬ ‫עטך נבור החיל ]משהיתה תורה משתבחת מישראל היו זקינים מבליעין‬ ‫ ואומר עת לעשות וגו׳‬. but against the Hellenists whose praxis is well . 23. (3) with the establishment of the synagogues a line was drawn between the service in the Temple and outside . 12 are entirely out of place. The reform was not directed against the early Christians. who suggests the following reading: ‫בראשונה‬ ‫שהיתה תורה חביבה על ישראל היו זקנים מבליעין את השם משקלקלו‬ ‫המינים והיה תורה משתבחת מישראל התקינו שיהא אדם שואל את‬ ‫שלום חבירו בשם שני והנה בועז וגו׳‬. This difficulty was raised by the earliest interpreters of the Mishna. whom P. the words from T. 126 do not fit in the context.THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON 27 (a) ‫ ישראל‬b ‫בשעה שהתורה חביבה‬ (δ) ‫בשעה שהתורה משתכחת‬ Therefore we assume. that between ‫ בראשונה‬and ‫ שהיתר! תורה‬there must be a good deal missing. but to Zekenim. in the Tosefta again Ruth 2. and Ps. This reconstruction of the Boraita is preferable to that of Dr. Further. Accordingly we can discern the following stages : (1) After the death of Simon the use of the Name was discontinued . and (4) the greetings and the pronunciation in the Temple by the Name were done ‫בהבלעה‬. The original text read most probably like this. (2) in the time of the early Hasidim the old custom was re-established in the Temple and extended to ordinary greetings in order to counteract Hellenistic infiuence . scholars and spiritual leaders. It is especially noteworthy that the second part does not refer to the priests. are in square brackets : [‫בראשונה שהיתה תורה חביבה על ייגראל[ התקינו‬ ‫ והנה בועז בא וגו׳ ואומר ה׳‬.‫אותה ביניהן שני[ אל תבוז בי זקנה· אמך‬. 22. and not distinctly. following Dr. Perls. sees in the Minim of the text. we find there that the quotations from Prov.

when we see in the ‫כשרים‬ the ‫צנועים שבכהונה‬. 30. and not later. The quotations from Proverbs and Psalms still remain obscure according to Dr. ‫ ה צ נ ו ע‬. v. Graetz is inclined to see in the Simon the Just of the report Simon b. since the Peruzim increased it was uttered in a low voice. Boethos Kantheras. Yet the ‫ הבלעה‬was a later development. The whole Mishna and Boraita is doubtless to be dated from the time of the Temple. Anan. 22. as is seen from R. and other passages . who was raised to the High Priesthood by Agrippa I after the dismissal of Anan b. Perls's reconstruction of the Boraita. 1895. Büchler. We may here suggest that ‫קול נמוך‬ is identical with ‫בהבלעת נעימת הבהנים‬. 35 ‫ ״‬Yoma 40 D (iii.28 T H E NAMES OF GOD established. Hillers parallel application of the terms ‫ תורה חביבה‬and ‫תורה‬ ‫ משתבחת‬seems to confirm our readiug. 1881. 33 . The first reads : ‫·בראשונה היה אומרו בקול גבוה משרבו הפרוצין היה אומרו בקול נמוך‬ The second sounds similarly : ‫בראשונה הוא נמסר לכל אדם משרבו‬ ‫הפרוצין לא היה נמסר אלא לכשרים‬. Simon.34 The first refers to the High Priest. For both the more general custom prevailed at first.11 : ‫ב ר א ש ו נ ה היו מוסרין א ו ת ו ל כ ל א ד ם משרבו ה פ ו ש ע י ם התקינו‬ ‫ש ל א יהו מוסרין אותו א ל א הצנועים ש ב ב ה נ ה והצנועין ש ב כ ה ו נ ה היו מבליעין‬ ‫אותו בתוך נ ע י מ ת ה ב ה נ י ם‬. The second is the same as the Boraj ta in the Babli. Another corroboration of this order of things can be derived from a similarly composed Boraita. r. B. Wien. 6. Tarphon's report. In earlier periods the High Priest pronounced the Name in a loud voice. also Cant.. v. Kiddushin 71 A. צ נ ו ע‬v. Nidda 12A: ‫ כ ל המקיים דברי ח כ מ י ם נקרא צנוע‬. MGWJ. Tos. Kelim i. as to the term ‫ . and ‫ מבליעין‬the secondary degree of piety. than the greeting by the Name. 108. 7). Similar Tannaitic reports are preserved in the Palestinian Talmud. There can be no shadow of a doubt that the ‫ שאל בשם‬is the primary. which reads : ‫ת״ר בראשונה שם בן י״ב אותיות‬ ‫היו מוסרין אותו לכל אדם משרבו הפרוצים היו מוסרים אותו לצנועים‬ ‫שבכהונה וצנועים שבכהונה מבליעים אותו בנעימות אחיהם הבהנים‬. and was altered later. 3. Priester und Cultus. also b. 1.33 This Boraita is parallel to our re-established Tosefta and Mishna.35 There are weighty objections v.

369‫ ׳‬We tried to find a key to open the gate of these difficulties. How does Dr. . otherwise. 684. Then. even if the riddle could not be solved. Graetz cannot present the slightest corroborating facts for the 4 piety ‫ י‬of the High Priest Kantheras. who contributed a very important and erudite work on our subject 30 comes to the conclusion that the latest tendency gave the use of the Name quite free to every one in order to counteract Gnostic and Christian tendencies. which are of the period before the Destruction do not know of the fact that the Name was not pronounced according to its writing. and a reason for his surname ' the Just \ Moreover. how could the people respond with ‫׳ו‬7‫?בשבמל‬ Apart from all these difficulties. if the pronunciation was not heard at all. his pupil. the difficulties and improbabilities of which were not hidden from our great historian. •or attain to. the difficulties would be insurmountable.THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON 29 to an otherwise very ingenious hypothesis. Jacob's theory would not be acceptable. if the pronunciation was stopped. This is so done because. what was the good of handing on the Name to the pious priests? Finally. Jacob account for all the sources. or to the time of the surviving contemporaries. v. The action of the priests after the death of Simon the Just is limited to a day's duration. Jacob. whom they credited with such prophetic powers ! The piety of Agrippa I surely could not make Simon Kantheras enjoy. which are older than Gnostic and Christian influences. B. the title of ‫הצדיק‬. Berlin. Whilst Graetz was inclined to establish that the prohibition was the final stage in the history of the Name. The treatises Yoma and Tamid. confused him with Simon the Just I.1. p. is it not more likely that the compilers or copyists. 1903.6. for a good many reasons. It is also impossible to see in the term ‫שנמנע מלברך‬ ‫ בשם‬the equivalent of ‫מבליעים אותו‬. Tosefta Yadaim. and which permit and encourage the use of the Tetragram36 36a Im Namen Gottes. who attribute to him the proclamation about Caius Caligula. ‫ ש א ת ם מזכירים א ת ה ש ם‬. Dr.

‫כרמי שומרון‬. The Samaritans accepted also the law that the Tetragrammaton must not be pronounced. Herzfeld.‫שמא‬ One cannot get over the difficulty that there was a time when the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton was strictly forbidden. 27. The king asked for God's Name.. and found very strange that the author of the Scroll of Esther never mentions the Name of God. 39 Hellenistische Studien. 1. then told him mockingly to name the God who sent him. M. 38 Euseb. Gaster.30 THE NAMES OF GOD maton ? How does he explain the undoubted antipathy of the Palestinian as well as Alexandrian Jews in the earliest period against the use of the Tetragrammaton. but substituted the same by ‫ אלהים‬or 37. the guards fast asleep. The Bible translators in Egypt must have lived at the same period and brought this Halakhah with them from their native country. Geiger. before magicians could have availed themselves of it ? It has often been pointed out. The Hellenistic writer Artapan relates a Midrash : ' Moses released by supernatural power from prison went to the royal palace. 262. 23. xi. Moses whispered the name in the king's ear. who was at first terrified at the sight of Moses. Later on Moses wrote the Name on a tablet and sealed it. whereupon the king dropped down .39 we may cite him for a witness that the Jews in his time and environment would not be inclined to pronounce the Tetragrammaton. p. p. 601. Urschrijt. The Samaritans. . Yet the matter seems so simple. Praep. Kirchheim. awoke the king. 67. Geschichter ii. Moses whispers. It is exactly the time after the death of Simon the Just. Sanh. found the gates open. 143 f. 94 ff. Pal. ed. p. . Et\ 18.. A priest who blasphemed the writing died in great agony/ 38 Whatever Jacob Freudenthal thought of this writer and his work. but does not pronounce the same. caught by Moses he revived. All these materials show clearly that the report of the Rabbinic writings about the contemporaries of Simon the Just is reliable and has to be 37 Cf. The author lived in an age and in a country where and when the pronunciation of the Name was strictly forbidden. p.

They know of ‫אנא ה׳‬. The difficulties presented can. The text of the Mishna and Tosefta. 40 M. An older Tannaite. The first part of the Mishna describes the earlier custom which prevailed before they introduced the ‫. 115. esp. הבלעה‬ R. Judah's or his opponentsJ curiosity on this point. which made it a duty to pronounce the Name in greetings. .40 The Rabbanan do not know of it. Judah. where we read that they surrounded the altar seven times on the day of the Arabah. We saw that the eustorn of ‫ הבלעה‬followed this reform. Judah b. Yet we have other proofs at our disposal to show that the custom of ‫ הבלעת השם‬was the usual one in the last decades of the Temple. priests and laymen alike. Zauberwesen. Scholars recognized that ‫ יופי‬is really a substitute for God's Name. iv. Hyrkanos said that ‫ליה ולך‬ ‫ מזבח‬was uttered. lit. Blau. men of standing who could have satisfied R. Eliezer b. or taught according to his views. It is clear that there can be no contradiction or a controversy about facts. confirms this. in the earlier part of R. as re-established above. Judah as well as the teachers of that Mishna. and preserved the original words.T H E PRONUNCIATION OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON 238 seriously and earnestly considered by students of that period and on the Name of God. Das Altjiid. 41 v. Yet the matter is quite in agreement with the facts. and not ‫אנא יי‬. be removed when we assume that at some later period the innovation of the priests became antiquated and was removed by a reform. p. could have consulted eye-witnesses by asking them : What did the people say at such and such an occasion ? There must have been among scholars and unlearned. Sukka. were uttered. who is a very reliable historical witness. Judah refers to the later usage in the last decade or perhaps decades of the existence of the Temple. liai. tells us that at the processions around the altar the words ‫אני והו הושיעה נא‬. R. The second part of the Mishna. however. R. 5. ' Beauty unto thee. R.41 This Mishna was already altered according to R. teaches that in taking leave from the altar was said: ‫ יופי לך מזבח‬. altar which sounds rather strange. Judah's life.

The Mishna teaches that a man who blasphemed God is not guilty of death unless he uttered the Tetragrammaton according to its writing. 7 . the 3rd of Tishri. 43 Meg. e.32 THE NAMES OF GOD A second instance leads away from the precincts of the Temple to the Courts of Law. viii. 4-6 with Jesus.4. We are told that a day was especially marked. the son of Josef. 572. and S. Korha relates that ‫ יוסי‬was applied instead of God (Tetragrammaton). In the Scholion. H. in the Jewish calendar. ch. Taanith. German part 90-98 identifies ‫ יוסי‬with Jovis. and after the period which followed the death of Simon the Just I. 1864. on which the ‫ אדברתא‬was removed from the public documents. before the restrictions of publishing the same abroad were issued. and the reason for pointing it out in the third century. 2.423‫׳‬ Before we enter into an inquiry as to the nature of the greetings referred to in our source. Similarly to the ‫ = יופי‬God (Tetragrammaton).g. 97 f. On the 3rd of Tishri the ‫ אדבר תא‬was taken away or annulled from the documents. Zeitlin. 42 a 42 . Hebr. 18 b . Sanh. we have to settle another historical report.. and in the Babylonian Talmud we read : ‫שגזרה מלכות יון גזרה שלא להזכיר שם שמים‬ ‫על פיהם וכשנברה מלכות חשמונאי ונצחום התקינו שיהו מזכירין שם שמים‬ ‫אפילו בשטרות וכך היו כותבים בשנת כך וכך ליוחנן כהן נדול לאל‬ ‫עליון וכששמעו חכמים בדבר אמרו למחר זה פורע את חובו ונמצא‬ ‫שטר מוטל באשפה וביטלום ואותו היום עשאוהו וגו׳‬. It is to be noticed that both ‫ יופי‬as well as ‫ יוסי‬contain four letters like the Tetragrammaton. iv. Levy. 55 B. First: ‫שהוא משמש לאל‬ M. D. In the Scholion there are a few variants. Geschichte. iii. Bornstein in Hatekufah. Needless to say that neither explanation can be considered satisfactory. R . 289. Kobak's Jeschurun. R. Philadelphia.. before the institution of the ‫ הבלעה‬. Graetz. 33. Urschrift. Megillat Taanith. Oppenheim. p. Joshua b.42 The Mishna must have been taught when people knew the proper pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. pp. Let us consider the original text first : ‫בשלשה בתשרי אתנטילת )בטילה( א ד ב ר ת א מן שטריא‬. B . where life and death was decreed. Geiger. I. 1922. ibid.

Amsterdam. Samuel taught : ‫השומע אזכרה מפי העובד כוכבים‬ ‫ אינו חייב לקרוע‬. we find the Name in Haggai 15 times. This term never occurs in old Tannaitic sources. Prague. First of all we have to investigate the term ‫ארברתא‬. e. R. which amounts to 106. Meg. 60 A. 46 Tos. 5. Tarphon use this term denoting the Tetragrammaton with reference to the Books of the Minim. Such appellations as ‫יי צבאות‬. C . R. and onwards. In all our sources on this subject we find the word ‫ שם‬for the Tetragrammaton. v. and in Malachi 46 times. Eliezer says that the books of the last three prophets contain 93 Azkaroth.. 60 A. b. N. 1795. pal. &c. Sanh. and in Malachi 19. Hona examined the books and found only 83. 46 The discussion of the Talmud qualifies this statement to the use of the substitutes of the Name by a non-Jew. omitting the Names.44 This text deserves a careful analysis. in Zechariah 126 times. i. We can trace it only from the time of the Boraita collector and compiler. Hijja says :. 1711. R. or 44 45 47 v. Yet what does this artificial calculation teach us ? Nothing less than the very important fact that the Tetragrammaton alone was called Azkarah or Adkartha. who was a half-Tannaite. ed. How do the facts agree with the teachers assertion that they are mentioned 93 or 83 times respectively ? Yet. a sentence which was omitted by the copyists of the Talmud. Both sayings are rather surprising. Sanh. Jonathan b. where the Tetragrammaton is connected with ‫צבאות‬. 79 D . and parall. We find the Name in Haggai 30 times. b. in Zech.‫השומע אזכרה בזמן הזה אינו חייבלקרוע‬ ‫ י‬He who hears the Azkarah in this time need not rend his garments'. Hijja. 72. Hag..48 R. rending his garments.T H E PRONUNCIATION OF T H E TETRAGRAMMATON 33 ‫עליון‬. Jose ha Gelili and R. and ‫וכששמעו חכמים בדבר אמרו וכי מזכירין שם שמים בשטרות‬ ‫למחר‬. R. 13. R. Taan.47 A Jew who hears the Azkarah from a Gentile need not comply with the duty of ‫קריעה‬.45 Yet one may reasonably doubt whether this is the original term for the Tetragrammaton. Eliminating now 13 passages where the Name occurs twice we get the total pointed out by R. S. 48 b. Jonathan. Sabb. i n his name.

34 T H E NAMES OF GOD ‫יי אלהים‬. 36 B . Tadshe. and 39 ‫אלהים‬ times. Talmud by R Levi. counted from Gen. 10. also Lev. J u d a n ‫ ע נ ת ו ר י א‬as to t h e Seven Benedictions for Sabbath. 13-21 (four times). 12.8 . 29 . 3. The teaching of R. one must therefore add : ‫ א ל ה י ם‬and ‫( א ל ה י כ ם‬seven times i n N u m . Num. or whose vfew is mentioned together with that of R. 54 Gen. and ‫( א ל ה י ב ם‬once in ch.17 71 Azkaroth. are not counted . 62 pal. 4-9 (three times). together 7 a n d 11 = 18 . 14 is not counted. R. who lived in Caesarea. which did not agree with the Palestinian praxis. Jose b. ) . 50 49 . 1. Halafta and R. ‫כ נ ג ד ז׳ א ז כ ר ו ת ש כ ת ו ב ב מ ז מ ו ר ש י ר ליום ה ש ב ת‬ Ps. Juda b. ‫כנגד י״ת הזכרות‬ ‫שכתוב בהבו ליי בני אלים‬52 and R. vide also pal. Hoshaja. is reported in the Pal. together 7l. R. 92. 6. N. ‫( א ל ה י ך‬twice in Deut. Here the ‫ אזכרות‬again refer to the Tetragrammaton Rabba b. otherwise the term ‫ גמרא‬would be out of place. ch. 37-41 (four times) . Hoshaja. as to the Nine Benedictions for the New Year's Day. 22 A. Nathan b. R. 5. M. r. 8 A . Taanith 65 c . Joseph. 11. Nahmani. ‫ א ל ה י נ ו‬. Hülel. fil Deut. i. Sabb. Abishalom. 11).‫כנגד תשע אזכרות שכתוב בפרשת הנה‬ R. who took part in a discussion.50 i2. where ‫ כ א ל ה י נ ו‬ver. in the 18 ‫ אזכרות‬of the 51.‫ שמע‬The Babylonian Amora counts ‫ אלהים‬as Azkaroth. where we read ‫ ע נ ת ו ד ר י א‬and ‫ ק ר ת י ג נ א‬respectively. 3. 6. Here again ‫ א ל ה י ט‬in v. Samuel b. We may derive b. kept to the Babylonian tradition in seeing in Elohim also an Azkarah. Huna speaks of the one ‫ אזכרה‬that was on the ‫ציץ‬. Similar explanations are being advanced by R. 1-10. b. Simon in his name. we must assume that R reckoned 39 (‫ )אלהים‬4‫ ־‬16 (‫ )יי‬+ 16 (‫)יי אלהים‬. Taanith 65 c. Since the Tetragrammaton occurs only 16 times. b. Ber. Ber. 12 Β . 1 . Κ Joseph. Num. 1 Sam. pal. 20. 2. and the many ‫אזכרות‬. which are to be found in the phylacteries. Abba of ‫קרטגינא‬.‫אם מציע את הגמרא ובלבד שלא יאמר אזכרותשבהן‬ He must have belonged to the Amoraic period. r. 53 . says of the ‫ בעל קרי‬that he may study the Talmud49. 2. 15. Jonathan b. Yoma 7 B. B. T a n h . « v. 6). v. 54 R. 14. or ‫ יי אלהי ישראל‬are not included. b.. ch. S. sees in the Eighteen Benedictions a parallel to the 18 ‫ אזכרות‬in Ps.1 to Gen. Men. ch. a n d ‫ א ל ד ע ו ת‬ver. the son of R. 71 B.

R. i. in the third century. Hellenistic opposition fco the religion of the Jews. had a similar historical tradition. or in the time of the Hasmoneans.T H E PRONUNCIATION OF T H E TETRAGRAMMATON 35 from our material the conclusion. It was the work of Menahem. who did not adorn the dignity of the High Priests ? Or was the custom in use only as long as the High Priests were the highest dignitaries ? When was this usage abolished ? Geiger. It is now most surprising that we find in the M. and not that of the High Priest. It seems that ‫איתנטלית השם‬ or ‫ במילת השם‬would sound too drastic. T. i. dates it to the Roman period. pp. T.e. 2. the Galilean. to the time of the great wars against the Romans.56 Is it likely that the M. Let us turn to the Scholion ! Here it is distinctly stated that the Greeks prohibited the mentioning of the name of Heaven. E. therefore the rather unusual ‫ אדברתא‬was put in its place. The second was in the formulary of documents. High Priest to the Highest God \ Yet what did they write in the time of a king. ‫ואמרו להם אין לכם חלק באלהי ישראל‬. Gen. The reaction came before.55 which perfectly agrees with the word of the Scholion. Jahrbuch für Jüd. 4 . introduced and established the rule not to pronounce the Tetragrammaton in the Sanctuary. since the Jews 4 were subject to God alone?‫׳י‬ 55 Mekhilta 71 Β . that ‫ אזכרה‬was used since the latest Tannaim and first Amoraim to denote the Mishnaic ‫שם‬.. v. r. 56 Zeitlin. would celebrate a victory of the enemies of the Pharisees ? Further. son of the scribe Judas. who is followed by Zeitlin. ' in the year so and so of X. ‫אדברתא‬. 65 c. According to the Boraita. Here we have the real explanation for the action of the priests after the death of Simon the Just. Lakish. Volkskünde. Marmorstein. 98 f. why did they eliminate the Name of God. and not ‫השם‬. Simon b. 307 f. they wrote. The Jews were commanded to write on the horn of the ox : ' We have no share in the God of Israel '. the apostasy of the priests and nobles. c 2 . One counteraction we saw already in the rule to use the Name of God in greetings.

One cannot grasp the objection of the Greeks to the term ‫ אל עליון‬. are confounded and turned back (ver. All the haters. We are therefore obliged to accept the view that we have here a victory of the Pharisees over the Sadducees. and now the Greeks.57 It is the same development which we find established in the history of the pronunciation of the Name. Ed. 2). Ursprung der Sadokäer und Boethosäer.36 T H E NAMES OF GOD We would expect that they removed the ruler's name. Israel is still alive. God in his righteousness has cut asunder the cords of the wicked (verses 3-4). and the M. 572. T. . and frequently to be found with them as well. at one time mighty enemies. 129. and against the use. Berlin. Babylon. and not the Name of God. Ber. enemies of Zion. was still in use in documents in the time before the destruction of the Temple. Israel may rightly say : ' Many a time have the nations afflicted me from my youth ‫( י‬verse 1). that was well known. Yet they have not prevailed against Israel (ver. They plowed like plowers on Israel's back. who endeavoured to remove the divine Names ‫ מקום‬and ‫שמים‬. Assur. Why should the Rabbis object to ‫טובים‬. iii A. are in the dust. The real reason for this institution must be sought somewhere else. of the Tetragrammaton can be seen in some of the Psalms. the question of the Galilean proves the praxis that the Name. 5). and substitute in their place ‫טובים‬. 1882. Egypt. Some of these. Baneth thinks that the institution of greeting with the divine Name is connected with the movement ascribed by him to Jewish sects. Graetz. the ‫שם‬. without basing his theory on the report as to the conduct of the priests after the death of Simon. Notably in Ps. or ‫טוב‬. is actually used in Rabbinic sources for God. and prefer ‫ מקום‬or ‫ ? שמים‬The name ‫טובים‬. They may become as the grass on the housetops. 53 f. the Medes. A reminiscence of this struggle for the pronunciation. p. 57 58 v. Baneth 58 came to a similar result as to the date and origin of the passage in M. Geschichte. Finally.

3). still refrained from applying it. 41. and even when the Scribes re-established the old greetings. which are followed by a catalogue of virtues of which one need not be ashamed. a before. 6). or these psalmists. which throws light on the religious and social conditions of the author s period and enabled him to establish Sirah's approximate date. The house of Israel. they. The next sentence seems artificial at the first sight. ver.THE PRONUNCIATION OF T H E TETRAGRAMMATON 37 which withereth afore it groweth up (ver. The same is the case in Ps. nor he that bindeth sheaves his bosom (ver. verses 17-22 he enumerates things of which man should and must be ashamed. 21). 8). and those who fear the Lord are invited to bless the Lord (verses 19-20). with the blessing : ‫( יברכך יי מציון עושה שמים וארץ‬ver. The man who feareth God must be blessed with the words : 4 . The second reading means : ' to greet silently and the first : 4 not to return a greeting. And the passers-by did not say : i The Blessing of ‫ יי‬be upon you : we bless you in the name of ‫( י יי‬ver. and (b)‫ משאול שלום מחריש‬. 134 concludes. Even those who fear God need not refrain from uttering the Tetragrammaton in their benedictions and greetings. may have been contemporaries of Ben Sira. 41. after having appealed to bless the Lord. The enemies are the Jews who joined the Greeks in removing the Name. In ch. 20 A : 4 Be ashamed of keeping silent when you are greeted \ The Hebrew has two versions : (a) ‫משואל שלום‬ ‫ מהחריש‬. Ps. We draw attention especially to ch. without employing the Tetragrammaton. the Hellenists. when greeted \ It is true that the Rabbis rebuke the proud who do not return their fellow men's . the house of Aaron. keeping silent.128) ‫יברכך יי מציוץ‬ f). This psalmist. The same background must be ascribed to Psalms 128 and 134. 7).4). The mower filleth not his hands. Graetz rightly saw in these portions a very valuable historical source. who alludes in an unmistakable manner to this movement among his people. Who are the enemies of Zion ? Why did they not greet with the old greeting of Boaz any more ? (Ruth 2. 135 (ver.

Huna.38 59 T H E NAMES OF GOD greeting. or. cruelty. Where people stood dressed and naked. Zur Erklärung von Jes.. there greetings were exchanged. Helbo in the name of R. 60 Mishna. Shabb. Ber. and those out of fear. rebuking impudence. 263. Z.. Greetings out of honour. What was the meaning of these greetings? Why did the scribes emphasize their importance and attach to it the Tetragrammaton ? We are told that R. needless to say that they may greet each other. Ber. pal. N. ‫א מ ר ו ע ל י ו ע ל רב. Johanan b. ‫בל שיודע ב ח ב י ת‬ ‫לו ש ל ו ם‬ ‫שלום‬ 69a v. even before they saluted him. breaking covenant and oath. ii. Surely he meant that people refrained from using the 'Name' in their greetings. 53. treachery.61 The distinction made between reading and prayer on one side and between greetings on the other side suggests that the latter were not on the same high level as the former. iii (1926). He. 4 C . Where people stood naked there was no place for greetings. that they are ashamed to accept the greetings of their less fortunate brethren. ß9b b. at least. adultery. in ZA W. and sexual immorality. יוחנן בן ז כ א י ש ל א ה ק ד י מ ו א ד ם‬ ‫שלום מעולם ואפלו נכרי מצוק‬. 17 A. in hospitality. S. 23 . use the Tetragrammaton? Did he pronounce the name in greeting Jews and Gentiles alike ? R. Ber. b. Yet it is hardly to be believed that Sirah meant the same. ‫יקדים‬ R.59b Did R. surely. one can read the Bible. &c. deliver the prayer . 59 b.. Meir and R. larceny.59a We arrived at the question. falsehood.60 A Boraita teaches : ‫מ ק ר א ותפלה‬ ‫שם‬ ‫ע ו מ ד י ן לבושין י ש‬ ‫שב״א‬ ‫לבית ה מ ר ח ץ מקום‬ ‫הנכנם‬ In a bath. 01 Tosefta Berakoth 2. now Marmorstein. where people stood dressed. Joh. Ber. . ‫לו‬ ‫ליתן‬ ‫שרגיל‬. but there was no room for reading and prayer. b. Zakkai greeted Jews as well as heathens. 6 B. wanted to say more than that the rich are too haughty in their dealings with the poor . I t does not fit in the context. 1. have been ashamed of doing so. p. From the discussion of the Amoraim it appears ‫ ו א ״ צ ל ו מ ר ש א י ל ת ש ל ו ם ו מ נ י ח תפילין ו א צ ״ ל ש א י נ ו ח ו ל ץ‬. Judah speak of two kinds of greetings. 10 A.

481. b.T H E PRONUNCIATION OF T H E TETRAGRAMMATON 39 that in their time the Tetragrammaton was not used any more. 3 A. Ulla.70 The preachers liked to refer in their sermons to this custom of greetings. R. 80. 4 B. K. 4. 6 . B. also pal.62 and R. Eleazar b. 4 B. J. Ber. It is true that the Scribes saw in the word ‫ שלום‬a name of God. r. Haninah b. who did not greet his ma3ter and colleague. Hor. 19 . Johanan teaches us further that the greeting was expressed by the words 66 . b. Ber. and other instances. neglected also this sign of respect towards his teacher. 15 . eh. 8 . L/s saying. Yet there was actuality in this point of R.4 . Pedath. r. Ber.67 R. 177 A. B. Johanan b. pal.‫שלום עליך רבי ומורי‬ The same phrases of greetings were exchanged between R. . Levi 63 to the Patriarch of his time. 2. Jose b. Nappaha was very angry with R. 13c . 21. Ber.1. 70 v. In the third century we hear of scholars who went to greet (‫ )סלק למשאל בשלמי הדר‬their teachers or friends. 73 B. Meir.71 Certain families had the privilege of greeting the Patriarch every day. Zeiri. Hama. r. . but the old greeting with the Tetragrammaton ceased. 80. 10 B. V. 7. ‫ן‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬ v. ii. 14 A. Shek. 5 . Gen. Jochanan b. as R. Sabb. Jose b. 45. 64 Or R.Beiträge^ i. Gen. &C. 83 0. ע ל ו ב ה‬Deut. r.65 R. נתן ל ו ש ל ו ם והחזיר ו ש ל ו ם‬v. 48 c . 72 pal. pal. 12. Lakish. r.72 In all these instances we may safely gather that the old custom was already abolished.68 Babylonian scholars sent greetings to their Palestinian friends.64 R. H u n a . one would never allow it to be pronounced in a place where people were naked. ‫ . 9 . Rab b. and we read that they exchanged greetings. 9 B . Lev. Nappaha went to R. 17 . MK. in t h e bath . b. 3B . ed. before prayers . Ber. Sachs. 6 B. just as the references to the 62 63 65 66 Gen. Sabb. Pes.. Tractate Derek Erets r. r. 10. Cant.69 Certain rules as to greetings were laid down by various teachers. Akiba. M. Cant. 78. b. R. The Babylonians were rather backward in this respect. K i n j a n Tora. Had they still used it. b. vi. Simon b. 67 pal. 16c. V. Halafta and Elijah. v. MGWJ 1885. 7. Tanh. Ber. Jeb. Buber. 5. 68 ‫ . R. Qisma met a stranger. B. Another BabyIonian contemporary. 9.

For in this time. 469. Yet. y. Hama and Aninai b. 8. r. Phinehas b. 3. 73 75 pal.. 7. According to Pirke R. Nahson.74 Similar stories are related about R.73 A doctor of medicine in Sepphoris wanted to teach R. This will be the subject of the next chapter. the influences of which are felt up to this very day. xiv. before concluding this chapter. Eccl.40 THE NAMES OF GOD reading of the Scroll and the tithes were not arbitrary or theoretical. in the first half of the third century. a great change in the use of the name of God is to be noticed. which brought about many changes in Jewish theological and philosophical lore. Yoma 3. Haninah b. 1902. Hama the use of the Name. . we have to point out that the knowledge of the 'Name' was not yet extinct. Eliezer 75 the President of the Academy in declaring the New-Moon pronounced the Tetragrammaton in the same way as the High Priest on the Day of Atonement. JQR. Samuel heard a Persian woman cursing her son with one letter of the Name. 71 Ibid. 11. Ch.

Yer. R. Shebuoth. The treatise of Soferim adds 3 : ‫אבל רחום‬ ‫וחנון וארך אפים ורב חסד מלך מלכים גדול עליון צדיק וישר חסיד תמים‬ ‫גבור הרי אלו נמחקין‬. The order of ‫ א״ר‬and ‫ י״ה‬is kept in the Boraita as well. 34.2 The omission of ‫ אלהים‬in the M. ed. By the names (a) ‫אייר‬. 1 . 116. 9. THE Mishna gives an official list of the divine Names of the Bible for several purposes. N. (c) ‫א״ר‬.4 Reviewing these names we notice that some of them occur even in the Bible only once. Midr. others occur more or less frequently. (b) ‫אהיה אשר אהיה‬. (<d). First of all that the name ‫אלהים‬. and Babli ‫ חנון ורחום‬as God's names occur also Sifre. or ‫ אל‬. p. 4:3. or may not be treated so. Halberstamm. (e) ‫שרי‬. is altogether omitted. 1885. Secondly. (c)‫שדי‬. and ( / ) ‫צבאות‬. 10.and (h) by all the substitutes. S. Barzili of Barcelona. that ‫ א״ד‬is mentioned before ‫ יי״ה‬and is called a real name.' 1 This list contains two difficulties. (e) ‫חנון ורחום‬. iv. Soferim. A. about the readings ‫פירוש ם ' יצירה‬. 20. is to be ascribed to the fact that all sayings with that name belong to a group of curses (‫)אלה‬. Berlin. 92. (g) ‫רב חסר‬. Mishna Shebuot. (d) ‫צבאות‬. . iv. 4 v. (b) ‫י*ה‬. I command you (by oath). 2.‫הגדול‬ ‫וחעזוז‬. also a Tanhuma frag3 ment in Yalkut Makhiri Psalms. § 49. gives under the latter category : (a) ‫ אל‬with all its composites. then he is guilty. (d) ‫י״ה‬. which may be deleted in writing. Slieb.II The Names of God in the Bible. and (e) of the Mishna also : ‫ הגמר הנורא האדיר והחזק והאמיץ‬. whilst it ought to be treated as one of the substitutes. v. teaches : ' If a man said " I put an oath on you. some are repeated only a few times. ‫יה ה‬ ‫צבאות אלהי ישראל אלהים חיים אל שדי רם ונשא שובן עד וקדוש‬. 35 A . p.. iv. and in the first category are added to (c). " By heaven and earth he is free . A second catalogue of names. ( / ) ‫ארך אפים‬. I bind you (by oath) he is guilty . 2 b. Tannaim. They 1 M. by Judah b. Deut. The chief divine names are also given in the introductory words of the Book of Yezira : .

1. Hanna. Nathan). and Preuschen-Bauer. by R. 253 f. 3.B. R. 80. W. 152 . The teachers of the third century endeavour to explain the meaning of this term. Phinehas b. r. 92. Exegese. . 583. All of them see in it a kind of notarikon:1'. these Names prepared for the religious enlightenment of the world. Jacob.בראשית‬i. 117. What 5 Rab (R. 197 . i. א י ק נ ו ס‬Ζ. The Haggadist quotes the Greek words of Aquilas' translation : άξιος and ικανός. in Steinschneider Festschrift. R. whose Name became the guide and comfort of the whole world (Ps. i. v. Whatever moderns may think of those prophets and priests who uttered them for the first time.5 There was an older interpretation by R. R. His Name became great among the nations all over the earth from sunrise to sunset (cf. by R. v. ed. Theodor.f ch. Tanhuma. The name ‫ שדי‬is more frequent. Hag. H. E. 28. r. Hoshaja (trans. Isaac (trans. The most ardent intellectual endeavours and religious zeal are attached to these names. ‫ א ק ס י ו ס‬and ‫ . ed. Theodor. Alexander Tanh. 12 a . Levy. Berekhja. Aha (trans. and R. Lerner.42 T H E NAMES OF GOD are landmarks in the religious development and education of the old Hebrews and Israelites. A psalmist calls upon all the nations to sing and praise Him. who said to the World. Abbahu. ch. w . 6 Gen. Gen. 11).1). who sees in ‫ שדי‬the idea that the whole universe and all the fullness thereof is not worthy (‫ )כדיי‬of the Godhead. 1926. Judah b. 12. Eliezer b.14). by R. also Tanh. Ezekiel in his name) .1. Mal. 1851. Glessen. 122 and col.y. The first word means ' everlasting' and the second 4 all powerful \ 6 The name ‫ צבאות‬gave rise to several explanations. at least not in their original form. Miscellm. s . 1). 1*.‫. Lakish. 25. 37 and 460) . R. 401 . Enough !‫ י‬meaning that otherwise the creation of heaven and earth would never have been completed. 202. Yet some of these names have never been repeated. and grew not weary in repeating them. 57. 3. 1926. Simon b. Lehnwörter. Über den Einfluss der paläst. i n Z/NW. QriechDeutsches Wörterbuch .. The divine Name ‫ אהיה אשר אהיה‬is mentioned only once (Exod. Quellen und Anlage.‫אני הוא שאמרתי לעולםדי‬ am He. R. p. 17. col. pp. 5. s. Gen. also Marmorstein. and Pirke R. i 80 . Krauss. which left their indestructible marks and irremovable imprints on the mind and soul of the whole world. Frankel. Leipzig.

Kahana. 31B. M. R. The first modern Jewish 8 ‫ צ ב א‬.'12 Many passages in Philo's works confirm this statement. the old. alex. Bahne. and she said in her prayer: c Thou hast brought forth all these multitudes (‫ )צבאות‬and unto me dost Thou withhold a son?' 1 1 The other names. Pes. Levi and R.7 A notarikon which shows that the original meaning of the name was lost to the later generations. Berekhja in his name. ‫ יה‬and ‫ אל‬were also relegated to the language of prayers and magic. Levi. R. Judah b. the God of love and benevolence . R. remarks that the name of God is Zabaoth. 91 . 104 A. 35 A. 48 f. 84 A. Eleazar b. r. as will be shown in the next chapter.10 The teachers add: Hannah saw the multitudes of Israel in the precincts of the Temple. 11 v. wrote about ninety years ago : ' Philo names the benevolent world-creating power (δύναμιy) God (öeoy). but not antiquated. Judgement. Buber. . that of judgement. B.9 R. their meaning must be dealt with at some length.T H E NAMES OP GOD I N T H E BIBLE 43 is ‫ צבאות‬Î A sign (‫ )אות‬in his hosts. R. Zauberwesen. Philo himself asserts that in doing so he relies on the usual phraseology. Samuel. 2‫ו‬ Geschichtliche OarStellung der jüd. Halle. b. Simon adds. p. p. y. Blau. ib. 1834. the name Elohim. Mekh. Β. 231 f.. A teacher of the fourth century. 73 A. Joshua b . p. Pedath emphasizes that Hannah was the first to use this name. Philo taught just the reverse . ed. Abba b. But before attempting to describe the history of these names in Rabbinic theology. 9 7 . ' even one letter of His name is capable of creating hosts as the the whole of His name \ 8 In Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek magic ‫ צבאות‬is put together with 1a La αδωναι σαβαωθ. Yoma. the term öeos‫ אלהים = ״‬means ζύςργζτης. Rabbinic lore preserved the teaching that the Tetragrammaton implies or expresses the measure of love and mercy . Ber. the good. κύριος = ‫אדני‬ expresses God's Lordship. historian of Jewish-Hellenistic philosophy of religion. and the mighty world-ruling power Lord (κύριος). 1 ®b. Rulership. Religions-Philosophie. like ‫אד‬. and b.

r. Johai. Zacharias Frankel. 7. 15 v. whether ‫ א ל ה י ם‬in Ex. Lev. See. 33 . b. Sanh. 1. 5. Who were they ‫?׳‬ We have to examine the midrashic material at our disposal in order to see the real state of our doctrine. Pesikta. Johai sees in ‫אל‬. J. was puzzled by this view of Philo. i. 36. Greenup. ed. 7.13 Philo s assumed ignorance alone does not explain the great discrepancy between Alexandrinian and Palestinian teachings. Meir and R. The first teachers in whose sayings the terms ‫ מדת הרחמים‬and ‫ מדת הדין‬occur are R. v. 1. ed. Simon b. Meir's name is attached to the saying based on Isa. p. and ascribes this great difference between the Palestinian way of thinking and between Philo's hermeneutics to the latter's ignorance of Hebrew. 4God goes out from His place ? God is omnipresent ! How could it be that He goes from one place to another? It was taught in the name of R. pal. Buber. Buber. Tanh. ed. 34. Mekh. 79 A. 22. p. 2. Pes. 27 means " G o d " . and Über den Einfluss dar palästinensischen Exegese auf die alex. Meir that He changes the measure of judgement with that of mercy/ Apparently the meaning is :‫( ה׳‬the measure of mercy) steps in the place of ‫( אלהיט‬the measure of judgement).‫מדר‬. R. 21 : ‫כי הנה‬ ‫ה׳ יוצא ממקומו יוצא ממדה למדה ממרת הדין למדת הרחמים‬. 14 v. 73 a . Yet the old Tannaitic Haggada does not seem to know the terms ‫ מדת הרחמים‬and15. Tanh. 8. 'the 13 v. Simon b. 26. r. M. esp. b. Leipzig. 162 A and 164 A. Vorstudien in der LXJC.‫ מ ד ת הדין‬a Instead we read the terms ‫ מדה טובה‬and ‫ פורענות‬. cf.44 THIS NAMES OP GOD investigator of the Septuagint. Soferim 4.15 The doctrine that the term ‫ אלהיט‬means judge is several times ascribed to R. 4. however. an allusion to Gods judgement. r. 15a The dispute between R.. Ber. 71. Ps. his note. where the text can be completed with the help of Yalkut Makhiri on Hosea. Lev. pal. iii. 27 . Ps. ed. Akiba.. Gen. 26. S. Ag. .. 178 f. Philo clearly points out that his conception goes back to reliable authorities. Ishmael and R. Leipzig. 1851. Buber. could not have arisen if the later meaning of Elohim had been known in their days. B. ch. Besides. Taanith 65 Β . Sanh. 1851. or " Judge'‫״‬. Hermeneutik. 27.14 R. 36. 66 A.

48 B. a future punishment in case of disobedience. and not the former terms. also Hijja b. 7 B. Tosefta. Sifre Deut. 72 B.. is actually used. v. 14. in spite of being well acquainted with the Hebrew Bible. ל ו ק ה ת ח ל ה ק ו ״ ח ל מ ד ת ט ו ב ה ש מ ר ו ב ה‬14A. and in ‫ אלהים‬the measure of goodness. according to Frankel. He treated me with the measure of mercy. In Mekhilta 8 A we read : ‫אני יי בשבועה אני נפרע מהם קו״ח ומה אם מדת פורענות‬ ‫מעוטה אמר הקב׳ה לעשות ועשה מרה טובה מרובה ע״א בו״ב‬. Ber. מ ו ע ט ת ה ע ו ש ה ב ס ת ר ה ק ב ׳ ה מ פ ר ס מ ו בגלוי מ ר ה ט ו ב ה מ ר ו ב ה ע ״ א כ ו ״ ב‬ 49 A .‫ו מ ה א ם מדד‬ ‫ . 16 .T H E NAMES OP GOD I N THE BIBLE 45 measure of goodness and the measure of punishment'. Sifre Deut. and18. ' Which the Lord thy God has given thee He is thy judge in all judgements He passes on thee. 181 . Mekh. the God of my father. Here the name ‫ יי‬occurs. Meir contains the latter. ‫קו ו מ ה א ם מ ד ת פ ו ר ע נ ו ת‬ ‫. A saying of R. however.‫במרת רחמים ומנין שאין אלי אלא מדת רחמים שני אלי אלי למה עזבתני‬ ‫ ואומר אל יי ויאר לנו‬.. Mekh. Nahmani . 100 A . 26 A: ‫ פ ו ר ע נ ו ת מ ע ו ט ה מ י ש ה ת ח י ל ב ע ב י ר ה‬. also R. a knowledge of which Philo could not boast. but always the older terms ‫ מדת טובה‬and ‫מדת‬ ‫פורענות‬. enables us to glance at the inner meaning of the use made of the divine name. or vice versa. Mekh. Sifre Num. One can see in '‫ ה‬the ‫מדת פורענות‬. R.‫ואומר אל נא רפא נא לה‬. and it is understood to convey the meaning of a threat. § 286.16 The Tannaitic Midrash usually adopts these earlier terms. 95 Β. whether with the measure of goodness or with that of punishment. 17 V. reading: ‫אל אלהי אבי עמי נהג במדת רחמים ועם אבותי נהג‬ . just as He treated my father with the same measure/ Whence b. and several more. 19 B. 68 B.17 None of these. § 115 . ' Whence do we derive that one must bless God for the good as well as for the evil?‫ י‬because it says. 4 God. ‫מדת הרחמים‬.. 37A contains a text. p. Although the Midrash of the Tannaim contains the rule of ‫מדת הרחמים = ה‬. but not with reference to ‫ה׳‬. In one place the new term. Yet a few passages show clearly that not only Philo but even the older Rabbis did not know of the exegetical norm we are dealing with. Eleazar of Modiim.‫ מדת הרין =אלהים‬yet the text never uses these terms. Akiba. M. § 27.

39 reads : ‫ אלא‬. 9. 118. ‫ אין ה‬. Simon and R. and Ps. ‫ ה‬the ‫מדת פורענות‬ = the judgeship or rulership of God. Meir. 22.‫באותה שעה בקשה מדת הדין לפגוע בו‬ ‫אלהים ואין אלהים אלא מדת הדין ונא׳ ויאמר אליו אני ה׳ איל את ביו‬ ‫לא יכולת לסבול אותם אני ה׳ רחמן בעל הרחמים במדתי ארחם‬.9. Samuel b. omit this name) teaching : ‫ זו מדת הרחמים‬. 33. r. iii. Nahmani. Nehorai (most of the MSS. Hijja i n Lev. the first half of this rule is quoted in Gen. Theodor. p. ed. 34. 12. r. ‫מקום שני אלהים הוא מדת הדין ה‬.. r. ch. and changes the second ‫ מדת הרחמים‬in the term of !‫מדת הדי‬. 22. Secondly. 7. and earlier commentators. in a sermon of R. Friedmann corrects the texts according to Nahmanides. של צדיקים מהפבין מדת אכזריות למדת‬ ‫רחמניות‬. 294. ed. Here it reads: ‫כל מקום שני ה' זו מדת הרחמים כל מקום שנ׳ אלהים זו מדת‬ ‫הדין‬. . 56.‫מרת הרחמים שני ה׳ ה׳ אל רחום והנון‬ ‫ שאינו חפץ לחייב בריר‬. ch. 23.17 : ‫ דבתי׳ וידבר‬. Buber. r.‫הדין‬.2. For the first half of the rule we are referred to Exod. and for the second to Exod. Num. Ps.46 T H E NAMES OF GOD do we know that ‫ אל‬denotes the measure of mercy ? From Ps. This Midrash uses also in another place the term ‫ מרת אכזריות‬instead of ‫מדת הדין‬. 13.. The fact is that the ancient Haggada.‫שני ויקרא ה׳ אלהים אל האדם‬ ‫ הקדים לו מדת רחמים למדת‬. which says : ‫ל מ ה א נ י ה ׳ ב ׳ פ ע מ י ם א נ י ש פ ר ע ת י מ ת ר ה מ ב ו ל ו ג ׳‬ ‫אני עתיד ליפרע מ מ י ש ה ו א עושה‬. and in ‫ אלהים‬the love and mercy of God. The oldest mention of it is to be found in the Sifre.17: ‫כך תפלת. as seen in 10. According to this information the authorship of the saying is to be 18 b A Boraita of R. § 27. 27.16: ‫יתן ה׳ אותך אוי להם לרשעים שעושים מדת רחמים אכזריות בכ״מ שני ביוד‬ ‫ה״א מדת רחמים שני ה' ה׳ אל רחום‬. 8 and 27.‫ הוי כי לא אל חפץ רשע‬. 308. just like Philo. Tanh.18b The rule is repeatedly quoted in the Midrash. M. preserved traces of t h e older Agada. The correction is based on the assumption that the old Haggadah knew the norm of ‫ אלהים‬being the measure of judgement. That is not so. 6. The second half is cited by an anonymous preacher in Eccles. ascribes this rule to R. p. Num. The first traces of a change of views and attitude do not lead farther than the age of R. saw in .

3. r. Sotah. The passage reads: ‫ ש מדת( שוהא על הצדיקים לבא‬r. Joshua proves that the measure of goodness surpasses that of punishment. R. In genuine Tannaitic sources the new terms are rare . Yoma 76 A. i. R. cf. Ishmael deals with the same question with reference to the faithless woman. the saying is quoted by Raba. where these older v. according to other readings by R. Joshua (b. 13 b. Haninah in the old Tannaitic form : ‫מדה טובה‬ ‫ממהרת לבא ממדת פורענות‬. Exod. Nehorai and Meir are identical names.) ‫ד״א מבאן שהפורענות‬ ‫ומדת הטוב ממהרת לבא‬. Meir. 9. Sabb. There. Here other sources shall be consulted. very frequent. God's goodness is demonstrated as enabling the righteous as well as the wicked to bear the bounty of goodness and the severity of punishment respectively. 1892. 97 A. written in a style which can be ascribed to an older Tannaitic Midrash. their children will enjoy the fruits of their deeds in the hereafter. or originated in the time of. ‫ ס ׳ ה ל י ק ו ט י ם‬.' Here again the Bab. 20B. however. r. Nehorai. containing these terms. 28 A. Erubin.22 We are therefore entitled to see in passages. § 9 . The Amoraim preserved. the original form of the sayings by earlier teachers. 9. V. t h e Galilean (Sifre Num. as we saw. The Midrash 20‫ השכם‬contains a question. Hananja) : 4 Which measure is greater? That of goodness. Some instances from the Tannaitic Midrashim have been given already above.e. 39. 22 Sifre Num. Num. § 15 . as the language shows. r. 20 19 . In the Bab. 21 b. Talmud preserved a fuller form of this statement. ch. Jose b. B. b. or that of punishment ? Certainly the former. of R. fuller t h a n in t h e other sources). Jerusalem. the older terms ‫ מדת טובה‬and ‫מדת פורענות‬. Sanh.T H E NAMES OP GOD I N T H E BIBLE 47 attributed to R. 45. 1 . also b. ed. 18 has a sentence. similarly R.. how much more that in the measure of goodness. If in punishment the sins of the parents are visited on their children. by the same method. 100 A-B. different terms. Jose. Sotah. Num. Talmud. Grünhufc.21 Here R. I . reward. 4b. Tosefta..19 This also bears out our suggestion that the rule was formulated by. The teachers of the previous generations use.

24 A. 25 it is.‫כ ל טובי מ ד ת ה ט ו ב ו מ ד ת הפורענות‬ 30 Exod. Midr.23 For this the example Achan is quoted. where we learn that all Israelites are surety for each other. The phrase occurs in a discussion between R. He says: ‫כך אמר‬ ‫רתמים‬ ‫ה׳‬ ‫במרת‬ ‫לך ו א ש ל ח ך א ל פ ר ע ה‬ ‫ש א מ ר ת לי ו ע ת ה‬ ‫אני‬ ‫בשעה‬ ‫משה‬ We ‫ א י ל‬. also b. 27 Tanh. r. 119 . Simon b. Ilai.30 deduce from our material that this rule. Sch. Meir 26 and R. Halafta and R. For in the Amoraic Haggada these terms are not used. Thus Tanh. which agrees with Philo's interpretation. 24 53 . doubtful whether it is not a repetition of an older saying. p. ב ש ם ר׳ יהושע‬cf. pp.. the whole world stands (exists) for his sake. Abba. 9. 185 If. 100 A. r. Exod.28 use still the old names. r. Judah b. We traced back the earlier view.. that ‫ ה׳‬signifies the ‫ מ ד ת הדין‬. the whole generation suffers on account of him. ch. 73.6: .24 Once we find the terms in the name of R. b. 26 A. Marmorstein. 4. Their contemporaries. 89. The homily concludes: ‫מ ד ת פ ו ר ע נ ו ת מ ו ע ט ת ו ה ד ו ר נ ת פ ש מ ר ה ט ו ב ה מ ר ו ב ה ע ל‬ ‫ א ח ת ב מ ה ו ב מ ה‬. A further proof for this observation can be advanced from the translation of the name Elohim in the literature v. R. 6. according to Midrash hashkem ‫ ח נ נ י ה‬p ‫ . 81 A . p. 3. are not older than the middle of the second century. Jose b. ch. 27 the old forms are still alive. Even in some of the sayings of R.S. ii. Akiba. cf. and ‫ א ל ה י ם‬the ‫ מ ד ת ה ר ח מ י ם‬to the Palestinian Haggadah. however.29 Yet the latter Scribe is reputed to have used the new terms. ed. If there is one righteous. 116. 28 Eccl. R. Sanh. 49.‫א מ ר ת לי ש א ת ה ע ת י ד לגואלן ש מ א ע ד ש ב א ת י נ ה פ כ ה ל מ ד ת הדין‬ ‫אני ע ו מ ד הוי ו י א מ ר אליו‬ ‫ה׳ ב מ ד ת רחמים‬ ‫הקב׳ה‬. v. Th. Psalms. 34: ‫כ ך צ ד ק ה כ ו ב ש ת על מ ד ת הדין ועל ה פ ו ר ע נ ו ת בדי ש ל א‬ ‫יבוא לעולם‬. where we have to read instead of ‫ ב ש ם דיב״ל‬. 45. Maccoth. i. N. 30. If one man sins. just as the terms of ‫ מ ד ת הדין‬and ‫מדת ה ר ח מ י ם‬.48 THE NAMES OF GOD terms occur. b. Sanh. This is the law of solidarity in Israel and the world. 29 v. 1. Tanh. where either ‫ מ ד ת הדין‬or ‫ מ ד ת הפורענות‬is superfluous. 25 Gen. J. The Doctrine of Merits. Gamaliel I I and R. ed. Tannaitic Haggada. It was surely a period of transition. r.

Nathan M. who held the view that Elohim=Measure of love. The late Chief Rabbi. The next step to be taken in the course of our investigation must be to answer the question what motives or circumstances moved the scribes to alter the established rule that ‫ ה׳‬is the Lordship. The latter are surely post-Tannaitic just as the Ps. as we are informed by Irenaeus. in the whole of the Torah the Targumist translates the name of God " Elohim " as the Tetragrammaton. and Adonaj = Measure of judgement. Adonaj the measure of mercy. Wilna. Judgement of God. These. Elohim the measure of judgement. Let us quote the very words of this Church Father. Dr. Onkelos is older than the later distinction of the Rabbis and agrees with Philo. The same observation can be made in studying the Targum of the Prophets. 1. which shows Amoraic influence in Halakah as well as in the Haggada. The same can be observed in some of the Targumim of the Hagiographa. 1874. ‫ז״ל‬. What was it ? R. Adler. saw in the two Names an affirmation of their theories of two Gods. The so-called Ps. 2) : 8 Behold. one of the most successful and competent commentators of the Targum Onkelos. Jonathan has some exceptions from this rule. p. how could he ignore this rule and see in Elohim the Tetragrammaton ? Surely. Simon b. Johai took a conspicuous part in opposing the views and doctrines of the Dualists.' Similarly in his comments on Gen. 1 (ed. D . Therefore we must find a cogent reason for such a far-reaching change. but took them from Palestinian sources. makes the following important remark in his general introduction to the Targum Onkelos (iv. and ‫אלהים‬ the Love of God ? PhilOj surely.T H E NAMES OP GOD I N T H E B I B L E 49 of the Targumim. never invented these terms. 3 a): ' Elohim is trans‫־‬ lated in the whole of the Pentateuch as the Tetragrammaton'. Jonathan. There never was a discrepancy between Philo and the Rabbis in this respect. We are inclined to ask : If Onkelos really knew this most pronounced and far-reaching theological distinction of the meanings attached to the two names.

sometimes it denotes what is nameable and admirable .. xxxv. ii.. while Eloeim and Eloeuth in the Hebrew language signify " that which contains all As to the appellation Adonai. p. let them learn that all expressions of this kind are but announcements and appellations of one and the same Being. so that the water should not subsequently submerge the land. 8. ‫ ויזכור אלהים את רחל‬. and threats. Even this new interpretation did not remove all the difficulties. the most perfect God. as the Highest God. yet the text uses ‫אלהים‬. c f . and the other scribes. 257. ‫וישמע אלהים את נאקתם ויזכור אלהים‬. the God of rigid judgement. however. 2. such as Sabaoth. For instance. Johai. in the Hebrew language. diverse expressions occur in the Scriptures.22. 1. the Maker. v. Simon b. First of all there are very numerous passages which contradict this rule. It seemed natural that κύριος should be interpreted as the God of the Jews. in Gen. writes: 'If. loc. the Most High. Heresies." All the other expressions likewise bring out the title of one and the same Being. Addonai—it signifies. and the word receives an initial guttural sound—thus. and Gen. plainly. Adonai. but at other times. the Creator. we read ‫ . striving to prove from these that there are different powers and gods. when the letter Daleth in it is doubled. who is considered the father of Christian dogmatics. the Father of all. the general name of God.50 THIS NAMES OP GOD who was a contemporary of R. God Almighty.' 31 This passage leaves no doubt that the two names stood in the centre of Gnostic speculations. . " One who bounds and separates the land from the water. as. also Exod. and all other such terms. the God of love and mercy. For the term " Eloë " in the Jewish language denotes God. and Elohim. and such like. ויזכור אלהים את נח‬here.24. 30. 3. There are many instances of ‫ יי‬being connected with punishments. 51 Ag. Eloë. for example. cit. any object that. a measure of love and mercy is spoken of. ZfΝ W. chastisement. The Bishop of Lugdunum. the Lord of Powers. in whose Haggada we found the two new terms. Consequently the teachers of the middle of the second century changed the order.

73. 166 B . 113 .35 Gen. Blessed are the pious. 59 . r. ed. 8. 8. r. Tanh. 6. 388 1·. ib. Th. 35 Gen. R. 1 . the measure of judgement in connexion with the creation of man ? Again the preachers of the third and fourth centuries dwell on this. Β. For God's glory and man's merit was the world created. Ps. iv. When God created man. ed. Tanh. then. and not ‫יי‬. Gen. there is no chance for pious men to be born !‫ י‬What did God do? He put aside the thought of the wicked. B. H a n i n a h .'34 He means to say that neither the work of creation. He applied also both measures. Th. nor the punishment after the sin. Why does the first chapter of Genesis mention the term ‫אלהים‬. who change the measure of judgement into that of love ! 32 ‫ י‬Moses is mentioned as one typically pious. ‫ . M. Eccles. in the first chapter of the Book of Genesis is the term ‫אלהים‬. and in driving him out from the garden. ed. who changed the measure of judgement into that of mercy by his prayer. 202. 36 A . v. He created him with the two measures. Eljakim. 308. 70 ‫ י נ צ ח מ ד ח ״ ר ל מ ד ה י ׳ ר‬.Joshua b. Ps. r. and joined the measure of mercy with that of judgement. 21. Gen. 5-7. and said : 6 If X create man there will arise wicked people. ch. 2. could have been the measure of the Demiurgos. Pes.T H E NAMES OP GOD I N T H E B I B L E 258 cf. R. the Tetragrammaton. Pes. Nahmani deals with these verses in a homily. which says : 4 Woe unto the wicked. Levi says: 'When God created man. 33. A third point was. 33 32 D 2 . M. r. for they change the measure of love into a measure of punishment.53 Secondly. ch. ש ה כ ר י ע מ ד ה ״ ד ל מ ד ה ״ ר‬the previous sources read ‫ ש מ ש נ ה מ ד ה ״ ד‬. Samuel b. and others. Pes. iv. r. r. ch. Why. Th. Berechja preached on the same subject. R. R. Β. He foresaw that righteous and wicked people would come forth. the ‫ אלהים‬in the story of creation must have given rise to many objections The creation is a sign of God's mercy and goodness. for in both cases the two measures were jointly applied. if I do not create him. before the creation was fully accomplished. to be found? The reply to this is that the Bible does not mention the full name of God. ^ ‫כ ש ב ר א ו ב ר א ו ב מ ד ת ה ד י ן מ ר ת ה ר ח מ י‬ ‫ובשטרדו טרדו ב מ ד ת הרחמים‬. 22 . 166 B . 1.

iv. 'Some Greek and Rabbinic ideas of God in the Jewish Chronicle Supplement. v. 167 A. . for similar explanations of t h e divine names. 478. with that of judgement. Abba b. January. Marmorstein. also a teacher of the same age. W o h l g e m u t h Jeschurun. also a fragment quoted in Yalkut Makhiri Psalms. APa. that God does nothing without the counsel of His heavenly court. .171-86.52 THIS NAMES OP GOD An anonymous preacher varies this idea by saying : ' God said. Graetz. Kahana. 3. צבאות‬when I leave the sins of man in suspense. 26. Pes. and I wish that the world should stand. God is the only judge. When I judge the creatures. v. 3. informs us that two generations used the Tetragrammaton in their prayers : the generation of the Great Assembly and that of the 39. 12. ed.37 We conclude this investigation of the Biblical names of God with a saying of Κ-. I am38‫י ״!יי‬ This teacher lived in the third century. pp. r. He judges without assistants and counsellors. Cant." 36 ‫ י‬This teaching of the two measures connected with the divine name is responsible for the doctrine developed in the third century. ed. " If I create the world with the measure of love. and f u r t h e r on. 1925. I am ‫ . Grün h u t . 37 For a fuller treatment of this point v.. ed. 39 A. pp. " Thou wilt know my Name ? I am called according to my deeds. a doctrine which contradicts the views of the foregoing centuries. r. p. 452. Very cogent reasons must have prevailed to change the older doctrine. 92. Geschichte. which was more in accordance with the purer monotheistic belief of the Jews.. Th. 40 v. the generation of the persecutions 315 Gen. Bacher. ' E i n e messianische Bewegung im 3ten J a h r h u n d e r t in Dr. and 369-83. 6 . Buber. What was the reason for these explanations of God's Names ? R. and that t he term ‫ ויי‬implies His Court of High . Abba b. ch.‫דורו של שמד‬. 39 M.‫ שמד‬Some scholars 40 thought that this referred to the Hadrianic persecutions. however. xiii (1926). Mamal : ' God says to Moses.. Ps. r. 2. v-vii. but I will join both measures. I am ‫ .. M. 16-28. אלהים‬when I fight the wicked. Marmorstein. where t h e material is given. שדי‬and when I am compassionate. I am ‫ . then sins will be too many . 112 f. 38 Exod. the world cannot exist . Levi. 251. Yet. ii. 36. Joshua b. and was a contemporary of R.

R. who lived in a time of great religious persecutions. Joshua b. Jair. Phinehas b. Joshua b. and R.THE NAMES OP GOD I N T H E BIBLE 53 is distinguished from the generation of the Hadrianic persecutions in our texts. loc. who taught that if Israel used the Tetragrammaton. b. . 114 Β. Jeschurun. Eleazar. opposed. the sayings of Mar R. β . 19. Levi and R.41 R. Levi. 85. Alexander. ‫ל פ י ש ש נ י פ ע מ י ם ה ת י נ ו ק ו ת א ו מ ר י ן ב ב י ת ה כ נ ס ת א ח ת ב ב ק ר ו א ח ת‬ ‫ · ב ע ר ב הושיענו א ל ה י נ ו ל פ י כ ך ה ק ב ׳ ה א ו מ ר ש נ י פ ע מ י ם מ י יתן מציון‬This prayer for redemption is closely connected with t h e Messianic expectation of t h e t h i r d century. Levi. 183. they soon would be redeemed. Jeschurun. this praxis. loc. 5 . 44 v. 184. 42 41 R. cit. Midr. ed. and Sotah 5 B. R. also R. Other 43 liturgical innovations of a similar kind were also introduced. r. ch. Friedmann. 174A. above. tried to avail himself of this advice. 63 A . ‫מ ת פ ל ל י ם ואינן נ א נ י ם ר י ב ״ ל ב ש ם‬ ‫ ר פ ב ״ י מ פ נ י ש א י נ ם יודעים ס ו ד ש ם ה מ פ ו ר ש‬. Friedmarm. Sanh. led to new developments in the history of the divine name. v. Pes. Pes. 5 A. N a h m a n . r. belonging to the school of Tiberias. Before attempting to describe this new departure. b. 43 B. R. R. י ש ע נ ו ו ה פ ר כ ע ס ך מ ע מ נ ו‬Ps. 6. he reminded his contemporaries of the ancient rule about the greetings with the Name. y.. cit. 22. 45 jer. Johanan. and introduced such a ' reform \ To justify his action. R.. Joshua b. This weighty and extraordinary controversy between North and South. Levi. Ps. Tiberias and Lydda. Joseph. 41. 101 B. Sanh. R.45 For no other reason but because they taught and thought of making use of the Tetragrammaton. p. Joshua b. Huna. Levi. 32 A . On the sin and evil of a haughty spirit v. 14. 43 v. as we saw in the beginning of our investigation.42 R. Pes. b. Pes. ch. ed. Joshua b. we have to survey the complete list of the names of God in our Rabbinic sources. f u r t h e r b. Levi had to face great opposition on account of his 4 reforms although he supported them with ancient precedents.44 We shall understand now why the scholars of Lydda were stigmatized by their colleagues of the North as * haughty ‫ י‬people. p. Sota. 114 : ‫ר ׳ יודן ב ש ם ר ׳ יהושע בן לוי א מ ר ל פ י‬ ‫ש ה ת י נ ו ק ו ת ש ל ב י ת ר ב ן א ו מ ר י ם ש נ י פ ע מ י ם ביום ש ח ר י ת ו ע ר ב י ת ש ו ב נ ו א ל ה י‬ ‫ . who stood under the influence of the Hasidic teacher.

6-10 . Bibliotheca magna rabbinica. some of the names are doubled. Yet our collection comprises more than 1 v. Löw. Zunz. coll. p. Ben Chananja. ‫ ב ד י ארון‬. 35. sc. Die talmudische Lehre vom göttlichen Wesen. iv. b . The scribes speak of God's seventy names. no. Jiid. Akiba. =‫ ־‬Ges. Agadath Shir ha Shirim. id quod sentiunt Rabbini Talmudistae. 552-642. ZDMQ.‫ש ל עולם‬ Victory of the World ') which occur only in mystic writings> like the Bahir. 2 Die dem Räume entnommenen Synonyma für Gott in der neu-hebräischen Litter atury Zürich. Landau 2 to form such a collection.1 The collection is by no means free from artificiality and owes its origin to the popularity of this number. Literaturblatt.. 177 ff.y viii. Schechter. some of them corrected by Low. h . 1866. and register them. 1865 . Dissf de Deo. No such predilection is known in the number of God's Names in the Rabbinic writings. xiii. 22 ‫החלוץ‬. WHILST the names of God in the Bible have often been investigated during the last two thousand years. . MGWJ. 731 (‫)שערי אורה‬. xxxv. 262 . and Midrash Cant. ed. v. xiv. and Bartolocci.. 71. This scholar enumerates fifty-seven names. Lemberg. those in the Rabbinic writings have never been completely gathered and explained. p. 145 . 85-92. 6 . Schrifienf i.III The Rabbinic Synonyms for God. Zutta. ‫ ם ׳ ח ש ק‬. were of great importance in popular science and mystic speculations. We have left aside some (like . attributed to R. ‫חונו‬ . This book is outside the sources used for our investigation. but a good many omitted 4 altogether. Buber. An attempt has been made by E. 11. as we now know. Numbers.. 79. The number *seventy' shared this ancient partiality. earlier attempts by Leop. G. full of errors and prejudice. jQR. A Midrash on Canticles enumerates them . so the later Midrash on the Alphabet. 35 . p. 1888. v. also Pes. vü. V. 167 . ed. but surely later than the second century. no. . 7-8.

Surely teachers and preachers. freed them from superstition and idolatry. these names fertilized in turn nations and peoples. This catalogue of Names may appear to some more technical. cleansed the hearts. are entitled to be heard in all questions which bear on the problem of religion. Our list gives ninety-one Names. Many strenuous mental struggles. They bear eloquent witness to Israel's victory over gods and their temples. Our material is arranged in alphabetical order.THE RABBINIC SYNONYMS FOR GOD 55 ninety designations of God. No student of the history of religion. and brought salvation to the perishing world under the dying culture of Hellas and Rome. deep thought and high intelligence which lie behind these words. no searcher in the fields of religious thoughts and the philosophy of religion can pass unnoticed these works of the greatest teachers of this subject. Many spiritual forces and material tempests. doomed without them to decay and death. the growth of religious advancement from lower to higher stages. of Byzantium and Persia. Products of Israel's gestation. caused their changes. and influenced their history. which is unsurpassed in the history of religions. Internally and externally they purified the air of religion. The religious genius of the Rabbis in the first four centuries manifests itself as a living and imperishable source of real piety and true knowledge of God. Unfortunately our branch of research is not yet furnished with the apparatus which would enable us to dispense with such investigations. and the increasing war between light and darkness are concealed within these words. who could express God's relation to men and the world's relation to God. many wars and revolutions of the history of the world originated these names. often lasting for centuries. The chronology of the names and their frequency in different . It is needless to emphasize the wealth of religious fervour and enthusiasm. phases of the conflicts between ignorance and culture. His attributes and nature in such manifold ways and names.

Pes. 1924. 152. Shetach. Writings.. sub voce. ‫אביהם‬. c. 58. s. Gottesdienst. Pseudo-Rashi explains ‫ לשון ח ט א‬. 1898. 398. Deut. 37. to mean ‫ענין ענוג‬. 96 Β. v. p. pai. nos. There are different read- .11. cf.4 It is so often used by all the teachers of Judaism in the first four centuries that there is not the slightest ground for ascribing it to one sect or section of Jews. 69.3 (2) ‫אב שבשמים‬ ' Father in Heaven \ also ‫ ' אבינו שבשמים‬Our Father in Heaven . 23 A: ‫ כ ב ן ש ה ו א מ ת ח ט א א ל א ב י ו‬. Isa. 22. who lived in the first century B. ‫ ' אביכם שבשמים‬Your Father in Heaven'. Tanh. finds it hard to destroy men who studied the Torah and Mishna and are stained by ugly conduct and unworthy deeds/ Ed. b. The real meaning of the expressio is corroborated by several Haggadic sayings. ‫ ב ת ר י ה א ז ת ת ע נ ג ע ל ה‬. . The Names of God in the Rabbinic (1) ‫אב הרחמים‬ ' Father of Mercy J SER. i. Kohler. Grundriss einer systematischen Theologie. i. Β. First of all by the sentence of λ . ‫ש ב ת ובזכות מ ע ש ר ו ת ב ז כ ו ת ש ב ת ד כ ת י ב א ם ת ש ו ב מ ש ב ת ר ג ל ך‬ ‫ ו ב ז כ ו ת מ ע ש ר ו ת ד ב ת ׳ ו ש מ ח ת ב כ ל ה ט ו ב‬. 4 v. and his father complies with all his requests \ 6 The great pacifist. and Hebrew Union CoUege Annual. Elbogen. There is no basis for Köhlers assumption that this appellation is of Essene origin. the circle drawer : ' Thou art like a son‫ י‬who endears himself to his father. p. the Father of Mercy.56 THIS NAMES OP GOD periods of Jewish history will be dealt with in the following chapter. 5 v. 203. 78. 6 v. p. p.‫אבי‬ ‫אביך‬. Levi. 40.5 Simon b. 1 ‫ ח ם‬. 44 +. an expression of sin. who says : ‫ב ז כ ו ת ב ׳ ד ב ר י ם ש י ש ר א ל מ ת ח ט י י ן ל פ נ י ה מ ק ו ם ב ז ט ת‬ ‫ מ ה כ ת י ב‬. Taan. v. 26. ' God. Taanith 67 A. E. 391. Leipzig. Davidson. 13 f. 1910. Thesaurus of Mediaeval Hebrew Poetry. says to Honi. p. Leipzig.‫אביו‬. New York. 1904. we take it. and second edition. f u r t h e r J. Similarly must we regard Dalman's assertion or information that this name of God does not appear in Rabbinic literature before the end of the first century. v. Die Worte Jesu. 3 The term is very usual in liturgical pieces. and . 549. according to Aruch.. Venice reads ‫בעל הרחמים‬.v.

S. take me to the bath. R. 7 .war between Rome and Judea the greatness of spreading peace between husband and wife. b . of informers ings in t h e texts. 9. 1. v. b . who is able (knows) to expound and to grasp the glory of our Father that is in Heaven !‫ י‬in blessing his pupil. Torath Kohanim 84A. 12 v. First of all for the phrase ' beloved sons of God ‫)בניא חביביא( י‬. 2 .11 The patriarch surely thought here of Israel in general. 74A. Some Types. went to the Temple and prayed : ' Lord of the world. c For the stones of the altar are peacemakers between Israel and their Father in Heaven \ 7 The same teacher uses the words : ' Blessed be the God of Israel. Esther r. 116. 33 B. Gamaliel II sees the cause of persecutions in the days of Haman in the sad fact that the 1 beloved sons of God provoked the displeasure of their 4 Father in Heaven'. 77. 67.12 The same passage furnishes us with some materials as to the inner life of the age in Judaea. cf. Johanan b. Eleazar b. The Doctrine of Merits. 45. 9 This saying deserves more than passing attention. [ ‫ מ ת ח ט ט י‬. p. and ‫ מ ת ע נ ג י ן‬. J . son of Gorion. S . A clear exposition of t h e term ‫ מ ת ח ט א‬is given in t h e Boraita : ' The child says. 20. show that there are in Thy world men loved by T h e e 1 0 . 7. 1 . This sentence was inserted in order to avoid any mistake of the verb ‫ מ ת ח ט א‬in the sense of Pseudo-Rashi. ZalcJcai. It was a period of unjust judges and corrupt witnesses. 77 A. v. 5. M . Mekh. . 252 f. Tosefta B . 358. Hanina use» t h e verb in the sense of privileges. a righteous and Godbeloved man. Abbahu in t h e name of R.8 R. The verb occurs similarly in a saying of R. Cant. cities and nations. also Büchler. 25. Taanith 19 B. !·. Mekh. ‫ מ ת ח ב נ י ן‬. Nicodemus. Father. 14. Büchler. Some Types. R. taught in the time of the . who are called God's (‫ )ירידים‬friends. ( ‫י‬ Josephus speaks of a certain Onias. M. Hag. v. when he says : !‫ כ מ ה מ ת ח ט א י ן ויש ל ה ם פ ת ח י ! פ ה ל ע ו ש ה מצוד‬. Men. R. who gave a son to our father Abraham. beloved. p. Eleazar b. 10 b. J . v. K . 11 Antt. Exod. R . מ ת ח ט א י‬v. Marmorstein.‫ש מ ט י ל ו ת כ פ ר ה בין ישראל‬ 8 9 Tosefta 234 . Pal. v. give me n u t s '. The underlined words are here again put as a commentary to the otherwise difficult [ ‫ . 1·. Tanh. basing his homily on the law. . 199. 53 A. Arakh. rights.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 57 R. See. note 174. Jose b. Pedath : ‫ח י ט ט י [ ופרנוקין‬ ‫כל‬ ‫ י ש ר א ל מ ח ט י ן ו מ ת פ ר ג ק י ן‬.

" but he should say/'I would like to do so. 2. Jacob. Joshua b. 16 Boraita Shabbath. but what can I do ? My Father in Heaven decreed upon me not to do it or eat it !" 1 6 ‫י‬ R. 418 preserved a saying of R. 25. the Great. Eleazar b.58 THIS NAMES OP GOD and confiscations. b. R. Hananja depicts Amalek endeavouring to hurt Israel 4 from under the wing of their Father in Heaven \ u R. 2. 84 : .17 Attention may be drawn to the differences between the two sayings. Durmaskis with ‫ י ה י רצון מ ל פ נ י א ב י נ ו ש ב ש מ י ם שיחזרו עיני י ו ס ף ל מ ק ו מ ן‬. of increasing arrogance and decreasing honour. Ps. p. speaking of the writings and scrolls of the heretics. The same sentence is reported in a Haggadic legend taught by R. which is omitted in the original sources of Mekhilta and Sifre. 3 . Β. Ishmael follows here the teaching on peace expressed by R. Ishmael. ch. coneludes with the words: ‫על מי יש לנו להשען על אבינו שבשמים‬ ' I n whom can we trust? In our Father in Heaven\ 13 JB. Eliezer. cf. 129 17 b. p. 11A. the reading in M. envy. how much more these books which stir up enmity. Eliezer concludes his prayer on behalt of R. Ahitophel speaks of peace between the 13 M. 116 A .ed. reading : ‫ו מ י נ ר ם‬ ‫לכם לרצות לאביכם שבשמים? הוי אומר יסורין‬. R. M. eat this. ‫ י‬And if in order to make peace between husband and wife the Torah did allow the Name written in holiness to be blotted out by water. Maccoth. Sotah. S. reflecting on the sad changes in the inner life of the scholars and people. 3 B. Hag. 214. and strife between Israel and their Father in Heaven \ 16 R. " I will not do this or that prohibited by the law.13. Hisda in the name of Ahitophel ‫ומה לעשות שלום בין איש לאשתו אמרה תורה שמי שנכתב‬ ‫בקדושה ימחה על המים לעשות שלום לכל העולם כולו על אחת כמה‬ ‫ וכמה‬.‫מ ת ח ת כ נ פ י השמים‬ 15 Torath Kohaniin. J . Tosefta Yadaim. v. . 53 B. says : ‫ומה לעשות שלום בין איש לאשתו אמרה תורה שמי‬ ‫שנכתב בקדושה ימחה על המים הללו שמטילים קנאה ואיבה ותחתרות בין‬ ‫ישראל לאביהם שבשמים ע׳א כו״ב‬. because I have no desire to do so. 94. Johanan b. V. 14 Mech. Β. ed. 57). Sukka. 49 B.. Jose b. 82 Β. above. Eliezer b. Suffering brings peace between m a n and his heavenly Father. Tosofta. Aza7ja teaches : 4 A man must not say. Yadaim 4. 56 A. M. Zakkai (v. b. R. p. Ps.

Akiba'8 prayer. Ishmael refers to the same between God and Israel. § 89 . ' Our Father. 19 20 21 b.18 R. have mercy upon us for Thine own sake. Yoma 46 Β . Deut. is well known. 25 B. who asks : ' Why did the Manna not descend once a year (sc. Yoma 85 B. and not sacrifices . 22 Sifre Num. and Huîlin 141 A. if thine heart be wise. mine heart shall rejoice. cf. 61 B. He is also admonishing the new generation that is seeking for means of atonement in new doctrines and conceptions. God. he says : 4 Happy are ye Israelites ! Before whom are ye purifying yourselves ? Who purifies you ? Your Father in Heaven !'20 He is comforting the old generation that saw the Temple with its sacrificial ceremonies and despaired of atonement. cf. 15. Ned. Sifre Num.' 21 The teachers of the period after Bar-Kokhba discussed. our King. b. the relations between God and Israel. from some cogent reason. M. Simon b. Menasja expounding Prov. The name ' Father in Heaven ‫ י‬is also very frequent in this age. We refer first of all to R. and let rain come down '.. 84 B. § 16 .' This means to say that not only the earthly. says: ‫ י‬My son. Tor. is purifying and atoning Israel. Ishmael refers to a ceremony limited to Israelites. the children to their father. . 110 B. presumably delivered on the Day of Atonement. Koh. Simon b. In the legend the whole world 1s threatened with the flood of waters. also Sifre. God. Taan. Johai.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 59 Father in Heaven and the whole world. our King. whilst R. In a second homily. Akiba says : ' He was worthy to become an intermediary between Israel and their Father in Heaven. variants of Ishmael's saying. we have no other king besides Thee ! Our Father. as will be seen from a further chapter devoted to this aspect of the Old Rabbinic doctrine of God.' 22 R.19 He combines here the two ideas of God's Fatherhood and Kingship. even mine. and supply them with food) ‫ ?׳‬In order that Israel should turn their heart to their Father in Heaven. R. whilst R. but also the heavenly Father rejoices at the student's or scholar's 18 v. and not priests or magicians. Speaking of Moses.. 23.

§ 232 . 43 . all one's boldness. R. perhaps. v. killed. b.26 B. Zakkai. Why ? Because of their observances of Sabbath. Johanan b.. The sayings of the Amoraic Haggadists offer abundant instances of the familiar use of this name in the third and fourth centuries.25 R. Johai . Torath Kohanim 78 Β . We have. iv. All these punishments. depicted by R. Here again a few instances shall suffice. A. cause to make me beloved to my Father in Heaven. 112 A. &c. ed. Kelaim . 63. p. 24 v. Kel. with the same words used by R. 68 B . above. 24 . 41. 21 . Eliezer b. Pes. Ν. Tanh.. ii. 23 B. 23 . the conditions prevailing after the destruction of the Temple. M. 13 . 20. 148 ‫ . Jair coneludes his lament at. circumcision. r. note 100. 48 . Ps. 23. 678. as usual. 19. the correct reading is preserved in Yalkut. Prov. ch. Num. Deut. says Israel. 110. ‫ ה ק ב י ה‬is read instead of ‫אביו שבשמים‬. Th. 9. Tannaim.' 28 Owing to the religious persecutions in the second half of the second century. 22. 61. 8. where. Johanan b. 4. 9. Tos. M. put to death in the most cruel ways. strength. and Gen. Marmorstein. r. 28 Aboth v. Jews are crucified. Jose varies the older saying of R. Hyrkanos. p. ib. the references. 25 v. Eleazar sees in the word ‫שעטנז‬ (Lev. Eliezer b. i. § 48. Our teacher puts charity and loving-kindness in the place of sacrifices.60 THIS NAMES OP GOD success in wisdom and learning. Simon b. ל ע ש ו ת רצון קונו‬v. 24 B. 58. Nathan. to read ‫ פ ר ק ל י ט גדול ] ו ע ו ש ה [ ש ל ו ם נ ת ל‬instead of ‫? ו ש ל ו ם גדול‬ 26 Sifre Deut. 19. Simon b. Nappaha concludes one of his homilies with 23 Sifre Deut. Mekh.27 Judah ben Temah says : 4 Be bold as a leopard and light as an eagle and swift as a gazelle and strong as a lion to do the will of thy Father which is in Heaven. reads R. .. or over. B.11) the idea that he who wears a cloth or a garment of mixed kinds turns away from God. Phinehas b.. Midr. Nathan reflects upon the persecutions of the Jews in his days. 8 . The Doctrine of Merits. who saw in the altar the peacemaker between Israel and their Father in Heaven. b. p. and causes his Father in Heaven to turn away from him. Yalkut Makhiri . and swiftness were required in order to do the will of God.

2. where Father = God. Jose b.' 31 R. 2. 1.1.‫אבשבשמים‬ There can be cited also a goodly number of passages from the anonymous Haggada. ed.. 4.' In Midrash Prov. 4 .36 Further. 2. Menahem b. who feeds him. 32 R u t h r.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 61 a peroration explaining Jer. Β). Cant. 24. ‫ אשר בעלו למואב‬is interpreted by 4 his pleasant deeds came and ascended before his Father in Heaven'. similarly are the prophets proud to ask for Israel's need from their Father in Heaven. mother =‫ ־‬the com31 . Ber. r. Papa.. 2. ‫ו ש ב א ת ה ו נ ד ב ק ה ב י ש ר א ל ועלו מ ע ש י ה‬ ‫לאביה שבשמים‬ 33 34 Cant. 2 : ' Israel is like the lily.‫אין אב אלא הקב׳ה שהוא אב לכל העולם שני אבייתומים‬ 4 Father is the Holy One. viz. 79 A .' 33 R Levi uses the name ‫ פטרון בשמים‬instead of34. g. Hanina explains the name Simon. M. (3) ‫אב לבל העולם‬ 'Father of the whole world. Gen.. M. 95 . for He is the Father of the whole world '. r. blessed be He. Pes. for even if they are tortured by taxes and duties (‫ ארגוניות‬and ‫ )בורסגניות‬their heart is turned to their Father in Heaven. 101 A . Ps. 31 . 22. 2. Cant. 4. Stettin. 6. ch. ‫ י‬he who hearkens to the voice of his Father in Heaven \ 30 R. 35 B : ‫ב ל ה נ ה נ ה מ ן ה ע ו ה ז ב ל א ב ר כ ה ב א י ל ו גוזל ל ה ק ב ׳ ה ו כ נ ס ת‬ ‫ י ש ר א ל‬.19 : ' What is the business of a father ? He loves his son. based on Prov. iv.. cf. Jeremiah raises the question : ' Wherefore are the prophets of Israel compared to women ? ' (e. The sentence ‫אין אב אלא‬ ‫ הקב׳ה‬occurs in a saying of R. 82. r. 36 b. 4 To tell thee that just as a woman is not ashamed to ask for the needs of the house (‫)לתבוע צרכי ביתה‬. Jose b. 30 Tanh. 26. 1 we read :35. ‫שומע בקול אביו שבשמים‬.' 29 R. iii. 7. Prov. 10. Likewise ye Israelites shall be longing after your Father in Heaven. 68. Abin explains the names in 1 Chron. Tanh. Ps. the great popularity of this divine name For our present purpose this may suffice. to 1. 32 R. 13 A. 3. 28. Pes.‫היפה בנשים‬. Prov. 05 M. Hanina b. Huna interprets Cant. also ib. v. Β. 71. What is the son's business ? He is longing for the delights of his father. B. which show what we think by now to have demonstrated.

Tosefta Kid. by saying38. iv. 15. Kid. Deut. 74 . v. p. 2. 2 B. 29 A . The old Tannaitic Haggada altogether prefers the term ‫ כל באי עולם‬to ‫כל בריות‬. ed. Marmorstein. also Agadath Bereshit. 31.43 which is identical with ‫אדון כל הבריות‬.‫הקביה אדון ל כ ל דבר‬ 44 134 § 4 3 . 29 . 34 A . We find this 4 name combined with ‫ א ד ו ן העולם‬L o r d of t 4 ‫ העולמים‬Lord of the worlds'. Nebath. Dwir i. 9. or ‫' כל העולמים‬of all the w o r l d s 4 ‫ אדון לכל המעשים‬Lord of all 39 ‫ ׳ הבריות‬Lord of all the creatures'. ch. Simon b. 9. Simon b. 7 B. Aha contradict ignores this earlier teaching.. also ‫ . Ruth r. 38 38 a Tanh. Ber. § 134. 23 we read: ‫ואתחנן במיני תחנוניי בעת‬ ‫ שאין תל לאמר אלא א״ל הודיעני אם אני נבנם לארץ ואם‬/‫ההיא לאמו‬ ‫ אלהיט בדין בראת את העולם‬. R. p. ‫הגדול‬. Jolianan in his name. 17. 180.‫האב זההקב״ה‬ (4) ‫אדון‬ 4 L o r d ' : v. 112: ‫ש ה ו א ע ש ה ה ק ב ׳ ה אדון כ ל‬ ‫ . 3. 23 . and the remark of Rab about Daniel. Gen. Hijja the Great 44 follows R. Wertlieimer. Abkhir. also ‫ מרי‬and ‫ רבון‬in Aramaic. or ‫רבה‬. 39 i n a homily on Deut.1. and Lord of all the worlds. R. Mekhilta. v. v. and ‫ = ח ב ר ל א י ש מ ש ת י ת‬Jeroboam b. r.‫לאו אדו‬. The preacher extends these to God also. Eccles. B. Johai munity of Israel. 40 b. Ps. 17. iv. Horowitz. Ben Azzai. 2). 111. Midr. r.62 THE NAMES OF GOD in an anonymous homily based on a Boraita. ch. Derek Erets. B . Kid.‫אדון לכל באי העולם‬. ed. and Tanh..בריותיו‬v. 4 Lord of al] who come into the w o r l d R . Pes. Pes. He taught that Adam was the first to call God ‫' אדון‬Lord'. Eccles. .' 42 The Tannaitic Midrash uses the term ‫אדון לכל‬ ‫באי עולם‬. 42 ‫אדון לכל בריותיך ואדון כל העולמים‬. cf. 4 . Exod. who led astray Israel from their Father in Heaven. and Num.37 which describes the five duties of a father to his son. 34 A . 131. א ד ו ן כל הבריות‬Sifre. 9 . 37 Quoted j. Johai observed that Abraham was the first to call God 4 ‫ א ד ו ן‬L o r d ' (cf. . b. 131 and 136 . . beg. 71. r. sifre Num. 41 Gen. 102a. r. Tr. 61 A . r. r. 4. 8. 4 1 This teacher makes Adam say: 4 Thou art worthy to be called " Lord " for Thou really art Lord of all Thy creatures. Mak. M.40 R. Midrash Temurah. 7. Midrash Abkhir.

e. v. 5. Nahmani explains the name ‫( אדון‬Isa. ch. Pes. K i d . ι . who caused Thee to become Lord of all creatures ? 45‫ י‬JB. and forgives the earlier debts ‫י‬ (i. 61 : 4 . r. Israel).5 (Ά good man sheweth favour and lendeth '). Yet God is gracious and merciful.' ( (‫ א ד ו . Samuel b.20 : ‫מ ש ה ל ה ק ב י ה א ת ה ארון העולם ו כ י‬ ‫אמר‬ ‫ א ת ה ר ו צ ה ש א ה י ה ש ל ו ח ה כ י ל א א י ש ובו׳‬. the Lord world'.e. 2 1 ." ' 5 1 An anonymous Haggadist 52 makes Mordecai say to Haman : ' There is a Lord. 31. . ‫׳‬God is the Lord of the heavenly (i. Abbahu explains the names of places in Neh. sins). ii. who is more exalted than all the high ones .‫אני הוא המנהיג אדון כל העולם‬ Tanh. 3 . . The preacher chose as the subject of his sermon the theme: 4 There is no creature who does not owe something to God. עלכולם‬. 45 47 49 Gen. 0 . and they became leopards. r. 7.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 63 when he lets Moses ask before God : ' Through me dost Thou want to redeem the children of Abraham. Isaac speaks 446 of God as ‫אדון כלהעולם‬ the leader. τι!. 39. 6 : ‫יש א ד ו ן ה מ ת ג א ה על כ ל ה ג א י ם ו א י ך א נ י מ נ י ח ו‬ ‫ ו א ש ת ח ו ה לע״ז‬.24 (' If thou lend money to any of my people ') with Ps. 21 (‫ להם‬:‫ )שיתה ה׳ מורד‬: 'There are some who arrogate to themselves the character of divinity. 9.'50 R‫׳‬. 365. 112. " Israel will be before me like a cherub. 22 Esther r.e. 7 0 A : ‫א מ ר א ד ו ן א נ י א מ ר ת י יהיו י ש ד א ל ל פ נ י ח ש ו ב י ם כ כ ר ו ב‬ ‫והם שמו עצמם כנמר‬. Another versio‫ ״‬reads ‫א מ ר א ד ו ן א ע ״ פ ש ש מ ו‬ ‫ ע צ מ ם כ נ מ ר הן ח ש ו ב י ם ל פ נ י כ כ ר ו ב‬. Isa. angels) and the earthly hosts (i. Some explain Ps.19.‫דיורין‬ « b . how can I leave Him and worship the idols ? ‫ י‬Finally we mention a homily combining Exod.‫ כ ר ו ב אדוןואמר‬G o d said: The Lord said. make known unto them. Β. It may be that the preacher refers to the emperor-cult in his days. 24) : 'The Lord who uproots the dwellers of the land and settles others in their place' 49 (cf. r. also 3. Then the preacher illustrates the teaching by 46 Exod. R. 11). teach them that Thou 4 7 art the Lord over all of them. 123A : 48 5 Exod. 22. 4 48 called himself Lord of the world '. 3. 1.

. Simon sees in Eccles.B. read ‫ ד נ י ס ט ו ס‬. Azarja. r. Danista. instead of ‫אדון‬ ‫העולם‬. col. ' The Mighty (God) will come and punish the mighty ones (Egypt) on behalf of the mighty ones (Israel) by means of the waters. 93. s. 1.58 (6) ‫אדם‬ Man/ R.16. r. God (Ps. r. 53 A . W. cit. 2.1. Thus.' Four are called ' mighty ‫ י‬: e. Tanh. 27.56 the source of Evil. when they return to Him and remind Him of their earlier transgressions. ‫)אדיר במרום יי‬. 57 68 Men. 54 55 Exod. δβ Marcion. r. (5) ‫אדיר‬ ' Mighty. v. should not have influenced the theological speculations and the apologetical tendencies of the Rabbis. 266. After a time the borrower comes to the lender and says: ' 1 know that I owe you money The lender says : ' Why didst thou remind me of thine old debt ? I have lost sight of it already ! . 2.g. H. Stettin. 59 v. Ezra. Eccles. 24.64 THIS NAMES OP GOD 53 a parable. 26. p. Once a man borrowed money from a and forgot to pay. Levy. We shall have to 53 A moneylender. Israel. Yet. also refers to Dan. 12 A. the Demiurgos. i. Euptolemaeus. and the waters. It is also to be found in the Mekhilta. v. ‫וסו‬ 4 . He looks with patience.. 98. ed. Egypt. Gen. 31. 4. 21 . also Midr. the Satan.54 Owing to the unsatisfactory state of our texts 05 we are unable to establish whether ‫ אדון העולמים‬was not the original.21 (‫ )אדם‬one of God's names. We will show later on that many homilies and teachings are due to this cause. or δαναστψ. Prov. further. 41A. Eleazar b. the Lord of the world ! The creatures commit sins. based on Ezek. and Preuschen-Bauer. 8. 24 . which are called mighty/ 57 This saying is ascribed to R.59 This anthropomorphic designation of God is rather striking. Irenaeus i. Gen.1 . It is quite impossible to assume that the Gnostic doctrine of the Jewish God as the Lord of this world. v. the grandson of R. a descendant of R. God does not remember them.. and they do not repent. v. loc. Judah b.

v. 23 ‫שמחה‬ ‫( לאיש‬joy to a man). 67 M. 2: ‫ בשמי‬.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 65 consider whether the Haggadist was not influenced by the christological development of the term ' Son of Man (7) ‫א ח ד‬ ' One. Pal.' R.. r. 19S.'60 Some 61 see this name in Dan. The Scribes may have found this name alluded to in Zech. ' Some Greek and Rabbinic Ideas of God'. 14. Abbahu uses the name in his exposition of Deut. 13 (‫)ואשמעה אחד‬. for there is none save One (God). Mekh. 3. who is called the Holy One by all. 15. 1. however. Th. 33 A . e3 v. He decrees hard decrees on his creatures. an allusion to God.65 R. r. ‫מדבר‬. 15. 9. vi.Ps. Exod. that is ‫אחד‬.. IIA.1. J ose says : ' Judge not alone.'04 R.e. 4 ‫לפי‬ Yalkut Makhîri. cit. (Some Remarks on the Slavonic Josephus* in the Quest. and Marmorstein. 8. Aha's sermon. y. 9 7 r e a d s : ‫ . which means : ' 1 heard ‫אחד‬. against my name. 8 . e. Sanh. 10c. 19. 15. Ε .. 1·. 3. Theodor . Tr. ed. ed. but ‫( נודו‬ye shall move).' This name occurs even in the Tannaitic Haggada.‫אחד עשר יום מחורב במיוחד שבעשרה חטאתם‬ 7 ‫שהוא אחד שהוא ראש לבל הדברות שג׳ אנכי ה‬62 f Ye have sinned against the chief commandment of the Decalogue. R. ch. 2 : ‫ י ח י ד ו ש מ ו א ח ר ושוכן ב ש ב ע ה הרקיעים‬. 66 : ‫היו א ו ׳ ה ש מ ח י ם ל ה ג ל ו ת ם מ מ ק ו מ ם‬. 21. Joshua b. also Sifra 74 Β as to Mai. They (the nations of the world) spoke against God ( ( ‫מ ע ל ה‬ 60 Aboth iv. p. Pappus ‫ י ח י ד י ל ב ל ב א י עולם‬p . Marmorstein. 65 Gen. Johai saw in Prov. also Gen. p. It does not say ‫( נודי‬thou shalt move). 61 Gen. 3. Derekh Erez r. 2.6. v. 42.63 (8) ‫איש‬ Man. ה י ו א ו י ה א ו מ ר י ם ל ה ג ל ו ת ן מ מ ק ו מ ם‬v.' Interesting is R. i. 62 Exod. 43. the first of the Words ' (i. Levi sees in Gen. 92. ‫קדוש‬. cf. β . 17 (1926). who says : c When Israel went into exile the nations of the world greatly rejoiced67 that Israelites were driven from their places. 64 v.66 4 The brethren stood before their heavenly Judge. 3. r. *6 Gen. 14 ‫ לפני האיש‬the name of God. Commandments). who judgeth alone. Ishmael b. 3. God. Simon b.

3 and Num. ‫' איש‬God' (cf. i. ‫ י‬Why does the text say ‫ שבעים איש‬and not ‫? שבעים אישים‬ They shall be similar to God and Moses. ‫ר׳ ברכיה ב ש ׳ ר א ב ה ו דריש‬ ‫נחום ב׳ר סימאי בטריםיס‬. 70 Tanh.. 12. the exiles of Israel. ‫ו ל ך‬ 73 Tanh. ‫א י ש ש ה ם דומין לי‬ . They meant to say that God ceased to rule and exist. i v . the son of Simai. i. 49. Yaik.66 THE NAMES OF GOD and Israel (‫)כלפי מטה‬.74 Further. Num. ‫ ' ואסף‬God. A third preacher combines Num. whose relations to Christians in Caesarea are well proved. iii. which are most instructive instances of the allegorical methods and sermons of the Palestinian preachers. 11. both of whom are called 7‫( איש‬v. 5. ‫' טהור‬God' (cf. ANDPES. Abbahu. so a man (God) wanders from his place' (Prov.72 A fourth teacher dwells on Num. 69 Pes. 12). Hab. 15. 2. 74 Tanh.GS Nahum. 3). who gathered the exiles of Israel ‫( י‬cf.24 to explain Israel and God's mutual relation. and lay them without the camp in a clean place. i.3). 9. ™T a n h . ( ‫מ ט ה‬ ‫איש של‬ Num. ‫ ד ר ש נחום ב ש ם ר׳׳ ס י מ א י‬. 70 ‫ י‬This extraordinary homiletical contribution seems to be directed against Christological conceptions of the Paschal lamb. 11.9. e. Exod. B. 27.'7* A fifth preacher saw in ‫בת לכם איש‬ 1) Sam. MS.54: ‫את אשתו זו כנסת ישראל‬/‫והביא האיש זה הקבין‬. 12. 17. 44 B. ' f r o m His place' = his sanctuary. 1. 1. 6 0 : . 9.Isa.r. 9. By performing the duty of sacrificing the Paschal lamb the Israelite draws near to God. 0xf.69 preached in Tarsus on Exod. ‫ וישפל איש‬. iv. 30 . Like as a bird is moving from its nest. Sotah. 16 with Prov. 42 B. ^ Num. 55 B. 15. R. 8). R. 8) ' choose unto you a man'. God. was expounded as the 68 l A man ‫ י‬means God. 11. iv. and against her husband ( 7 1 . Exod. 19. Jerusalem. 12 a preacher remarks: 'The faithless woman commits a sin against God (‫)איש של מעלה‬. 15. and it is rather a curious coincidence that it should have been delivered in Pauls native place! We find similar expositions of Biblical verses.‫בש׳ר אבין א י ש נחום‬. we find that Isa. Pes.3 ‫ ויקחו להם איש‬: ' Take God unto you. 22. Berekhja in the name of R. 13). B. We mention here some of them. b.e. anonym.e. On Num. Johanan. r. shall gather ' the ashes of the heifer. 120.

11. 7. The old Tannaites asked already: ' Is it possible to speak thus of God ? Behold. 30. where ‫' איש‬the man is God'. does God sanctify His name through Israel. 8. The history of this alteration is shrouded in antiquity and carries with it important consequences. 24. cf. Ishmael. Zech. 18. 1. ‫' בתו‬his daughter'. 78 ‫ לז־‬v. 23. and not man' (Hos.76 All these and other 77 homilies are based on Exod. Exod. 3. 19. ‫ ' לאמה‬to Israel '.' It is a well-established fact that the name Elohim was not used in the schools and synagogues of the first four centuries in Palestine except in quotations from the Bible. ‫ «ל‬Midrash quoted in 3. and consequently objected to and opposed the identification of ‫ איש‬with God. the Torah.9). that the God who spoke to them through Moses and the 5‫ד‬ ‫ • א ל א הקב׳ה‬R• Johanan sees in ‫ א י ש‬. . One of the most remarkable days in the history of Israel was that moment in the life of the Jews when it dawned even on the minds of the broad masses. and XJlla. who were averse to anthropomorphic explanations of R Akiba's method.75 As a characteristic instance shall be quoted a homily on Exod. the divine name. Israel's holiness. 15. in prayers. and magic. Owing to His love of Israel. This innovation has to be regarded as one of the most important intellectual movements in old Israel. 6. as it is said: ' For I am God.THE RABBINIC SYNONYMS FOR GOD 67 humiliation of God by the sins of His creatures. alter the destruction of the Temple. We do not know by whom or when this reform was introduced.3. the Heavens and the earth do I fill. v. ' t h e man is not in his house' = God. r. 2).73 We have plenty of evidence at our disposal to prove that this Midrash belongs to the school of E. 6. Isa. further Cant. (9) ‫א ל ה י ם‬ 'God. 43. s. 21. in Prov. 1. r. and Ezek. 14. 7.‫ב דהקמח‬ A . saith the Lord ‫( י‬Jer. for such a change must be regarded as highly momentous in the development of religious thought in antiquity. cf. 2 Chron.‫שבולהביפר‬ E 2 .

where the combatants changed places. is not known to us. no. owing to the ambiguity of the term. Even some of the usages of ‫ אלהים‬in the Bible were considered profane when applied to idols. 1 by saying to R. Whether the alteration of the name ‫ אלהים‬gave rise to a spiritual struggle in an opposite direction. R. ‫אל‬ unless they quoted a passage from the Scriptures. who appealed to them through the word of the Torah and the symbols of the observances. showed necessary caution in their mode of expression and favoured the elimination of the term 'Elohim J . to judges. Ishmael: 'If it read ‫בראשית ברא שמים‬. 11) in exorcism. and to mortals. Greece and Rome. and in dialogues with sectarians and strangers. or in oaths without. which became more and more the religious view of the whole people. purer. (a) ‫ אלהיט‬or ‫ אלוהות‬for Idols. and with Israel ‫( אלתי ישראל‬v. of the philosophers and astrologers. We have already seen that the Scribes fought for the retention of the Tetragrammaton in spite of the opposition of the Hellenists and the conservative instincts of the Sadducees. Yet it was retained together with the Tetragrammaton in prayers. Therefore the term ‫אלהים‬ was no longer sufficient to express their religious needs and requirements. it may be that we must come to the conclusion that the Scribes and preachers did not use the name ‫אלהים‬. They used it in reference to the idols. who admonished them through the Scribes and teachers. Examining closely our literary documents. No wonder that the attempts of scholars and the feeling of the common people. 1. or in speeches of heathens. Alciba explains the ‫ את‬in Gen. and clearer idea of God. or spoke Aramaic. No longer did it convey the higher. one would assume . The rich material at our disposal requires us to treat these different aspects individually and point out their various significances.68 THE NAMES OP GOD Prophets. was different from the deities of Egypt and Babylonia.

81 ‫ ש א ר ה ה ע ו ל ם עתידין לעשותן א ל ו ה ו ת‬. Levi makes Pharaoh produce ‫דיפתרא של אלוהות‬. v. In the numerous dialogues between heathens and scribes the former speak of God as ‫ אלהיבם‬. Hoshaja:' Where is there a nation whose Godhead agrees with her ? 80‫י‬ R. v. God consents to Israel's arrangements . not so the idols. 6 and parall. These discussions. 43. from custom or set purpose. Gamaliel II. Some indication as to the movement aroused by our problem may be gathered from the old discussions on the name ‫ אלהים‬attached to the strange deities (Exod. 3). also B 21 and parall. 40. In some sources. note 263. Th. i. M. also Tanh. Th. Hiram. a similar saying about the assumed divinity of Nebuchadnezzar.B. &c. r. if not earlier. where parallels are to be found. The questions and objections on this ground may have led to the avoidance of the name altogether. Ps. where our texts Gen. ‫ הקב׳ה‬is put for ‫אלהים‬. as will be shown later on. Joshua b. when God will call the nations with their gods (‫ )ואלהיה עמה‬to be judged. 229. the name Elohim was still in vogue among the heathen. p. R.THE RABBINIC SYNONYMS FOR GOD 69 that heaven and earth are gods ! 79 ‫ י‬R. 84 Marmorstein: ‫ מ ד ר ש ח ס י ת ת ויתירות‬. R. 82 M. Akiba. Hanina speaks of God's foreknowledge that the heathen would worship the sun and moon and planets. just as in the period of the Holy Writings. 80 79 . Jose b. and fourthly for angels. 1917. r. ii. 20.PS. ed. Nahmani depicts the future judgement. (1b) The Name in the Dialogues..84 In the time of the Scribe. 59. We mention here R. and parall. the scrolls of parch‫־‬ ment on which the lists of gods were written. London. B. secondly for the idols. Hananja. 70. v. began in the first century c. Samuel b. 12 . ii. thirdly for Israel. v. and R.82 R. also Th. and make them gods. 23-4. 19.81 R. 83 An old Midrash knows of four applications of the term ‫אלהים‬. with various men and women. and were continued till the third century.. 88 Tanh. Hama b. Tanh. ‫איזה א ו מ ה ש מ ס כ י ם א ל ה י ה ע מ ה‬.. First for God. Gen. Halafta. as will be proved in the next chapter.

&c. ii. (d) The Use of the Name in Oaths and Prayers. Eleazar b. Abraham. they use the term ‫אלוהיהן. דיהודיא‬.g. Even Jews speaking in Aramaic use ‫ אלוה‬or ‫אלהיא‬. Hag. 2 and parall.. Moses. who ministered in the Temple. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. Alexander. 87 JQRΝ. 1. Dr. . The HighPriest. Arakh.70 THIS NAMES OP GOD generally react. 234. like Ahasuerus. Marmorstein. 89 Tos. who says : ‫העובר לפני התיבה ביום טוב הראשון של‬ ‫ר׳ה אומר החליצנו יי אלהינו את יום ריח הזה ובו׳‬. S./Your Gocl'. Erubin iii. note 2. p. We refer first of all to R. even in greetings. When heathen. Jacob. We saw that angels are designated by this term. Many instances can be shown where ‫ האלהים‬is used in exclamations of oath. (c) The Name ‫ אלהים‬referred to Mortals. while the Rabbis of the following generation always used it/ A careful investigation of our material does by no means justify such an assertion.85 In prayers it was connected with the Tetragrammaton. 11. speak of Jews and their God. like Adam. No wonder that owing to the manifold meaning of the word some doubts arose in exegesis and Massorah as to the sanctity of the word in many places of the Scriptures. xvi. 9. A recent writer. further to the judges and some prominent individuals. It is applied to Israel generally. Elisha. Zakkai arose and kissed R.. e. ‫יי אלהינו‬. 1 ff. Very interesting are R. Titus. i. Dosa b. &c. 1925. Hyrkanos. Ib. and refutes the far-reaching theories based on it. Johanan b. 69. &c.87 R.. ii. on the 'Development of the Amidah3** states : ' It will be found that the contemporaries of R. M. Gamaliel II never used the term ‫ ה׳ אלהינו‬in their prayers. Ishmael b. (‫)אלהיבם‬. Finkelstein.‫ברוך יי אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם‬ The Tetragrammaton was used in the Temple.. Levi's proverbs in which this word occurs.‫ברוך יי אלהי ישראל שנתן בן לא״א‬ In the Temple they said : 89 . saying : 88 . says: ‫פעם אחת נכנסתי להקטיר קטרת לפני ולפנים וראיתי אבתריאל‬ 85 86 88 v.

and not as we read.. 7. Ber. Zadok quotes a prayer of his father's. R. Hyrkanos. Eleazar b. ‫ה ח ל ו ץ‬ ϋ . 14 B. . S. E. or in the time of R. Tanh. R. r.93 Tos. JQR10c. Tos. Taan. Gamaliel II the formulary ‫ יי אלהינו‬in prayers may have been unknown.119. p. 16 B . 7. b. Ber. 18 . 9-10 . vi. b. Gamaliel. 93 v. Is it feasible to believe that R.‫ י‬i. All these authorities are either older than. v. 19 A. b. B. ha Kana used the words.‫ק ב ו צ תחכמים‬ 82 v. v. iv. cit. 60. Midr. Ber. Zadok. 7.. TO the reading of this Mishna.91 The High Priest also used the introductory words ‫יהי רצון‬ ‫ מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו‬in his prayer on the Day of Atonement (v. iii. 28 B. Zadok by his son . 3. some of which must be older than R. 4 The prayer cited by R. Akiba. Akiba. the son surely followed his example. R. 6 . Ed. Zadok reports that his father used to pray on the eve of Sabbath : ‫ מאהבתך יי אלהינו שאהבת את ישראל עמך ובו׳‬and ‫נתת לנו יי‬ ‫אלהינו‬. both when he entered and when he left the house of study : ‫יהי רצון‬ ‫ מלפניך ה' אלהי‬and ‫ מודה אני לפניך ה׳ אלהי‬respectively. since the father used the words ‫ה׳ אלהינו‬.. having experienced that ‫ אלהים‬alone gave rise to many misunderstandings and misinterpretations ? Comparing this formulary in the ancient documents. Bor. Ber. 5 B . Gamaliel II. Shabb. and paralls. R. albeit that the words are omitted. M. 11. Tanh. 59. Zuckermandel reads : ‫א" ר אלעזר בר‬ ‫צדוק אבא היה ובו‬. note 22. or contemporaneous with. 5 . 91 90 . Eleazar b.).92 R. Gen. 68. 119. The same is the case with the prayer of R. Eliezer b. 8.90 Nehunja b. without any exception. e. b. Eleazar b. H .T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 71 ‫( יה ה׳ צבאות‬b. we always. 7 A). The whole assumption is based on the omission by the copyists of ‫ ה׳‬before ‫ אלהינו‬in the story of R. also Boraita b. Tannaim 172. 2 . χ. 72. Zadok says: ' My father used to pray . There is no real basis for the theory that before R. Ber. Ber. meet the formulary : ‫יהי רצון‬ ‫מלפניך יי אלהינו‬. R. 30 Β . Gamaliel would have used ‫ אלהינו‬without ‫יי‬. which is inaccurate. Eleazar b. 85.

1 In the confession we say : € I sinned against the God of Israel.28 an allegory of the story of Eve and the serpent.100 R.14. N. Nappaha promises by oath ‫ אשתבע לאלהא דישראל‬that he will not reveal a secret. Z. 2. 3.‫ליהוי בשמתא דאלהיישראל‬ Finally we find the term in introductions to sermons by the preachers. 6B . Erubin.72 THIS NAMES OP GOD (10) ‫אלהים חיים‬ ' Living God. 133B. 10. . 84 . Hullin. ‫ ת ״ ר‬. iii. a Boraita. Ν. The fro ward man (‫)איש תהפובות‬. 121 A. ‫ י‬Wherefore dost thou forsake the words of the living God ? ' 9 7 A Boraita mentions God (cf. i. 1. Johanan b."96‫ י‬R. v. 2 Y o m a . Jer. 4.' 2 In excommunication R. A few instances must suffice. 13 Β . Gittin. 99 v. Josiah: ‫מה לך לעזוב דברי אלהים חיים‬. 97 98 Aboth R. 4 Why V ' Because he turned his words against his Creator ' 94 96 4 95 v. i. Matja b. R. also Hekhalot in Jellinek's ‫ ב י ת ה מ ד ר ש‬. b. 17 . Wertheimer. 8 A. saying : " Both are the words of the living God.' This name appears mostly in exorcism and magic. above. the serpent. Ib. A. 6.‫חיים‬ 11) ‫י ש ר א ל‬ ‫)אלהי‬ 94 'The God of Israel. Hisda says :3. note 55. 27. Abba says in the name of Samuel : ' Three years lasted the dispute between the houses of Shammai and Hillel. 16.‫. Jeb. . A b. R. Sotah 3. 1. e. 28 A. 100 Ned. 1 Yoma. Dan. p. 35.99 Vows are given to the God of Israel.' The teachers of the Midrash saw in Prov. The Greeks compelled the Jews to write on the horn of the ox that they have no share in the God of Israel. ב ת ימדרשות‬ 4 v. ‫ה א חיה‬ b. 1. Heresh says to R. 10) among the ten things that are 98 called .95 we read 'in order to hear the words of the living God out of the mouth of Shemaja and Abtaljon'.4 ( 1 2 ) ‫א ל ו פ ו ש ל עולם‬ The friend of the world. Each of them insisting on their opinion. p. Testament of Naphtali in Hebrew. 22 B . p. 34 . 8 b. ed. 103. Sch. cf. Asi. 84 A . till a ‫ בת קול‬was heard.' In the story of Hillel. R. ch. 86 A. i.

4 Dost thou not know that I am the searcher of Hearts ? ‫י‬ We have also ‫( חוקר לבבות‬cf. Thus did he divide them from the chief Friend of the world/ 5 R. Thou. 53 A). Simon b. 8) : ‫לית את ידע די אנא בודקיהון‬ ‫דלבביא‬.‫אותיות דר׳ע‬. 114. 21]. Steinschneider. God is forgiving ! " do not trust him. " Go. 5 6 b. Wertheimer. ( 1 4 ) ^‫אנ‬ 1 ‫י‬/ Some see this name in Hillers saying : ‫אם אני באן‬ [Aboth i. God [cf. The first occurs in a speech of Abraham before God : ' A man tests his friend. 44. " Do ye not trust the Evil One and the ‫ יצר הרע‬is the evil [cf. r. 5 : 'If the evil inclination told thee. ‫ י‬Tanh.e. ' He is the whisperer. God will not forgive him)/ 6 (13) ‫א מ ת‬ ' Truth/ [v. 182. the Meturgeman of R. 126. » y. 14] and in the exclamation at the festival of water drawing (b. p. for it is said. nor do ye trust a Friend (‫( !)אלוף‬i. Judah. Lakish. pp. 67. 17. Hag. ‫מאמר הייחוד‬. 4]. note 17]. 16 A and parall. r. when Thou saidst that I shall sacrifice my son then I will surely be eager to slaughter him with a willing heart?' 7 The second is frequently used in the Seder Elijahu 8 and in the later Haggada. ed. for instance. p. Maimonides. Berekhja uses this term in reply of God to Esau (Gen. Exod. ed. r . who art the Searcher of hearts and reins. 5 A . Or Zarua i. (15) ‫ב ו ד ק ל ב ב ו ת‬ ‫ י‬Searcher of Hearts/ R. for he does not know what is in the heart of his friend. Jer. because he whispered words against his Creator. 3.9 Gen. explained Micah 7 . however.10) and ‫בוחן כליות ולבבות‬. Jer. 1 . 48. scil.. i. 8. 30.2. dost Thou need this ? Was it not revealed before Thee. r. Sukka 45 A. 9 v. sin. Gen. . 11.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 73 (‫)בוראו‬. 32.

8. Judah b. ïv.11 : ‫ויקה‬ ‫ . r. R. 366 f. Ps. r. 95.. R. my help is from God ! ' 1 3 R. 138 . 28. Simon b. 1 2 0 . Tanh. who can find fault with them 15 '?‫ ׳‬The saying is surely directed against Gnostics. who can reprove them ? Their Creator glorifies them . Nathan ‫ל א ה ו ה ל ך להרגיז‬ ‫ ב ו ר א ך‬. p. 4 Their Creator praises them . 29. Sam. ה כ י ר א ב ר ה ם א ת ב ו ר א ו‬R. Sam.14 R. Jochai. 556. Josiah .. 99 : ‫בוראן מ ש ב ח ן ו מ י מ ג נ ן בוראן מ ק ל ס ן ו מ י‬ ‫ י תן ב ה ם ד ו פ י‬. i. Gen. where this sentence is o m i t t e d . 97. 8 : ‫ת נ י רשביל כ מ ה גבורים ה ם ה ם ה צ ד י ק י ם‬ ‫ ויורעין ה י א ך ל ק ל ם‬. 165 ‫ ל ה כ ע י ס א ת ב ו ר א י‬. Gen. Judah I. א נ י ביי א ע ל ו ז ה‬v. 18 ‫ווי אוי אוי ש ה כ ע ס ת י ל ב ו ר א י‬. v. מ א ב נ י ה מ ק ו ם‬v. also R. Gen. 4. Lakish dispute at what age Abraham recognized God. . also p. ‫ב ו ר א י‬ ‫להרגיז ע ל‬ 13 Gen. r. H a n i n a b. Pirke. Isaac b. 11. T a n h . 35. 11 M. instead of R.74 THIS NAMES OP GOD (16) ‫ב ו ר א‬ Creator. 82.E1. Kel. r. R. 2 . says : ‫ ג ׳ ש נ י ם ה כ י ר א ב ר ה ם א ת ב ו ר א ו‬. ib. R. and Gen. ‫ א י ה ד ס ב ר י נ י ן פ ס י ק‬. v. Ket. Tanh. Ps. ב ו ר א ם ב ת י ו ע ה ובקול ׳צ־ופר‬some MSS. Eliezer. 2. Josiah. b. Isaac ‫א ש ר י ו ל י ל ו ד א ש ה ש ב ך‬ ‫ ש מ ע מבוראך ראו כל מ ה ש ת ב ע מבוראו הבטיחו‬. Hijja b. Kahana. M. Hama. r. 899 : ‫ ו ל כ ך ה י ה מ ב ר ן ל ב ו ר א ו‬. Pes. 68. The Tannaitic Haggada knows this term in the sayings of R. 35 A. Simon b. J u d a h . 30. ל ע ש ו ת רצון ב ו ר א י‬M. We begin with R. R. Hanina b.2. Lev. 163. Levi. 167 ‫ . i. and R. also the saying of Jose ‫ מ ש י ת א‬. Gen. 4. B2 B. Ps. 215 : ‫קברו א ו ת י ב כ ל י ם לבנים^ ש ל א א ב ו ש ב מ ע ש י ל ה ק ב י ל‬ ‫ פ נ י ב ו ר א י‬. V. ‫א ל א ע ז ר י מ ע ם יי‬ 1° Μ.64: ‫ר ׳ יוחנן ור׳ ח נ י נ א ת ר ר י ה ו ן א מ ר י ן בן מ ״ ח ש נ ה‬ ‫ .12 More frequent is the term in the sentences of the Amoraim. 5. m . 100. Gen.10 R. liai. Johanan bar Nappaha. r. 2. r. 14 Gen. jer. 152 a : ‫שיודעים ל פ ת ו ת א ת‬ ‫ . 64. A similar saying by H. Abba b. 15 Gen. his Creator.‫בראם‬ 1 2 Tanh.. i. 61 ‫ ל מ ד מ ב ו ר א ך ש ב ר א‬. Sarah says : ‫מ ה א נ א‬ ‫מ ו ב ד ה ס ב ר י מ ן בריי ח ס ו ש ל ו ם ל י ת א נ א מ ו ב ד ה ס ב ר י מ ן בריי א ל א‬ ‫ . Β. 190 ‫ י צ ד י ק י ם ב ט ו ח י ם ע ל ב ו ר א ם‬The righteous trust in t h e i r Creator‫( ״‬R.' One of the most usual names of God. 1·. Jacob said : ‫מ ב ר י מן בריי‬ ‫מובד‬ ‫א נ א מ ו ב ד ס ב ר י ס ב ר י מן בריי חיו לית א נ א‬ ‫מה‬ 4 'Why do I lose my hope in my Creator‫?׳‬ Far be it from me to do so . Merjon adds to Gen. r. ch. 119. r. read ‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה‬instead of . J. i. M. 172 . v. 68. also. Anonj'mous.11 and R. Jonathan b. Tanh. derived from Gen. L. r. R. Abba). 65. Joshua b. Gen. Tanh. ‫ ש ה ם יודעים ל פ ת ו ת א ת ב ו ר א ם‬.

so Israel created worlds. Hama says of Eve: c She added to God's commandment. r. 100. also Tanh. He is supplying you ! ' 2 5 David says : ' God. Tanh. 1 Jacob was a p a r t n e r with his Creator in everything' ( ‫ ) ש י ת ף ע ם ב ו ר א ו‬. Phinehas b. 12. Abbahu. 31. ‫' כמפריס ומרמא בבוראו‬as one who cheated and deceived God '. he has stolen the mind of his Creator . R. too. The chronology does not fib in M. iii. v. 98. 18 . 4 to ‫ . Mehalalel's famous saying 18 indicated in Eccles. trouble. Eccles. 17. r. r. 17: 4 Can a human being‫ ־‬be more just than his Creator ? Can he be purer than his Creator. ‫ ל א ה י ה ל ב ם ש ו ה ל ב ו ר א ם‬. saying : 'Lo. who sits high above ? Did He say to you.'24 Abraham preaches to his contemporaries : f What do ye want of God. to Gen. 23 Gen. however. also R. 49. 202. 7 .' R. Levi accuses the serpent of having slandered God. Pes. Β. only v. Ps. 5. Exod. 18 A . gives evidence on lß Gen. 140. 12. 142 B. r. r. 2 5 (‫בראשית‬ 17 Gen. 1 . Lev. The wicked.17 He found further Akabja b. ( . 172 : ‫ . r. 3.1 : ' Remember thy Creator. R. sub ‫ א ל ו פ ו ש ל ע ו ל ם‬. 132. Lev. Berekhja makes all the trees of the garden talk to Adam. לשון ה ר ע ע ל ב ו ר א ו‬Tanh. M. God. r. 20 Gen.16 R. Tanhuma. 67. therefore he became like his Creator ‫ ) נ ע ש ה בבוראו( י‬. Gen. 19 Gen. PS. Pes. 47 . 24 Gen. Jose . 7. and supply Me with food ?" Behold. i. i.' 23 ' The just are like their Creator. Eccles. the thief. . Ps. 1 . r. 3. 10. He is the Creator .. sub no. 98: ‫ש א ו ל א ל ת ה י צ ד י ק יותר‬ ‫ מבוראך‬. r. 244. 2 « Tanh. 123 B. Ib. Sota. r. Eleazar explains Gen. ‫ושמעו‬ ‫ אל ישראל‬. j. v. i. PS. Ps. 4 read Eleazar bar Simon. r. above. ב ו ר א ע ו ל מ ו ת‬v. Pes. \ 2 1 Gen. and R. 160 A. 3. 11. r. 427. r.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 75 who found fault with and criticized the creation of God. r. M. 4. i Noah was called just because he supplied food to God's creatures .e. he says : ' Your father Israel is (like) God ! As God is a Creator of worlds. he has stolen the mind of his Lord ! ' 21 Very often in anonymous homilies. 36.22 In a sermon based on Job 4.12: 177 22 ‫ ה א ג נ ב א ד ג נ ב ד ע ת י ה ד ב ר י ה‬.14. 99. 2.'20 R. 555. 2. " Go. 9. 2.' 19 Further. Lam. Sam. 38 f.16 : '‫' ויצא קין מלפני ה‬and Cain went from before God'. Gen. and was ready to fulfil her Creator's will. M. ה ת ח י ל א ו מ ר ד י ל ט ו ר י ה ל ב ו ר א ו‬M. 10 : ‫ה נ ח ש א מ ר‬ ‫ . i. Eleazar b. 12. 18 Aboth iii. B.

p. 113 A . 1) 2 ‫ . 14) he (David) put his 6 name together with that of his Creator *. 97. Ber. g. Ps. ‫ח כ ם‬ 27 .'28 There is a dialogue between God and Jeremiah. Ps. 76 β . and p. chaps. God : ' If thou descendest with (Israel) to Babylon.. Lev. M. Pes. Intr.‫א ר פ ו נ י ה בנימוסיא‬ 32 v. my honour is nothing before the honour of my Creator/ 27 4 Our duty is to praise and magnify our Creator. 184. Samuel b. 22 (p. E. 1 . The slaves of the Archon wanted to punish R. Lam. R. r. Nahmani. and Pirke r Ε. Ps. An official (‫ )ארנונא‬passed and the scribe did not rise before him. what good can I be to them 1 Let their Creator (‫ )ברייהו‬go with them. 13. v. 120) . e. 27. 6 . B. ח כ ו מ מ ת ק י ם‬Num. 2. iii. 8 : ' An earthly king does not allow others to wear his titles. r. r. 48 ( t w i c e ) . r. 10. and He will help them ! 2 9 ‫י‬ Three times did the nations of the world rejoice. R. God calls Israel ‫ ׳ א ל ה י ם‬. 31 Pal. ‫ . or if thou remainest here. Augustus. i n this work we lind the term about six times. he is engaged with the Law of his Creator ! 3 2 ‫י‬ 17) ‫)בחור‬ ' The Chosen One. Gen. r. but their master commanded them : ' Leave him alone.. 34. Ber. ch. " The Lord has chosen for Him a man according to His heart (1 Sam. 165. and said : 4 Now can Israel dispute with their Creator?' 30 Finally.76 THIS NAMES OP GOD my behalf. M. 30 Pes. 29 Pes. f u r t h e r for the use of this term S.28Cohen.' 33 M. 21. מ‬Lam. U n t i l that time (Abraham) did not. we notice that even heathens used this term in speaking of God. (8. 27. 51 ‫ ו ה ק ש ה ה י ר ח א ת ע ר פ ו ל ע ש ו ת רצון ב ו ר א ו‬. The relation between God and world. Judaica.(‫וכינה שמו לבוראו(י‬ David says : f Stir up my honour before the honour of my Creator . 1 . 74 . 5 . I remain here . Β. Ps. 63 A : ‫ . 11 (three times). v. I go with them to Babylon/ Jeremiah : ' If I went with them. Johanan. R u t h r. Johanan sat before the Babylonian synagogue of Sepphoris and preached there. 130 ‫ ח מ ה ו ל ב נ ה ו כ ר כ ו ל ם מ ש כ י מ י ם ו מ ע ר י ב י ם ל ע ש ו ת רצון ב ו ר א ם‬. 6 . 4. 1 ‫ הברייה ה ו א ע ס י ק‬O > î ) . β.<‫ ה כ י ר בוראהומ‬above note 14. also Bloch in H.31 R. Cant. אין ב ב ו ד י נ ל ו ם ל פ נ י ב ב ו ר בוראי‬v. 13. 298 . and says. ‫ב ו ר א ו‬ ‫לשם‬ 35 Tanh. 82. 381. Pal. cf.yet recognize his Creator.

B. every trouble. 3. Tarphon in his famous saying of the shortness of the day. De cultu fem. r. r. Tert. the sluggish workmen and the urging master of the house. 2. The master of the house. ix. 17 . 55. when beholding the crowds in Jerusalem. tests the righteous. 10. 32. 7. the ‫בעל הבית‬. is a most popular figure in the Haggada. ‫ ק ד ו ש‬Is. 38 R. 3. Genesis ed. Matt. 15. Helbo depicts the relation of God to Israel in the parable of the orphan and the ‫בעל הבית‬. 2. 35 Aboth ii. Aha39 illustrates the idol worshippers by the simile of 4 ‫ התרטב מפנה לבעל הבית‬the stra master of the house ‫( י‬God). 3 . 13.37 Some of these contribute a good deal to our knowledge of the Rabbinic conception of the divinity. 5. 19. also Jelamdenu. the former is grateful for every gift.. Tosefta Ber. 50. like the king.. There can be no doubt that Ben Zoma meant under the good guests the faithful. Cant. the strong ones. cf. 27. 1 : *Vra = ib. .THE RABBINIC SYNONYMS FOR GOD 77 (18) ‫בעל הבית‬ 'The Master of the House/ Simon b. 4. pp. 58 A. v. 7 and ‫ ח ס י ד‬. one is strong. Ber. 39. 13. 19. The latter does not thank the Lord of the House. 5.36 and in that of the Gospels. 2. ‫ ד ו ד י ם‬or ‫ ד ו ד‬. and « o d is also called by t h e same name. 39 Deut. 27 . Lev. 5. vii. ' The master of the house has two cows. Ps. 34 Pal. used to say : f Blessed be He who created all these in order to serve me !‫ י‬Likewise he used to point out the difference between a good and a bad guest. 14-15 . and every service offered him. Upon which does he put the yoke‫ ?׳‬On the former. 4. 37 Luke 12. Jer. just as in the parables of the Stoics. the greatness of the task. 2. 36 Epictet iii. 6. r. also Theophilus ii. Zoma. R. ii. God/ 34 R. The orphan was brought up and supplied with Deut. who found faults and blasphemed the Lord of the House. Gen. Job 9. must be dealt with here. and under the bad guests the Gnostics. Pedath. 6. 22. and. the other is weak. i. 10. therefore.35 saw in the master of the house none else but God. 4 .e. Gen. t h e ohcohtaποτψ. God. Ber.'38 R. Eleazar b. 12. 1 . 15 and Deut. G r ü n h u t 26 B: ‫ש ג ד‬ ‫ותושב אומר לבעל הבית פנה את כליך‬. 7. v.

Moses his steward.78 THE NAMES OP GOD everything by the latter. 32 B and parall. Azarja: ( Woe unto us because of the day of judgement! Woe unto us because of the day of rebuke ! WThen Joseph the Just. which is carefully counted. Tanh. who was a mere human being. 514. A. 7. The master of the house says : ' Truly. and says: < God is the master of the house. all that you enjoyed is for the pail of water you have drawn. 17. ובעל דין ויושב על כ ס א דין ודן בל א ח ד‬ ‫ . R. b.' 43 (20) ‫בעל דיז‬ 'Accuser. somewhat differently : ‫בשיבא הקביה‬ ‫עהתווכח עם כל א ח ד ו א ח ד מ . they are commanded to return Joseph to Palestine. B. i. The same orphan boasted of having deserved all by his work and in lieu of his wages. also Pes. but please put the bottles in their right place. ו א ח ד ע ׳ א ב׳ו שאין בל ב ש ר ורם יכולים ל ע מ ו ד לפניו‬v. Eleazar b. 481.' God is the ‫בעל הבית‬.44 We find this name earlier in a saying of R. and others. pp. but your real wages are kept by me. הבריות ולומר לו מעשיו כ מ ו ש כ ת ו ב כי ה ו א‬ 42 5 . PS.' 42 (19) ‫ב ע ל ב ר י ת‬ ‫ י‬Confederate. E. 43 Aboth R. Israel the orphan. 44 Aboth iv. who is a judge. and sits on the Throne of Judgement. the goods of this world for the sufferings. R. v. 207. 45 Gen. 7. Levi explains the reason for Israel being compared with wheat. but the real reward is kept for the world to come.11: ‫ה ק ב ׳ ה ש ה ו א דיי. M. the brethren of Joseph the thieves. 3 .3.. N.40 Another teacher speaks of a master of the house and thieves who were caught drinking wine. 199 A. r. how much more shall 45 we not be able to stand before Him '?‫׳‬ 0> Deut.' God is the master of the house. Eleazar ha Kappar enumerates this too among his seven names of God. !‫־‬. 41 The master of the house says: ' May ye enjoy yourselves. r. Pes. they could not stand his rebuke: God. i. 482. an accuser. Cant r. and judges each person. Israel is the wheat. R. Eleazar b. 22. rebuked his brethren. Eiiezer: ‫דע לפני מ י א ת ה ע מ ל ומי ה ו א‬ ‫בעל בריתך‬. Simon in the name of R. for the piece of wood you have hewn. R. 93.66.

Who knows the thoughts of all.45 (22) ‫ב ע ל מ ח ש ב ו ת‬ 'Lord of thoughts. p. but I cannot do so unless I have rewarded him the small commandment he performed in this world. 8. Eleazar and R. 28) because He is called ‫בעל ה מ ש פ ט‬. . 426. 149. Aurel. 9 also ‫ . 3 A . Rabbah uses the legal axiom. b Ket.4‫ד‬ (23) ‫בעל מלאכה‬ ‫ י‬Empl0}7er. i. Tarphon. B. He is t h e worst debtor. ii. 37 B read ‫ . 48 (24) ‫בעל המשפט‬ Lord of Judgement.1. a l s o v i . 48 Abothii. 185. 100 A . 83.THE RABBINIC SYNONYMS FOR GOD 79 (21) ‫ב ע ל ח ו ב‬ Creditor. 30.24 . Tosefta Sanh. 47 Mekh. 37. Derenbourg. Shetah uses this name when saying ‫ אבל היודע ובעל מחשבות הוא יפרע מאותו האיש‬. Gittin 51 B . 14and 1 6 : ‫ . K. 1 8 * . Tanh. cf. 3. J. ש י ש ל ם ל ך ש ב ר פ ע ו ל ת ך‬v. b. Pal. B. 5 : ‫ו נ א מ ן ה ו א‬ ‫בעל מ ל א כ ת ך שישלם לך שכר פעולתך‬. and Marc. v.' Judah b. v. as Buber thought. already Seneca. The ‫ ב ע ל דין‬is not Adam. v. Sliebuot 42 B . note 32. JEssai sitr Vhistoire. ה י ו ד ע מ ח ש ב ו ת‬v. בריה יבולה ל ע מ ו ד‬. ש ל ך ב ב ר ה ו צ י א ע ל י ך גזירה ש ת מ ו ת‬ ‫ ו ב ל ה ב ר י ו ת כ מ ו ת ך‬. p.' R. 26: ‫ר ב ל ך ב ע ל די. Sanh. 10. M . which can be and is applied to describe man's relation to God. God says : e I am called ‫ י ב ע ל ה מ ש פ ט‬I try to send my hand forward against Esau. ‫אין א ד ם מעיז‬ ‫ פ נ י ו ב פ נ י ב ע ל ח ו ב ו‬. ch. 49 50 Tanh. 107A. ‫ . 21. Be ‫־‬benefitv. 7 49 God 10veth judgement (Ps. but God ! 46 The Babylonian Amora. Tabbai. י ו צ ר הרים ו ב ר‬Tanh. Isa. Sanh. who reproaches his creditor.18. 5 A . ה י ו ד ע מ ח ש ב ו ת‬v. v. both use the same term in emphasizing the certainty of the payment of reward.' 50 ‫ על א ח ת ב מ ה ו ב מ ה ש א י . iv. 4 10 on Deut. or Simon b.

ch. M. Levi. Aha says : ' God is the owner of pledges (with reference to Gen. The lot of the latter ones is as that of the former. 189 5 Geffcken. the common lot of man) for ever. 01· ‫ה ע ו ל מ י ם‬ 58 De decal. Blessed be He. It is a path designed since the six days of creation. and many shall drink it. Amalek deposited bundles of thorns.. the Lord of the world. also above.' R. ed. Theod. Nahmani. used by Philo 53 . J. J u d a h b.54 ‫ש ל א יהיו בזויי ה ע ו ל ם א ו מ ר י ן מ פ נ י ש ה ו א א ל ו ה ו ב ע ל עולם ע ו ש ה‬ ‫ ד ב ר י ו ש ל א ב ד ת‬4 in order that the lowly people should not say. therefore he acts in all things against law and right . Sam. 560 . r. xxvii. 52 v. of this cup). the Meturgeman of K. r.‫ י‬This name is used in the old blessing said in the house of the mourners : * Our brethren. (27) !‫ בעל הפקת‬. and He returned him the same. p.' 51 (26) ‫בעל ה ע ו ל ם‬ 'Lord of the World'. 54 Mekh. the father-in-law of ‫לעולם אין ב ע ל ה ר ח מ י ם ל ו ק ח נ פ ש ו ת ת ח ל ה ע ד‬ 81 v. 1). loc. and in the Mekhilta. ii. b.. Lakish. Sarah deposited pious and good deeds. R. said : ‫ש נ פ ר ע מ ן‬ 4 50 R. 18 . 181 A. Ket. 8 Β .80 THIS NAMES OP GOD (25) ‫בעל הנחמות‬ ' Lord of Consolations.‫ א ד ו ן העולם‬. δ5 Gen. and God returned her the same/ 55 (28) ‫בעל ה ר ח מ י ם‬ 4 52 Lord of Mercy. p. sub . may the Lord of Consolations comfort you.' R. also above ‫ א ב ה ר ח מ י ם‬. or ‫פקדונות‬ Lord of Pledge. or Pledges. Simon b. S. . Many have drunk (sc. who are suffering and pained by this sad event. 53. cit. 5 . " Because He is the God. Nehemja.. Pes. Our brethren. 2. 21. make up your mind concerning this ! This is standing (sc. who comforts the mourners. 66 v.V Surely the Haggadist reproduces here the actual words of contemporary Gnostic teachings.

T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD
4

81

‫ הממון‬The Lord of Mercy does not punish the soul he punishes man's wealth \57
(29) ‫בעל השבועה‬

Lord of Oath.' In a legend 68 we read : ' God says to Moses, "In case Jethro says a word about your oath, tell him the Lord of Oath has already released me from it 'V
( 3 0 ) ‫גבוה‬

(

'High.' This term is one of the oldest in Rabbinic theology. In our sources it occurs almost exclusively in the Halakha, and here also in very ancient parts. It seems that in the period of the Tannaim and Amoraim this name or designation was already antiquated. In old texts ‫ גבוה‬is opposed to ‫הדיוט‬, e.g. M. Kid. i. 6, ‫אמירתו לגבוה בנתינתו להדיוט‬, or put together like Pal. Peah, i. 3, ‫אחד לגבוה אחד להדיוט‬. We find it in the language of both schools of Shammai and Hillel.59 R. Eleazar b. Azarja also uses this term.00 There are also some instances of the use of this term in the Haggada.01
(31) ‫ג ב ה ו ת העולם‬

' The Height of the World.' Eccles. 12. 5, ‫גם מגבוה ייראו‬ (also of the high they shall be afraid) is explained,‫גם מגבהו‬
‫&ד‬

Pe8. Β. 65 Β ‫י א מ ר ל ך יתרו‬ ‫אם‬

R a t h r., v. Buber's note in Pes. B. 5 B, 71. « Exod. r. 4 . 4 : ‫ב ל ו ם מ ן ה ש ב ו ע ה א מ ו ר ל ו ב ע ל‬ ‫ ה ש ב ו ע ה ה ת י ר א ו ת י מ ן נ ד ר י ל כ ך וילך מ ש ה ו כ ר‬.
69

9‫ה‬ Β. ΛΖ. 52 sifre, § 104: ‫ו מ ה א ם גבוה אין א ד ם ר ש א י ל ה ח ר י ם א ת כ ל נ כ ס י ו ע ׳ א‬ ‫ כ ו ״ ב ש י ה י ה א ד ם ח י י ב ל ה י ו ת ח ם על נ כ ס י ו‬, 114. The service of God i n the Temple is called ‫ ע ב ו ד ת גבוה‬, pal. Sanh. 25 b ; R. Zeira. Pal. Nazir 5 1 a ‫ ; ) ח ר ם ( לשון גבוה ה ו א ה א ו מ ר ל ח ר ם ל א ובו׳‬Num. r. 8 . 4 ‫ש ה ח מ י ר ב ה ד י ו ט‬ ‫יותר מבגבוה‬. 1» v. R. Av Tanh. iii. 72 ‫ ; ב א ו ת ה ש ע ה ה ק ב ׳ ה נ ע ש ה גבוה ב ע ו ל מ ו‬and M. Lam. 19 ‫ ; גבוה ש ל עולם‬to Eccles. 1 2 . 5 ‫ ו מ ג ב ו ה ו ש ל ע ו ל ם נ ת י ר א‬.

F

82

THIS NAMES OP GOD

‫ מתירא‬.‫ י של עולם ממיר‬he was afraid of the highest of the world, the King of all kings/ 6 2
(32) ‫גבורה‬

' Might/ This term is also older than the Tannaitic period, and occurs mostly in sayings of that period. It is generally used to emphasize the doctrine that Moses did not enjoin the commandments of his own authority, but ‫מפי הגבורה‬ 'from the mouth of the all-powerful, Almighty'. 63 The repeated reference to this phrase alludes to grave doubts and scepticism on the part of powerful heretic movements as to the reception of the Law from Sinai. The name is also used in other connexions.04 In the later Midrashim the term occurs mostly in passages copied from older works.65 (33) ‫גדול העולמים‬ ‫ ׳‬The Great One of the Worlds/ Gen. 21. 8, ‫משתה גדול‬, is explained with reference to Deut. 30. 9,60 by R. Judah b. Simon and R. Jose b. Hananiah as meaning that God was also present. It is difficult to reconcile this Haggada with the doctrine of God's omnipresence. God is everywhere present. It is no wonder that some corrected the text 4 in ‫ ג ד ו ל י עולם‬t h e great of the world were present
62 v. Eccles. r. 12. 8 : ‫ ; גם מ ג ב ה ו ש ל ע ו ל ם מ מ ׳ ה ה ק ׳ ב י ה‬v. also Midrash, Yaik. Daniel, § 1 0 6 4 , ‫ ב א ו ת ה ש ע ה ה ק ב ׳ ה ה ו א גבוה ב ע ו ל מ ו‬, cf. Tanh. β . iii. 72. β3 M e k h . 2 6 A : ‫ ; ע ד ש א מ ר ל ה ם מ ש ה מ פ י ה ג ב ו ר ה‬ib. 71A, R. Akiba ‫ואין‬ ‫; ד ב ר ש ל א י צ א מ פ י ה ג ב ו ר ה‬77‫נ‬5,54!$‫; ל א נ ס ע ו ע ל פי מ ש ה א ל א ע ׳ פ הגבורה‬ s . N . 112, R. ishmael ‫ ; ש נ א מ ר ל מ ש ה מ פ י ה ג ב ו ר ה‬ib. 46 ‫א ל א ה כ ל מ פ י‬ ‫ מ ש ה ו מ ש ה מ פ י ה ג ב ו ר ה‬,· T. ic. 3 B , s Deut. 9 ‫ו ל א מעצמי־ אני א ו מ ר ל כ ם א ל א‬ ‫ מ פ י הגבורה‬. 64 Mech. 59B: ‫ ; צ א ו ה מ ל ך ב ג ב ו ר ה‬v. A L S O 60A; ib. 66A ‫מ ש ה מ ש י ב‬ ‫ ; ד ב ר י ם ל פ נ י ה ג ב ו ר ה‬A . R . Ν. 37 ‫ ; ב ע י נ י ה ג ב ו ר ה‬Β. Sota, 37A R. Meir ‫אושפזיבק לגבורה‬. 65 Tanh. i. 196, ii.63, iv. 35, 41, 42, 91, 163, v 31 ; M. Lam. 38 ; Pes. B. 20 A, 36 B, 61 B, 126 A, 166 A ; M. Ps. 317, 395, 415 ; Exod. r. 50. 2 ; S. E. R. 91, 198 ; P. R. E. chaps. 5, 16, 41. 68 Gen. r. ch. 50 ; ed. Th. 565.

T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD

83

banquet/ Yet the more difficult reading is corroborated by another Haggada. R. Isaac teaches that ' the Great of the Worlds 3 was present at the funeral of Jacob. Here, in order to obviate a mistake, another old reading (‫ואית‬ ‫ )דאמרן‬has : ‫ י( כבוד חי עולמים‬the Glory of the Everlasting1).67
( 3 4 ) ‫גלנל עינו ש ל עולם‬

The Eye of the World/ This term occurs twice in a Midrash 08 of R. Aha, whom we know as very clever in forming names of God ; he speaks of the five Kings who fought the Eye of the World, God.
(35) ‫דוד‬

4

' Beloved/ When R. Hijja b. Ada died, the nephew of Bar Kappara and R. Simon b. Lakish, delivered funeral addresses based on Cant. 6. 2 : ' My Beloved is gone down into his garden, to the beds of spices, to feed in the gardens and to gather lilies\ ‫( דודי‬my beloved), i.e. God; ‫לגנו‬, i. e. the world ; ‫לערוגת הבשם‬, i.e. Israel ; ‫לרעות בגנים‬, i. e. the nations of the world, to gather the lilies ; i. e. the pious, whom he removes from their midst.60
( 3 6 ) ‫_דיין‬

' Judge/ The term ‫ אלהים‬was identified by R. Simon b. Johai with ‫( דיין‬judge). Thus he substituted for ‫בני אלהים‬ Gen. 6. 2, ‫בני דיינים‬, and cursed all those who translated 70 .‫בני אלהיא‬ This is in agreement with R. Simon b 7 1 rule ; . ‫ד י י‬ ‫אין אלהים אלא‬ His teacher saying of some of his generation : ' There is neither judgement nor judge by emphasizing,4 Yes, there is judgement,
Gen. r. ch. 100. 6. Gen. r. ch. 41 ; ed. Th. 401 : ‫ב א ו ליזדווג א ל א ל ת ו ך גלגל עינו‬ ‫ ש ל ע ו ל ם‬, and 412. 69 v. Pal. Ber. 2. 8 ; Cant. r. on 6. 2 ; v. also Tanh. iii 74. 70 Gen. r. ch. 36 ; Th. 247. 1‫ד‬ Mekhilta 1 a, M1RSJ., p. 6.
68 67

‫לא‬

F 2

84

THIS NAMES OP GOD

and there is a Judge', i.e. God.72 This conception of God's judgeship is one of the most important aspects of our doctrine, and will be dealt with at length in a following chapter. Here may be repeated the saying of R. Eleazar b. Azarja : c He is a Judge, and Accuser, who is seated on the Throne of Judgement and judges each person individually \ 73 R. Simon b. Johai says : 4 Blessed be the true Judge, before whom is no injustice or respect of person \ 74 The attribute of God's justice, and the doctrine of reward and punishment are closely allied with this name. God as Judge is also the source of moral law, justice, and righteousness. (37) ‫הוא‬ He.' In several sayings God is called ‫ ' הוא‬He ', without any other designation or explanation. Hillel has a saying : ‫ולקילוסן הוא צריך‬, does He require their praise V4* R. Meir says : ' He will perform miracles and mighty deeds, and ye shall stand, keeping silence.'75 R. Eleazar b. Pedath, in his often-repeated saying : ‫ מקום שני ויי הוא ובית דינו‬b. 7 6 R. Aha also adopted this name.77 Pythagoras likewise used the name ' Ipse ‫ י‬for the Godhead, v. Cicero, De natura deorum, i, 5, L. Dukes, Or. Ltblatt, 1849, 396. (38) ‫הימנותא‬ ' Faith.' This term is mentioned very rarely, and it is doubtful whether it was known to Palestinian Jews as well as to Babylonian Jews.78
Gen. r. ch. 26 ; Th. 252, and parall. ‫ »ל‬Gen. r. 93, end : ‫ש ה ו א דיין ו ב ע ל דין ויושב על כ ס א דין ודן כ ל א ח ד‬ ‫ ; ו א ח ד‬v. above .‫ב ע ל דין‬ 74 s i f r e Deut., § 304 : .‫ב ר ו ך דיין א מ ת ש א י ן ע ו ל ה ו מ ש ו א פ נ י ם לפנין‬ 74ft pal. Sakka, 5. 4 ; b. Sukka, 53 A. 76 Mekh. 29 A : ‫ה ו א י ע ש ה ל כ ם ג ס י ם וגבורות ו א ת ם ת ה י ו ע ו מ ד י ן‬ ‫ ; ושותקין‬v. also Tanh. iii. 71 ‫ ה ו א נ ג א ל‬. Mishna, μ . κ . 1ii. 5 ‫ק ע ״ ל ה ו א‬ ‫ א ו מ ר‬, Gen. r. 37. 4 ; Esther 1·. ch. 1. ‫ «ל‬Gen. r. 51, p. 533, and parall. ‫ יי‬Gen. r. 63, p. 678. 78 b. Shabbath, 10 B.
72

;

Th.83 (43) ‫ טוב‬or ‫טובו שלעולם‬ ' Good'. is bound to take a spacious place in Rabbinic theology. no. 57. based on Hab. 81 Pes. iv. Ps. iii. ‫ שבלים‬in ‫וזאת ליהודה‬. Marmorstein. or ' the Goodness of the World. 1 . 74 . r. Num. r. 1926. Eccles. 120 and parall. Prov.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 79 85 (39) ‫חי העולמים‬ Life of the Worlds This term.' The eulogy. 1.19. ' God'. ‫( בחור‬v. It is.19. and ib. primitive and higher as well. cf. 74.' In the allegorical homily on the red heifer we read ‫טהור‬. iii. cf. 4. 40).13. Jer. Job 9. 613.82 Sifre Dt. 123 . ‫ברוך הטוב והמטיב‬. 8. above. 212. 12. cf. 3. no. . 80 Tanh. 17). God is called ‫חסיד‬. v. Ps.. B.84 The identification ‫טוב‬ ‫הקביה‬ = is taught by R. and all the other religions. above. P . v. 2. the proper place of its treatment will be in one of the next chapters. puts together ‫( אלהיט‬v.' The Haggada which attempts to demonstrate the idea of the imitatio dei by pointing out that Israel is called by the same names as his Maker.81 c (41) ‫חסיד‬ ' The Pious. the unbridgeable contrast between the Jewish doctrine of God. B. cf. expressing the attribute of God's eternity.e. M. and ‫חסיד‬. r. Israel Ps. above. Budapest. 1 . ‫( חכם‬v. 4.‫מה הקב׳ה נקרא חסיד‬ 42) ‫)טהור‬ ‫ י‬The Pure. 3. 35). 50. with the doctrines of omnipresence and omnipotence. no. 88 84 Tanh. 372. 8. Gen. 36 A . . ‫( דוד‬v. (40) ‫חכם‬ < The Wise \ God is called wise. p. 5. on one side.80 Some see this name indicated in Eccles. § 49. i. Meir standing at the grav 79 As to t h e pronunciation of ‫ ח י‬or ‫ ח י‬t h e r e were many disputes among t h e codifiera and liturgical scholars of t h e Middle Ages. 86. no. on the other side . 9). ed. expresses this attribute of God to be met with in all higher religions. 82 Tanh.

5. 125 A. Β. 46) ‫עולמים‬ ‫)יוצר‬ ‫ י‬Creator of the World or shortened ‫יוצר‬.87 (44) ‫ידיר‬ 'Friend. v. Halafta has a saying [pal. especially to denote man's relation to God. 38. used very frequently. 9. 1. Pes. 1. Jose b. 92 v. b. j. . 77 c . I.86 The name of God is based on Ps. ‫אין אני יודע דין תורה אלא היודע מחשבות יפרע מאותן‬ ‫מקבלי. in a statement which groups the things which are called ‫טוב‬. ed. 2. 24. r. 1 . Wertheimer. § 352. 91 De decal. and Israel. sub R. 88 Sifre Deut. says R. p. Ruth r. 1. 86 β . Gen.g. 2 Β . r.86 THIS NAMES OP GOD his teacher Elisha b. (45) ‫יודע מחשבות‬ knows the thoughts'of men. ch. 27. the power of the seers. e. 17 B.' cf. among them God . Geffcken. also M. Brit. ibid. The name ‫ טובו‬or ‫ ' טיבותו‬of the world occurs in a saying of R. The Alfabetha of 4 Sira says 90 : ‫בו ומעשיו ליוצרו‬ heart and deeds to his Creator'. Pes. 89 9 ed. M. 189 if. 510. 1 . < > Or. Mus. cit. 5399. v. Eccles. Hag. Halafta. Is. 93 Gen. Simon b. Hakadosh. Men. 7 . Ps. xxvii. 6. Judan. Pirke R. Sanh. for they can compare the figure with the artist. The Hebrew Testament of Naphtali has the passage 89 : ‫רק אני‬ ‫מזהיר אתכם על אהבת היוצר ולעבדו ולדבקה בו‬. loc. r.18. and occurs in Tannaitic as well as in Amoraic sources. B. 53 B . Schönblum. ii.93 Generally some homilists found fault with j.. Ps. God. Stoics and Philo often use the parable of the potter (also ‫ )יוצר‬in their teleological proofs of God's existence. 145. 8. Taan.88 ' He who ‫בעל מחשבות‬. עליבון מה‬. ii. Abuja.85 Again. and more so over the Goodness of the World. 53 Β . 14. 2.92 Great is. 87 88 . Torah. saying : ' The arrogant prevailed over the pious.91 This parable is very often repeated in the Haggada. 1] ‫האנשים‬ ‫דנא אמר לבון‬ Six are called friends.. 34. 115 . r. Men. ‫ ב ת י מ ד ר ש ו ת‬. 161 A. 9. vi. 81b. 24. Moses. above.

which teaches that God is worthy to be called God (‫)אלוה‬. v. not ‫הקב׳ה‬. 99 Gen. Th. 5. 104 . or artist. 5.e. then he is praised. His being 3. r. 103. 1 Gen. 10. r. 11 . 1. Israel of the nations? The ‫יחודו של עולם‬ ‫אחד‬. and Buber. i. 1. R. 97.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 87 people who dare to put the created thing higher than the Creator. or ? ‫מי צוה כן‬. r. God's omniscience to His uniqueness. 17 A . ch. 98. 45. 29 B and parall . First he does. ed Wertheimer. 1 . Phinehas b.95 and ‫יוצר המאורות‬. 9.97 (47) ‫יתורו של עולם‬ ' The Unique of the World '. Pes. Mordecai of Shimei. 30 Β . R. I l l . or annoying Him. also ‫ מ ע י ן גנים‬. ii. 10. iv.99 R. B. 38 Lam. i.‫יחודו של עולם‬ ‫ י‬who needs no help in battle ‫ . This name we meet in a saying of Ben Azzai. 3 Tanh. Judan preserved a homily of Aquilas. R. Johanan b. Gen. v. i. ed. M. 99. Shalom. R.‫ביחורושלעולם‬ R. 97 v. Ruth r. Dan 1 is like . 4 : ‫מי יתן‬ ‫' טהור מטמא לא אחר‬who gives the pure out of the impure ? ‫ י‬like Abraham of Terah.17‫ת ש א‬ 100 Gen. 16. 1 . 1.2==R.. Num. 24. 15. Ber. Th. Hoshaja. Gen. r. 22 ‫ כאחר‬by100. Hezekiah of Ahaz. 12 D. . Ber. 2 Pes. Nehemiali. Simon b. B. 742 . 5 . י‬finally. Ber. Nappaha.‫יחודו של עולם‬ We find further in answer to questions like ? ‫מי עשה זאת‬. who preaches that Israel was not sent or driven into exile until he denied98. Gen. Wisdom of Solomon. Ps. Judah b. Job 14. B. 18. v. Midrash ha-Gadol. 1 . 3 . 30.94 The teachers speak of ‫יוצר בראשית ויוצר‬ ‫עולם‬. B.‫יחודו שלעולם‬ 94 R. The same idea is expressed by Ben Azzai and R. 16. 96 b. 05 V. 5. b. 21. or 96. Num. 3. 12. A king is being eulogized before he built public buildings for the city (δημόσια). r. p. but4. or before he presented honours (προκοπή). 4 Tanh.‫ביחורו שלעולם‬ Similarly ‫באחד‬. r. Juda Halevi b. The ‫יתורו של עולם‬ is different. Simon explains Gen.. 3. Nahman 1. r. Johai .‫ אור‬The name is connected with the idea of doing the Creator's will. 200. also Pes. ‫בתי מ ד ר ש ו ת‬. 9 . Joshua b. Tanh. 21 Β . Hama ascribes God's justice. Samuel b. 49. also iii. pal. 11 A. p. B. Buber. r. p.

Ps. also iv. 85. 23. 15 : ' " T h e eye also of the adulterer waiteth for the twilight. We met the name in connexion with 7. 10. above. 28. ‫אלהים ״‬ b. Μ. 24. " even he who sins with his eyes is also an adulterer. Joshua b.' R.‫ח י העולמים‬ In Tannaitic sources we have ‫ בבורו ש ל עולם‬f o i 8 . 39.. Seder Elijahu r. p. Midr.: ‫א ל א ה ם יראו פ נ י י ש ר ו ש ל ע ו ל ם וישרו ש ל‬ ‫ ע ו ל ם י ח ז ה פ נ י ה ם ש ל ישרים‬. 11. P3. and chapter 1. He sits and waits for the twilight. א ר ד ב כ ב ו ד י‬v. Buber.. 8 Mekh. 7 v. ch. r. i. saying. 4 No eye shall see me . r. (50) ‫ישרו של עולם‬ 'The righteous of the world/ The righteous will see God and God the righteous. Lev. 12. 209 : ‫ו ה כ ס א ד ו מ ה‬ ‫ . p. 101 : ‫א מ ר ה ק ב ׳ ה א נ י‬ ‫ . ל כ ב ו ד ו‬Pirke R. v. 26. Th. " The eye is an adulterer. R. 7. Gen.‫ בבודי‬or ‫ ב ב ו ד ך‬or ‫ כ ב ו ד ו‬is substituted. sub ‫אלהים‬. and disguiseth the face. as it is said. 124 B . r. but rare in Rabbinic writings. 6 (51) ‫בבורו של עולם‬ ' The Glory of the World/ This name is very frequent in the Targumim ( ‫ ) י ק ר א‬. Susi says: 9. B . Eliezer.‫פ ע מ י ם ש א י ן ה ע ו ל ם ו מ ל ו א ו מ ח ז י ק י ם כבודו‬ Very often speaking of God. Lakish explains Job 24.. 60 A. אילולי ש י ת פ ת ה כ ב ו ד ך ע מ י‬ii. and 53 . above.88 THIS NAMES OP GOD (48) ‫ישב בסתרו של עולם‬ 'He who dwells in the hidden places of the world. 9). 69 : ‫ . 58 A . Tanh. He does not know that He who sitteth in the Secret (‫ )בסתר‬appoints (‫ )ישים‬watchmen to make 5 known his intentions ( /(‫בלקמירים =פנים‬ 49) v. 53. for the evening " (Prov. H a n a n j a : ‫י ש ל ח ו ב כ ב ו ד ו ש ל‬ 6 5 ‫)יי‬ ‫עולם‬. 17 and 18 . Simon b. esp. chaps. 10 Pes. 10 9 .101 Β. sub 110." Thou shalt not say : " He who sins with his body is an adulterer . ch.

therefore must be very old.' It is doubtful whether this can be regarded as a name. The name occurs only once. לא נחסר מזגא דעלמא‬cf. 137 . c Overpowering. i. r. Ps. 13. Hijja b. Lam. 13 A. (55) ‫מזנא דעלמא‬ The Supplier of the World/ In Cant. ed.. Lord of Lords. Almost in all cases where this Name occurs one can assume that the saying is of Tannaitic origin.'15 Owing to the discovery of this ancient name in Sumero-Babylonian literature. Yet it has been discovered in an old Sumerian Psalm. 26. 2 . i.e. Pes. Father. Buber. we can trace the origin of this term to the oldest stage of religious thought. B. of creation and theosophy. 7. 14 Aboth iy. 22. who spake and the world was. . (53) ‫לבו של ישראל‬ ' The Heart of Israel. Hag. at Thy word which created the world. 73. Langdon. exalted. 46 B . Cant. 4 ‫אל יחסר המזג‬ we read the remark : ‫ . 6. Cant. r. T a n h . Shepherd. Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms 127. Abba proves that God is called the heart of Israel from Ps. Lord of the Word of Life. 11 12 13 15 c b.' R.' This is one of the characteristic Tannaitic terms for God.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 89 (52) ‫כבשונו שלעולם‬ ' The Secret of the World.11 and means the secrets of the world. 7. Eleazar ha-Kappar. &c.12 (54) ‫ממץ‬ ' Who understands/ Occurs in the Mishna13 in the list of names enumerated by R. r. B. 23. 5.14 (56) ‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬ ‫ י‬He. Some of the oldest Scribes known to us by name used it. which must not be revealed.

peace and friendship. grant you love and affection.' According to R. Schriften. 77. Naph. 1.. Helbo. Ritus. who caused his Name to dwell in this place. The Apocrypha offer also instances of18‫עליון ברוךהוא‬ 4 19 or .16 (59) ‫מלך מלבי המלכים‬ King of all kings. 22. has ‫ ה ק ב י ה‬. 38 b. who aspired to this honoured. Zunz. 360. ‫מ י ש ש כ ן א ת ש מ ו ב ב י ת ה ז ה ה ו א ישכון ביניכם א ה ב ה‬ ‫ ו א ח ו ה ושלום וריעות‬.). . the prayers of Abraham. ‫מי שענה‬ ' He who heard scil. that left on Saturday the service of the Temple greeted the entering division with the words : may He. cit. ancient title. J u b . The name was invoked in great public distress or serious calamities. v. 10c..17 In all cases without ‫הקב׳ה‬. Ges. The original name was ‫מלך מלבי המלכים ברוך הוא‬. to distinguish between God and the Roman or another emperor.‫מ י ש ע ש ה נ ס י ם לאבותינו‬ 17 18 Bousset. p. ix. the latter words have been frequently added to ‫המקום‬. and is to be found in the ancient order of service for Public Fast days as described in the Mishna (Taanith ii. ν. Synagogale Poesie. . The name occurs in the earliest sources. most probably a later addition. 19 Enoch i. The Hebrew text of the Test. the priestly division. 122 f. 4 4 . Ritus. 27. (58) ‫מי ששיכן את שמו בבית הזה‬ He who caused His Name to dwell in this House. and . Isaac. Kaufmann. ‫ שמים‬and other names. ch. belongs to a later period.90 THIS NAMES OP GOD (57) . and we are entitled to assume that ‫ הקביה‬is a later addition.‫חי עולמים ברוך הוא‬ King of all k oldest authorities in our sources. 12 a. which. as will be seen afterwards. p. Other Names beginning 1with ‫ מ י‬a r e : ‫מ י ש ב ר ך‬ ‫ א ב ו ת י נ ו‬.' The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha offer many parallels to this name. 83.. Our sources add in the majority of cases this latter term. p. iii. Zunz. 517. &c. Ber. 9 . 3 ff.

1. Nahmani makes the serpent say : ‫אפשר דאנא עביד כלום‬ ‫רלא מתאמר לי מן עליותא‬23 ‫ י‬Is it possible for me to do something which I was not commanded to do from Above ? ‫ י‬This was repeated and enlarged by R. Ps. 1 .' The name ‫ מעון‬is used especially in oaths. Ps. Isaac explains similarly to R.14 « Pes. ‫>לא י ב ד ה‬ 21 v. ch. r . R. Oxford. It endeavours to emphasize the doctrine of God's omnipresence. 19. Hannina b. 37. z . A . 9. 20 4 v. Halafta's interpretation of the name ‫ המקום‬: We do not know whether ‫ מעון‬is the abode of the world. V. r. Kahana : ‫לעולם אין‬ ‫ ואין הארי טורף אא׳ב נלחש‬.1.24 The three names ‫מעלה‬. Jose b. Hullin. 7 B. v . 3. 68 and f u r t h e r under . 33. Eccles. 26. חוץ מדעת עליון אינן‬ ‫ נתפסין אנו חוץ מדעת עליון נתפסין‬. R. one can learn that God is the abode of the universe. surely. b. 27 and Ps. ‫שמים‬. unless it is decreed from Above. 24 » Lev. Abba b. 26 M.. . A r u k h . ‫ ב ד ה‬. ‫ ל א י ב ד א‬. MS. Simon b. my Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. 24 .21 This exegesis. r. 23 a n d Prov. Hama says :‫אין אדם נוקף אצבעו‬ ‫מלמטה אא׳ב מבריזין עליו מלמעלה‬22 ‫ י‬A man does not hurt his finger below. as will be shown in the attributes of God. The saying of these teachers coincides with R.20 and was derived from Deut. 69. 90. Shebiith. 10. is far from pantheistic conceptions.26 The change between these terms appears noteworthy. 90. 89 A . r. 17. Samuel b. from Ps. ‫ג ו מ ץ‬ ‫חופר‬ Esther r . Num. r.1 .‫לו מלמעלה‬. Tos. r. Pal. ‫ ד י מ ו ס‬. S. 20. or the world is His abode . and ‫ עליון‬occur in the same sense.‫הנחש נושך אלא אם כן נלחש לו מלעיל‬ ‫ ואין המלכות מתגרה בבני אדם אאיב נלחש לו מלעיל‬.' R. 2. B.‫המקום‬ 22 Cf. Eccles.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD (60) ‫מעון‬ 91 Abode. 16 B. 014‫ ־‬High/ This name is generally used to signify that nothing happens on earth unless it is provided or ordered by God. Johai's sentence : ‫ י אפילו צפור מבלעדי שמיא לא אצדיא‬No bird is caught by the fowler without the consent of Heaven \ 25 Another version of the saying reads :‫מה צפרי. Gen. (61) ‫מעלה‬ ' Above. ii. s .

Hell. 33 Geiger. 300 B. 1888. Jahrbücher für prot. 66 . Wertheimer.282 . p. was the first of whom we know with certainty that he used this term. 1884. Synonyma für Gott. 4. 168. 1914.C. Simonb. 43. 1 9 : . pp. Dähne.37 Our material shows that the oldest strata of the Tannaitic sources used ‫המקום‬.92 THIS NAMES OP GOD Secondly. Berliner. e. Aha.g. R. ‫ מעלה‬is used when the Scribes express or report man's feelings for or speech against God. 572 . 25. 37 Already noticed by Dalman. ‫מיד תלה עשו את‬ ‫עיניו למעלה‬. There is no trace. 32 Gfrörer. p. although it occurs frequently in the Mishna. . Tanh. w h o denies the use of ‫ ה מ ק ו ם‬in Hellenistic writings altogether. R. 97. 39 . Landau. Ps. 177. 94. Targum Onkelos. v. cit. i. Berlin. as well as of the Gospels that neither ‫המקום‬. ‫עין של מעלה‬ ‫אינה רואה‬. Ms. 35 Die Religion des Judenthums.E. Leipzig. 119. 1876.28 Thirdly. Zurich. It is very significant for the date of the Targumim. p. 424 . Theologie. 222 . r. r.36 c. v. R.' This name is often discussed. Ps. on which his theory of Persian origin is based.29 or 30‫ עליון‬and in connexion with31. i. xi. p.‫ב ק ש ל ג נ ו ב ד ע ת ש ל מעלה‬ 31 M. 28 29 Num.27‫ כ ל פ ימעלה‬. Siegfried. Jerusalem. iii. Lakish ibid.1922. Schürer. iv. as Landau. Worte Jesu. 290 f.2 363. Studien. Nachgelassene Schriften. 66. 31 E..204 . Shetach. ii.Aha. 80 Tanh.33 a third view looks to a Persian origin. Some scholars see in it Hellenistic-Alexandrian influence. nor its Greek (τόπος). it stands for ‫מרום‬. b. of it in the literature of the first century.. 38 ed. Gesch. pp. 1898. 1838. e. MGWJ..34 Bousset thought that this Name seems to have had its origin very late. Nap. Philo.. 72. Freudenthal. . R. Zeitschrift. Tanh. A.35 Our investigation shows that Simon the Just. note. 36 And not Simon b.‫כבוד שלמעלה‬ 62) ‫)מקום‬ * Place. Geiger s Jüd. or to avoid and weaken anthropomophism. 310.102. p. 189. 202. 41 ff. A small Midrash called 38‫מדרש תמורה‬ preserved the report that ‫ מקום‬was the Name used by the 27 Gen. or Aramaic (‫ )א תר א‬equivalents are used or known. Heinemann. DarStellung. thought. according to Bousset. 10c. Joh. 66 .32 others derived it from the Bible. Jahrhundert des Heils. note . Stuttgart.g.

r. Marmorstein. It can be traced back to the last decades of the second century. 777.42 For our purpose here it is sufficient to point out the antiquity of this Name. Maceotli. 1923. ii. p. v. Exod. p.38. now ed. Theodor. 118.. 10 . 1 Die Nachrichten über Nekyomanteia in der altrabbinischen Literatur. r. Aha : ‫ש ל א ק י ב ל ו‬ ‫מרותו שלעו׳‬.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 39 93 . like ‫תלה עינו‬ ‫במרום‬. in his commentary on Aboth ii. Rab Pealim. in Z/NW. 42 Gen. Gottesd. 9. < Heaven. i. Tanh. as it was done by R. or according to others.‫ אנשי לשבת הגזית‬i. 40 39 . the Synhedrion. 5. 90. r. r. (63) ‫מרום‬ ' High '. 9 . Halafta speaks of ‫ י מרי שמיא‬Lord of Heaven '. and old material preserved in it. 123. 52B. Jose b. M. Meir. by R. Jellinek. ii. Ami pondered on the meaning of this name. Hama interprets the word ‫ מוריה‬by44. The movements in favour of a change started earlier. when the sages were moved to give explanations or defend its use. not to be found in the editions : v. certainly older t h a n 1250. v. Bet h a Midrash i. Vortr. 45. the Haggadist R. Halafta. 43 Gen.' R. 22. 65. 41 v. however.e. and especially used in connexion with prayers. Pirke R. in replying to a heathen : ' We trust in the W i t h reference to Middoth. E. when ‫ המקום‬was already displaced by the Amoraic term ‫הקביה‬. Ps.40 although the final redaction of the Midrash may be put in the Amoraic period. which is. 303.. 6: ‫ . Pes. Phinehas b. also Tanh. 113 . The antiquity of some parts of this Midrash is corroborated by the use of ‫ המקום‬.‫למקום מרותיה שלעולם‬ 65) 4 4 ‫)מרי‬ My Lord. Zemach Duran. in the third chapter of Pal. 55.' Identical with ‫ עליון‬and ‫שמים‬. and according to Simon b. 44 Gen. R..' R. p. This also corroborates our contention that the change must have taken place in this century. xx.43 64) ‫של עולם‬ ‫)מרותיה‬ The Lordship of the world.41 In the third century. also Mekh. Zunz. and its disappearance in the time of the earlier Amoraim. Jose b. 6 . however. Tanh. 68 . B. ב ת ך ה מ ק י ם‬cf. 107 Β . r.

30 . 3 . 23 with Prov. r 47 4 Aboth iv. v. gives also this designation. R. 2. 272.50 or51. r. as one of the oldest. .' 52 ( 6 9 ) ‫ע ת י ק ו ש ל עולם‬ 4 The Ancient of the World. also Tanh. β. 236 . 1·. 99. § 26. Ber. in his list of God's names. Berechja. 6A . 131 . Lam. Ps. i. 49 Agadath Shir ha‫־‬Shirim. r. 140 : ‫ . Aibo speaks of ‫בגונב‬ ‫דעת העליונה‬. 18. 97 A . Its proper meaning is also a matter of conjecture owing to 45 Gen. 3 . » M. who answereth roughly is the Rich of the World. whose reply was. ' Do not continue to speak to me any further. M. M. also p.‫תפילי) ד מ א ר י עלמא‬ 6> Gen. ed. v.47 In the Tanhuma the question is raised : ' Whence do we know that God is called ‫ '?׳עד‬The reply refers to Jer.45 Corresponding to ‫ אדון העולם‬and ‫רבוץ העולם‬ we find also46. In our period it had already an archaic sound.‫אלא שנשתנית ימין שלעליון‬ 6 8 ) ‫ש ל עולם‬ ‫)עשירו‬ 'The Wealthy of the World. The poor. 344. ת נ ב ד ע ת י ה ד מ ר י ה‬v. r. ed. who comes before his Creator with supplications. Buber.. 22. C a m b 9. Ps. who speaketh entreaties is Moses. Lam. who will show us His countenance in the future world.49 It is frequently used in Psalms and Pseudepigraphic writings.94 THIS NAMES OP GOD Lord of Heaven. 23 : . 50 Gen. R. M. heads the list of God's names enumerated in an old Midrash. 3. Ps. iii. Makhiri. 28 . Sifre Deut.1896‫״‬ . Schechter. Ps 267 . r.' R.‫מריהדעלמא‬ 66) ‫)עד‬ Witness. Tanhuma combines Deut. 220 .' This name. Midrash Zutta. The rich. 23. v. 4 8 . b. ‫ה‬ 4 67) ]‫)עליו‬ ‫ י‬High. 52 Deut. » Tanh. 19 : ‫ . M.' Eleazar ha-Kappar. but it was still used in a few instances. 160 A. 9. ד ע ת ש ל מ ע ל ה‬Pes.' This name occurs once. 29.

Ber. Targum to Gen. or ‫ בל הפנים שוות‬. Ps. 37. 47. .' 58 4 The Rock' is a favourite simile in Biblical as well as BabyIonian-Assyrian hymnology.‫מהו אמרו לאלהים‬ 71) 4 56 ‫)פנים‬ Countenance. reads: ‫ר׳ איבו אמר אפילו דברים‬ ‫שנתעסקו בהם החזירם שני פסל לך וג׳ הדברים הללו נאמרו במעתיקו‬ ‫של עולם‬. The term is identical with the well-known . 45.‫ אמרו לפועליך הטובוהישר‬. We begin with a sermon of Bar-Kappara. says:55. Keilinschri/tliche Bibliothek. ii. God of praises.' In sayings. 6 a. Jose. v. 1.53 Yalkut 54 reads : ‫והדברים עתיקים ר׳ איבו ורבי סימן‬ ‫אומר הדברים האלו אומרים מעתיקו של עולם‬. based on Ps.‫ופעמיך ירוצו לשמוע דברי עתיק יומין‬ 70) ‫)פועל‬ 'Maker/ R. 5. 7 . Pal. and Parall . the son of R. Rock of the Worlds. cf. 54. Simai in his prayers invokes God. B. 17 A . 162 B. (b) ‫' איתחרשן‬deaf and dumb. The words speak of the ancient of the world. Ber. v. § 1074.‫׳‬ 53 55 57 58 59 54 R a t h r. 79. 1. Everlasting Creator. Huna.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 95 the bad texts. b. Chronicles. as . ii. as ‫איח כל הבריון אלוה התושבתות צור העולמים‬ ‫ חי העולם יוצר בראשית‬J The Lord of all the creatures. 31. v. M. Ruth r. Tanh. which speak grievous things proudly and contemptuously against the righteous/ ‫ '( תאלמנה‬let them be put to silence ') means (a) ‫ ' אתפרבן‬they shall become tied . ' Let the lying lips be put to silence.59 We find further the saying ‫אין צור אלא הקב״ה‬. ii. (73) ‫צדיקו של עולם‬ ' The Righteous of the World. or ‫עתיק יומיא‬. 29 A. 56 Tanh. . the Galilean. Berak. 83. also b.‫עתיק יומי‬.' Also ‫צדיק חי העולמים‬. reported by R.19. Pes. Eleazar.‫באילו כנף מבסה אתהפנים‬ in order to avoid anthropomorphic ideas. ' All the deities are alike.5 57 (72) ‫צור עולמים‬ 'The Rock of the Worlds/ R.

on this idea. 12. sub no. ‫צדיק אוכל לשובע נפשו‬.01 Prov.‫מקום הצדק שמה הרשע‬ ‫בהמ׳ק המיוחד לשכינה והרשיעו מנשה‬. Β. Judah [b. Tanh. 73 Β . according to R. 3. ב ה מ ת י‬V. also ib. Prov.' This saying connects the two attributes of God's knowledge and justice. B. also t h e term ‫ צ ד י ק ע ו ל מ י ם‬above. Judah b. 3.. . הדין ב ב י ת ו ו ה ח ר י ב ו‬v. 4 1 1. (cf. ‫ יורע צ ד י ק ו ש ל עולם א פ י ב ח מ ת ו‬instead of ‫ . 78b.04 4 The Righteous of the world knows even the feoul of his cattle. r. Ps. 95 : ‫ . 18 and Ps. Ps. p. 16 is explained: ‫ מקום אחד היה לצדיקו שלעולם‬. 33. 510. 25. 7. Is. מ ה הנייה יש ל ך ב ע ו ל מ ך ו ב פ ע ו ל ת ך‬and finally ‫ צ ד ק העולם מ ה פעולה פעלת‬. 07 Μ. 6(5 Tanh. 10: ‫ י אמרו צדיק כי טוב‬say unto the Righteous of the World that He is good '. B. the Everlasting. for they speak against the Zaddik. 3. 21. 65 Tanh. Hag. p. ה נ י ח ו ל ך ב ע ו ל מ ך‬secondly ‫ .. p. 1. 1924.08 Prov. 35 .62 A fourth teacher combines Gen. Β. f u r t h e r . also above. 98 : ‫צ ד י ק ה ע ו ל ם ה ו א ה ק ב ׳ ה מ ה פ ע ו ל ה‬ ‫ . '2. Is. B. Ps. 67 .׳‬and (c) 'silenced. 10) even in His anger He shows His love to His creatures. v. 73. Deut.' 00 Another teacher explains. 41. for he then is exalted in the world. Einige messianologische Vorstellungen des dritten Jahrhunderts neu beleuchtet. sub no. 48. p. also M. with God. v. 13. 37. is referred to God and ™ Gen. β . 2. things which He removed from His creatures. Ps 324. 6. 39. Th.96 THIS NAMES OP GOD cf. G3 Ag. pp.'65 Eccles. 77c 01 M. 10. note 61 . combining the attribute of righteousness with that of goodness. . Ps. 62 m. 465 on Isa. B.'63 Abraham says to God. . 7) than the hosts of the wicked. ch. 481 . Ag.06 4 God is the Righteous of the world because he is omniscient .. 68 M.‫ . B. v. ch. i. Pes.07 R. G4 Gen. 7.16 : ‫טוב מעט לצדיק‬ ' Better are Israel in the eyes of the righteous of the world although they are only a few (cf.. 9. צ ד י ק ז ה ה ק ב ׳ ה‬Pes. p. Β. 323-42. r . cf. Ber. v. in Jeschurunxi. Exod. Shalom identifies ‫צדיק‬. 11. 323 . ‫ ח י ה ע ו ל מ י ם‬.15 : ‫ ' שמחה לצדיק עשות משפט‬I t is a joy to the righteous of the world when He performs judgement '. He knows and sees our hearts and sinews. iii. Ps. Simon] : ‫לא את צדיקו של עולם צרף עצמך עמהן‬ ‫ויעלו מנין המשים‬. v. another reading for ‫ש מ ח ה לצדיקו של ע ו ל ם ש נ ע ש ה מ ד ת‬ ‫ . 23 f. r. Th. iii. Ber. j. Marmorstein.

B. 60 A. Eleazar b. ‫ י יוסיף אומץ‬for He strengthens the power of the pious to do his will.708‫ ׳‬which borrowed liberally from the Midrashim. b.70 (74) ‫הקדוש ברוך הוא‬ 4 The Holy One. Here we point to the fact that neither the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. ‫ צדיק‬is God . § 49 : . combined to threaten the very existence of Israel. Ps. ed. blessed be He. and ‫ ו מ ה ד נ י ח א ק מ י ה ד ק ו ד ב ׳ ה ה ו א ל ע ב י ר‬. The great step by which the religion of Judaism advanced in adopting this name. V. Pes.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 97 the sacrifices accepted by Him. just as Israel sanctified God ! (75) ‫קדמונו ש ל עולם‬ ' The first of the World/ R. 70 σ . 7.69 R. 1. O R ‫ומי מ ש ב ח ק ו ד ב ׳ ה ב ש ב ח י ן ד י ש ר א ל‬. 13 . The later Targum. Akiba. ‫. Targum Onkelos must have been compiled before this name was introduced in the schools and synagogues. B. arrayed against Jewish teaching and belief. 166 A. 7 A.' It will be shown later on that this name was introduced in the third century. Christianity and Atheism. They removed from the Pes. 10 A. Paganism and Gnosticism. 48 β. Hab. which threatened the whole fabric of Jewish religion. Simon sees in Gen. Uzziel. Wertheimer. T. טהר ירים‬ v. or ‫ ו מ י א י כ א ר ו ת ח א ק מ י ה ד ק ו ד ב י ה‬. use it very often. Hanina sees in Job 17. ascribed to Jonathan b. All the forces. 2 (‫ )ויהי בנסעם מקדם‬an allusion to the thoughts of the generation of the separation. know this name. 6 A. v. The idea of holiness hallowed Israel. 9 references to God. f u r t h e r Midrash Othijoth of R. ‫ מ י ח ש י ד ק ו ד ש א ב ר י ך ה ו א ד ע ב י ד ד י נ א ב ל א ד י נ א‬. cf. nor the Ν. brought about such a change. We have shown that it is a late addition in the name ‫מלך מלכי המלכים הקביה‬. 15.‫מ ה ה ק ב ׳ ה נ ק ר א צדיק‬ 701 Y f e h a v e tfcig u a m e a 1 s 0 j n Aramaic : ‫דשא ב ר י ך ה ו א‬1‫ק‬. It suffices to hint at the fact that all-important and vital external and internal problems. 5 B. Ber. and took the place of the earlier ‫המקום‬. and Sifre. 11. will be fully dealt with in speaking of God's holiness.

p. i b . Β. Tobia b. Hananja repeats the question of the generation of Amalek : ‫אם רבון כל המעשים‬ ‫ כשם שהוא רבון עלינו נעבדנו ואם לאו לא‬4 If He is the Lord of all works just as He is our Lord. Zakkai's homily. ed. or ‫השוו עבד‬ ‫. 25. Levi quotes in the name of R. 178.‫קושר כתר לקונו‬ R. iv. 2. Berliner. Th. 408. 86. Halafta says to her husband :81?‫שמא המרחת את קונך‬ These instances show the double meaning of the name : Creator and Master. 62. ii.79 . r. 79 Β .B. PS. Eliezer i n his ‫ ל ק ח ט ו ב‬. 34.‫ דיו לעבד להיות שוהלקונו‬which reminds us of R. ch. 13. Johanan b. iv. Zakkai: 74. v. Th. Hag. also Mekh. usually . 79‫ לעשות רצון קונו שבשמי‬and ‫שהלך בתמימות‬ ‫עם קונו‬. ch. ch. Bereshith Β. saying : ' We do not want either Him. m. Ps. 11 with reference to Lot. ch. r. Pirke R. 40.80 The wife of R. 78 79 ib. Th. or His Godhead/ 71 A similar explanation is given to Gen. v. 356. also M. Hagiga. also Agad. y. who saw in ‫ ק ד מ ו נ ו ש ל ע ו ל ם‬a reference to Abraham : ‫נ ס ע מ ק ד מ ו נ ו ש ל‬ ‫ ע ו ל ם זה א ב ר ה ם ש ה י ה ר א ש א מ נ ה‬.73 Further.72 (76) ‫קונה‬ 'Creator'. 7 * Mekh. E. 91 Β 6 . 38. Gen. 37 A : ‫ובי א פ ש ר ל ה ט ו ת‬ ‫לקונו‬. Aggada 28. ש ע ב ד נ כ נ ם ל ד י ן ע ם ק ו נ ו‬v.98 THIS NAMES OP GOD first of the world. Jose b. Joshua b. M. 76 Gen. 72 7 . Korha. r .‫ל ע ש ו ת רצון המקום‬ 80 81 lb.‫זה השוה כבוד עבד לכבוד קונו‬ A Boraita teaches that Sandalphon 75. also R. E. i. Κ. 77 Tanh. 'Possessor. in a saying of R. 532 : ‫ . v. then we will worship 1 Gen. B. 75 Β. Simon b. Joshua b. 4. r e a d s : ‫מ ק ד מ ו ת ו‬ ‫ · ש ל ע ו ל ם‬R a s h i . v. 394. 1. 125. 13 A . 24 : ‫ה ס י ע ע צ מ ו מ ק ד מ ו נ ו ש ל ע ו ל ם א מ ר‬ ‫אי אפשי באברהם ולא באלהיו‬. 1. Nahorai : ‫כל זמן‬ ‫שהיו ידי קוניהם ממשמשים בהם היו מותחים והולכים כיון שנחו ידי‬ ‫קוניהם נותן להם ניחה וינח לעולמו‬. Pirke R. I I A . Johanan b.לקונו‬78 further. (77) ‫רבון כל המעשים‬ 'Lord of all works/ R.' In the Mishna we read : ‫כל שלא‬ ‫ חס על כבוד קונו ראוי לו שלא בא לעולם‬.76 In anonymous sayings we come across sentences like77. 73 M.

(3) ‫צווחת‬. 10 A and parall.' 82 In another source 83 the very same question is quoted in a Haggada of R. 8 . Pes. liai. Β. Peah 8. (18)‫משיח רוח הק׳‬. G2 . v. for instance. Eliezer b. so the soul sees everything and is invisible/ 85 (80) ‫רוח הקודש‬ ‫ י‬The Holy Spirit/ This term has been discussed more recently by various scholars. also the story of the blind man and R. who saw in the God of the Jews ' the Lord of this world/ (79) ‫רואה ואינו נראה‬ ' He who sees and is invisible/ A blind man says to R. 19) ‫קפצה עליו רוח הק׳‬.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 99 Him. 5) ‫הופיע‬. (78) ‫רבוז בל העולמים‬ 'Lord of all Worlds/ This name is one of the most frequently used in addressing God. but cannot be seen? accept thy apology/ 84 In Hebrew very frequently ‫הרואה‬ ‫ ואינו נראה‬is applied. The former is the more correct. and deserves a new and full treatment from more than one aspect. (4) ‫שראה‬. who sees everything.‫רוח הק' אומרת‬ (2) ‫השיבה‬. (10)‫כינס ב׳‬. 28 A. (7) ‫י צפה‬ ‫ברוח הק׳‬. 52 B. (14)'‫שואב רוח הק‬. otherwise not.‫סמך ברוח הק‬. From a survey of the whole material in our sources we gather that generally the rabbis understood by it the spirit of prophecy or divination # Many a time it bears the same meaning as the term ‫שבינה‬. (11) ‫ביטלה ממנו‬. Jacob. Judah b. (21) ‫לרוח הקדש‬ 82 84 85 83 Mekh. (15)'‫סוכים ברוח הק‬ (16) . Ber. (8) ‫ראה ב׳‬. (9) ‫חזא ב׳‬. (12) ‫נסתלקה‬. I t occurs in the following connexions : (1) . (13) ‫נצנצה בהם‬. (17) '‫השתמש ברוח הק‬. I t is most unlikely that the rabbis should have paid no attention to the contentions of the Gnostic sects. Hoshaja : ‫ י את פייסת דין דמתחמי ולא חמי‬Thou didst appease one who is seen and cannot see\ ‫דין דחמי ולא מתחמי יקבל‬ ‫ י פיוסך‬May He. in the comparison of God to the soul : ' God is invisible and sees everything. B. Our texts have ‫ רבון העולמים‬and ‫רבונו של עולם‬. (20) ‫זכה לרוח הק׳‬. (6) ‫להקביל‬.

and it is not revealed before me ! . Ber. i. for instance. and now thou desirest to drown me in the sea \ The latter replies: ‫רמה בים י‬. ii. B. 88 Tanh. Two examples will suffice to show this. " I put an oath on you . 2 has : ‫אמר להם רוח הקודש משביע אני עליכם שאם‬ ‫׳ תגזור עליכם מלכות גזרות אל תמרדו עליה‬The Holy Spirit says to Israel.. 68.. Ag. r. v. A somewhat lengthy dialogue. Tanh.303 THIS NAMES OP GOD (22) ‫מכרחת‬. 8. between Israel and the Holy Spirit. which will engage our special attention later. The same was not 86 87 89 Tanh. ch.e. § 355. 137. The former says to his horse : ' Yesterday I led thee in order to give thee water. In some instances ‫רוח הקודש‬ means God. if the Government put hard decrees on you. " Ye think that ye are doing your work in hidden places. . 23. ( ‫ב י ם‬ ‫עולם אני רואה‬ ‫ י‬Shepherd/ God as shepherd of all men is an old name for God in the Prophets and Psalms. when the change from ‫המקום‬ to ‫ הקביה‬was really accomplished." ‫ י‬Some editions actually have ‫ הקב׳ה‬instead of 86. 38 .‫רוח הקודש‬ In another passage : ‫ורוח הקודש צווחת ואומרת להם אתם סבורים שאתם עושין‬ ‫ < בסתר ואינו גלוי לפני‬The Holy Spirit cried. i. 90 Sifre Deut. and acts as a substitute for the Divine Name.89 shows clearly that the Tannaim understood under ‫רוח הקודש‬. and (23) ‫נתקררה‬.14.138. ed. ‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה‬. B.88 They all belong to the Amoraic period. (81) ‫רומו של עולם‬ 'The Height of the World. prophets and prophecy. A homily on Eccles.' A Haggadist reports a dialogue between the Egyptian and his horse. see (‫ )ראה‬what is (‫ )מה‬in the sea 1 I see the Highest of the world whom I see in the s e a ' ( 9 0 . M. Do we find traces of this use also in the Tannaitic age ? There is no old saying of that period known in which ‫ רוח הק׳‬is used as a Divine Name. 7. Exod. do not revolt. 8 7 ‫ יי‬Many other instances are available which cannot be enumerated in this place. Ps.

2: 4 God does not give v. Akiba : ' One should accustom oneself to say : ‫ ״ כל מה דעביד רחמנא לטב עביר‬Whatever God does is done for the best. Simon b. (83) ‫רחמנא‬ ' Merciful/ Although this term is more frequent in the sayings of the Babylonian teachers in the period of the Amoraim. for instance. 60 B. 9 ? b. the shepherd puts a goat at his disposal. 95 96 b. 62 . The antiquity of this name is proved by its use in prayers and blessings. 88 . It is used interchangeably with 97 . Gen. Shela b. 57. and R. Ps. the son of R. Mekh. 34 B. Hisda Sabb. also preserved in Aramaic: ‫אלו הוינא קאים על מורא הסיני בשעתא ראתיהיבת תורה לישראל הריני מתבעי‬ ‫קומו רחמנא‬. and Moses the shepherd. sabb. 22 A. 98 v. Abba b. r. Ruth.93 R. as a shepherd delivers the young from the mother's womb7. and it was likewise taught in the name of R. 33 B. Ber. b. Johai 96 uses it in his saying. 1. Hama notes to Eccles. Meir. R. ה מ ק ו ם יפקרך לשלום‬in Aramaic: ‫ר ח מ נ א ירברוך‬ ‫לשלם‬. 6. the Galilean before R. Akiba must have used it as a well known and accepted maxim. 93 M. 92 91 . Ber. Hanina. 53 B. Farne 11. R. R." 95 ‫ י‬It is to be noted that the saying is Aramaic.. Ber.94 God is the shepherd. who said it in the name of R. M. Phinehas b. Job the goat. v.THE RABBINIC SYNONYMS FOR GOD ΙΟΙ unknown to polytheistic speculations on the Godhead. we find the same also with Tannaim and Palestinian Amoraim. 54 Β . Greece and Babylon. Kahana says that 4God delivered Israel from Egypt. 5 . Pes. 57. R. Satan the wolf. b. 12: ‫ . Aha compares Job's case to a shepherd who is taking a look over his flock : suddenly comes a wolf and threatens it . 105. Ber. It is not impossible to assume that Hillel brought the same with him from his Babylonian native country and his pupils spread it abroad. 462. r. ch.‫ המקום‬Prayers or homilies are introduced by98. 2.91 In the Haggada God is generally the owner of the flock.92 Yet there are instances of the older conception. 3. Huna says in the name of Rab. Ps.‫בריךרחמנא‬ R.

Esther r. 1 99 . . 50α. on 6.‫מאן ראמר רחמנא וותרן יתוותרון בנימועהי‬ 84) ‫ונשא‬ 4 ‫)רם‬ The High and Lofty One. God is high and lofty. 4 . Buber. 2 ib. 15. 3 ν. 1. The name is derived from Isa. 5 A : ‫כ ל מ ק ו ם ש א ת ה מ ו צ א ג ד ו ל ת ו ש ל ה ק ב ׳ ה ש ם א ת ה מ ו צ א‬ ‫ . It is given here for completeness' sake. Taanit.' In an old mystical Midrash dealing with cosmogony we read: ‫ רם ונשא‬. 62 Β . 436. Ex. Gen. 15. Ashi said: 'The text enumerates the boundaries of the land of Israel. 93 Pal. °0‫י‬ Eccles. Gebiha of Arqiza gave the M. 26. 5 b. r. 2. Β. 48 D . and is formed by scholars of Babylon.3 The Midrash Haggada 4 contains the passage: ‫מי עשה זה הקביה שהוא רם‬ ‫ונשא‬.6 The latter preached very strongly and frequently against the vice of pride and haughtiness. Meg. We mention here only R. Judan who says:2. ch. 57. 15. 4 ed. Β.' This name occurs only once. 68 D . Huna : ' Do you mean to suggest that I am not aware of this fact t ‫ י‬but R. Eleazar b. ע נ י ת נ ו ת ו‬he proves this from all the three parts of the Bible.‫כיתשא‬ . Nathan asked R. This verse suggested to some teachers of the third century the idea of God's humility. 6 Jeiamdenu. Tanh.7 (85) ‫שוכן ערי עד‬ ' He who dwells for ever. R. property. Pedath. Sota 5 a. Johanan 5 and R. R. Sam. 145.‫ומנין שנקרא הביר‬ ‫שני כי בה אמר רם ונשא שוכן עד וקדוש שמו‬. ‫ ב ת י מ ד ר ש ו ת‬. M. Ps. Beza. 7 .102 THIS NAMES OP GOD wealth.' R. 67. ϋ. as will be shown later. 44. Ashi about the names ‫ קינה דימונה וערערה‬in Josh. 22. Tanh. B. מאן דרחמנא רעי‬in Hebrew :100 We mention finally ß. 7 v. and honour only to those whom He likes ( 9 9 ( ‫ב י ה‬ ‫ . yet He is with him that is contrite and humble in spirit. r. ‫ מ ע ש ה ב ר א ש י ת‬in Wertheimer . Jeremiah's saying : ‫לא ליהוי לימא אינש‬ ‫רחמנא ירחיק חטאה אלא ירחיק חטאה מינן‬. 84 : ‫ב ש ב ע מ ק ו מ ו ת ה ש ו ה ה ק ב ׳ ה א ת ע צ מ ו‬ ‫בחבורת הנמוכים‬. Shekalim. Κ. v.1 and R. Huna b.

Marmorstein. 3. B. 51. r. 291. Huna said: 'If R. R. he returns to them. R. 3‫ג‬ Like ‫ ה מ ק ו ם‬.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 103 following explanation : ' He who is jealous of his fellow man and keeps silent.' In a homiletical exposition of Isaiah 21. and many more. Johanan b. 14. a contemporary 8 11 9 b. 48. r. g. 51. which occurs also in the old prayer beginning11. who said : ‫אלא ללמדך‬ ‫שאין בארץ מקום פנוי מן השכינה‬. Akiba. 29 (1909). and he keeps silent. 4 . Ashi replied: 4 How will you explain the names ‫ '?צקלג ומדמנה וסנסנה‬ib.13 was probably the first to apply it. " Our teacher Isaiah ! tell us what will deliver us of this night?" ' Isaiah says : ' Wait till I have asked !‫ י‬After he had asked. 2 B. 14 Pes. Midr. ‫ ר ח מ נ א‬.(‫מי ששוכן בסנה(י‬ The teachers delighted in deriving ethical and moral teachings from geographical or personal names. also Num. If our texts are reliable we could trace it back to R. Gebiha could be present he surely would expound it '. or the Amoraic Haggadist. The same can be proved in t h e cases of others. He who dwelleth in the thorn bush will do his judgement8.12. 67 A. ™ c h . ‫ ג ב ו ה‬. 15. Gittin. 7 A. 9 . p. Ct. in ZAW. Zakkai. He who dwells for ever will judge on his behalf'. 11 we read : ' Israel said to the prophet. Zadok. j. v. Exod. Aha of Be Huzaah explained it thus : ‫ י‬He who has a complaint against his fellow men of ruining his trade (‫)צעקת לגימא‬. who shows many variants in using God's names. R. Aha. Jesus Sirach. They ask : ' What did the Guardian of the Worlds say ( 9 ‫מ י ל ל‬ ‫י ? )שומר מה‬ In the we find the term ‫שומר ישראל‬. R. (86) ‫שומר עולמים‬ ' The Guardian of the Worlds.' Landau 1 2 asserts that Shekhina is the latest of God's names used in the last period before the redaction of the Mishna. Gamaliel II. however. ‫נ ו מ ל כ נ ו‬ ‫ מ י ש א מ ר ו ה י ה ה ע ו ל ם‬. Then he points out that R. 12 ff. .‫השכיבנו‬ 87) ‫)שכינה‬ ' The Divine Presence.14 R. R. e. Taan. 12 Synonyma für Gott. 31. ‫ א ב י נ ו ש ב ש מ י ם‬. r. v.

speaks of proselytes :16. cit. T. popularized this name in order to indicate that in spite of the loss of Temple and land. 5 16 ‫ י‬Mekh.‫נהנה מזיו‬. S. ‫שמים‬. b. does not contain any reference to this name. Β. the divine presence was still in Israel. Ulla and other Babylonian scholars also saw in ‫ שלום‬one of God's names. Gamaliel) is given in Mekh. 9 . very important literary problem as to the date of the various versions. Akiba. Eleazar. 38 . The former reading (R. Kid. 6 6 . 2. Shabb. which would support the idea that Shekhina is a much older term. Here again it is most noteworthy that the Ν. of Modiim. 32 B. ed. we read: ‫ואומה מי‬ ‫ששמו שלום דר בתוכה‬. Dalman. Korha. Siphre Deut. and ‫זנו עיניהם‬. 71 .21 2. p. e. R. the opponent of R. . Berekhja interprets the word ‫( שולמית‬Cant..104 THIS NAMES OP GOD of R.‫ גבוה‬The name is frequently put together with ‫השרה‬. 187. 43B. Cant. Its frequent occurrence in the Targumim is most noticeable. 7. r.‫ואקרבם תחת כנפיהשכינה‬ R. if we can rely on the experience made with other terms.15 R. « Pes.' R. p. Gen. Ishmael. Gamaliel says: ‫מציגו גדול מרבן גמליאל ומאברהם ששימש‬ ‫את הבריות איל אי זה זה אמר להם שבינה שכל שעה מספיק מזח לבל‬ ‫באי עולם כדי צרכן‬. 10 B. Grünhut. or 17.‫א ו מ ה ש ש ל ו ם חי ה ע ו ל מ י ם ובו‬ b. It is by no means impossible that the ‫שכינה‬ stands in the Aramaic versions for ‫מקום‬.‫קל וחומר לשכינה‬ v. uses the same term in the Halakha. r. J . ‫סלק‬. 1) by ‫ י אומה ששלום העולמים דר בתוכה‬a nation in whose midst the peace of the worlds dwells/ 19 In the Midrash. both of which point to the dwelling-place of God. Joshua b. 2 Β-3 Α : ‫המלך שהשלים מעשיו עם הבריות‬. after the destruction of the Temple. loc. 59 A . some read : .18 (88) ‫שלום העולמים‬ ' The Peace of the Worlds.20 The name is based on the peace-bringing and peace-making efforts of God. b. 3 . It may be that the people. K. and ‫המלך שהוא‬ ‫עושה שלום בבריותיו‬. 60 17 18 19 20 sifra 1 Β : .g. This would help to throw light on the still unsettled. ib.

He did not believe in a transcendental God. Ex. Joshua b.‫ר ח מ נ א י ד ב ר י נ ך לשלם‬ 27 v. He defeated his evil inclination by sanctifying his beautiful hair to heaven.22 (89) ‫השם‬ ' The Name. §306. § 42 : ‫ ש ש מ ו ש ל ה ק ב ׳ ה נ ק ר א‬. η. xi and p.. 1906. מ ב ו אהמשנה‬ Geffcken.. 1 1 3 A . Berlin. Very seldom can one lift the veil of antiquity.‫חלולהשם‬ In some sources ‫ השם‬substitutes the older ‫ המקום‬or 26. Ber. ti.‫. ש ם שמים‬R. 30 Sifre Num. where his senses tempted him to commit a sin.1. also ‫רקיע‬. Hananja says : ‫הושע השם את‬ ‫עמך ישראל‬. ‫הקב׳ה‬ 23 M. p. 19. Ishmael and R.23 R. 56 A. Jacob Brüll. We find therefore in vows. Sifre Deut.31 offerings to the 27 22 Sifre Num. He felt His presence near in the meadow. near the well. 29 28 Y.28 whilst Jewish scholars29 thought of Greek prototypes. § 22.. Phinehas b. V. 14.' R. 24. 4 The God of Heavens and Earth ‫ י‬is known to all readers of the Bible. who is far away removed in Heaven. 25 i b > 26 Midrash Agada. 47 . and Parall. Ber. Akiba speak of ‫קידוש השם‬ without 24‫ . ed. In our period the name was used exclusively in a ritual and legal sense. who relates his story to Simon the Just. Most origins are dark and obscure. 177: ‫ ה ש ם י ע מ י ד ך ל מ ק ו מ ך ל ש ל ו ם‬. some read ‫ ה מ ק ו ם‬instead of . 359. p. offers a good example.. 3 B : .‫רחמנא‬ 90) ‫)שמים‬ ' Heaven/ Bousset is inclined to see in this name of God another influence of Persian religion on Jewish theology. 24 b> B> κ . One thing is certain that the use of this name is earlier than both Persian and Greek periods. The Nazirite. The truth is with neither party. cit. 31 b.T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD 105 He reconciles the conflicts between and within His creatures. or .‫מ י א י כ א ס פ י ק א ק מ י רקיע‬ Oie Religion des Judentums 2. The Tannaitic Midrash derives this name of God from Judges 6. 10c. Pes. 3.30 This lad was an ordinary shepherd from the South. Jair of25. cf. Horowitz. also Pseudo . instead of ‫ ה מ ק ו ם י פ ק ד ך ל ש ל ו ם‬. 29 B.

106
32 33

THIS NAMES OP GOD

sanctuary, oath, and prayers 34 the name of Heaven mentioned. The examples, which were taken from daily life, show that the name was really antiquated and belonged to the language of cult or law. Just as ‫אלהים‬, or ‫אלהי ישראל‬ after they were eliminated from daily conversation, were retained on such occasions, so the name ‫השמים‬. In legal portions of the Halakha the terms ‫ מיתה בידי שמים‬or ‫נקי בידי‬ ‫ שמים‬corroborate the same conception.35 R. Akiba, who uses one of these terms, knew that ' Heaven and Earth ‫י‬ were regarded by some, especially by the Greeks, as deities,36 surely would have objected to the use of such a name. As a matter of fact the more expressive ' Father in Heaven ‫י‬ took the place of the older and shorter ‫שמים‬. It is true that Antigonos of Soko37 still speaks of fear of Heaven (‫)מורא שמים‬, which phrase is repeated by others and changed later in ‫יראת שמים‬, yet he most probably meant, ' the fear of the Father in Heaven \ In connexion with sanctifying or profaning God's name, we find always ‫ חלול שם שמים‬or ‫מקדש‬ ‫שם שמים‬. Thus in the sayings of Shimon b. Shetach,38 Abtaljon,39 and many others.40 The pious are spoken of as devoting and performing all their actions, directing all their thoughts and deeds41.‫לשםשמים‬ The use of ‫ שם יהוה‬in the Bible offers the best parallel to our case. In times when the Tetragrammaton alone, for some reason or other, did not satisfy all the longing, could not express all the
Lam. r., p. 61 A. b. Ber. 53 Β ; Sifre Deut., § 301, 354 ; Sotali, i. 31 ; AbRN. i. 38, 114. 34 b. A. Z. 52 Β ; Men. 59 A ; b. R. H. 55 A ; Pes. Buber, 6 B, and DEZ., ed. Tawrogi, p. 16. 36 Sifre Deut., § 96 ; Torath Kohanim, 83B; A. R. N. 44 ; pal. Sotah, i. 7 ; Meg. i. 6 ; v. also Chwolson, Ssabier, ii. 724. 36 Gen. r. 1, ed.Theod., p. 12. 37 Mekh. 53 B ; Aboth 1. 3 ; iv. 12. 38 39 B. Taanith, 23 A. Aboth i. 11. 40 v. Pes. 57 A, Ker. 28 A : ‫י ש ש כ ר א י ש כ פ ר ב ר ק א י ש מ כ ב ד א ת ע צ מ ו ו מ ח ל ל‬ ‫ ; ק ד ש י ש מ י ם‬v. J. Derenbourg, Essai, p. 233 ; Β. M. Κ. 17 A ; R. liai : ‫א ם‬
33 32

‫ ר ו א ה א ד ם ש י צ ר ו מ ת ג ב ר עליו י ל ך וכו׳ ו א ל י ת ח ל ל ש ם ש מ י ם‬R. Simon b. Johai, Gen. r. 1. 17 and Parall s., Mekh. 37 B. Tos. Β. K. ch. 8 ; b. Taan. 23 A ; Sifre Deut., § 42 ; pal. Sotah, 9.10.

T H E R A B B I N I C SYNONYMS FOR GOD

107

religious thoughts, of men, because it might lead to misunderstanding, then the Tetragrammaton had to be combined with ‫שם‬. The same process took place when ‫שמים‬ alone became too familiar among Jews and Gentiles alike, and could not express without a prefixed ‫ שם‬the meaning attached to it. Many instances show that ‫ שמים‬was used in the sense of the other names, e.g. ‫גבוה‬, ‫מעלה‬, ‫רומו של עולם‬, e.g. in sayings ‫מן השמים‬, or ‫' שמים‬coming from above', 4 from High ', and afterwards ' the Highest as in the saying of R. Simon b. Johai and others.42 (91) ‫תוקפיהה דישראל‬ ' The Strength of Israel.' R. Tanhum b. Hanilai translates ‫אביר ישראל‬, Isa. 1. 24, by ‫תוקפיהון רישראל‬. Targum has 43 .‫תקיפא דישראל‬ According to a legend the angels call God : 44 .‫ הא אלהא‬,‫הא תקיף הא תקיף‬ A Boraita of Bar Kappara translates : ‫( ובעצם השמים למהר‬Exod. 24.10) by45.‫בתקיףשמיא‬
42 v. b. Α. Ζ., 18 Α; Eccles. 1 7.9,8.1 ‫ ;־‬Sifre Num., § 78 ; b. Sabb. 157B; b. Ber. 58 A ; Β. B. 91B; Eccles. r. 11. 8. 43 44 Pes. B. 123 A. Pes. B. 152 A; Lev. r. 29. 3. 45 pal. Sukka, iv. 3 ; cf. Lev. 1·. 23. 8.

IY.

The Sources.
(1) The Mishna is the oldest post-biblical literary work which we can consult for our investigation. As a halachic compilation it does not offer as much material for the treatment of our subject as we would desire, yet the little we can glean from its pages is of decisive value and an eloquent witness for the history of God's name in Judaism. Here we find confirmed and proved, the first time, the great and important development through which Judaism passed during the first three centuries. The fact that the name ‫ הקדוש ביה‬is so very rare in the original portions of the Mishna, must give rise to serious reflection. We will prove that in the original Tannaitic sayings the word ‫הקביה‬ either does not occur at all, or, if it occurs it is a late addition or alteration. We put our material chronologically to enable students to judge for themselves. The importance of this theory for the distinction between the earlier parts and the later Amoraic additions need not be specially emphasized. The views about the oldest and more recent parts of the Mishna are still fluctuating. Certain portions can, with some certainty, be ascribed to the periods prior to the destruction of the second Temple. Our investigation will show how far these results can be relied upon. Further, we gain by this method a standard by which to test the genuineness of the oldest material in the Mishna. We start with Antigonos, the man of Sokho. He added to his famous saying, which deals with man's relation to his Maker, the very significant admonition, ' Let there be

THE SOURCES

109

the fear of Heaven upon you.' 1 Man should see in God a master, who has to be served for His own sake, without expecting a reward· Yet this lack of reward must· not lead to the abrogation of duties. The fear of Heaven (God) should urge man to discharge his duties towards his Master. Abtaljon enjoined his contemporaries to avoid the profanation of the name of Heaven.2 The predecessor of Abtaljon, Simon δ. Shetach, uses the term ‫המקום‬, and his contemporary, Honi, the circle drawer, expresses the relation of God to man in the form of a father to his son, which is shared fully by Simon b. Shetach. The fatherhood of God seems to both of them a well-established and known conception of their theology.3 R. Johanan b. Zakhai preached that Job did not serve God from love, but fear. This teacher used the term 4.‫ המקום‬R. Joshua b. Hyrka710s proved that Job served ‫ המקום‬in love.5 Another pupil of R Johanan, R. Joshua b. Hananya 6 concludes, after reviewing the sad events which passed since the destruction of the Temple, like R. Eliezer 6. Hyrkanos, with the saying : ' We have none to rely on besides our Father in Heaven‫אבינו( י‬ ‫)שבשמים‬.7 In another prayer of R Joshua we find : ' Help, Ο God (8.(‫ השם‬R. Gamaliel II speaks of the Kingdom of Heaven ( 9 , ( ‫ש מ י ם‬ ‫ מלכות‬of 10,‫ המקום‬and 11,‫ אלוה‬when r to the character of the gods generally. Akabja δ. Mehalalel, who lived before the destruction of the second Temple,12 uses ‫ המקום‬and ‫מלך מלכי המלכים הקביה‬. Yet the text is not firmly established.13 R. Dosa b. Hyrkanos speaks in a
‫ ג‬Aboth i. 3 : ‫ ;ויהי מ ו ר א ש מ י ם עליכם‬A . R . ν . i. 5 adds: ‫כ ד י ש י ה י ה‬ ‫שכרכם כפול לעתיד לבא‬. 2 3 Aboth i. 11 ; the passage is omitted in A. R. N. Taanith ii. 8. 4 5 Sotah v. 5. Ib. v. 4. v. also ib. v. 5. 7 Sotah ix. 20, 21. 8 Originally the Tetragrammaton, Berakhoth iv. 4. 9 10 Ber. ii. 5. Pes. x. 5 : .‫ש פ ס ה המקום‬ 11 12 Ab. Zar. iii. 4. Ed. v. 6. 13 So Aboth iii. 1 ; Tanh. Gen. Buber, p. 120, shows clearly that the original reading was ‫ ; ה מ ק ו ם ב י ה‬Tanh. reads : ‫ ב ו ר א ך‬, ‫ב ו ר א ך זה ה ק ב י ה‬ ‫למקום ש א ת ה ע ת י ד ליהן דין וחשבון‬. The word ‫ 'למקום‬gives no sense.

also pal. 2. also ch. We have mentioned already once JR. i t is obvious that the sentence was altered in the third century. בוראך לפני מי שאתה עתיד ליתן דין וחשבון‬v. ‫ . Azarja has 18‫ המקום‬and 19.‫בעלמלאכה‬ God is a landlord who urges the lazy workmen to finish their work. Dosa22 speaks of ‫מקום‬. vi. iii. 11. 18 Yoma X. Or. 4.‫המקום‬ Κ Eleazar b. Ib. 9. God is like a trustworthy employer. Hananja uses the term ‫ שבינה‬for God. Taradjon has 23. ii.1 : ‫ בוראך זה מ ל ך מלכי מלכים הקב׳ה‬. ' Your Father in Heaven16‫ אביבם שבשמים׳‬and17. for which they are paid very well. Eleazar's teaching.‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD prayer for the New Years Day of 14. namely that the treatise should not conclude with the word . 18. ‫מ ל א כ ת ש ל מ ה‬ in ‫ ב י ת הבחירה‬. Wien. r. before whom one toils and who the employer is. v. who will faithfully pay his reward. 14 15 Erubin iii. 20 Aboth ii. A Geniza fragment has the reading : ‫ שיושב‬/‫מנין אפילו אחד‬ ‫ושונה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאלו קיים כל התורה כולה שני ישב בדד וידם‬ ‫כי נטל עליו‬. The continuation ‫ א ף הקביה מ ט ה ר א ת ישראל‬is a later gloss provided by some Amora of the third century for a purpose. Levi : ‫ . Joseph Ashkenazy . 19 Yadaim iv. x. . 21 22 23 lb.‫ הקביה‬The first part of the sentence ascribed to R. later on ‫ הקביה‬was p u t . iii. 3. He admonishes the diligent study of the Torah in order to be able to reply to the Epicureans. Pes. Hananja b. also Lev.24 We have here the third instance showing that the term ‫ הקביה‬is a later insertion or addition. 6. The Mishna further furnishes us with some scanty material as to the terms used by the great teachers after the Bar-Kokhba period. 15 A. Ib. who rewards those who work for their master. The later part of the Mishna is altogether suspicious.‫ שמים‬JR. 18 A. 24 A similar text was known to R. Sotah.‫א ת הטמאים‬ 17 18 Aboth iii. 14 . The same term and aspect is in R. liai1 s version of the saying in the Temple on Originally it was ‫בוראך המקום‬. Eccles. and to be perfectly aware. 1854.21 Hanina b.1 . 12. 16. y. r.‫ה׳ אלהינו‬ likewise 15 R Akiba in a prayer. יי אלהיט‬otherwise this t the term. 9. 15. Judah b. v. Tarphon likes to describe God as a ‫ בעל הבית‬and20. 9. where the sentence is quoted with the interpretation of κ. 15. Yoma x. The saying attributed to R.

THE SOURCES

109

the Feast of the Water-drawing.25 R. Meir has the terms 26 ‫ שכינה‬and 27.‫ מקום‬In the first instance it is asserted that God is grieved on account of the violent death caused to the wicked: how much more when inflicted upon the righteous. R Simon è. Johai speaks of 28,‫מקום‬ but also of 29.‫ הקב׳ה‬Similarly in the well-known saying of R. Hananja &. Akasja, ‫רצה הקב׳ה לזכות את ישראל‬, the term cannot be original, since edd. and MSS. preserved the older form ‫המקום‬. No doubt, owing to the liturgical use of the saying the newer form displaced the older one.30 R. Gamaliel, the son of R. Judah I, admonishes those who are engaged in communal work, to work for the name of Heaven ( 3 1 . ( ‫ש מ י ם‬ ‫לשם‬ R. Jose, the priest said b this teacher : * All thy works shall be for the name of Heaven32.(‫לשם שמים(י‬ This was a high degree of piety. R. Johanan b. Baroka says : ' He who profanes (‫בל המחלל‬ ‫ שם שמים‬the name of Heaven privately will be punished publicly.' As to the profanation of the Name there is no difference between a presumptuous and an unconscious action.33 R. Johanan, the ‫סנדלר‬, distinguishes between gatherings ‫ לשם שמים‬and34,‫ שלא לשםשמים‬and R. Eleazar b. Shamua enjoins : 4 Fear thy master, as thou fearest Heaven.35 Judah b. Tema speaks of God as ' thy Father in Heaven', whose will has to be done with the strength of a leopard, the lightness of an eagle, swiftness of a deer, and the force of a lion.36 Finally we have to refer to the sayings of R. Joshua b. Levi and R. Simon b. Halafta, who belong to the postTannaitic period, which contain already the name of 37.‫הקביה‬
26 Sanh. vi. 5. v. above, p. 31. 28 Aboth ii. 13. Ib., and Aboth vi. 6. 29 Sanh. x. 6 ; v. however Sifre Deut., § 95, where ‫ א מ ר הקביה‬is n °t to be found. 30 Maccoth iii. 16. 31 32 Aboth ii. 2. Aboth ii. 12. 3 33 * Aboth iv. 11. Aboth iv. 4. 36 35 Aboth v. 20. Aboth iv. 12. 37 Ukazin iii. 12. 25 27

112

THE NAMES OF GOD

This list, which may appear technical and not in the least attractive, is very instructive indeed. For we learn that in the time of the Mishna the name ‫ הקדוש ברוך הוא‬was not commonly used by the Tannaim. It must have been introduced for some reason or other in the generation immediately after the redaction of the Mishna. This can be especially proved from the saying of R. Eleazar ha‫־‬Kappar, who enumerates God's names and attributes. In his words the names of God are: ‫( אל‬God), ‫( יוצר‬the Former), ‫( בורא‬the Creator), ‫( המבין‬the Omniscient, cf. Ps. 33. 15), ‫( דיין‬the Judge), ‫( עד‬Witness), ‫( בעל דין‬Accuser).38 The term ‫ הקב׳ה‬is not given, although the sentence coneludes with: ‫ לפני מלך מלכי המלכים הקב׳ה‬. I t is quite likely that ‫ הקב׳ה‬stands here also for 39.‫ המקום‬Our theory is corroborated by the sayings in the Mishna, which are cited without the special names of their authors. Ber. vi, reports that the 4 Early Hasidim ‫ י‬waited a short while before starting their prayers in order 'to prepare their heart to God40.(‫כדי שיכוונו לבם למקום(י‬ Shek. iii. 2 we read: ‫לפי שאדם‬ ‫ ; צריך לצאת ידי הבריות כדרך שצריך לצאת ידי המקום‬Sotah. i. 6: .‫ המקום נוולר‬and ‫ ; המקום גילה‬Sanh. viii. 1: ‫אתם באים בנצחונו‬ ‫של מקום‬. In one Mishna we have ‫ הקב׳ה‬and ‫ המקום‬in one and the same sentence: ‫מי לנו גדול ממשה שלא נתעסק בו אלא‬ ‫הקביה — אלא שכל הצדיקים שהמקום מאספן‬, yet Edd. and MSS. read in both cases ‫המקום‬. We further notice very frequently that when the name ‫ המקום‬occurs twice in a saying, the first or the second was altered by the copyists in ‫הקביה‬. We find further the term ‫ הקב׳ה‬twice in Sanh. iv. 5. The whole passage contains a refutation of the Minim, who say that there are two powers in Heaven: ‫ולהגיד גדולתו של הקב׳ה שאדם‬ ‫ ומלך מלכי‬:‫ וכולן דומין זה לזה‬/‫טובע כמה מטבעות בחותם אחז‬ ‫המלכים הקביה‬. The passage is quoted in Seder Elijahu r.,
Aboth iv. 22. According to A. R. N., 2 rec., ch. 34, the saying belongs to Eliezer, the son of Eleazar ha-Kappar, who flourished in the days of Rabbi, when the term became already known. 40 v. Men. xiii. 11: ‫•ובלבד שיכוון אדם את דעתו לשמים‬
39 38

THE SOURCES

1

*3

ch. i, ed. Friedmann, p. 1 0 , with ‫ ש נ ו ח כ מ י ם ב מ ש נ ה‬, and reading in both cases ‫ מ מ י ה ה ק ב ׳ ה‬. One is permitted to doubt whether the whole of ‫ דבר אחר‬seems an integral part of the Mishna. It is a later addition.41 Similar is the case with M. Ned. iii. 6. The last Mishna of this chapter is introduced by ‫ ד ב ר א ח ר‬and contains a sentence: ‫ש א י ל מ ל א ה י א ל א ב ר א‬ ‫הקביה‬. Here, again, we have a later addition to the Mishna. Yet, while in the first case we are forced to work with a hypothesis, here we have something to rely on. The Palestinian Mishna 42 marks this Mishna as a later interpolation by the word ‫ ' ת ו פ פ ה‬a d d i t i o n M o s t of the passages with ‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה‬were met with in the Aboth, the text of which was specially apt to be altered. We have here to refer to passages in the sixth chapter, which are external Mishnajoth, and, therefore, cannot upset our theory; rather do they confirm it 4 3 Next to ‫ מקום‬the most usual term is ‫ ש מ י ם‬. I t is used in 4 the term: ‫ עול מ ל ב ו ת ש מ י ם‬the yoke of th d o m o r ' the yoke of H e a v e n ( 4 4 ( ‫ש מ י ם‬ ‫ ' עול‬the Fath Heaven 45‫ י‬especially with reference to vows and sanctification 46 or punishment by Heaven 47 In prayers 48 in oaths,49 the Biblical names were used, ‫ א ל ה י ם‬and ‫ א ל ו ה‬to signify

41 Other instances of ‫ ד ב ר א ח ר‬in the Mishna are Ber. ix. 5 ; v. Sifre Deut., § 32, R. Jacob, Yalkut reads R. Akiba ; v. Tosefta Sanh. viii. 5. 43 ‫ מ ת נ י ת א רבי מ ע ר ב א‬, ed. W. H. Lowe, Cambridge, 1883, p. 85b, 1. 25. 43 Aboth vi. 10: ‫ ; ג׳ קנינים ק נ ה לו ה ק ב ׳ ה‬v., further on, Mekh., p. 43 A, and VI. 1 1 : . ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ודו‬ 44 Ber. ii. 2 ; v. R. Joshua b. Korha. 46 Kel. iv. 8 ; v. R. Simon b. Eleazar; cf. Sifra, p. 78 B ; M. R. H. iii. 9. ‫כל זמן ש י ש ר א ל מ ת כ ל י ן כ ל פ י מ ע ל ה ומשעבדין א ת לבן לאביהן ש ב ש מ י ם‬, twice, Sotah iv. 24; Sanh. vii. 10 read ‫ אבינו ש ב ש מ י ם‬instead of ‫אלהינו‬ ‫?שבשמים‬ 46 Ned. i. 4, once, ‫ ; ש מ י ם‬v. ‫עיז‬, then v. ‫ ב ה נ י ם‬, iv. 3 ; v. ix. 3 ; Sheb. iv. 13. 47 Zeb. iv. 13 ; Judah ha Temani: ‫ ; ברת בידי ש מ י ם‬Sanh. xi. 5 : ‫מ י ת ת ו‬ ‫ ; בידי ש מ י ם‬v. .‫בידי אדם‬ 48 49 Ber. vii. 7. Sheb. iv. 13.

H

114

THE NAMES OF GOD

idols or gods.50 In many cases the noun ‫ השם‬substituted the divine name. Finally we find the old term 51.‫ קונה‬We are entitled to draw the deduction that ‫ המקום‬was the most usual term in the period of the Tannaim. The term ‫ * אב שבשמים‬Father in H e a v e n e n j o y e d the same popularity. ' H e a v e n ‫ ש מ י ם‬and ' High' ‫גבוה‬, were already somewhat antiquated; ‫ הקביה‬not yet used. We have, fortunately, other Tannaitic sources which may prove or disprove our contention. We turn, therefore, to the Tosefta, then to the Tannaitic Midrashim, and finally to the fragments of Tannaitic works preserved in the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmud.518‫׳‬ 2)) The second sourc This work contains more Haggadic material than our Mishna, therefore, it offers more material for our investigation. •Yet, owing to the fact that the redaction of the Tosefta must be put in the Amoraic period, the change of the name ‫ המקום‬into ‫ הקב׳ה‬is more clearly discerned than in the Mishna. We will treat first the passages in which ‫ הקב׳ה‬occurs. They are: (a) ii. 15: ‫שבשברא הקב׳ה את האדם לא בראו ערום‬. The whole sentence introduced by the words ‫ אף על פי שאמרו‬is an Amoraic tradition based on an older Tannaitic exposition of Job 38. 9 by R. Eliezer b. Hyrkanos, R. Joshua b. Hananja, and R. Akiba. Nakedness was condemned by the Rabbis. Sifre Deut., § 320, might have been the source of the Tosefta. There we read: ‫בלא עם אלו הבאים‬ ‫מברברייא וממונם וממורטניא שמהלבין ערומים בשוק אין לך אדם בזוי‬ ‫ופגום בעולם אלא המהלך ערום בשוק‬.52 Just as the Sifre singles out those of Barbary, Tunis, and Mauretania as walking naked on the market squares, so Philostratus of Tyre, in
50 Ber. ix. 4, v. above, pp. 68-9; Yoma iii. 8, iv. 2, vi. 2 ; Sanh. vi. 4, vii. 5. 51 Hag. ii. 1; Kid. iv. 13 ; R. Simon b. Eleazar. 51a v. also A. Spanier, 4 Die Gottesbezeiehnungen ‫ ה מ ק ו ם‬und ‫ה ק ד ו ש‬ ‫ ברוך ה ו א‬in der frülitalraudischen Literatur, in MGWJ, 66, 1922, pp. 309314. 02 T. r . : ‫אי; ש ב ח ו ש ל א ד ם להיות יושב ערום‬.

55 p. plan. The Tannaitic origin of the teaching is confirmed by the Mekhilta 55 : ‫ ובי בבר‬. 37) and Hippolytus (Ref. 39 . Gen. 49. when the Roman Empire was trembling for fear of the Barbarians. i.' The teaching was. 21)‫ ג‬to the Brahmans. o n l y . v. v. Exod. Hama b. Abba Gorion. R. Td. r. 1906 . 109 f.19 ‫ ' ג‬Behold. B. God (‫ )הקביה‬does not regard it as a deed Here we may assume that all the four names were originally ‫המקום‬. R. Leipzig. u. Kunst. is not regarded as an action'. which does good. H 2 . 215 . 6 .THE SOURCES " 5 the Life of Apollonius of Tyana points to the wise men of Ethiopia (Photius. (i. 1911. Samuel b. der Berl. 491 . 30. 90 . Nackthext und Entblössung in altorient.f 1896. Abhandlung. we read: . also M. (&) Peah i. 'If I regard iniquity in my heart. Judah . 48 A. Samter.53 This passage of the Sifre is quoted in the Babylonian Talmud. or that the alteration of the doctrine is of Amoraic origin.‫ויעשו‬ ‫עשו אלא משקיבלו עליהם לעשות מעלה עליהם באילו עשו‬. E. 66. Fehrle. El. Old 53 About nakedness in Jewish literature . Some Semitic Bites. 4. M. . ‫ מ ב ר ב ר י א ה‬.. The Book of Jub. Yaikut 945. p. M. i. 11. r. R. who pass their life naked. 23. A bad thought. H a n i n a . the Lord will not hear me. Nahmani. p. where we read: ‫במתניתא תנא אלו אנשי ברבריא ואנשי מרטנאי שמהלבין ערומים‬ ‫בשוק שאין לך משוקץ ומתועב לפני המקום יותר ממי‬. 7 A . God (‫ )המקום‬considers as a deed. Esther r. Ps. however. ch. v . About the Barbarians in theHaggada. Müller. 20 . 6 in the Lupercalia AUW. r. The teaching is based on Ps. 13 A. Zutta. Num.‫מחשבה טובה המקום מצרפה למעשה‬ ‫ י מחשבה רעה אין המקום מצרפה למעשה‬A good thought is considered by God as an accomplished action—good deed. p. Nearly all of these references date back to the third century. A. 4 . r. Kultische Keuschheit. Gen. 305 . ‫ . objected to on account of Jer. M. 11 . B. 42. H a n i n a . Library. Ak. 98. 5 ± b. Ps. 21. Jel. E. 31) also enjoins that people should not uncover themselves as the Gentiles do. Wensinck. W. 523. מ ב ר ב ר י ו מ ב ר י ט נ י א‬Pes. Gen. z.18. Pirke R. ZdVsfVK. the fruit of their thoughts \ and amended thus: e A good thought. and 62. Pes. In the rites of various people.. Jeb. Hochzeit und Tod. Levi. Weinhold. Diss. 6. 93 B . Geburt. 75. R.. 13. Midr. R. 18. altgr. p. 63 B . 9 . 1910.54 We are entitled to assume that ‫ המקום‬was the original rendering in our text as well. but a thought which does no good. Abba Gorion. I will bring evil.

51 : 0 . v. R Assi. v. Tosafoth Gittin 46 A. v. 6 A . 58 Seneca. Ep. b. 2 . B. Nahmani. 3. R.‫והעלה עליהם המקום כאלועשו‬ The doctrine is very often repeated. ו ל א ע ש א ה מ ע ל ה עליו ה כ ת ו ב כ א י ל ו ע ש א ה‬b.‫המחשבות‬ ‫דן א ל א ל פ י‬ ments of this thought v. 18 : ‫לפיכך הקב׳ה מביא עליהם שלש פורענות כנגד‬ ‫שלש עבירות‬. 1. Midrash Haseroth. quotes a saying by R. Theodor.‫הקב‬ the younger stratum of the saying. 59 Test. לך בבל העממין מתון יותר מן האמורי שכן האמינו‬ ‫גהקביה וגלו לאפריקא ונתן להם המקום ארץ יפה בארצם‬. also Wisdom Sol. London. in t h e name of R.57 and not without reason. Stoics taught that sin consists in intention. Ashi (v. the same. p. and not in act. Demai vi. which reads : ‫מ ח ש ב ה ש ע ו ש ה‬ ‫ מ ח ש ב ה ש א י . ב י צ ח ק א ע פ ׳ י ש ל א נ ע ש ה מ ע ש ה ק ב ל ו ב ג ו מ ר מ ע ש ה‬v. ב ה פ ר י אין ה ק ב י ה מ צ ר פ ה‬7 ‫ פ ר י ה ק ב ׳ ה מ צ ר פ ה ל מ ע ש ה‬. (d) Shabb. shabh. Here again the Palestinian Talmud enables us to establish the right text. Simon h.59 The Pastor Hermas threatens also those who sin in thought. Ber. v. 60 The earlier Tannaitic Haggada opposed this view. v.‫ח ש ב א ד ם ל ע ש ו ת מצור‬ ‫ . 39 β : ‫מ ח ש ב ה ר ע ה אין ה ק ב י ה מ צ ר פ ה‬ ‫ ל מ ע ש ה ש נ י און א ם ר א י ת י ׳‬. w i t h the alteration. Ber. 95. Gamaliel praises the Emorites: ‫אי. Here the Palestinian Talmud. 1917. yet the alteration agreed with the teaching of the external literature. 1. Jer. where the sentence occurs: ‫גירנשי פינה והאמין לו להקב׳ה והלך‬ ‫לאפריקי‬. i t seems that our Tosefta is based on t h e Pal. This dogmatic change bears out our theory. 588 . 60 i. 14. מ ע ל ה ע ל י ו ה כ ת ו ב‬b. 15. Yalkut. Talmud. also p. Gad v. and 19 . ν. A m i : ‫ . vii. 25. 9 . that ‫ המקום‬represents the older. a f t e r this our Boraita is quoted . Joseph ix. Simon b. Levi expresses this view with reference to the sacrifice of Isaac. Sins of the flesh can be committed in thoughts. 8 . Therefore the original sentence of R. i. Samuel b. Mor. 55.. using t h e commentary given thereon. 5 : ‫ . ii. 2 . 56 57 56 Rashi. 5. also Naph. I u d a h vii.‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD witnesses read : . Kid. supplies us with the reading : ‫ פורענות‬. ‫ה‬. 2. Gen. s. t h e Boraita is quoted : ‫מ ח ש ב ה ס ו ב ה ה מ ק ו ם מ צ ר פ ה ל מ ע ש ה‬ ‫ מ ח ש ב ה ר ע ה אין ה מ ק ו ם מ צ ר פ ה ל מ י‬. r. Jer. iii.58 The Testaments teach that God takes account of intentions and motives even for evil.‫המקום מביא עליהן ג‬. Peah. 63 a. .. note 86. 19. 40A. Ag. P . Shebiit vi. ‫ ויביון‬. R. de Bene/. Assi) : ‫ ו נ א נ ם‬. (c) Demai v. R. p.

A. 9 reads: ‫אמר לו על הכבוד‬ ‫המתוקן לצדיקים לע׳ל‬. 115 f. 35 B. Mekh. The well-known Tannaim use the older names for God. . 63 ^ Shabb. we are justified in seeing in the same a teaching of this Amora. and Marmorstein. Akiba : ‫אף‬ ‫שהקב׳ ה עתיד לשמח את בניו‬. Pal. e. viii. p. the post-Tannaitic origin of the doctrines. 10 : ‫אמר להן הקביה לענני כבוד רבצו טל לפני בני‬ ‫והקנ׳ה מרביץ לפניהם טללים‬. Sotah iii. where the name is altogether omitted and the whole sentence is put in a less anthropomorpliic form. 4. iii. and M. 88 B . That most of these instances belong to the anonymous Haggadah. W. iii. M. and T. 9. for ‫ מקום‬instead of ‫ הקביה‬. 6 : ‫אף כך אמר הקב׳ה יתמשכנו ישראל על שקליהם‬ T. says Simon b. 5 we find the form : ‫למה נברא יחידי להגיד גדולתו‬ ‫של מלך מלכי המלכים ברוך הוא‬.g. and T. 9: ‫זה מלך מלכי המלכים הקב׳ה שברא עולמו בשבועה‬. Aboth vi. 5. x. iv.. 11. i. Where this proof could not be established. Sanh.62 iii. read ‫ המקום‬. Joshua b. 71 B. Similar evidence can be brought forward from Edd. (e) Shek. we have furnished proofs for the later date. 7. Nahmani as a comment. or an older sentence reshaped by the teacher of the third century/ 3 ‫׳‬ We must bear in mind a few facts resulting out of this material. Mishna Sanh. The original form was ‫ ' מלך מלכי המלכים‬the King of kings which was later on supplemented by ‫הקביה‬.. The Doctrine of Merits. and MSS. further: ‫שלא יהועושין כן לע׳ז‬ ‫בדרך שעושין להקב׳ה‬. yet Sanh. 5. 7. above. the reading ‫שבשהשביע‬ ‫ משה‬instead of ‫וכן מצינו שבשהשביע הקב׳ה את ישראל בערבות מואב‬..‫שמים‬ 61 v. 5 : ‫אמרו לא‬ ‫ ברא הקביה את עולמו אלא לכבודו‬0 1 . A. 6. v. (g) Erakhin i. viii. we find in W. 62 v. vii. Later copyists or teachers inserted the words of R. and even here we were able to show the original reading ‫מקום‬. viii. Samuel b. ( / ) Yoma ii. Mekh. 4. being the original reading in Yoma ii. 19. Loga to R.THE SOURCES 109 Gamaliel read: ‫אין לך בכל העממין מתון יותר מן האמורי ונתן להם‬ ‫המקום ארץ יפה כארצם‬. Levi's saying in the T. Comparing the sentence in the Tosefta with R. ‫ מקום‬or . Sotah vii.

iü. 9 : ‫בזמן ש י ש ר א ל ברצון לפני המקום בבנים ש מ ת פ ר נ ס י ם מ א ב י ה ם‬. 8 . 29 . ש מ ח ה לפני ה מ ק ו ם ב א ב ד ן ש ל ר ש ע י ם‬Sotah vi. 10 : ‫בוא ו ר א ה ב מ ה ח ם ה מ ק ו ם ע ל בבור הבריות‬. xiv. 10 : ‫ב ש ם ש ש מ ח ה לפני ה מ ק ו ם בקיומן ש ל צדיקים ב ך‬ ‫ . Aboth iii. 6. R. 1. Meir.64 his pupils. 65 and R. 13. Yoma ii. אביו ש ב ש מ י ם‬ . 66 R. 69 «8 Shabb. 6 : .70 R. iii : ‫א ב ל במוחין א נ ו שאין המקום מ ב י א‬ ‫ . w . κ.72 R. Ed. 77 : ‫! . ch. 'שאין ובו‬v.73 and R. Menahem b. i. p. xiv. xiii. 3. 5. 71 R. 78 Ber. In the latter God (‫ )המקום‬commands the blotting out of His name. νίϋ. Dosa. Hananja. Eleazar 74 use the same term. 71 Sotah vii. 10. 1 : ‫בל שרוח הבריות נ ו ח ה הימנו רוח ה מ ק ו ם נוחה הימנו א ב ל בל‬ ‫ . 110 .68 Ben Azzai says :<61. בך יהיו איבי ה מ ק ו ם‬Sanh. Sotah ii.‫המקום‬ Β.. 7. 16 : ‫. 75 other instances : muta. Eleazar. 4. Taan. 6 : ‫ ש י נ ה ה מ ק ו ם מ ר א ה פ נ י ם ר ע ת וקול‬r Men. iü.‫שאין ה מ ק ו ם מ נ י ח להן מצוד‬. νϋ. Peah iii.75 The anonymous Haggada in the Tosefta uses throughout 76. Simon b. Sanh. νϋ. Simon b. β. 2 . jealousy. וקידש ש מ ו ש ל מקום‬ iü.' R. מ ב ו ל לעולם‬R. R. Hasid. יכול לכוין א ת הרוחות מכונין ל ב ם לפני ה מ ק ו ם‬ τ. Akiba considers every one favoured by God (‫)המקום‬. Sanh. Yoma ii. ל ד ע ת י נ ו זו ש ל א ל ד ע ת י נ ו שאילו עשינו ברצון ל פ נ י המקום‬ ben Levi. Johanan b. : ‫. xiii. who is popular with man. how much more in this case ! These books throw enmity. Eliezer ben Hyrkanos. אביהן ש ב ש מ י ם = המקום‬τ. ס ו מ א ומי שאי. Joshua b.67 R. above. Zakkai. 14 : ‫א ע ׳ פ ש ה י מ י ם והלילות ב ח ו ט‬ ‫השערה ל פ נ י המקום‬. attributed to R. 7. and strife between Israel and their Father in Heaven. Jose. Eleazar. r eads instead of ‫ . 74 Sanh. Halafta. Yoma iv. שאין גבהות לפני ה מ ק ו ם‬v. Jose b. Ishmael derives the law that the books of the heretics may not be saved from fire on Sabbath by a comparison with the law of the suspected woman.118 THE NAMES OF GOD The former is to be met with in the majority of sayings and sentences : R. Jose. 70 Sanh. Sanh. v. the son of R. 72 73 Sanh. Ber. i. 17 : ‫ .‫אין שכהה לפניהמקום‬ ‫ י‬There is no forgetfulness before God. 8 : ‫כל מ צ ו ה ש ב ת ו ר ה נתן לנו ה מ ק ו ם‬ ‫א ו נ ד ם . in order to make peace between husband and wife . xiv. missing Α. the Galilean. Ν. 16 : ‫. Johai. 3 : ‫א ל א בך א מ ר‬ ‫ ה מ ק ו ם הריני נותן א ו ת ם ל ר ח מ י ם ומטיל א ה ב ת י ב ל ב ם‬. Haninah b.

that‬למעלן ‪Pal. v . v. 14. ‪ . 22. 12 . 7 :‬ש מ י ם ‪as with‬‬ ‫‪ . 31 :‬‬ ‫א מ ר ו עליו על ר׳ י ה ו ד ה בן ב ב א שהיו בל ‪sotah xiv.. R Johanan b. Hyrkanos.‬‬ ‫‪ .3 :‬מ ע ש י ו ל ש ם ש מ י ם‬ ‫? כך כל ה מ כ נ י ס ביריה א ח ת ת ח ת כנפי ה ש מ י ם .7‬ב כ ב ו ד אבינו ש ב ש מ י ם ‪Hag. above. vü!.‬ה ק ד י ש קרדום א ח ד ל ש מ י ם ‪Nid. 8 :‬‬ ‫‪ . sheb. 4. 5 :‬‬ ‫‪ . sotah. v. Β . Α. xiii. v. 8 :‬ה ם ביקשו ל ה ר ב ו ת ב ב ו ד ^ ו ל מ ע ט כבודי ש מ י ם ‪ϋ. 112. VÜ. We saw above. Ben Azzai:‬י ה י רצון מ ל פ נ י ך יי א ל ה י נ ו שתיעקר ע ב ו ד ה זרה‬ ‫מ ו ד ה אני ל פ נ י ך יי אלהי‪ and . vii. 7‬לו ע ד ש י ש ל מ ו‬ ‫‪ . Men. Ishmael. Eleazar b. Yoma ϋ . vii. v. Yoma‬ה ט ו ב בעיני ש מ י ם והישר בעיני ה א ד ם ‪R Akiba. 9. 5 .. are repeated. Ζ. the terms which contain‬‬ ‫‪the ideas of God's kingship. Jose. xîv. v. 1). Eleazar‬ק צ ר ה יהי רצון מ ל פ נ י ך יי אלהינו ש ת ת ן ל כ ל א ח ד ו א ח ד ובו׳‬ ‫מ א ה ב ת ך יי א ל ה י נ ו ש א ה ב ת א ת ישראל ‪b. also.‬יהי רצון מ ל פ נ י ך יי אלהינו‬ ‫‪81‬‬ ‫א ת שנוהג לשום א ל ו ה א ס ו ר ו א ת שאינו נוהג בו ל ש ו ם ‪Ab. ü. 5.‬‬ ‫‪Hullin. 16 :‬‬ ‫א ח ר י ם א ו מ ר י ם צורכי ע מ ך מרובים ודעתן ‪For instance Ber.‬ופרקו מ ה ם עול ש מ י ם ‪vi. as expressed by Rabbi‬‬ ‫‪(Ber. 111. Kor. sotah v. ü. 13 :‬‬ ‫אין מן ה ש מ י ם מוחלין ‪ . shek. v. R Eliezer b.78 The use of‬‬ ‫‪similar to that in the Mishna.79 In prayers the Biblical‬‬ ‫‪. 18 .‬‬ ‫‪. v. 7 . 3 :‬ב ד ר ך שעושין ל פ נ י ה מ ק ו ם ‪ .‬ישר׳ ל א ב י ה ם ש ב ש מ י ם‬ ‫‪79‬‬ ‫‪ . 2 :‬ע מ ך‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪78‬‬ ‫מנין ש ה צ ד ק ה וגמילות ח ס ד י ם פרקליט גדול ושלום בין ‪Peah iv. κ . ib. m . Zakkai. Β . P . 1 . ϋ. p. above. Zakkai‬‬ ‫‪ is in the Tosefta‬ש מ י ם ‪and R. Joshua b. Korha's { King‬‬‫‪dom of Heaven'. κ .‬‬ ‫‪ is used. 6 . corresponding to R. 12. 16. also‬ש ם ש מ י ם נ ת ח ל ל ‪ and‬ה ש מ י ם ביני לבינך ‪ . 4 :‬א ל ו ה מ ו ת ר‬ ‫‪ . 7. in the name of his father :‬‬ ‫ה ש ב י ע י ה ג ד ו ל ובו׳‬ ‫א ת יום‬ ‫אלהינו‬ ‫נ ת ת ל נ ו יי‬ ‫‪ . κ. also R. 16 f. 3. 6 :‬‬ ‫ב ל זמן ש א ת ם ב א ר ץ כנען הריני ל כ ם ל א ל ו ו ‪ /‬באין א ת ם ‪ .‬ב א ר ץ כנען כביכול איני ל כ ם לאלוה‬ . 24. ϋ . χ. 1 :‬‬ ‫שנתחלל‬ ‫ש ם ‪ . VÜ. Κ. vii. to Sliabb. ib. also vu.‬‬ ‫‪. 10 :‬‬ ‫‪v.80 Speaking of strange‬יי אלהינו‪names of God. 21 . κ . 4 . ib. Kid. zara v. ii. 5 .‬‬ ‫‪iv.‬‬ ‫‪. Κ.‬ע ו ל מ ל ב ו ת ש מ י ם ‪. iv. xiii. 12 :‬שמים‬ ‫‪ .‬ל ל מ ד ך ש ב י ת דינו ש ל ירובעל גדול ל פ נ י ה מ ק ו ם ב ב ׳ ד ש ל מ ש ה‬ ‫‪iii. 17. Β. 5 .‫‪THE SOURCES‬‬ ‫‪109‬‬ ‫‪We have to enumerate here. 13. The ' Fatherhood of God ' is to be found‬‬ ‫ז ד ‪several times in the sayings of R. Zadok.‬‬ ‫‪77‬‬ ‫. ‪ (twice) .81‬א ל ו ה ‪deities‬‬ ‫‪We observe that some of the Psalms and the majority‬‬ ‫‪ as well‬מ ק ו ם ‪ occurs with‬ביון לבו ‪. iii. β . R H . 20 :‬‬ ‫‪. Johanan b.‬‬ ‫‪. vi. ii. Β. 4:‬‬ ‫‪ . like‬ד י נ ו מ ס ו ר ל ש מ י ם ‪ix.

Taan.91 82 83 84 85 87 89 91 Hag. 6. 3. 2. Shetach. This term is unique in the Tosefta. 'Most High'. or uses the word ‫ עליון‬itself. 151B. again a very old term. Reuben. Meir 89 and R. 69.. Jose b. ‫בורא‬.K. is also mentioned.is known from the Mishna. K. (3) ‫דיין‬. Midr. 10 . î0 Β. Β. iii. 24. 13). also Fragment. vi. 17.‫ זה הכופר במישבראו‬and Sotah vii. ‫ רוח הקודש‬stands sometimes for God. Johanan b. ed. . 1904. viii.84 Other names.8fi The third is used by R.‫אם ריחמת מרחמין עליך ואם לאו אין מרחמי‬ ‫עליך‬. Eliezer b. Gamaliel b.‫בל המרחם על הבריות מרחמין עליו מן השמים‬ ‫אין מרחמין עליו מן השמים‬. ‫ק ו נ ה ו‬ ‫א ל א בבבוד‬ 86 Sheb. JQR. The first is to be found 82 in a dispute between the Schools of Shammai and Hillel. occurs only once in the saying: ‫מפי הקודש אני עולה‬. also Ber. 32 .88 The fifth by R. Judah b.83 where the name ‫קונה‬. v. M. Halafta. T. Batyra. 90 ‫קודש‬. (9) ‫)שבינה‬ and (10) ‫השם‬. and reads: . quotes this saying by R. (4) ‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬ 5) ‫יודע מחשבות‬. 2.‫בורא‬. 1 : . The Tosefta preserves the same as ‫גבוה‬. and Ber. vii. likewise ‫ שבינה‬and ‫השם‬. p. Shabb. Meir. ii. viii. v. vi. Sanh. are : (1) . Hyrkanos and R. 699 . the All-Merciful will be merciful to thee5 (Β. either familiar to us from the Mishna or new ones. (2) ‫בעל הבית‬. vii. Zakkai. here it is derived from a saying of Ben Zoma. M. 10. R.‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD of the Apocryphal writings give some preference to the name ‫' עליון‬the Highest'. in opposition to ‫הדיוט‬. B. Erakhin iv.‫ י‬the C r e a t o r i s referred to in the dialogue between the philosopher and R. 88 Hullin ii. where the latter says :85. Tannaim. (8) ‫הקודש‬. does not supply the teacher's name... and will be discussed in connexion with the parallels in the Tannaitic Midrash. 1. p. ii. ‫בעל הבית‬. (7) ‫רוח הקודש‬. (6) ‫רחמן‬. The name ‫רחמן‬ ' All-Merciful is mentioned by R. The latter in a saying of R. The same saying is mentioned in Sifre Deut. liai in the name of R.87 The fourth by Simeon b. Rabbi ‫ שאינו מרחם על הבריות‬. Gamaliel II : ' When thou art merciful. vii. in Tiberias. 41. § 96 : ‫בל זמן שאתה מרחם על הבריות מרחמים עליך מן‬ ‫השמים‬. Β. 10. 12 : ‫ י אל אחר בראן‬one God created them all The second. Judah b. Ber. The first one. vii. Schechter. K.

the terms ‫שמים‬ 4 4 Heaven'. Johai. that ‫ הקב׳ה‬was not known as a name of God to the teachers of the Tannaitic period. If the latter found a place in the Mishna. the old tradition that these works. Joshua b. however. Akiba.‫הקביה‬ 3)) Our third source is books with the title of Mekhilta are now in our hands. Half-a-dozen or so passages with ‫ הקביה‬have been dealt with above. We propose to give an account of it by grouping first of all the passages containing the name ‫אב שבשמים‬. The Mekhilta offers. preserve the reading ‫ המקום‬or ‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬. In the Mekhilta the term ‫ אב שבשמים‬is found five times. On the whole. Ishmael. ‫ הקביה‬is a later substitute for ‫ המקום‬. we have no traces of different treatment accorded to the divine names in these schools. Mishna and Tosefta. or that some can be classified with the Haggada of the Amoraim. ‫ מקום‬and ‫הקב׳ה‬. where ‫ הקב׳ה‬occurs. To a large extent both Mekhiltas cover the same ground. parallel passages. expressing ' the Fatherhood of God Secondly. or Mekhilta of Rabbi Simon b. therefore enable us to verify the proper readings. is well established. We find that in most of the passages of our text of the Mekhilta. . One belongs to the School of R. more material for our observations. was closely connected with the problem of pronouncing the name of God and the alteration of ‫ המקום‬into . or of Amoraic origin altogether. the other to that of R. as we saw. no wonder that the same happened in the Tosefta. The final redaction might have taken place in the School of R. and it was shown that parallels offer instead of this name ‫המקום‬.THE SOURCES 109 The Tosefta is a faithful witness that ‫ המקום‬was the name used by the Tannaim . ‫ מ י שאמר והיה העולם‬t h Powerful '. It confirms the result we gained from the previous sources. were (apart from minor glosses) editorially finished in the period of the Tannaim. Levi. Although we are able to establish many theological differences between the two schools. owing to its wealth of Haggada. who. Mishna and Tosefta.

A Geniza fragment 94 preserved also the reading ‫ מתחטים‬instead of 95. Κ Joshua b. Adler. 42 A. Eleazar of Modiim in a more original form : ‫לפי ש ב א ל א ב ד א ת י ש ר א ל מ ת ח ת כנפי השמים א מ ר מ ש ה לפני המקום‬ ‫ר ש ע זה ב א ל א ב ד א ת בניך מ ת ח ת ה ש מ י ם ס ׳ ת ש נ ת ת להן מי‬ ‫ י ק ר א בו‬. 45 Β : ‫אחרים אומרים היו ישראל מתחננים ומתפללין לפני אביהם‬ ‫שבשמים בבן שהוא מתחנן לפני אביו וכתלמיד שמתגדר לפני רבו בך‬ ‫היו ישראל מתחננין ומתגדרים לפני אביהן שבשמים ואומרים לפניו רבש׳ע‬ ‫ חטאנו לפניך‬. S.‫ מתחננים‬The phrase is similar to that used in the story of Honi. S. Aboutthe terms ‫ ל י ש י ף‬. 68 B.‫ ישמעאל‬. ‫ תנא דבי ר‬saying : ‫אלמלא‬ ‫זבו ישראל אלא להקביל פני אביהן שבשמים בל חדש וחדש דיים‬. punished with one hundred strokes for taking the Lulab.‫מתגרה‬ 37 p. Hananja says : ‫בשבא עמלק להזיק את ישראל מתחת‬ ‫כנפי אביהם שבשמים אמר משה לפני הקביה רבש׳ע רשע זה בא לאבד‬ ‫בניך מתחת כנפיך‬.122 THE NAMES OF GOD P. 56 for the explanation. and above. pp. P. 93 the passage reads : ‫באותה שעה היו ישראל מתחננים ומתגרים לפני אביהם שבשמים בבן‬ ‫שמתחטא לפני אביו בתלמיד שמתגרה לפני רבו אמרו לפניו רבש׳ע‬ ‫חטאנו שנתרעמנו אל המים‬. i. P. ‫רבשיע‬ This text proves. In the Mekh. The same version is preserved in the Midrash on Psalms : ‫על שעשיתי‬ 93 " b. Another source os has besides: ‫ ש ע ש י ת י רצון אבי ש ב ש מ י ם‬. eating the Mazzah. Nathan depicts the persecutions the Jews suffered in his age. J. 8. The older term ‫ המקום‬was changed into the newer form ‫ ה ק ב י ה‬. 1. a contemporary of R. 1:6 v. Here the saying is by R.‫ . Nehemia. ‫ליצלב‬. . and concludes: ‫ מ כ ו ת אלו גרמו לי ל י א ה ב לאבי ש ב ש מ י ם‬. Here the sins of the martyrs are the observance of Sabbath. Fr. b. Nathan. crucified for eating the Passover bread. that ‫ שמים‬is an abbreviated form for ‫אביהם‬ ‫ ש ב ש מ י ם‬. 72. The Talmud quotes a similar passage as92.Krauss. p. מ ת ג ד ר‬ Yalk. Jews were burnt for reading in the Torah. 56 A. iii. for which we have many other witnesses. b. reads ‫. 32. 112. Sanh. In the M. S. p. 107. 56. v. Taanith. 95 MS. r. מתגרר‬η . 5683. and ‫ לוקה באפרגל‬V. 3 a : ‫אחת לל׳ יום מגביהים עיניהם לאביהם שבשמים‬. in ‫ ה ד ב י ר‬. taking the Lulab. p. R.96 P. b. J. 94 . observing the laws of Tephillin and Zizith. note 6. R.97 this saying is in the name of R. of R. 38 Lev. 84.

: . note 31 . The reading is is somewhat different. The text reads: ‫שקנה ש מ י ם וארץ‬. r. ed. 108. b. 7 Β : ‫פסח‬ ‫הוא ליי שיהו בל מעשיהם לשם שמים‬. above. More frequent is the use of ‫ שמים‬for God. v. Halafta. Zuckermandl. b. νΐϋ. Read ‫מ ה ל ך לוקה ב פ מ ל על שעשיתי ס ו ב ה ו כ ר על‬ ‫שעשיתי רצון א ב א ש ב ש מ י ם‬. 74A. 1907. p. The Tosefta 1 reads :‫אבנים שמטילות שלום בין ישראל לאביהם שבש׳‬ ‫אמר המקום ובו׳‬. above. Nathan in theMekhilta. 'for the name of Heaven. ™ o p.5 The Didachê 6 borrowed this teaching from the Rabbis. above. Bonn.THE SOURCES 90 123 . 6. On the names of Jethro. vii. and ends ‫על אבו׳ב שיהיו שלמים לפני המקום‬. ‫ש ק נ ה א ת‬ ‫ ה ש מ י ם‬. Ps.‫ת ל מ י ד חכם‬ 1 Β.‫רצון אבי שבשמים‬ P. 41 Β . 22. P. מורא רבך במורא שמים‬here surely ‫אביך שבש׳‬ has to be added. ch. 12. R. 8 Num. K. 12. reads7. Buber. r. All sources conclude with the words of R. p. Aboth ii. p. The same sentence which occurs in the Mekhilta is repeated in the Sifra. 16. Johanan Κ Zahkai says: ‫ומה אם אבני מזבח שאינם לא רואות ולא שומעות ולא מדברות‬ ‫על שמטילות שלום בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים אמר הקב׳ה אל תניף‬ ‫עליהם ברזל ובו׳‬. Shamua. 3.J. Jose b. Eleazar b. § 128 . 116. 4. Sifre reads 3. 5 Ned. Here we have another proof for the fact that the original ‫ המקום‬was removed for the later ‫הקב׳ה‬. Pirke 99 . 1.100 reads ‫ שמטילות בפרה‬instead of ‫שמטילות שלום‬. v. 118. 111. also Semahoth. ed. p. 6 7 ch. 7.. p. 4 Aboth iv. Exod. P. The conclusion reads ‫בני תורה שהן כ פ ר ה לעולם על א כ ו ׳ ב‬.‫ שקנה העולםהבא‬Our explanation attributed in Sifre to R. 53 Β we read ‫ . 12 . 2 where we also read ‫ אמר הבתוב‬instead of ‫אמר‬ ‫הקב׳ה‬. J.‫לשם המיוחד‬ P. Bk. 5. I l l . 57 A : One of Jethro's names was ‫ קנז‬because ‫שקנא לשמים וקנה לו תורה‬. MS. substituting Lord for ‫שמים‬. It says : τιμήσεις âè αυτόν ώς Kvptov. The teaching is given in another place 4 in the name of R. v. The reading differs from that 01 Lev. v. 1‫׳‬.' 8 R. 358. M. ed. xiv. 86. 27. The term ‫ בן תורה‬is younger than . S. p. r. S. Eleazar of Modiim uses the phrase M. also Exod. 7 (seven names). 2 84A. § 78.. Lietzmann. Tos. v. There is missing a whole sentence.‫יהיו ש ל מ י ם לפני הקב׳ה‬ 3 Deut. p. R. of R. V. and quoted in the Palestinian Talmud as a Mishna. iv.‫ מ ה לך לוקה בפרוכין ע ל שעשיתי רצון א ב י שבש׳‬. 58b: ‫אינו בא אלא לשום שמים‬.. Mekh. P. v.

Akiba says to Pappajus: ‫אין להשיב‬ ‫על דברי מי שאמר והיה העולם אלא־דן הכל באמת והכל בדין‬. differently . 86. S. 11 p. 1892. 17.e. v. 9. 33 β : ‫ י‬Great is the faith which Israel believed in ? ‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬. M. 'the Kingdom of Heaven'. 54 . b. b. The story is also related Midr. in Rahmer's JM. ed. further on p. .. He who speaks against the faithful shepherd is as if he spoke against 13. 66 B . r. Grünhut. v. 204 ff. R. Buber. where the name of the girFs father is given as Nakdimon b.J.S. Cant.. Königsberger.. Mekh. 33a. § 305. Pal. Ket. The third term very frequently used in the Mekhilta is : 4 ‫ מי שאמר והיה העולם‬He who spake created \ We find the same about eighteen times. also B. 13 M. 175 f. J. P. ha Kadosh. ch. 201 if. ed. R. P.‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬ P. Num. 35 A : ‫אבל מי שאמר והיה העולם אינו כן אלא כל מה שמקלסין‬ R. 54 . v.b. 12 A : ‫והלא אבות ונביאים שהלכו לעשות רצונו של מי שאמר והיה העולם נהגו‬ ‫בדרך ארץ‬. J. 19.. S.‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD in his saying : 'God says : 9 ‫אני הוא שאמרתי אני המקרב ולא‬ ‫המרחק שני האלי מקרוב אני נאם ה׳ ולא אלי מרחק אני שקרבתי את‬ ‫יתרו ולא רחקתיו אף אתה בשבא אדם אצלך להתגייר אינו בא אלא‬ ‫לשם שמים‬. 135. ‫כל זמן ש י ש ר א ל עושין רצונו ש ל מקום‬ ‫וכשאין ישראל עושין רצונו ש ל מקום‬. p. also Tos. 12 p. pp. 9 This is a variation of the name ‫ מ י ש ע ש ה א ת ה ע ו ל ם‬. . R. 61B. 7.10 P. S. The Doctrine of Merits. v. R. 11 . also Sifre Deut. r. 6 . v. Ket. N. Akiba speaks of ‫ מיתה בידי שמים‬and ‫בידי־אדם‬. 92B. Mekh. Ab. Lam. p. 10 p. v. p. chaps. P. Literaturblatt. Johanan b. 54 . 5. Marmorstein. R.‫גדולה אמנה לפני מי שאמר והיההעולם‬ Ib. Here ‫ לשמים‬has to be supplemented with ‫מלכות‬. 11 reads the sentence : ‫שלא להשיב על דברי מי שאמר‬ ‫והיה העולם שהבל בדין והבל באומר‬. xxiii.‫משתעבדים לפגי גדם‬ ‫ט׳ו שקלים במלכות אויביכם‬. reads :12. Gorion. The teaching is different. I t contains the weii-known a n t i t h e s i s . Zakkai said. 87 . The same terms occur 101 Β :‫מה שמחה אמורה באדם בדבר הראויה לבא בידי‬ ‫אדם אף שמחה אמורה בשלמים דבר הראוי לבא בידי שמים‬.R. 1.‫ י‬He who believes in the faithful shepherd is as if he believed in ‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬. also the parallel. . 7 . R. 5. . i.. Ket. P. R. 67 reads for ‫להכניס תחת = לשם שמים‬ ‫כנפי השכינה‬. when he went to Meon Jehuda and saw a girl gathering barley under the hoofs of a horse : ‫לא רציתם להשתעבד לשמים הרי אתם‬ ‫ לא רציתם לשקול בקע לגולגולת הראיתם שוקלים‬.

8).145.16 M. justice.‫לא אני יי ל א שניתי‬. 1). 10. Cant.8. They flatter him with his strength. 7). wealth (Deut. 6).Ps. 89. in fact.1.. Dan. 9. 42. S. Mekh. J . J. foolish. God ( .9.>: God's strength is unchangeable. wisdom. 6. The Mekh.95. S. 8. Ps. 2. cp. 31). 14. 4). 82. wisdom. wisdom (Prov. 10.6.31. and power (1 Chron.14. and faithfulness .4. ‫א ב ל אין לו ב ח ו ל א גבורה ולא‬ ‫תבםים ו ל א מ ל ח מ ה א ב ל הק׳ אינו בן‬ ‫לו ב ח וגבורה ו ת ב ס י ם ו מ ל ח מ ה‬ ‫יש‬. 18. b. 30. 10. ‫יש נבור ב מ ד י נ ה ועליו בל בלי זיין‬ Missing. 3 8 Α : ‫ א ל א א נ י יי ל א ש נ י ת י‬p . 10. ‫)מי ש א מ ר והי הע‬ cannot be duly praised. 24.THE SOURCES 14 123 ‫א ו ת ו ה ו א יותר מקילוסו‬ 'An earthly king is praised. 7. like Mekh..10). ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ Here again we have a long list of Gods attributes compared to the character of an earthly king. 4. justice. lovingkindness (Exod.11). 2. trust (Deut. 21. S.‫׳‬. Dan. loving-kindness (Exod. M. 82. he is weak. 2. R. b.13. R. b.17 and 32. trustworthiness (Deut. 1. mercy. 57. 18. ‫יש גבור ב מ ד י נ ה ובחו עליו בן‬ ‫ ולא בן‬/ ‫מ ׳ ש נ ה אינו ד ו מ ה לבן ס‬ ‫ם ׳ לבן ע ׳ א ל א כ ל ש ה ו א הולך כחו‬ ‫מ ת מ ע ט א ב ל מ י ש ׳ וה׳ הע׳ אינו בן‬ . 82. 9. justice (Isa. Deut. and trust. Ps. P. 32.9). wealth. 8. beauty (Ps.17. P . 13). poor. goodness. 86.1). alters ‫ מ י ש א מ ר והיה העולם‬into ‫הקביה‬. The attributes are given there in the following order : might. 2.‫לב. R. Ps. Ezek. dealing with the same attribute in a different aspect. 37 β : ‫ ש ה ר י מ י ש א מ ר והיה העולם ע ת י ד ל ה ל ח ם בהם‬.6. 6. wealth. Tanh. enumerates God's attributes differently: power (Deut. and Jer. R. 9). 61. The second sentence. 15 Also M. 1.8. M. 89.Deut. Ps. 1 5 . Jer. Mekh. unjust. justice (Deut. 10. Hag. 25. S. ‫עליו בבן מ‬ . 1 Hag. J.19 and Job 12. Isa. 4. 24. God's power. 29. 3. J. p. 4). 3 4 6. His wisdom (Prov. wealth (Deut. ס ׳ א ו לבן ע׳‬ 14 . cruel. and untrustworthy'. is preserved in both sources. ‫יש גבור ע ו מ ד ב מ ל ח מ ה וכחו‬ ‫ ש נ ה א ב ל אין ד ו מ ה‬. 9. 7. f. b. 34. No praise comes anywhere near to His real attributes.

‬‬ ‫יש גבור במדינה בשעה שהחצי‬ ‫יוצא מידו לא יכול להתגרד! אליו‬ ‫אבל הקביה כשאין ישראל עושין‬ ‫רצונו כביכול גזרה יוצאה מלפניו‬ ‫עשו תשובה מיד הוא מחזירה‬ ‫‪. M.‬‬ ‫מלך בשו׳ד יוצא למלחמה ומחנות קרובות באות ושואלות צרביהן ‪reads :‬‬ ‫מלפניו אומר להן זעוף הוא למלחמה הוא יוצא לכשינצח וישוב באין אתם‬ ‫ושואלין צרכיבם מלפניו אבל הקביה אינו כן שהוא נלחם במצרים שהוא‬ ‫‪.R.. R.‬‬ ‫‪M.‬וגלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שאדם‬ ‫דג‬ ‫‪Mekh. in the present edition.19 is described. (p. S.‬הקביה ‪.‬הקביה ‪Mekh.20 The edition of the‬‬ ‫‪ in two instances where the M. b . however M. v. We may assume that the original‬מי שאמר והיה העולם ‪has‬‬ ‫‪. b. 70 .18 omnipresence. S. Rabbi says :‬‬ ‫‪. Simon b.‬מי שאמר והיה העולם ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪This point is not in the M. S. p. Eliezer‬אב ואם שהשוה הקבי ה כ ב ו ד ן לכבודו ומוראן למוראו‬ ‫גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שאדם ‪ben Hyrkanos says:‬‬ ‫מכבד אמו יותר מאביו ופו‪ .‬אביו ואפילו אמו ואפילו‬ ‫קרובו הכל מכה בתימה והולך לו‪. and he‬‬ ‫‪is the sustainer of the whole world. J. R. 43B:‬לכל באי· העולם‬ ‫חביב בהמיק לפני הקביה ‪likewise M. s. b. עשו חשובה הרי‬ ‫הוא‬ ‫‪Mekh. R. P.חביב בית המקדש לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם ‪. S. J . and not‬מי שאמר ‪had in all the five instances the name‬‬ ‫חביב בבור אב ואם לפני מי שאמר והיה חעולם ‪P. 70 A. R.‬ומשחץ יוצא מידו אין‬ ‫יכול להתגורו אבל מי שאמר והיה‬ ‫העולם אינו כן אלא כשאין ישראל‬ ‫עושין רצונו של מקום גזרה י ו צ א ה‬ ‫‪. R.b.‬בריותיו‬ ‫»נ‬ ‫‪Mekh. J. J. b. :‬‬ ‫לכל חיילותיו והקביה אינו כן אלא שהוא ילחם במצרים שהוא זן ומפרנס‬ ‫.J.‫נ<‪3‬ז‬ ‫‪THE NAMES OF GOD‬‬ ‫‪love. M.S.‬‬ ‫יש גבור עומד ומשקנאה וגבורה‬ ‫לובשתו אפילו אביו ואפילו אחיו‬ ‫ואפי׳ קרוביו אינו מבחין אלא מכה‬ ‫והוליך בחמה‪ . 44 A :‬‬ ‫‪.‬וא׳ע׳פי כן ה׳ שמו רחמן הוא על בל‬ ‫‪God's love is shown even in battle and punishment. has again‬שכשברא הקביה‬ . reads‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪M.. J. 110) has a‬ששקל בבורן ומוראן לבבודו ולמוראו‬ ‫גדול בבור ‪similar saying in the name of R.‬מחזירה‬ ‫‪39‬‬ ‫יש גבור דפר‪ .‬מלפני.‬שומע צעקת בל באי העולם‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫מלך בו׳ד עומד במלחמה אינו יכול לזון ולא לספק אכסניות ‪Mekh.‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬ ‫יש גבור במדינה שמשקנאה וגבורה‬ ‫לובשתו אפי‪ .‬אבל מי שאמר והיה‬ ‫העולם אינו כן הוא עושה מלחמה‬ ‫‪. Ib. S. 62. J. R. b. Johai :‬‬ ‫‪. lovingkindness. R. b.‬‬ ‫אבל הקביה אינו בן יי איש מלחמה‬ ‫שהוא נלחם במצרים שהוא מרחם על‬ ‫בריותיו‬ ‫‪.

we observe that‬‬ ‫‪. Eliezer:‬עד שנתגלתה גבורה‬ ‫‪.‪.‬ ‫ה המקום משיבו‬ ‫)‪4‬‬ ‫. when‬את עצמו בממון מידי שמים‬ ‫‪R. The same term is given in other‬בדורינו וסילק אלו מבינותינו‬ ‫‪reports of the same event as well.‬צא והמלך בגבורה ‪. (5) P. P. Akiba:‬‬ ‫‪Special attention has to be paid to the fifth and sixth‬‬ ‫‪ and‬מקום ‪name of God in this Midrash. Ishmael and R. 26 A :‬נבורה ‪The fourth name we find in the Mekhilta is‬‬ ‫לא נסעו אלא על . ch.‬‬ ‫‪We give first the list of those passages where Mekh. Or. P. 60a. P. (6) P. Simon were put to death by the Romans :‬‬ ‫גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שפורענות גדולה עתידה לבא‬ ‫‪. :‬המקום‬ ‫)‪3‬‬ ‫. 44 b‬מפי הגבורה נאמר לי שאתם בני חורין‬ ‫‪. P. also p.21‬‬ ‫‪. v. The first is to be found about one hundred times. 2 β :‬ה מ ק ו ם‬ ‫‪ . R. P. Ishmael:‬קל וחומר לכבודו של מי ש ‪ . R. 87A.‬ ‫) ו ה ר א ה המקום את כולן באצבע‬ ‫על כן נתן להם ‪. P.70β:‬מתיירא מאביו יותר מאמו‬ ‫השבת מעיד לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שלא ברא עולמו לששה ימים ולא‬ ‫נח בשביעי וכל מי שמשמר את השבת מעיד לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם‬ ‫‪ . as we saw similar cases in the‬הקב׳ה‬ ‫‪previous Tannaitic sources. 30 a :‬שעה הראה להם המקום תורמיות תורמיות של מה׳ש‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪v. P. in some instances. Joshua b. Ρ.‬מנין שהיה משיב דברים לפני הגבורה ‪the same. (9) Ρ. We mean the t e r m s‬‬ ‫‪.‬שברא עולמו לששה ימים ונח בשביעי‬ ‫‪. 24 β :‬המקום קבורה‬ ‫)‪7‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫אמר ‪ . 95 B. 104 A. P. Eliezer says:‬פי משה ושאר כל המסעות כולן נסעו על פי הגבורה‬ ‫לא נפנו ‪. P. The Mekhilta offers a special‬‬ ‫‪object lesson in this respect. P. 48A. viii. (2) ib.‫‪THE SOURCES‬‬ ‫‪123‬‬ ‫מגיד הכתוב שכל מי שמחלל את ‪.‬‬ . 66 A :‬‬ ‫‪. has‬‬ ‫‪1) :‬‬ ‫ה מוצא בברוך בן נריה שהיה מתרעם לפני ‪ ) P. Akiba said. 71 A.‬ו׳ ה׳ ‪Rabbi:‬‬ ‫בא וראה רחמיו של מי שאמר והיה העולם על בשר ודם שאדם קונה‬ ‫‪. R. Semahoth. P. R. Hananja:‬על פי הגבורה נסעו‬ ‫למדנו שהמלחמה הזאת ‪. 23b:‬ומעשיהם גלויים למקום עד שלא נוצרו‬ ‫‪ .‬אלא על פי הגבורה‬ ‫‪. the sentences with‬הקב׳ה ‪more usual‬‬ ‫‪ are of a later period. 54B.‬ ‫ב לה במדבר‬ ‫)‪8‬‬ ‫. R.‬הקביה‬ ‫הקב׳ה ‪Yet by comparing some of the passages which have‬‬ ‫‪ was displaced by the‬מקום ‪with other texts. 59 b:‬לא היתד‪ . 72 Β.‬ואין דבר שלא יצא טפי הגבורה ונחצב על הלוחות ‪R.

Eleazar of‬אחר המקום מגביה ומשה ממיך‬ ‫יבה‪. Eliezer :‬‬ ‫)‪35‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫סכים המקום על ידו‬ ‫ומנין ‪ . Hananja :‬‬ ‫)‪30‬‬ ‫. R. Simon‬ו ש ם ניסה המקום אתישראל.‬משה בני נתוניםבצרה. (41) P. 61 B :32‬ו ה מ ק ו ם הודהלדבריך. Joshua b. Jose b. 36 Β :‬לפני המקום ובו‪ . 52 A :‬שש מדות טובות‬ ‫‪ . 67 B. Halafta :‬‬ ‫)‪43‬‬ ‫מ ר להם המקום . (12) ib.‬ ‫לנו שש מידות‬ ‫)‪36‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫כשישראל עושין רצונו של מקום הן עושין שמאל לימין ‪16)) P. R.‬ ‫‪ ) ib..58 B . 47 A. 30Β (five times):‬ה מ ק ו ם למשה‪ .‬עושין רצונו ובו‬ ‫‪.Hananja:33):‬‬ ‫‪R. 46A. 52 B.)‪31‬‬ ‫‪ ) P. (20) P. 27 A :‬וכשאין ישר‪ . R.‬ ‫)‪39‬‬ ‫.)‪ ) P. Joshua b. (13) R.‬ ‫‪Rabbi :‬‬ ‫)‪44‬‬ ‫. Eleazar :‬‬ ‫.‫נ<‪3‬ז‬ ‫‪THE NAMES OF GOD‬‬ ‫‪.)‪Modiim:19‬‬ ‫ראה כמה חביבים ישראל לפני המקום ולפי שהן חביבין ‪ό.)‪10‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫)‪25‬‬ ‫. Korha :‬‬ ‫.. 57 A : .‬ ‫מיד אמר המקום למשה ידידי טובעים בים והים סוגר ‪11)) P..‬ל כ ן בקש המקוםלהרגו. R.‬ולא ישראל בלבד אמרו שירה לפני המקום‬ ‫)‪15‬‬ ‫. Eleazar of Modiim :‬‬ ‫)‪34‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫כבוד המקום‬ . 31 B :‬‬ ‫אמר המקום מי שהמלבני על הים אעשהו מלך על ‪ .)‪28)) ib.) P.‬ ‫‪37)) P.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫.‬רעואל שהיה בריע למקום‪ . R. (17. Meir :‬ישראל‬ ‫‪ . :‬ובו׳‬ ‫אף עוברין שבמעי אמן פתחו פיהן ואמרו שירה ‪ .‬ ‫תים בתים‬ ‫‪ ) P. (21) P.‬מ כ ע י ס י ןלמקום. 67 A :‬שהודה המקום לדבריהם‬ ‫.‬׳.‬המקום בבסא‪-‬הכבוד שלו‬ ‫‪.‬ ‫תרו‬ ‫‪b.‬ ‫שעשה משה בגיני עשאו‬ ‫חובב שהיה חביב למקום‪ .) ‪M o d i i m 2 3‬‬ ‫)‪24‬‬ ‫. Eleazar of‬במה עבדים אלא לכבוד המקום‬ ‫‪ ) P.‬ ‫נתן לנו המקום‬ ‫‪R.‬חבר שנעשה כחבר למקום‬ ‫‪R. (40) Ρ. Jose b. Gamaliel :‬‬ ‫‪ . Joshua b. Hcdafta :29‬‬ ‫‪R.‬ ‫‪42)) P. (27) P.‬ ‫סוס‬ ‫‪b. 66 A :‬למשה הריני קורא לך מראש ההר ואתה עולה‬ ‫‪ . (22) P. (26) P. (14) P. 58B:‬ה מ ן הזה שנתן לנוהמקום‪R. 58 A. Eleazar of‬לפניו שינה עליהם מעשה בראשית‬ ‫אמר להם המקום אם תשמרו שבת זו עתיד אני ליתן לכם ‪Modiim :‬‬ ‫באן המקום ממיך ומשה מגביה ובמקום ‪ . liai :‬‬ ‫. R. 51 A. 39 A :‬‬ ‫ולא היו לו )לאברהם( ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ ) P. (18) P. 67 Β : .

the original form must have been‬הקביה ‪texts have‬‬ ‫‪other cases. Ishmael. in the Tannaitic source preserved‬בסתר‪ . R. S. Sotah 9 A we read a similar sentence :‬‬ ‫שהיו קוברים מיתיהם והודו ושבחו ‪ . p. v. also Lev. 31 A :‬המקום‬ ‫‪. reads :‬לזקנים ובן הקביה אמר לי׳‬ ‫ולא בשנים המקום חולק כבוד לזקנים ובבל מקום שאתה מוצא זקנים‬ ‫‪. 100 B.‬‬ ‫‪We have seen a few instances of interchanges between‬‬ ‫‪ and‬המקום ‪ likewise between‬הקב׳ה‪ and 22. (5) P.‬‬ ‫‪We register first of all the passages which have been altered‬‬ ‫שמשה חלק כבוד ‪by a later hand. where ou‬הקב׳ה‪.‬‬ ‫כ ש י ש ר א ל עושין רצונו ש ל מקום הם עושין ש מ י ט ה ‪R. (48) P. The compiler of Exodus rabba 24‬המקום חולק כבוד לזקנים‬ ‫הן עשו ‪ ) P. 11A:‬‬ ‫לא במקום אחד ‪. also p.:‬‬ ‫המקום. r. p. reads‬להקביה שלא ראו אויביהם‬ ‫)‪4‬‬ ‫ח ו לשם .‬־‬ ‫‪23‬‬ ‫״ ‪pp> 1 2 1‬‬ ‫תני ר׳ שמעון בן יוחאי ב כ מ ה מקומות שנינו שחלק ה ק ב י ה ‪5. No. 7 0 Β :‬‬ ‫מנין א ת ה א ו מ ר ש ה ר א ה המקום ‪(47) Ρ.‬והקביה פרסם אותם בגלוי‬ ‫ד׳א היא עשתה בסתר ‪in b. S. 5 :‬כבוד לזקנים‬ ‫.המקום‬ ‫‪ib.‬מוצא שאין הקב׳ה עתיד ליפרע מן הרשעים בגיהנם אלא ברוח קדים‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪ v.‬ ‫באותה שעה הראה להם הקביה תורמיות תורמיות של‪P. where such evidence cannot be brought forward. 104 B. in the name of‬‬ ‫‪R.‬‬ ‫‪we assert that the alteration was effected in the Amoraic‬‬ ‫‪or later period. J.‬‬ ‫‪ . 71 B. 11. r.‫‪THE SOURCES‬‬ ‫) א ו י א ל מ ו ר א תהמקום. v.‬לזקנים‬ ‫!‬ ‫‪24‬‬ . § 92.‬מי שאמר והיה העו׳‬ ‫‪23‬‬ ‫‪ We are enabled to show that many times. J. Jß. Exodus..‬‬ ‫‪ . :‬‬ ‫‪-. 28 B: . Eliezer (Yalkut r. א ח ד ולא בשני מ ק ו מ ו ת מצינו ש ח ל ק הקביה כ ב ו ד לזקנים א ל א ב ב מ ה מקומות‬ ‫א מ ר הקב׳ה בעוה׳ז חלקתי כ ב ו ד ‪Tanh.15 :‬‬ ‫דתני ר׳ שמעון בן יוחאי ל א במקום ‪ .אלהים‬ ‫בזמן‬ ‫ורחום‬ ‫. 8. b. 17. Nathan:‬‬ ‫‪. These are: (1) P. ed. b.‬‬ ‫‪. 24 a :‬המקום פירסמה בגלוי‬ ‫‪ . where the text reads‬מקום ‪. Buber.)‪45‬‬ ‫. 14 A :‬ת נ י ר׳ שמעון בןיוחאי‪quotes this saying as a2). 126. or the passage is of a post-Tannaitic origin. R. (3) P. In‬המקום ‪ . above under‬מהיש‬ ‫ובן אתה ‪ in the very same sentence . R. M. א ח ת בשבוע וכוי‬ ‫א ר ך א פ י ם ובו׳‬ ‫על ידי א ח ר י ם‬ ‫ש י ש ר א ל עושין רצונו ש ל מקום מ ל א כ ת ן נעשית ‪50)) P . Sifre iv. 1 0 1 Β :‬‬ ‫אהיה חנון‬ ‫אשר‬ ‫אהיה‬ ‫שדי צ ב א ו ת‬ ‫. Ishmael) :‬‬ ‫ל א ב ר ה ם אבינו גיהנם ובו׳‬ ‫א ב ל המקום קרוי לשון ש ב ח א ל ‪(49) P . 1 0 4 Α :‬‬ ‫‪. and M.‬ ‫לקללת‬ ‫קללת אויא‬ ‫‪123‬‬ ‫הקיש‬ ‫שבל מי שעובד ע״ז מ ע ל ה עליו ה כ ת ו ב כאילו מ נ א ף א ח ר ‪46)) P .

67 :‬לפניו הוא שומע צעקתם‬ ‫. p.b. 59:‬והרי כל אומות שבעולם אומרים שבחו של הקב׳ה‬ ‫שהרי אומות העולם אומרין ניאותו ושבחו של מי שאמר והיה העולם.b. 42 b:‬‬ ‫‪.8 :‬איל הקביה מי שקידש שמי על הים יבא וימשול על ישראל‬ ‫)‪7‬‬ ‫.R.‬ ‫אינו כן‬ ‫שלא כמדת בו׳ד מדת ‪. 38 A. J.S. M. 12. Jose.b.. (19‬המקום—אבל מי שאמר והיה העולם אינו כן אלא בונה עליון‬ ‫‪. 67 reads instead :‬בעפר‬ ‫‪. already above. M.J. Sifre Num. R. (15) P. תאב לנכסים נתן לו‬ ‫‪67 :‬‬ ‫)‪18‬‬ ‫. Mekh.S. J.‬מגיד שכל מי שקם נגד ישראל כאלו קם נגד הקב׳ה‬ ‫‪ ) P. 30 A :‬‬ ‫)‪6‬‬ ‫. 41 β :‬מי שעוזר לישראל כאלו עוזר למקום‬ ‫‪. :‬צר צורה באפילה‬ ‫אבל מי שאמר והיה העולם אינו כן אלא כשהוא צר צורה צר הכל ‪67:‬‬ ‫אבל הקב׳ה אפילו בל באי עולם באין וצועקין ‪ . J.‬לבנים נותן לו תאב לחכמה נותן ל. J. R . 67:‬על קרוביו יותר מרחוקיו‬ ‫שלא ‪. 60:‬או׳ה‬ ‫‪. Tos. M.:‬שני דברים בדיבור אחר‬ ‫אבל מי שאמר והיה העולם אינו כן אלא אמר עשר ‪M.S. M. § 84:‬וכל מי שעוזר לישראל באלו עוזר להקב׳ה‬ ‫אבל הקב׳ה אומר ‪ . R. (11) ib.אינו כן אלא כל באי עולם עומדין בתפלה לפניו ושומיע תפלתם‬ . R. S. (13) P. R. ib. (22) P. 125. (17) ib. the Galilean :‬‬ ‫אדבר בשבחו בגיאותו ובשבחו של מי שאמר ‪.)‪by20‬‬ ‫אבל מי שאמר והיה העולם ‪ .b.S.‬ ‫ניינו ושבחו של הקביה לפני ‪10)) P. S. 39b:‬ש כ ל מי שקם נגד ישראל כאלו קם נגדהמקום. b . R. M.S. S ..‬אבל הקביה אומר עשרת הדברים כאחת ‪.:‬ש ל א במרת בשר ודם מדתהמקום. 37 A : R.J. 67:‬העליון ואח׳ב בונה התחתון‬ ‫)‪. M . Sifre Num.)‪§ 84:14‬‬ ‫וכל ‪. (21) ib.b. b. 6 β :‬‬ ‫אבל הקביה אינו כז אלא מוראו ‪ .‬ ‫מפניו שקידש שמו של מקום‬ ‫‪.‬עתיד להפרע מן המלביות לע׳ל עד שיפרע משריהן תחלה‬ ‫‪58 :‬‬ ‫)‪9‬‬ ‫. 67:‬אבל הקב׳ה צר צורה במים ‪P.1.‫נ<‪3‬ז‬ ‫‪THE NAMES OF GOD‬‬ ‫‪v. M. b. M.R. R.‬אבל הקב׳ה צר כולה כאחת ‪ . S.J.‬אדבר בנאותיו ובשבחיו של הקביה ‪. J. 41 β :‬באחד‬ ‫אבל מי שאמר והיה העולם ‪. p. 57 reads‬שבשכר אמונה שרתה עליהם רוח הקודש‬ ‫)‪8‬‬ ‫.R. S. R. b.R. 41 β :‬הדברות בדיבור אחד‬ ‫אבל מי שאמר וחיה העולם ‪. b. Κ Akiba :‬והיה העולם‬ ‫אומר ניאותו ושבחו של מי שאמר והיה העולם לפני ‪M.J..S. J . (16) P. 39 A :‬אויה‬ ‫‪. 60 :‬‬ ‫‪ .b. V. introduced by‬אינו בן מוראו על הקרובים יותר מן הרחוקים‬ ‫אבל הקב׳ה אינו כן אדם תאב ‪ . M.‬ ‫‪. b. :‬כמדת בשר ודם מדת המקום‬ ‫‪.‬ ‫‪.b. S.J.R. J. S. J. introduced‬אבל מי שאמר והיה העולם אינו כן אלא צר צורה במים‬ ‫והקב׳ה צר צורה ‪ ) ib.‬ ‫‪ ) P‬ל פ נ י מי שאמר והיה העולם‬ ‫‪ M. (12) P.

Joshua b. M. R. 81:‬א ד ם ש ם אני לפניך‬ ‫וכי ידיו ש ל מ ש ה מ ג ב ר ו ת י ש ר א ל ‪ . b. J . Tarphon‬‬ ‫‪. 6 7 :‬צדקתם עליכם א ת ה ד י‬ ‫. R . Ishmael b. (35) P . 83:‬הקב׳ה חס עליהם ‪38)) ib.‫‪THE SOURCES‬‬ ‫ז‪*3‬‬ ‫‪ . S. R. (36) P . 48 A :‬המקום ל י ש ר א ל‬ ‫)‪31‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫ב׳ה מ ו ט ב שילקה ‪ ) P . 7 1 :‬נ ס י ם וגבורות ע ת שיוצאה מ מ צ ר י ם התקינו להם ובו׳‬ ‫מובטחין עם יציאתן מ מ צ ר י ם ש ה מ ק ו ם עושה להם נסים וגבורות ולפיכך‬ ‫ב א ו ר א ה כ מ ה ‪ . J . Eliezer b. S . J . S. M. b .R. M . M. 67:‬נ ו ט ה ידו ר ש ע י ם כלים מן העולם‬ ‫א מ ר הקביה א ת ם ‪ .b. S . R. R . Eleazar of‬הקביה ידו ו נ ט ל ת פ ל ת ן ש ל א ב ו ת‬ ‫כביכול פ ש ט המקום א ת ידו וקבל תפלתן של אבות. R. ‪Modiim:‬‬ ‫ת ש מ ר ו ש ב ת זו ‪34)) P. b.‬ה מ ק ו ם מ פ ר נ ס א ת כ ם‬ ‫ש ע ש ה ‪. R .. Eleazar of Modiim :‬‬ ‫א מ ר לו הקב׳ה כל מ ק ו ם ש א ת ה מ ו צ א רגלי ‪ .‪ . 4 8 A :‬ש כ ש ם שגזר המקום‬ ‫המקום נגלה ‪ .‬ ‫הצדיקים היו מ ו ב ט ח י ם ויודעים ש ה ק ב ׳ ה עושה להם ‪26)) P . R . 49 A. ש י ש ר א ל עושין רצונו ש ל מקום ומאמינין ב מ ה ש פ ק ד ן הן מ ת ר פ א י ן‬ ‫מ ש ה לפני הקב׳ה ר ב ש ׳ ע על ידי ה ו צ א ת א ת י ש ר א ל ‪39)) P.‬מפורשין ד ר כ י הקב׳ה מ ד ר ב י בו׳ד‪ . R. M.‬ ‫) ז מ ן המקום‬ ‫‪P.‬ ‫מ צ ר י ם כיצד ‪ ) ib. S. b. Gamaliel :‬נ ט ל ו‬ ‫‪. Yalkut :‬ש ב ש ם שגזר ה ק ב ׳ ה כן היה ‪ . H. M. S b. 5 4 Β :‬‬ ‫ום חס עליהן. S. 73 reads R. (27) P.‬ ‫‪ . S . J. Johanan b.S. b. J . S .‬ב ו ׳ ד במתוק מ ר פ א א ת ה מ ר‬ ‫‪M. ‪. 4 8 Β :‬‬ ‫‪Jalkut :‬‬ ‫)‪33‬‬ ‫. Hananja:‬‬ ‫‪ . M . 50B. 77. M . J. R . 4 4 A :‬‬ ‫‪ . b . 4 2 A :‬מ ט ה א ת ידו הרשעים פונין מן העולם‬ ‫‪!.J. Hyrkanos:‬וגבורות‬ ‫ש י ש ר א ל עושין רצונו ש ל מקום ו מ א מ י נ י ם ב מ ה )במי ‪ (read‬ש פ ק ד המקום‬ ‫. Simon b. (25) P . R. 8 3 :‬ו ה ק ב ׳ ה ע ש ה להם ר פ ו א ו ת ‪(37) P . b. J . iii. above. 7 6 :‬ש א ת ם ישיגים ב מ ט ו ת י כ ם הקב׳ה מ פ ר נ ס‬ ‫)‪29‬‬ ‫. R. M .R. R .:‬‬ .J. 52 Β :‬לבם א ׳ י‬ ‫א מ ר לו ]המקום[ בל מקום ‪ . M .b. J . 7 8 . S . 51 A. 5 3 Β :‬ש א ת ה מ ו צ א וכוי‬ ‫א ו ידיו ש ו ב ר ו ת עמלק א ל א בל זמן ש מ ג ב י ה ידיו בלפי מ ע ל ה היו י ש ר א ל‬ ‫מסתכלין בו ומאמינין ב מ י ש פ ק ד מ ש ה לעשות כן והקב׳ה עשה להם נסים‬ ‫א ל א בזמן ‪. b. R . b. ב ע מ ו ד ענן א מ ר המקום מ ו ט י ב ילקה ע מ ו ד הענן ואל יסקל מ ש ה וא׳‬ ‫כן זמן הקב׳ה למכעיסיו קיו ש י ש ל ם ש כ ר ט ו ב לצדיקים ‪32)) P . M. M.R. Berakha :‬‬ ‫אתכם‬ ‫)‪28‬‬ ‫. R . R . 45 B. R. J .‬ע ת י ד הקביה ליתן לבם ש ש מ ד ו ת ט ו ב ו ת‬ ‫א ם תזכו ל ש מ ו ר ש ב ת ע ת י ד ה מ ק ו ם ליתן ‪R. S . S. M. 6 7 :‬מ ג י ד שכל ה נ פ ש ו ת ב כ ף ש ל הקב׳ה ‪( 2 3 ) P . b . (30) P. J . 5 4 A :‬‬ ‫. 76:‬בל ה נ ס י ם וגבורות ש ע ש ה ה ק ב ׳ ה ל י ש ר א ל‬ ‫‪ . 4 2 A :‬‬ ‫)‪24‬‬ ‫. 29 A‬ל מ ש ה המקום עושה להם נסים וגבורות‬ ‫א ל א כ׳ז ‪ . v. J.R. M. 82.‬ ‫ם‬ ‫מגיד הכתוב כ ש ה מ ק ו ם ‪ . S. J . 76 :‬ע מ ו ד הענן ואל יסקל מ ש ה ואהרן‬ ‫. b .

R. ‫כ ש ב א עמלק להזיק א ת י ש ר א ל‬ ‫רבש׳ע‬ ‫אביהם שבשמים‬. or we have to deal with an Amoraic supplement or gloss. p. R .R. לו המקום ל מ ש ה ש ל א היה המקום מ ד ב ר ע ד ש א מ ר וכוי‬43) P . also Sifre Deut. Tann. 94 Β. to Tos. ‫ל מ‬ In these forty-six passages we have been able to show that there are other readings besides ‫הקביה‬. .S. Simon b. Hananja : ‫מ ת ח ת כנפי‬ ‫הקב׳ה‬ ‫א מ ר מ ש ה לפגי‬ P. and M. Β. ‫לו המקום‬ ‫מניין‬ ‫שאמר‬ ‫א מ ר ד ב ר ש כ ב ר קבלו‬ ‫א ת ה א ו מ ר שאין הקביה מ ד ב ר ע ד ש מ ש ה‬ ‫כן הוא ה ד ב ר ובו׳ א ל א מ ל מ ד שנתן ה ק ב ׳ ה‬ ‫ ב ח וגבורה בנזשה והיה הקב׳ה‬. 114 . § 104: ‫ כ נ ג ד ג׳ ב ר י ת ו ת ש ב ר ת הקב׳ה‬. (41) P. Joshua b. ‫ד שהרביץ המקום ביה‬ saying of R. ‫אלולי ש ש ת פ ו‬. 57 B. the same reading must have been the original in the previous sentence b e g . 50. : ‫כשהקביה גוזר גזירות טובות ורעות על‬ ‫ישראל על הטובה מחזירים לפניו ובו׳‬. S . ‫לפי‬ R.R. 101 : ‫כ ב ו ד גדול חלק‬ ‫( . p. 79 Β . In some of these cases the fact must be ascribed to an accident. S.R. 10 : ‫חם המקום‬.b. J. Hoshaja : ‫שלוחיך לא‬ ‫( . 6 5 B : v.J. 25 Α. 44) . v. Johai. vii. Κ. Simon b.132 ‫ומי‬. ‫כ ש ב א ל א ב ד א ת י ש ר א ל ת ח ת כנפי‬ ‫ה ש מ י ם א מ ר מ ש ה לפני המקום ר ב ש ׳ ע‬ ‫ל מ ש ה לך הוצא א ת עמי‬ 42) and R. R. 56A. M. The saying is quoted Yalk. Johai : ‫בל ה מ ש ת ף ש מ ו של‬ ‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה בע׳ז חייב כלייה‬. J . M . Johai : ‫ מ ל מ ד שהרכין הקב׳ה‬. Most of the sayings to be dealt with belong to the anonymous Haggada. Akiba. Yalkut r. v. 102 A. R. b. Zakkai: ‫ ח ם הקב׳ה על כבירן של בריות‬. Sanh.J. ‫ ש ל א ב ר ת ע ׳ המקום מ ׳ ח ב ר י ת ו ת‬. our saying is quoted in the name of R.. according to our experience. v. could not have used the term ‫הקביה‬.S. Eleazar of ‫ ב ש ע ה ש א מ ר הקב׳ה‬. S . Johanan b. 63 A : ‫ ב ל ה מ ש ת ף ש ם ש מ י ם ודיא‬. also p.b. also. p. cf. . v. 57. M. 75 : ‫ ש כ ר ת ה מ ק ו ם‬. We propose. R.‫לפניהמקום‬ R.J. Κ. R . M.S. with reference to which we have no literary evidence enabling us to substitute the original term. Akiba: . 72 B. Β. who. also Β. THE NAMES OF GOD ‫משה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ) M. Simon b. but there are some ascribed to older authorities. v. (46) p. 8 3 :40). R. R. J . to deal with the passages. b. M.. b . כבשר ורם שלוחי בו׳ד ובו׳‬2) ib. Eleazar of Modiim: Modiim: 86 : ‫עליהם בניך‬. now.b. 84. b. above. Ishmael. v . (45) Ρ. v.R. Β. b. We will deal with a few passages: (1) 2 A : ‫שלוחי הקב׳ה לא כשלוחי בו׳ד‬. 117.

P. but is an addition from the Amoraic Haggadah. 66 B. P. Shabb.‫ . that the copyists or teachers availed themselves of this method. 109 B).of ‫דפתי‬. Johanan. Judah and Rabbi ‫ הקב׳ה‬and ‫ המקום‬are alternately used. b. 71 B. also Pes. P. 30. All texts read so. 20. Β. Rab. J. with the additional clause. Hijja b. 10. is probably a gloss from the Tanhuma. Jonathan b. Josiah . Aha b. 66 B.THE SOURCES 109 Ezra 349. Hijja bar Abba in the name of R. P. R. ‫ולא על‬ ‫הנגלות בלבד נגלה הקב׳ה עליהם לברות ברית‬. ‫באותה שעה‬ ‫אמר הקב׳ה‬. B. 10A. and in the saying of R. Other variants of this saying also suggest that this sentence is of Amoraic origin. Nathan says: ‫מבאן תשובה למינים שאומרים שתי רשויותהן‬ ‫שכשעמד הקב׳ה‬. S. 96 B. also Exod. v. S. ed Frankfurt a. perhaps it belongs also to R. R.H01‫־‬a- . K. 98 A. above to Tos. b. R. 128. b. Judah b. liai. 63 Β : In the sayings of R.. by R. Mekh. 133. p. S. Samuel b. There must have been quite a different phrase. We saw already above. אפילו שבר שיחה נאה‬v. Eleazar of Modiim. r. 114 A. 59 a : ‫שכל מי שמוציא דין אמת לאמיתו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאלו‬ ‫היה שותף עם הקב׳ה במ׳ב‬. and Job 924. also 66 A. R. Talmud the saying is quoted in the name of i£. esp. ii. based on Ps.. note 63. Haninah with slight alterations. v.1 (v. Nahmani says in the name of R. Neither ‫ שמים‬nor ‫ מקום‬nor ‫ שכינה‬would do in such a case. R. M. i. v. v. 116. Hoshaja? In the Babyl. Erakhin. Zeb. 96 reads in R. ‫שאין הקב׳ה מקפח שבר בל בריה‬. which was altered for some reason. Judah's saying also ‫הקב׳ה‬. M. J. Yalkut Lekach Tob. quotes this saying with some other additional words : ‫בל דיין שדן דין‬ ‫אמת לאמיתו אפילו שעה אחת מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו נעשה שותף להקב׳ה‬ ‫במעשה בראשית‬. in the name of R. 38 B. R. P. in order not to repeat the same term twice. and b. ‫אמר הקביה‬. M. Eliezer: ‫כל דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו משרה שבינה בישראל‬. 89 reads ‫באלו שותף במעשה‬ ‫בראשית‬. is quoted in the Talmud and Midrash in the name of Amoraim. 113-4 these additions are not given. (3) 57 B. Here we have reliable literary evidence that the original saying was altered by the Mishna teachers of the Amoraic period. P. from ‫שבשעה שאמר הקב׳ה למשה לך הוצא‬ ‫את עמי בניי‬. Nazir 20 B. 82. does not belong to the saying of R. p. J.

Simon b. r. ‫רוח הקודש‬. ascribed to Hezekia. Hananja. The same observation can be made in the Mishna and Tosefta.‫דיין‬. 104 Β. Hyrkanos and R. an Amoraic phrase.‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD joth 10 B. Especially Haggadic portions which are ascribed to such authorities as R. ‫השמים‬. Johai. Eliezer b. 1 f in the sayings of 11. or R. Gamaliel shows clearly that the term ‫ הקביה‬is due to editorial alterations. Joshua b. Jose. In the second sentence of R. Hijja. Besides these principal names. R. Similarly is the phrase. 31. ‫רבון‬. but also rejoices in his people's joy The dialogue between a heathen and R. ‫המקום‬. Johai the term ‫ הקביה‬was also substituted for ‫המקום‬. ‫מעלה‬.‫אלוה‬. Both terms belong to the Tannaitic Haggada. ‫מי שאמר‬ ‫והיה העי‬. Joshua. &c. and R. Hananja and R. Considering the fact that the final redaction of the Mekhilta must be placed in the Amoraic period and can be classed as one of the latest of the Tannaitic Midrashim. ‫ שכינה‬and ‫שם‬. The final compilation of the Midrash is. Thus we find pp. ‫קונה‬. with good reason. ‫חי העולמים‬. ‫מרום‬. Joshua b. Heresh.25 In the Mekhilta of R. The previous list has convinced us that the Tannaim did not use the term ‫הקב׳ה‬. the son of R. p. ‫ אלהים‬and . Joshua we read ‫בוא וראה כמה רחמיו וזכיותיו של הקיבה על ישראל‬. most of which are dealt with in the previous chapter. although the first saying contains in the latter part ‫המקום‬. Exod. R. Matjâ b. and ‫הקב׳ה‬. ‫מלך‬. that 4 God shares Israel's troubles and exiles. It is true that there are still a few sayings left which contain ‫הקביה‬. ‫מ י ו ם ש ב ר א‬ ‫הקב יה ע ו ל מ ו‬. ‫יוצר‬ ‫יחודו של עולם‬. there can be no surprise that the name ‫ הקב׳ ה‬occurs more frequently than in the other old sources. ‫עליון‬. ‫כבודו של עולם‬. e. The questioning heathen or philosopher generally refers to God as ‫ אלוה‬or v. there are numerous others.‫אריר‬. ‫מפני מה נגלה הקב׳ה‬. varying the teaching of Akiba. ‫הוא‬. Simon b.‫ מי שאמר והיה העולם‬.g. 25 . ‫יודע מחשבות‬. Hyrkanos figure in that list conspicuously as having used ‫המקום‬. and the second. Eliezer b.

14. and show the signs of a more recent arrangement. 3 The Mekhilta to section ‫ וארא‬contains the exposition of ten Tannaites on Exod. Exod. Korha disputes with the heathen. The reading. The objection of the latter was to the expression ‫ במשה‬. r. אלהים‬here ‫ הקביה‬was put instead of the heathen's term. Similarly attention may be called to 4 the name ‫ בעל הרחמים‬Lord of Mercy ‫( י‬p. . 18 (v. Eleazar of Modiim's sentence is also remarkable. where R Joshua b. Eleazar b. 9. 4. v. ‫בידי‬ ‫ שמים‬occurs in opposition to ‫בידי הדיוט‬. 10 a. and in Abba Saul's sentence. The ten sayings are not in chronological order. Eliezer b. The idols are referred to as ‫אלהים‬. The explanation of R. where ‫ צבאות מה׳ש‬stands for. liai. It is no wonder. therefore. and ‫ אדון העולם‬in that of R. even where our Mekh. ‫חקב׳ה‬ and ‫( המקום‬p. as we have shown already. P. The term deserves attention (‫הוא שאמרתי והיה העולם‬-‫ )אני‬in R.26 The saying of R. 2) : ‫מפני מה נגלה חקב׳ה משמי מרום — לפי שיכול‬ ‫המקום שידבר‬. 27 Likewise were the other sayings of the same scribe altered. 3). calling them ‫ ' בזויי העולם‬the despised of the world \ in which the terms ‫ אלוה‬and ‫ בעל העולם‬occur. R. r. 2) means nothing else but ‫דברה תורה‬ ‫בלשון בני אדם‬. 2. Hyrkanos's saying. Arakh ‫לא דבר‬ ‫( הקביה אלא בדרך ארץ‬p. To a greater extent this Mekhilta reads ‫המקום‬.27 The same teacher quotes in his diatribe the words of the heretics against God's justice and righteousness. 17: the old term ‫ גבוה‬is used. like ‫היה‬ 26 ‫ מכחיש הקב׳ה‬and ‫לא דבר הקביה עם משה‬. Arakh has both terms. has ‫הקביה‬. 13 : ‫דיא אני ה׳ מלכות וכל מקום שמזכיר גיאה של ע׳ז שם‬ ‫מזכיר שבחו של המקום‬. also p. Gamaliel. that the later term ‫ הקב׳ה‬stands for ‫המקום‬. Yet.THE SOURCES 109 ‫ . which ascribes anger and feelings of wrath to God. Here some passages will be quoted in which the older terms occur. 4 Lord of the World ‫ י‬is a special gnostic term for the Demiurgos. Judah b. 2. 6. ‫ויחר אף ד‬ (Exod. Eleazar b. ‫ רבון העולמים‬instead of ‫ רבון העולם‬in R.‫צבאותמקום‬ v. 27) : ‫מלמד שצבאות מקום נקראו צבאות ישראל וצבאות ישראל נקראו צבאות‬ ‫מקום‬. P. even in this overworked text there are traces of ‫( המקום‬p. to Mekh. and Num. 14). P.

R. Simon b.31 God as creator is called either ‫מי שעשה‬ ‫ את העולם‬32 or more frequently33. AKIBA: : ‫ה ׳‬ ‫ני‬ ‫ ש ק ב ל ת ם מ ל כ ו ת י עליכם במצרים א ׳ ל הין והין ק ב ל ת ם מ ל כ ו ת י קבלו נזירותי‬. and R. R. 113. Azarja. 74 B). ‫ א ׳ ל ו ל א א ח ד ע ש ה‬. say93)‫אנו חייבין מיתה עד לשמים‬ B).‫מי שאמר והיההעולם‬ Similar to ‫ גבוה‬is the term 34. R. 41 : . 96 B.‫מים‬ 78 . 28 82 . 24 : ‫ . and in several anonymous sentences. 110. Rabbi (p. 3 b : . Simon b.‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD P. 76 A. Johai: ‫לעשות רצון אביו שבשמים‬. Simon b. 47. b. the martyrs. Azarja uses the term ‫גבוה‬.‫א ת ה ד ב ר י ם ל פ נ י הגבורה‬ 32 p. Joma.‫אדון בל המעשים‬ 4)) Our fourth source. P. P.' 29 R. Azarja (82 Β : ‫)נמצא פורש מן העבירה ומקבל עליו מלבות שמים‬. Johai (p. 113Α: 110. P.‫מ פ י הקודש‬ 2 0 110 B . Pappus and Lulianus. « Rabbi 74 B : ‫ מ י‬. R. 31 p. also p. • ‫גלוי וידוע ל פ נ י מ ׳ ש ׳ ו׳ ה ׳‬ ‫ . 50: ‫אדון‬ ‫ המעשים ברוך הוא‬and . ואין המקום מוחל לו לאדם עד שיפייס את חבירו‬this saying agrees with that of R. by Abba Saul (p. off for our purpose than the Mekhilta. 30 pp. 11A: ‫ ל ש ם מ י ש ע ש ה‬.‫ה פ י זו גזירתהמלך‬ Β 28 v. Azarja. 21 : ‫גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שבשישראל‬. v.30 ‫ גבורה‬is applied in the usual way when speaking in the name of God. 75 Β : ‫פמליא‬ ‫)למלך ומה עליה להיות מחקה למלך‬. 25 : The Egyptians feared the Israelites as people fear their God (‫)כבני אדם שיראים מן קוניהם‬. .‫לפי שמצינו שפרשה ראשונה אמיל המקום למשה — שמע מפי הקודש‬ P. Eleazar b.‫ מעלה‬More frequent are the names signifying God's kingship. 35 71 Β : . the Siphra. also 74 a : ‫אני ה ׳ ש א מ ר ת י‬ ‫והיה העולם‬. 34 p. 85 Β . Eleazar b. R. 95 B).35 Secondly ‫שמים‬. P. especially in sanctifications or in connexion with God's name. Eleazar b. 104 B . Eleazar speak of God as ' the Father in Heaven. 22 : . p. 114 B. ש ב ר א א ת י ש ר א ל ה ו א ב ר א א ת ה א ו מ ו ת‬v. above. R. AND 87A (ANONYMOUS):‫א ד ם ש ע ו ש ה א ת ה ת ו ר ה ועושה רצון אביו‬ ‫שבשמים‬. Simon b. Akiba. Eleazar b. ‫י ם גזר עלי‬ P. R. .

‫דברים שבינך ובין המקום‬ Pappus and Lulianus say to their tyrant:41. others perhaps not original.‫בידישמים‬. 74 B. Hyrkanos 39 who says. 110. The rule that ‫ אלהיט‬denotes the judgeship of God is four times quoted (74 A.‫ס עליהם המקוםמלהעבירם‬ ‫ . 71A.‫על אחת כמה נבטה שיעבירנו המקום מןהעולם‬ 84a.‫אין המקום מ ב י א פורענות ב י ש ר א ל ע ד ש מ ע י ד ב ה ם תחלה‬ 71A. p. Thus R. and finally ‫ אי. 83 B. 132. also 76. ‫ מ ע ש י ה ם ל ש ם ש מ י ם‬. 3 A. ‫חייבים בכבודי‬. is to be found only twice. and similar sentences as to honour and curse. In any case this Tannaitic work also confirms our observations that ‫הקב׳ה‬ was not known to and used in the Tannaitic Haggada. by R. Simon b. 71 . 37 8 A. 68.. 9 A.‫א י מ ת ו ה ו א ש ב ח ו ש ל מקום‬ 43 T. K. Akiba (3 B). א ו מ ר ה ק ב ׳ ה ל א ר ה‬seem to be of Amoraic origin. Simon b. AND 109B: .‫ ש ה מ ק ו ם רוצה לו‬A . especially when the seeing of God by human beings is spoken of. several times in sayings like37. v.ALSO44A: . and Rabbi (83B). ‫כבר הבטיח המקום‬ ‫לישראל שאין דן אבות ע׳י בנים‬. who speaks of death imposed by Heaven (‫)מיתה האמורה בידי שמים‬. Besides these names there are occasionally the terms ‫כבוד‬. 108 . some of them are surely Amoraic insertions. 75 A. Azarja speaks of 40. p. 2B: ‫ מ ל מ ד שהרכין ה ק ב ׳ ה‬. the usual term for this is ‫ מ פ י הגבורה‬or ‫ מ פ י ה ק ו ד ש‬. p. however. 106 .‫המקום‬a: ‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה א מ ר ל ה ם לצדיקים‬. .38 In the majority of cases we read ‫מקום‬.43 The term ‫הקב׳ה‬.‫הרבה מזיקיםלמקום‬ and R. 82 B).‫לשמים‬B. parallels have 109. ‫עבירות שבין אדם למקום‬.‫מלפני המקום‬ ‫ .THE SOURCES !37 Johai (7A: ‫)לא יזכיר שם שמים—לבטלה‬.‫ י כ ו ו ן א ת ד ע ת ולשמים‬A . Johai. 42 108B: . v. 3 A.‫ש ר י ח ם ה מ ק ו ם על אהרן‬ 41 93 B. ‫ ש ו מ ע מ פ י ה ק ב ׳ ה‬. a 75 B. Eleazar b. 42 Many anonymous sayings: 6 A. שהמקום מתאוה שיהו עמלים בתורה‬110 B. ' God does not bring a punishment on Israel unless he warned them first \ R. V. Johai.לפני המקום‬108b. already above.36 ‫מן השמים‬ and others. Finally 36 38 6 A. Eliezer b. ‫הקיש מורא או׳א למורא המקום‬. 84: ‫ ח ס ה ק ב ׳ ה ע ל ה ר ש ע י ם ק׳ו על כבודן ש ל צדיקים‬. Further. v. further ‫ע ת י ד ה ק ב ׳ ה מ ט י י ל‬ ‫עם הצדיקים‬. v. R. 108B.‫נרלשמים‬ 11.

81 A. also § 106.4c read ‫ מקום‬. About God's name being ‫שלום‬.92 §(7). London. which the editor. r. R. S. ‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה א ת מ ש ה ב ש מ ח ה‬. We enumerate first the passages which have to be corrected in ‫ מקום‬: (1) § 42. but especially the former. M. R. or originally ‫ כ ש ה מ ק ו ם‬stood. Nathan.141 § . further. R.44 It is highly interesting to see that in this work the use of the term ‫ הקביה‬is almost unknown. also Men.‫המקום‬ 6) § 91. on p. ‫מקום‬. r.‫שמיני‬ 4) § 61). ‫גדול השלום ששמו של‬ ‫ . . H. 81 B. R. and 15) ‫שם‬ A. « v. b. read . v. and Yalk. r. Exod. R Eleazar ha‫־‬Kappar.!38 T H E NAMES OF GOD 1) ‫ שכינה‬A. ‫כאן הקב׳ה ממיך ומשה מגביה‬. 78 A. Nathan. Yalk. reads more correctly . ‫והראה לו‬ ‫הקב׳ה באצבע‬. R.המקום‬11) § 115. R. « ‫ =־‬Num.‫המקום‬. and R. ‫בשהקביה קורא הכל עונים‬. r. מ ה צור‬142. r. והיה העולם‬14) § 138. ה ק ב ׳ ה‬119. perhaps the editor's gloss(?). Eleazar of Modiim.. ‫מקום‬. 4 44 . ‫לשמוע דיבור מפי הקב׳ה‬.. 48 (9) § 102. 47 (3) § 61.4. r.45 and R. Num. 110 A) is often repeated. which was altered. 1917. no variant. ‫ ל‬The passage in § 58. The study of this text kindles the desire to see a critical edition of the whole Tannaitic Midrash of both schools.. ‫( .מקום‬5) § 90. and 48 Leipzig. 5. ‫ ב ש ה ק ב ׳ ה מ ד ב ר ה כ ל שותקים‬and ‫כ ש ה ק ב ׳ ה‬ ‫ מ ד ב ר בקול גדול‬may also be later additions. R.R. ‫בשפרה הקב׳ה את זרע אברהם‬. 98 B. Yalk. ‫קב׳ה מואס תפלתן של‬ ‫רבים‬. ‫שלא כמדת בו׳ר מדת הקביה‬. 135 §(12). Horowitz. 93 B. 75 A. reads ‫( . ‫ראה‬ ‫כמה צדיקים חביבים לפני הקב׳ה‬. . ‫לפני מי שאמר‬ ‫( . ‫ עד שהשיבו הקב׳ה‬and ‫בקש מלפני‬ ‫הקב׳ה‬. M. 15. ‫להודיע שבחו של משה שכשם שאיל הקב׳ה כן‬ ‫עשה‬. and . ‫כן א מ ר לו ה ק ב ׳ ה‬. Tanh. Midrash Hakhamim r. M. (5) For the Tannaitic Midrashim on the fourth Book of the Pentateuch we can avail ourselves of the critical edition published by H. 110 A) is also frequent. ‫)והלא אף עם האבות דבר הקב׳ה‬. = MS. M.R. 100 A. are the rule. 15.‫)שהראהד״קב׳ה‬. Pes. 8) § 100.‫ומהיכן התחיל‬ ‫ § . Akiba. Yalkut.‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה ט י מ א ה ובו׳‬. 15. London. 29 A. r. 99 B. Pes.‫המקום‬. Β. Num. (2) § 42 has further a sentence. ה ק ב ׳ ה הסגירה‬111. M. rightly.‫ § . ‫ § .all MS. ‫עד שהשיבו הקב׳ה‬. מדת המקום ב׳ה‬10) § 105. 137 §(13).. Mekh. הקב׳ה שלום‬R. ‫( . while those of ‫ מקום‬and ‫שמים‬. v. MS. R. considers as belonging to a later gloss . because one cannot speak of ‫ מקום‬as speaking or calling. 104. Vatican.

Gamaliel : ‫לפי שהלשינו ישראל על הקב׳ה ואמרו היובל וכו׳‬ ‫וראה הקב׳ה‬. P. T.אלו הנסיונות שנסו אבותינו הקביה‬M. like ‫שכינה‬. ‫מקום‬. ed. ‫שדבר הקב׳ה עם‬. L. ‫קונה‬. 65 A. more likely. yet <· v. P. P. Johai : ‫מדתו של ממ׳ה הקביה‬. also ‫שלא בונן הקב׳ה את מלכות בית דוד אלא בשלום‬. P. 250 : ‫וכן אתה מוצא שלא נתן הקב׳ה שבר‬ ‫ תלמוד תורה אלא שלום‬and ‫שאין הקב׳ה עתיד לנחם את ירושלם‬ ‫אלא בשלום‬. Aboth. in the saying of Β. ‫ ה מ ק ו ם‬. R. T. לכל מה שעשיתם‬M. M. ‫כך אמר המקום ברוך הוא לישראל הא‬ ‫יתירא כל מה שעשיתם‬. reads ‫כך אמר הקביה לישראל זו ותירה‬ ‫ . ‫גבורה‬. very rarely used. P. We see that the term ‫ הקב׳ה‬is. If we are comparing now with this the use of ‫ המקום‬. Simon ‫הקב׳ה‬.. 64 B. Let us now investigate the occurrence of the name ‫הקביה‬ in the Sifre zutta. Simon b. 279: ‫והלא הקב׳ה ואמר לו כתוב‬. 252 :‫זה קידש שמו של הקביה על הים והוא ראוי‬ ‫להוריד השכינה‬. 265 : ‫אלו אדם שלא‬ ‫הכיר נסין של הקב׳ה‬. ‫מי שאמר‬ ‫( והיה העולם‬not as frequently as in the other Tannaitic works !) and . 272: ‫בך אמר הקב׳ה לישראל‬. R. 274: ‫שמיום‬ ‫משה‬. 254: ‫משה לא היה יודע אימתי הקב׳ה מדבר עמו‬ and ‫ובלעם היה יודע מה הקב׳ה עתיד לדבר עמו‬. ‫שמים‬. the passages with ‫ המקום‬outnumber those with ‫הקב׳ה‬. R. The difference between the Sifre and Sifre Zutta is noteworthy. to the fact that we have no old literary witnesses to establish the right reading in these cases. liai (v. reads ‫שניסו אבותינו את המקום‬. on the whole. P. M. p. P. has ‫הקביה‬. Ρ. T. v. the literary evidence goes very far to prove that the use of it is not primary. 3).THE SOURCES 109 R.‫מעלה‬ 6)) In the Sifre we have plenty of proofs that the ‫ הקביה‬in the text is not original. ‫המקום‬. 268. 249. Judah b. 4. P.49 P. 267 : ‫כך אמר הקב׳ה איני מהלך שתאמר לי לך‬. § 1. . 143 §(15). M. P. ‫שם‬. ‫ . 249: ‫ד׳א אתה אומר חביב הוא השלום‬ ‫ ובו׳‬ρ ‫ שאלו ברא הקביה מרה יפה יותר‬. it is almost mathematically proved that ‫ חקב׳ה‬was not known to the teachers of the Tannaitic period. P. or. 2. and. Yet. P. with the exception of very few cases. even here. Besides ‫ המקום‬our source contains all the old terms of the Tannaitic period. I t is due either to a later redaction.

של הקב׳ה בעיז היו כלים מן העולם‬ ‫יאלולא ש ת פ ו י ש ר א ל ש מ ו ‪Sifre 81 Β. p. M . p.‬‬ ‫והמקום· ‪ . M.‬‬ ‫ט ו ב ולא בעיני המקום‬ ‫בעיני היה‪M. 67 B. Sifre.‬א ד ם מ ו ר ד במקום א ל א‬ ‫י א מ ר לו הקביה ה י י ל י ‪ . 11.‬‬ ‫״‪.‬‬ ‫־המקום א מ ר לאבינו ‪.‬‬ ‫״‪ . § 49.‬לפני ה מ ק ו ם ‪ ..‬‬ ‫‪ . T. T..Τ.‬יש ש ק ר א ו ע צ מ ם עבדים והקב׳ה ק ו ר א ם עבדים‬ ‫ק ר א א ו ת ם עבדים‬ ‫‪ . Τ. p . ib. § 33. .‬אף ה ק ב ׳ ה פ ת ח ל ה ן ‪i b . Sifre 75 Β. § 27‬בך מ ש ה היה מ ב ק ש מ ל פ נ י המקום ‪M. T .‬‬ ‫ה ז ה ר ו ש ל א ת מ ר ד ו בהקב׳ה שאין א ד ם מורד· ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫א מ ר ו י ש ר א ל ל מ ש ה רבינו אי‬ ‫· א פ ש י ט שתברבינו אנו מ ו ב ט ח י ם‬ ‫·על ב ר ב ו ת ה ר ב ה המקום א מ ר‬ ‫לאבינו א ב ר ה ם כי ב ר ך א ב ר כ ך‬ ‫‪. Sifre. Sifre 86 A‬אלו ד ר כ י המקום ‪ .‬א ׳ ל המקום ‪i n M . T. T. M . p.‬‬ ‫בך מ ש ה מ ב ק ש מלפני הקב׳ה ‪ .. p..‬‬ ‫שנים עדים‬ ‫. 15.‬‬ ‫‪with each other :‬‬ ‫ה ק ב ׳ ה ה ב ט י ח א ת א ב ר ה ם אבינו‬ ‫‪Sifre. 69. 71A. T. 73 A.:‬באי זה צ ד אוהבים א ת הקביה ‪ . Sifre 74 A. Sifre‬ש מ ו ש ל מקום ‪Μ.‬‬ ‫·‪ .‬המקום ‪ . Sifre 70 Β. 26.‬‬ ‫‪Through a copyist..‬‬ ‫בך א מ ר מ ש ה לפני הקב׳ה ‪. T. T. 29. § 26. T. .. א מ ר להן המקום ‪ . 6 reads‬‬ ‫‪ . § 10.‬א מ ר להם הקביה ‪ . . p.‬א ת המקום ‪MS. M. P. M.‬א מ ר להן ה ק ב ' ה ‪ . Adler.. T.‬־ובו׳ ו א ת ה נ ת ת ה קצבה לברבותינו‬ ‫· א ׳^‬ ‫קצבה‬ ‫אני‬ ‫בויד‬ ‫אני‬ ‫·לברכותי ה׳ א ל ׳ ה ר ׳ א ת ׳ ה׳ אלהי‬ ‫ובו׳ ‪ . Mishna). 10 Β.. We compare the two texts. 16. Sifre. Τ.‫‪140‬‬ ‫‪THE NAMES OF GOD‬‬ ‫‪ (V. ו י י ט ב בעיני ה ד ב ר ולא בעיני הקביה ‪§ 21.‬‬ ‫ד ו ד המלך א מ ר לפני הקביה ‪ .‬המקום‬ ‫ת מ ר ד ו במקום ש א י ן ‪ . ib.‬המקום ‪. § 31. 38. 2585 r.‬‬ ‫א מ ר ו לו רבינו מ ש ה אי איפשי‬ ‫לנו ש ת ב ר ב נ ו הקב׳ה ה ב ט י ח א ת‬ ‫א ב ר ה ם אבינו א מ ר ו ה ר ב ת י א ת‬ ‫זרעך ובו׳ ו ש מ ת י א ת זרעך ובו׳‬ ‫ו א ת ה נותן קצבה לברכותינו מ ש ל‬ ‫ל מ ל ך שהיו לו נכסים ה ר ב ה דפר‪/‬‬ ‫‪M.‬המקום ‪M. § 43.‬‬ ‫‪ . M. Sifre 80 Β. M . Here a whole sentence‬א ב ר ה ם — המקום ל א נתן קצבה לבר בתינו‬ ‫‪is missing from the edition.‬א מ ר ו לו המקום ל א נחן‬ ‫•קצבה לברכותינו א מ ר להן זו מ ש ל י‬ ‫ובו׳ מ ש ל ל מ ל ך ‪. § 37. M. Sifre. § 26. Τ .‬ב ה ק ב ׳ ה א ל א מ ת ו ך ש ר ע ה‬ ‫זהזהרו ש ל א‬ ‫. 3 6 . T. i b .‬א ל א ב מ ד ת הקביה ‪.‬א ל א ב מ ד ת המקום ‪25.‬אלו ד ר ב י ה ק נ י ה ‪85 A.s error the whole passage between‬‬ ‫‪ was omitted. .‬לפני המקום ‪M. T.‬‬ .‬ק צ ב ה לברכותינו ‪ and‬קצבה לברכותינו‬ ‫. M. 43.

and ‫ המקום‬the primary term used by the ancient sages. ‫ . T. and in all of them the concluding phrase sounds : ‫כשם שדנתי‬ ‫( לכף זכות המקום ידין אתכם לכף זכות‬b. when the name ‫ הקב׳ה‬was not yet in use. Joshua b. The whole passage is taken from a Tannaitic source. Erubin 54 A). The later they are the greater appears the influence of the Amoraic Haggada. ‫. 63.‫ . we cannot help feeling that ‫ הקביה‬must bo the secondary. שהקביה מעמיד חמה ולבנה‬M. ‫א׳ר עקיבא חס ושלום‬ ‫ . (7) The Haggada in the two works of the Talmud. אלא מה שהמקום שונא‬Sifre 92 A. Abba Hanan. An old Boraita has : ‫הרואה אותם צריך שיתן‬ . The stories. namely ‫הקביה‬. A Boraita is quoted : ‫תלמיד אחד היה לו לר' אליעזר בן יעקב שנתחייב בשריפה למקום‬ (b. It will be consulted and quoted eventually in the course of this treatise. the former says : ‫ברוך המקום‬ ‫( שמנעו לאותו האיש מכולם‬b. Wherever and whenever critical resources. are at our disposal. in the name of R. ‫שהמקום מעמיד‬. In another Boraita we read ‫יש בהם חובת מצוה‬ ‫( למקום‬ib. 152 Α). can be used as a test to prove or disprove our theory. 45. ‫ דרכים‬. 11 A). ונתן לפנינו המקום‬ Sifre 91 Β. Joma 3 B). § 81. Korha with a certain eunuch. Eliezer.THE SOURCES 109 § 53. There are many passages where the original ‫ המקום‬stands in our texts as well. ‫לא נתכוונו להקריב אלא דבר שהקביה שונא‬ M. These instances can easily be increased to show that ‫ מקום‬is the primary reading. This survey of the Tannaitic writings teaches clearly that the oldest sources comprise sayings without the name ‫ הקביה‬. In order to avoid unnecessary repetition we will draw from various parts of the Talmudic Haggada. Shabb. Τ. T. which aim at teaching that a man should give credit to his fellow men for good and not for evil. mentions the old saying of ‫בזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום‬ (b. even in a limited way. Yet we have still other proofs to corroborate our contention. 127 B). the Babylonian and the Palestinian. ונתן הקניה לפנינו ב‬M. It is impossible to give here the whole of our material. Shabb. refer to events in the life of people who lived in the first century.. In the story of R. 55. and was displaced by the term of the Amoraic period.

R. in which ‫ המקום‬is the general term. the second. Abba Helkijahu. and ‫ . Sotah ix. 12 B). This latter group will be briefly characterized in the next division. Sotah v. הקב׳ה‬and the third where ‫ הקביה‬is the rule and ‫ המקום‬the exception. וכי יש שינה לפני המקום‬j. First the sources. 8) \ At the end of a Boraita : ‫( והיו שמחין שהסכימה דעתן לדעת המקום‬pal. Eleazar b. Many other similar observations can be made in reviewing our material derived from the Palestinian Talmud. Ber. It is true that both Talmudic texts embody sayings by Amoraic Haggadists in which ‫ המקום‬figures. and many more passages. Shabb. also ib. Simon. Shetach..‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD ‫( שבח לפני המקום‬b. R. Hillel's proselyte. If that would not be the case one could hardly explain the fact why Simon b. R. Ber. 30 B). 7. Eliezer b. 6. Hyrkanos says that 'one should comfort a friend at a loss of a slave or cattle with the words ‫המקום‬ ‫( ימלא לך חסרונך‬pal. . may suffice to show that the redactors or editors of the Babylonian Talmud preserved faithfully their sources. R. some of the later preachers reveal an antiquarian practice of using old phrases. vii. 11 : ‫ כעם הוא לפני המקום‬. liai and R.. R. Secondly. the latter says: ‫ומה ישראל שנקראו בנים למקום‬ (b. and others should speak of ‫ המקום‬and not ‫ ? הקביה‬There must be a cogent reason for this remarkable fact. Jose b. which can easily be multiplied. Judah b. The two texts of the Talmud really belong to the third period of the Rabbinic writings. j. In the story of Hillel with the proselyte. 54 B). Halafta used to say when visiting the sick : ‫( המקום ירחם עליך‬ib. Eleazar b. These instances. The latter have to be divided into three groups. ii. ‫ הקביה‬the exception or a later gloss . in which ‫ המקום‬was displaced by ‫ . Yet we can account for them in one of two ways. We see in this fact the most eloquent evidence for the genuineness and veracity of our Rabbinic sources. 16) . Akiba. Azarja to R. Sotah v. 6. In many cases the Talmudic texts enable us to reconstruct the original readings in the Tosefta or Tannaitic Midrash. First of all the saying may be of Tannaitic origin altogether.

R. ‫מי הוא זה שעושה‬ ‫ סרסור ביני לבין המקום‬.230. 2. 272. Levi. 13.54. very often. Isaac). Akiba.' (2) ‫איש‬.R.66) ‫עולמים‬ (29) ‫שמים‬. when probably the reform of the name was not yet definitely carried through. We consider first the Genesis rabba. (19. 73. 100 8. whilst ‫ הקב׳ה‬occurs many hundred times. 11). v. Aha). Meir. 8). 140.6) . R. when the name ‫ מקום‬was entirely discarded and out of use.131. (15).291.THE SOURCES 109 (8) Our observation is even more fully confirmed by the Midrashim. (26) ‫רוח הקודש‬. (18) ‫מלך מלכי המלכים‬. 66. (28) 2 . R. (10) ‫גלגל‬ ‫( עינו של עולם‬R. )אלופו של עולם‬5) ‫בודק לבבות‬ 67. Aibo) . (7) Η ‫בעל‬ 93. R.28)‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬ 593. 11. v. 519. and advanced their theories. (22) ‫( עליון‬220. ‫נסעו מזה ממדותיו של מקום‬. ‫א׳ל הקב׳ה לית את ירע דאנא הוא בודקיהון‬ ‫( . R. ‫( . (9)565)‫ ג ד ו ל העולמים‬. (8) ‫(בעל פקדונות‬560).9 51. 4 . Simon b. r. 67. which undoubtedly belong to the period of the Amoraim. (17). or ' Lord of the whole world. 99. (19) ‫מעלה‬ (119. Jannai.100. (4) ‫( אלוף‬182. There we learn the terms: (1)156)‫ ) א ד ו ן לבל בריותיך‬.3420. Azarja). several times . 3) . in a saying of R. Hananja. 28. . (3) ‫אלוהות‬. (14) ‫יוצר‬. Berechja. very frequently. Hama b. ‫ אלוה‬when idols are spoken of. (9) The same result can be gathered from a thorough . Joshua b. Joshua b. (20) ‫( מרום‬65. seven times . R. 252.19824)‫יחידו של עולם‬ 16) ‫)כבוד‬. First. Johai. Josiah. (24) ‫ ק ד מ ו נ ו של עולם‬. Johai. Eleazar b Simon) . R. 93. R.661. 654. Yet. The third passage (68. Isaac). ‫ י‬Lord of all Thy creatures . (11) 246. 572). Aha). Eleazar b. R. (23)3)‫ ) צ ד י ק חי העולמים‬or 356) ‫( צדיקו של עולם‬570) .(18. The teachers and preachers at that time inquired as to the meaning of the term. Levi). (27) ‫שכינה‬. in a saying of R. Judah. 5). 2. R. several times. (21)‫( מרי‬114. the term ‫ מקום‬is mentioned altogether three times. and 84. Haninah. also 412). 401. R. Simon b. (12)678)‫ ה ו א‬. (13) ‫( חי העולמים‬418. Aha. Creator. Both teachers belong to the first generation of Amoraim. R. Ami. or ‫אדון כל העולם‬ 365). Man. (25) ‫( קונה‬86) . and 92. Huna in the name of R.85 R.)דלבביא‬6) ‫בורא‬. or heathen in dispute with the Rabbis referring to God . R. 334. R. 3.10) is by R.

בשם ר' שמעון‬here the source of the idea can be traced back . with some additions as in the Genesis rabba.5. the old Tannaitic ‫( מי שאמר והיה העולם‬p. however ib. 55. who speaks of ‫ מקום של רחמים‬and ‫מקום של פורענות‬. Samuel b. Levi). however. Cant. as well as in the Tanhuma. (Nahmani). 77. (12) Midrash Samuel (ed. these Tannaitic sentences remained unchanged. Levi. Buber). 116. ‫ר׳בא‬ ‫ . iii. Exodus rabba and Numbers rabba). (11) The Midrash on Psalms contains fourteen passages with ‫מקום‬.‫ה ו א צוח לפניהמקום‬ 165 A. Idi. which occurs several hundred times. originally from Sifre Num. Samuel b. ‫אבל מי שאויה‬ ‫ב״ה אינו כן אלא מתקן את הרטיה ואח׳ב מכה‬. 98. iv. 91. or with reference to heathen deities. Halafta : ‫הנה אני‬ ‫במקום הזה אין כתיב כאן אלא הנה מקום אתי מקומי טפל לי ואני מפל‬ ‫למקומי‬. 88. 133). R. like the Matrona. either in dialogues by heathen. ii. Levi. Further ‫( בורא‬pp. Some of these passages are surely of Tannaitic origin or belong to teachers of the early Amoraic period. r. others are borrowed from Tannaitic sources. v. (10) Pesiktaof R.‫חס המקום על כבודו‬ ‫( . ‫ מקום‬. We may assume that here. Huna. 120).של צדיק‬2) 96B. 144. iv. Nahman. Simon b. Jose b. R. v. R. 120. R. 99). Simon. but never as substitute for ‫ המקום‬or ‫הקניה‬. in a saying of Abba b. Buber. ‫היה העכבר אומר לספסל‬ ‫אני שלוחו של מי שאמר והיה העולם‬. R. Throughout the name ‫ הקניה‬is dominant. 88. does not seem to assume that the term ‫ מקום‬is still connected in the popular mind and speech with the name of God (i. in the name of R. Aha). 22. whilst the majority have ‫הקניה‬. 70. 98. ‫אנו באים לפני המקום‬. The term ‫ מקום‬is mentioned altogether five times (v. 64. ‫( בעל פקדונות‬p. cf. R. we observed in some books (e. Johai. 4. Zutra in the name of R. 79. Here we meet the same names. Kahana has also ‫ הקניה‬as a most signilicant feature . 11.‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD examination of the Tanhuma (I. Cracow. 147(3 R. and v.. in six places. R. This Midrash has ‫( אלהיט‬pp. These are (1) 15 A. Yalkut Samuel. 1893). 109. 182(4 165(5).g.

1·. 47. 83). 62. have ‫ המקום‬more frequently. ed. 11b have the same reading. Exodus rabba. 8. 134... Most of these sayings belong to the teachers of the third century.‫ . however. rabba. 64 and 141. 63.60 The later Midrashim. Hama.‫)ממיר‬. 74. may be that the alteration is due to the quotation in Tanh. p. Simon b. ch. 52. 11 and 32. Such are the younger Jelamdenu. B. 480. v. r. 84.. Jose b. ed. B. Leviticus rabba show the same characteristics. ‫ כבוד שמים‬in antithesis to. where the tendency is proved to have prevailed to substitute ‫הקב׳ה‬ for other terms. R. has ‫ ה מ ק ו ם‬twice. which have many excerpts from older works. The same may be the case in Bar Kappara's sentence. r. F. The name ‫ הקביה‬is quoted very frequently. 44. Gen. v.. p. Johai. Phinehas b. 141. 48. 1‫׳‬. Ber. In a dialogue of the Matrona and R.Judan. i. ‫וכי שכינה היה עומד? אלא כל זמן שהוא‬ ‫עומד לפני כאלו עומד לפני השכינה‬. ‫עשה הקביה את שאינו נראה‬. Agadath Beresliith. Simon b. The term ‫ המקום‬is found very rarely in them. Samuel once. Numbers rabba. Lam. Halafta. There are one or two exceptions. twice. however Gen. בכל מקום‬the latter name occurs only once. 84.‫( שכינה‬in the sayings of It Hijja.51 and Pirke R. ‫להודיע שבחו של משויה שהוא מקרב את‬ ‫הרחוקים ושמח ובו׳‬.(‫כבודעצמו‬ 13)) Other Midra Cant. further ‫ מלך‬and ‫( מלכות שמים‬pp. 84. Pes. Johai . ‫ הקב׳ה‬. and in such form that we are enabled to recognize their origin at once. sc. and Ag. ch. 52 .1. and R. 19. Menasse. ‫שפרקו עול שמים‬. Isaac. 68. 48. r.‫כל המעיז‬ ‫)פניו במלך באילו מעיז פניו בשכינה‬. ‫רחמנא‬ (p. There are further the terms ‫( רבון כל חעול מים‬pp. and even there it is doubtful. M. 4.. Eliezer. Th. 64. ‫מלכות שמים‬. Lev. 64. the question is ‫ ?לכמה ימים ברא הקב׳ה את עולמו‬It is rather unusual that the interlocutor should use this term instead of the usual ‫אלהיבם‬. Seder Elijahu. 27 and 42 .. p. above ‫מלך‬.‫)אלא במאן ררחמנא רעי ביה‬. p. 51 g j v e here the names of God in the Seder Elijahu or Tanna debe 50 Κ .THE SOURCES 109 to Tannaitic sources. and ‫ מקום‬once in a saying of R. Simon b. R. 71. All are dependent on Gen. Tanh. and ‫( שמים‬p. and in which the term ‫ הקביה‬was antiquated and supplanted by the older ‫אלהים‬. and 124. R.

‫ז‬3<‫נ‬ THE NAMES OF GOD

The Palestinian and Babylonian Talmud report the Tannaitic sayings mostly with the old terms. There is no better proof for the authenticity of a saying than the term for God's name. In a genuine old saying the term ‫ שמים‬or ‫ ; מקום‬in an overworked or later report ‫ הקביה‬occurs. Now it is very interesting to observe that in the eleventh and twelfth centuries ‫ הקביה‬of the third group and the ‫ האלהים‬of the later Midrashim have been supplanted by ‫המקום‬, even in Amoraic sayings. This is a specially characteristic feature
Eli jahu rabba (ed. Friedmann, Wien, 1900). This work offers fifteen names. Some of them occur only once or twice, e. g. ‫( א ב ה ר ח מ י ם‬pp· 19, 67). ‫אלוה‬ in speeches or questions of heathen, like p. 5. ‫מ פ נ י מ ה ב ר א א ל ו ה שקצים‬ ‫וכלי‬, p. 31. ‫ י‬Happy this people, whose portion is the Lord, their God 27.‫ס‬.Terah is told. ' make me a God »(‫)אלוה‬, likewise ‫ א ל ה ו ת‬for deities, pp.52, 151,?‫וכי יש א ל ו ה לעולם‬, but ‫ ה א ל ה י ם‬is also used in the fashion of Exod. r. and Num. r., v. p. 145. Once ‫ א ל ה י י ש ר א ל‬, p. 51, and ‫י ר א ת‬ ‫ א ל ה י ם‬, p. 83, and ‫ א ל ה י ם ש ב ש מ י ם‬, p. 8, instead of ‫ א ב ש ב ש מ י ם‬and ‫י ר א ת‬ ‫ ש מ י ם‬respectively. The author likes the name ‫ בוחן לבות וכליות‬for God, pp. 30, 44, 48,126. ‫ בורא‬occurs twice, pp. 27,139. Like Midrash Samuel, S. E. R. calls God ‫ ב ע ל הפקרון‬, p. 8. The term ‫ גבורה‬is used in a somewhat different sense from that in the older Midrashim, pp. 91, 108 ; all are drawn and go out from before the Geburah, or, c thus the angels of destruction descend on the command of the Geburah, and take them. God is the judge ‫( ריין י‬pp. 5, 56, &c.). Very frequent the old Tannaitic ‫( מי ש א מ ר והיה ה ע ו ל ם‬pp. 4,5, 9,15,17, 22, 31,69, 96, 97,103,104,105, 124 (twice), 132, 133 (twice), 139 (nineteen times), some of which may well have been excerpted from Tannaitic sources. Especially interesting is p. 69: ‫שמו ש ל הקב׳ה מ י ש א מ ר והיה העולם ברוך ה ו א‬. ‫ י‬God's kingdom ‫ י‬the kingdom of Heaven \ God as King of all kings is very much emphasized in this work. The term ‫ מ ע ל ה‬occurs in connexion with ‫כבוד ש ל מ ע ל ה‬, , ‫פנים ש ל מ‬, ‫כלפי מ ע ל ה‬, and ‫ מ ד ב ״ ד ש ל מ ע ל ה‬. Exceptional is the very frequent use of the term ‫ המקום‬in the S. Elijahu R. The sermons and meditations generally begin with ‫ברוך המקום ברוך ה ו א‬, giving expression to the doctrine of God's omniscience, goodness, justice, wisdom, omnipresence, and creatorship. Yet the passages with ‫ הקביה‬are even more numerous. I t seems that the S. E. R. adapted the old introductory form of ‫ברוך ה מ ק ו ם‬, which is to be found in the Mishna and Tosefta. This work is also rich in passages with ‫ רבו) העולם‬, or rather ‫רבון כל‬ ‫ ה ע ו ל מ י ם‬, ‫ ש ב י נ ה‬and ‫שמים‬. There is no other Midrash which offers such a rich source for the understanding and explanation of the term * Father in Heaven', as will be seen in the chapter treating on the relation of God to man.

THE SOURCES

109

of the Midrash collections and excerpts coming from the school of Rashi. There must be some deeper reason for these alterations, the finding of which is, however, outside our task. It can be solved only on the other hand with the help of all the manuscripts available. For our present purpose we must be content to have shown the development of the post-Biblical names of God, which are really Prolegomena to the Old Rabbinic doctrine of God.

κ 2

Β.

THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD (1) Omnipresence.
GOD is everywhere present, in heaven and on earth, in the upper and lower worlds ; He fills this and all the other worlds, which are numerous ; there is no space, whether on the ground or in the hollow of the air, which is not filled by the divine majesty, or thought of as free from the Shekhina. In this attribute, as in many other outstanding and significant problems of our doctrine, we can feel the influence of external polemics, and the impulse of internal creative power in dogmatic developments. We have, to begin with, R. Gamaliel II. His dialogues on this subject are to be analysed in the chapter of God's existence and unity. He is invisible, His place is not known, but there is no place void of the Shekhina. The teaching was repeated and elaborated in the School of R. Ishmael.1 The Shekhina is everywhere. This view is opposed to that taught in the Mekhilta 2 that the Shekhina does not dwell in the countries outside Palestine. We may see in this point also a difference between the two Schools. Many passages in the Bible are quoted to show the doctrine of God's omnipresence, like Ps. 139. 6-10, Zech. 4. 10, Prov. 15. 3, Amos 9. 3, Job 34. 21. Y et this School seems to have made a distinction between Shekhina and God. R. Jose b. Halafta was surely moved by heretic theories when he preached, ' Never descended the
* v. b. B. B. 25 χ : 2 IB. .

OMNIPRESENCE

149

Shekhina to the earth, and never did Moses or Elijah ascend to Heaven.3 One cannot fail to express amazement at such a sentence, which ignores many words in the Bible, like Exod. 19. 20. A Boraita enumerates ten of God's descents, and details them by enumerating some passages from the Bible. They played a great part in Haggadic lore.4 The same scribe revealed his opinion on our problem in another saying of his addressed to his son, R. Ishmael : ' If thou wilt behold the countenance of the Shekhina in this world, study the Torah in Palestine.'5 God is everywhere present, but can be seen only through study of the law in Palestine. Thirdly, R. Jose b. Halafta deals with our problem in an often-quoted sentence, ' We do not know whether God is the place of His world, or the world is His place'. From Exod. 33. 21 we derive that God is the place of His world, and not vice versa? Although the tradition as to the authorship of this saying is not perfectly established, inner reasons entitle us to ascribe it to this Tannaitic teacher of the second century. The deep thought expressed by this teacher anticipated metaphysical teachings of many a great thinker in the last centuries. A contemporary of our teacher, R. Meir, convinces us that the Scribes were interrogated about our teaching. According to our texts R. Meir was asked by a Samaritan to explain Jer. 23. 24 : ' Behold I fill heaven and earth \ How could God speak to Moses
b. Sukka, 8A; b. Shabb. 89A. v. Pirke R. Eliezer, chaps. 14, 25, 39, 40, 41, 48 ; Aboth R. N. ch. 34 ; Gen. r. 38. 12, 49. 10, ‫ ; תני י ש ב ׳ י‬Tanh. f. 13 A. The Hellenist, Aristobul, tried to explain these descents in a spiritual sense and to do away with the anthropomorphic conception, which contradicts the doctrine of God's omnipresence. 5 M. Ps. 105.1, ed. Buber, 448 : ‫א מ ר ר ׳ יוסי בן ח ל פ ת א ל ר ׳ י ש מ ע א ל‬
4 3

‫בעולם הזה עסוק בתורה ב א ר ץ‬

‫פני ש כ י נ ה‬

‫א ת ה לראות‬

‫מבקש‬

,‫בריר‬.

‫ישראל‬. 6 So Gen. r. ch. 68, ed. Theodor, 777 ; Exod. r. 45. 6 ; R. Jose b. Hanina, Midr. ha Gadol, 446 r. ; R. Jose b. Abun ; Tanh. Ex., ed. Buber, 16 ,‫תשא‬, has also R. Jose b. Halafta ; it was also in the lost parts of pal. Makkoth and Sifre, v. S. b. Z. Duran, ‫מגן א ב ו ת‬, ii. 9 ; y. now also M. Tannaim, 222, and above as to the history of ‫ מקום‬as God's name, p. 92.

He bases his homily on Neh. r.349 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD from between the two divisions of the ark? R. Levi remarks to Neh. Thou hast made the heaven. 9. B. art alone. Hoshaja took trouble to repeat the teaching of R. 'Whereever they are they are in God's presence'. but God's return at the place whither they were sent t o ' : cf. as we know from other sources also. were well aquainted and in frequent communication with intellectuals and philosophers of their respective places of residence. 9. of God concentrating His Shekhina in a certain place. v. 10 b. 25 A : ‫ שלוחי ב ר ד מ מ ק ו ם ש מ ש ת ל ח י ם‬7 ‫שלוחיך ל א כשלוחי בויד‬ ‫ ל ש ם מחזירין שליחותן א ב ל שלוחיך למקום ש מ ש ת ל ח י ן ש ם מחזירי! שליחותן‬. ed. we notice that R. 6 (' and the hosts of heaven bow down before Thee'): { Come.8 Turning now to the teachings of the Amoraim. 6. 25 A. Β. Mekh. Joshua b. . Ο Lord. 27 f. No wonder that the doctrine and its relation to the Bible cropped up in their discussions. We have here one of the many Amoraic interpolations of the Mekhilta.‫צמצום‬ b. Ishmaers school that God is omnipresent. Thy messengers are unlike the messengers of earthly kings. how much more likely is this with God.6: ‫ י‬Thou. who taught us the place of prayers '. 10 The same teacher forbids to walk proudly on account of Isa. The difficulty gave rise to the theory developed on the lines of R.35. : ‫ש א ת ה ב ש ר ודם מ ש נ ה ע צ מ ך‬ ‫ ב כ ל מ ה ש ת ר צ ה מ י ש א מ ר והיה העולם ע ׳ א בו׳כ‬. let us be grateful to our ancestors.9 R. 8 9 ‫א מ ר לו א ם‬ called . meaning to say that every place is fit for prayer. Th. Job 38. &c. 4.7 Both teachers. 3 (' full is the whole earth of His glory ') : ' It looks ‫ ד‬Gen. Sepphoris and Tiberias. 2A has the same saying anonymously: ‫ח ל א כשלוחי‬/‫שלוחי הקב‬ ‫ ב כ ל‬. Meir demonstrates by bringing large and small mirrors—that the figure of man changes according to the size of the lookingglass. B. ‫בו׳ד ששלוחי ב ר ד צריכין לחזור א צ ל שולחיהם א ב ל לפניך אינו כן ובו‬ ‫מקום שהן מהלכי[ נ מ צ א ו לפניך‬. Β. Meir's reply to his interlocutor. The latter return to the place whence they are sent forth. If that is possible in the case of a human being.

6.13 R. the Gnostics. 4 . ii. (. fuller ib. This is a mistake! The whole universe together is not greater than God's smallest finger can contain or touch (M. . R. Lakish follows R. Mekh. 24. Halafta in explaining the saying of God's descent on Mount Sinai.3.‫ הלא את השמיכ‬. Abba of Jophe: ‫ . 6. M. r. r. Zech. Tanh. r. One might infer from this passage that God fills merely heaven and earth. 9.‫אפילו בחללו‬ ‫)של עולם‬. 19.18). Although it appeared as if God descended on Sinai (Exod. מניין שהקב׳ה מלא חללו של עולם שנא׳ הלא את השמים‬further Num.. 20). ed. 23. yet the Sinai was dependent on Him . Jose b. ed. 319. 90. 10 . 9. 29 : . R. r. p. Phinehas b. but the waters of the sea were not diminished. 78 : ‫ דעו‬/ ‫לפי שהקב׳ה אומר להן והלא את השמים ואת ה א ר‬ ‫כי העליונים והתחתונים אין בהן אלא מעשה אצבעותיך‬. yet the world did not lack anything of the glory. 307. 8 ‫ נשא‬to Prov. Isaac. ‫הקביה‬ ‫אני ממלא העליונים והתחתונים‬. 62. 3. 10. Jose b. Buber. cf. Ammi. but he cannot be in both of them at one and the same time.10. 68. Ps. r. 3. Num. Ps. Pes. God 11 12 13 M. 8. Jose b. It once filled with water. Ps. Deut. p. 2B . p. Ps. Halafta's idea of God's omnipresence in a sermon based on Jer. 2. Ps. 19 B . Cant. p.11 R. Simon b. 390. Hama expresses the thought in this way: Ά worldly king can be either in his bed-chamber or in his reception room. Levi expounds Exod. Ιδ. and M. He developed further R. who alleged the inferiority of the 'Jewish' God (v. B. Kid. 12. iv. Tanh.(‫ויקהל‬ Gen.‫כביכול הקב׳ה מלא עליונים ותחתונים שנ‬ ‫ בכבודו שם שני מלא כל הארץ‬. 10. Hijja b. R. and others repeat R. 165 : ‫)אין בה אלא בדי מישוש אצבעו של הקב׳ה‬. 40. ib. 31 A). also Tanh. Halafta's saying as to God being the habitation of the world.OMNIPRESENCE 350 as if the creature would boast himself before his maker ‫י‬ (b.12 R. 9 . The Tabernacle was full of God's glory. 28. 19. and not the world the habitation of God. r. The parable leaves no room for doubt that the whole sermon is directed against the critics of God's creation. the upper and lower worlds.‫ובמקום שבא הנואף לנאוף הלא הקביר‬ ‫כבודו‬. 68.35 by the parable of a cave. which was situated near the sea. 68. 4.

and saves them. says R. R. all of them went to provide themselves with the supplies for their journey. but to no good purpose. r. 2. 5 . Cf.15 The doctrine is further illustrated in a legend. and the sea became silent. His fellow travellers asked : ' Do you not buy any provisions?' The Jew replies: 'What do you want of such a poor stranger as I am ? ‫ י‬They said : ' You a poor humble stranger ? We are strangers. When they reached a port. for we have heard that He hears your supplication whenever you cry unto Him Γ He poured out his heart in prayer.4. Some of us are here. This idea is derived from R.37. and cannot 14 Num. Ps. however. M. whilst the idols seem to be very near. Pirke R. yet they are indeed very far away. pal. The Jew remained on the boat. rise and entreat your God. He emphasizes also that God is near to all His creatures. Ber. Ber. 10 A . b. wherever you go. because they are confined to one place. your God is with you. Then. Sanh. in fire. 'is with his creatures on the scaffold. Tanhuma relates that once a whole company of pagans boarded a ship. u The often-quoted parallel between God and the human soul dwells on the fact that the soul fills the whole body. A great storm threatened the boat. 103. 15 b. 4. and a Jewish child was among them. even of the mightiest of kings. r. they turned to the Jew. Each of the passengers took his idol in his hands. Deut. others carry their gods with them and derive no benefit from them whatever. seeing that their gods could not help. 13 and Jer. 13 A . unable to hear the prayers of those who entreat them . Ber. in the den of lions. 12. 7 . 23. 148. 39 A . r. You. and all the lives on it were in the greatest danger of being lost. 29 . and said to him : ' Boy. which cannot be said of a human friend. likewise God the whole universe.24. r. ch. Ps. prayed to it. although He seems to he far removed.' 16 ' God '. 3.152 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD fills both in the same moment'. . Isaac. Exod. Lev. and our gods in Babylon or Rome . El. M. Gamaliel II's reply to his questioner. Ps. water. 8 . 13 B. iv. 16 pal. God heard his request.

v. 13 A. History of Religions. wherever they happen to be and whenever they originate and pass away. There must be a cogent reason for repeating and emphasizing this idea so often.. A correlative of this doctrine is the universalistic aspect of the Rabbinic doctrine of God. The teachers of Jewish religion advanced religious thought immensely by putting this idea in the forefront of their speculations. He knows the thoughts of men before they are conceived. now. With the conception of omnipresence is closely connected the doctrine of the omniscience of God. This is a subject which has not met with much appreciation on the part of modern theologians. Kittel. This was surely due to some mighty opposition to this theological conception. with very few exceptions. He knows the secrets of the heart before they rose in men. and foresees actions prior to their existence. God knew the world before it was created. ib. Since God is everywhere present. p. No sinner can hide his misdeeds before Him. 69. 18 î7 . Eleazar.OMNIPRESENCE 153 appear everywhere. We notice even in the apocryphal and pseudepigraphical writings that great stress is being laid on this doctrine. which will engage our attention in the chapter dealing with God's relation to man. Stuttgart 1926. The teaching found its way into one of the most solemn pal. history and life. Probleme des pal. also R. Spätjudentums und Urchristentums. The whole doctrine is alien to the spirit of polytheism. He knows man and the world. Since the omnipresence is not only in space but also in time. Moore. The writers of those books.' 17 It is natural that this doctrine was developed in no other religious system as in Judaism. and G. however. do not get weary of repeating God's omniscience. 133 f.18 (2) Omniscience. 1920. V. p. as a consequence God's knowledge has no limit either in space or in time. 13 B. Ber. ii.

in Yalkut Deut. and testest the sinews and heart !‫ י‬is the Jew's prayer on the Day of Atonement. Johanan b. v. M. Sanh. Ezek. Simon b. 10. and the hidden thoughts of every life . &c. &c. 12. 79 B. 890-91. 1. 31. also saying : ' A human being does not know his minutes. Gen. vi. also Oppenheim. Ishmael asks as to Exod. R. 29.1 54 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD prayers in Jewish liturgy. . 6 Ib. 74 A. § 827 . and paraiis. ix . The latter treated master and slave in the same way. ed.12 (' when I see the blood '). 4 6 b. Theodor.. as if it could not hear (cf. 85. and rise up. The former thought of God's eye. 1894. Johanan repeats the same doctrine in the name of R. nor is anything covered from before Thy eyes !1‫ י‬The preachers introduced their homilies by announcing emphatically this attribute of God: ‫ברוך המקום‬ ‫ ומניד מראשית אחרית מקדם עד שלא נעשה‬. 'Thou knowest the secrets of the world. as if it could not see.16 : ' And the Lord said unto Moses. S. 3 .3 R. times. for they read : c And the people will rise up . ‫ ה א ס י ף‬. ' Nothing is hidden from Thee.5 who dwells on this teaching in another homily.‫ברוך הוא שמכיר בראש ובסוף‬ ‫ויודע מה שנעשה ומה שעתיד להיעשות וצופה לטובה ואין צופה לרעה‬. ch. 94. E. Joshua said : ‫ י‬Do admit at least that God knows the future!' 4 R. E. They had to contend against those who thought that God cannot see and discern human actions. The questioners were not satisfied. Tadshe. Zakkai explained to his pupils why the Law dealt more severely with the thief than with the robber. :‫השוה כבוד עבד לכבוד קונו כביבול עשה עין‬ 2 1 ‫שלמעלה כאילו אינה רואה ואזן של מעלה כאילו אינה שומעת‬. and the people will go whoring after the gods " '. and hours.6 R.. and His ear. Ps. 3 Β. r. and light dwelleth in Him ' (Dan. D.15. Mahzor Vitry. Isa. 9). 97. Thou search est the chambers of the womb.2 R. κ. but God knows them'.7. Hananja is reported to have been asked by the Romans (‫ )רומיים‬: ' Whence do we know that God will revive the dead and knows the future % ' The scribe replied by quoting Deut. f. R.Z. . Tanh. p. 90 Β . " behold thou shalt sleep with thy fathers. p. ' Is not everything revealed before Him ? He knoweth what is in the darkness. Johai. Joshua b. 9.10.

ed. Jon. of the Passover-sacrifice and of the circumcision (12. One of these objectors asked R. 32.' R. whether high or low. e. Beth Talmud. implying the teaching of God's omniscience. : ' Wèll. Sayings like Gen. Jer. 139. whether humble or quarrel‫־‬ some '. H. v. ויחמי ית א ד מ א‬v. Origines. 3. Harnack. these instances later insertions of the Jews. 1 Κ.7 The verb does not mean to say that God saw.10 Philo 11 and the writers of the Clementines. 8 A. K. 6. J. : ' Yes. 12. b. b. 12. : ' Yes. 1 Sam. iii. 011 the opposition of the Gnostics to this doctrine. 8 Ps. 296. have you got a son?' H. 12). 17. but that God revealed Himself as a reward for performing the duties connected with the Passover. Gesch. K. : 4 Yes. 11 Quod deus sit nesciunt. for God's repentance and grief V R. 198. about similar inquiries in the Middle Ages between Jews and Christians. O n k e l o s . 6 : ' Do you not say that God knows the future % ' R. Jonathan translates in this sense: ‫ ו א ח מ י ית זכות א ד מ ה‬.12 The latter saw in all. 27. v. 3 ‫י‬ Gen. 27. : 'The same is the case with God !‫י‬l?> Great stress was laid by the Amoraic preachers on the ‫ ל‬Mekh. b. 15. 13). but one should rejoice at the time of joy. ‫גו‬ Schliemann. 13. 18. above. b. r.16) : f God. : ' Did you not consider that the boy would die V H. ‫ . : ' I rejoiced and caused others to rejoice with me ! ' R. 23 he translates l i t e r a l l y . b. 69.9 There were other passages in the Scriptures which gave rise to many objections to this teaching and called for doubts. yet v. and mourn intime of death. According to a second interpretation God remembered the sacrifice of Isaac. Darstell. Korha about Gen. J. 38. 10. v.' R. 35 caused trouble to the ancient translators. : ' What did you do when he was born V H. 32 . then. ‫ד מ א‬ ‫ו י ח ד ית‬ 0 v. J. Joshua b. p. 22). 8. K. K. i. 320. Dähne. J. p. 10 v. K. who knows the mind and spirit of each individual. 12 A.8 The Siphre Zutta explains the term ‫' אלהי הרוחות‬God of Spirits' (Num. the darkness hideth not from Thee ' (Ps. 1 Yea. 57A : ‫ת ה נ ו ל ד‬ questioner speaks of ‫ ה ק ב י ה‬. . i. . Horowitz. J. die Clementinen. ii. 7 .' Heathen : ' How do you account.OMNIPRESENCE 1 55 2.

the others will be punished in Hell. 152. 229. At the gate of the orchard there was a treasury full of precious things. R. above.. though he is invisible. above. Hoshaja 14 expounds Isa. 15. r. Exod.4. Those that observe faithfully the Torah will receive their reward in the Garden of Eden. 1. Th. p. We saw above that he preserved a saying of R. r. Zakkai used already for the same purpose. R. his eyelids try the children of men \ Like a king who owned an orchard. 99. yet my eyes behold !' R. from whom do ye hide yourselves ? God formed man and he wants to hide himself from Him. not so God. 3. hence the others will be judged in my palace \ God is the King of all kings. 1 . B. p. to illustrate God's omnipresence : ‫ כשהן נכנסין‬Υ Π ‫מ ל ך‬ ‫לטרקלין אינו ר ו א ה מ ה בקיטון א ב ל ה ק ב י ה אינו כן‬. r. p.. who built a palace with all its rooms. Johanan b. Jannai 10 treats this doctrine at some length with reference to Ps. 2. 154. 154.נשא‬Num. in the name of R. Tanh.355 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD idea that sinners cannot hide their evil deeds or wicked thoughts before their Maker. 15 v. 2 4 . if a king enters the triclinium. 8. Levi. 2 . J. v. The world the orchard. Ps. and said : ' I built all these secret places .15 rebuking those ' that seek deep to hide their counsel from the Lord. his eyes behold. 11.‫. on our subject 17 : ' God can behold the upper 14 So in edd. a passage which R. 1(5 Tanh. 9. 29. ' The Lord is in his holy temple. he gathered workmen into it. Children of men the workmen. 6. ed. M. and became their tax-collector. iv. and their works are in the dark. Ps. The king said : ' Whoever will discharge his work wholeheartedly shall get his wages. b. channels. the Lord's throne is in heaven . ii. His throne is in Heaven. and underground places. 11. Gen. Johanan bar Nappacha must have had special reasons to recur so often to our doctrine. 17 v. sees everything. and they say : ' Who seeth us and who knoweth us? ‫ י‬Like an architect. Hama. and thinks that God does not know and see ! R. S. B. lie cannot see what happens in the κοιτών . quotes another parable similar to that given above. 14. . yet He ‫ צ ו פ ה ו מ ב י ט ב כ ל העולם ואין עין ש ו ל ט ת בו‬. 1 . Phinehas b. God says : 4 Although I seemingly removed my Shekhina from the sanctuary. however. M.

‫. Th. R. r. r.1.22 God knew that in future righteous and wicked would arise. Ag. R. 22 A few instances will suffice. Phinehas b. R. b. ‫ . ‫צ פ ה ה ק ב ׳ ה ש ה ו א ע ת י ד לקרוא‬ ‫ . ‫צ פ ה‬ ‫ כוונתה א ל א ל ש ם ש מ י ם‬. &c. 11. ch. . Th. 1. 1. L. R. R. 9.‫ צ פ ה ה ק ב ׳ ה שעתידין י ש ר א ל ל ה כ ע י ס לפניו‬. 2. צ פ ה ה ק כ ׳ ה ש א ח ר כ ׳ ו דורות ישראל ובר‬Gen. Samuel b. צ פ ה ה ק ב י ה שקרח ע ת י ד ל ע מ ו ד‬Tanh. ‫צפוי וגלוי ל פ נ י ה ק ב ׳ ה‬ ‫שעתידין ישראל‬. v. 74. לעשות‬Gen. above. ‫ . R. j u d a h b. ‫צ פ ה ה ק ב ׳ ה ש נ ׳ נ וחירום מ ל ך צור עתידיו‬ ‫ . 17. 8. Hanina b. 3. also Num. iv. r. 18 . Th. r. עליה ת ג ר ל פ י כ ך‬Gen. Hama.13. T11. 6. 41. 9. Abahu. 5. 5.‫ה ע ו ל ם הזה והעולם ה ב א ה ב י ט ב ה ם ה ק ב ׳ ה ראיה אחת‬ 21 Gen. R. 6. 23. 9 . in his name : ‫וכולן נסקרין בסקירה א ח ת‬ v. ‫צ פ ה ה ק ב ׳ ה ו ר א ה ש י ש ר א ל‬ ‫ . 30. r. Hama.‫ . ed. Moses and Thorah passed before His eyes long before their birth. r. also 12. 11. instead of R. 6f. not so a human king \ 18 ' God beholds the deeds of all creatures 19 at one glance. 2. r. Th. Tanhum b. v. Hijja bar Abba. ל ע ש ו ת עצמן א ל ו ה ו ת‬Gen. 2. Aha. 1·. 3. ר א ה צדיקים ורשעים יוצאים מ מ נ ו‬Gen. . 3 : . Samuel b. and rebuilding of the Temple. 3. Hama. r.20 The same teaching is further developed by R. Abbahu. r. ‫ . Ber. Gen. ed. ‫ו צ פ ה הקביה שיעקב‬ ‫ ע ת י ד ל ע מ ו ד מ מ נ ו‬. 18 Β. [‫א ל א צ פ ה הקביה ש א ו ׳ ה עתירי‬ ‫ . Th. 9. r. 3. one would be inclined to suggest R. and R. ed. ‫מ ת ח ל ת ברייתו ש ל עולם‬ ‫ . r. צ פ ה הק׳ ב מ ד ה‬Gen. א ח ת‬v. 2 (the earth). Gen. r. the knowledge of the nations. 8 . S. 10. R. Hanina b. R. 23. 4. Simon b.21 The former teaches that God foresaw the deeds of the wicked and righteous. destruction. 20 Gen. iv. r. Haniiai. 6. developed the teachings of the earlier Haggadists. Rabba b. 98. ed. 12 (Jacob). R. Hama. 1. Abba. Abbahu and R. Joseph. 40. מ ת ח ל ת בריית העולם צ פ ה ה ק ב ׳ ה מ ש ה כי קרוי ט ו ב‬ Gen. Hijja i the great . Isaac. Gen. ed. R. also Exod. R.' R. 3. Jannai instead of R. The ' foresight‫ י‬of God is one of the most favoured motifs of the Haggada. Gen. Hijja b. according to Gen. 5 . Gen. 2 (Adam).12 : ‫א ב ל ה ק ב ׳ ה ב ר א העליונים ו א ת ה ת ח ת ו נ י ם ברייה א ח ת‬ ‫ י‬All the worlds were created at the same time \ 19 b. v. Lakish taught that God foresaw both worlds with one glance. 5. that Israel would receive the Torah and sin . ה ק ב ׳ ה ש ל א היתר‬Gen. I n that case R. B e r e k h j a .3 and 40. Simon . Exod. r. H. 68 : ‫מ ל ך ב ו ׳ ד בונה פלטין מ ב י ט בעליונים ר א י ה‬ ‫א ח ת ו ב ת ח ת ו נ י ם ראייה א ח ת א ב ל הקביה מ ב י ט בעליונים ו ב ת ח ת ו נ י ם ראייה‬ ‫ . 18. מקבלין ה ת ו ר ה‬Tanh. 24. r. r. r.OMNIPRESENCE 157 and lower world with one glance . 4. r. the latter speaks of the building. Gen. ed. Isaac. w e find the verb ‫צ פ ה‬ in connexion with the knowledge of the future of many biblical persons. 4. r. 63.

and understandeth all the imagination of the thoughts'.' The Lord searcheth all hearts. according to some. 27 Tanh. " pal. Ps. Isaac. R. 13. 6-8 .25 R. 28 M. 14. dates back to the creation of the world. to His uniqueness or unity. R. ל פ נ י ך שאין א ר ה מ ק ב ל י ם א ת ת ו ר ת ך‬ib. R. p. 24 v. 3. which was of great influence on the earliest liturgical compositions. The Haggadists and Liturgists further furnish the phrase.23 The omniscience of God is due. above. A few instances of these Haggadic prayers will bear out the truth of this observation. R. Pes. and also in anonymous sayings. also Gen. Judan in the name ofR.28 Even before man is born his thoughts and For the phrase ‫ גלוי וידוע‬v. M. Levi. Abbahu: ‫גלוי וידוע‬ ‫ ל פ נ י מי ש א מ ר והיה העולם שאין א ר ה מקבלין א ת ה ת ו ר ה‬. Pedath and R. 3 : ‫ ה ק ב ׳ ה ע ד ש . and R. Eleazar ben Pedath . Ps. r. Eleazar b. where the teaching is repeated by R.20 Others. where the saying is ascribed to R. The fact that God knows past and future. 43 B: ‫ו כ ב ר גלר וידוע‬ ‫ . the thoughts of human souls. Levi. 200a. v. א ידבר א ד ם ה ו א יורע מ ה ב ל ב ו‬.. The first reads: ‫קודם ע ד ש ל א נוצרה מ ח ש ב ה בלבו ש ל א ד ם‬ 23 . 270 : ‫ע ר שאין א ד ם צ ר א ת ה מ ח ש ב ה ב ל ב ו‬ ‫ . and sees all movements of the body. Ber. 28).‫ .27 Many other Bible verses teaching the omniscience of God were amplified and elaborated in the homilies and teachings of the Scribes (1 Chron. like R. 45.158 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD idol-worship as well as the deifying of the individual.1.15. ed. . Simon.. note 14 . 25 Tanh.4. 33. B. Shalom.‫נשא‬. Phinehas b. r. Judah b. understands all their deeds'. God understands man's thoughts before they have been formed. it is revealed and known before Thee !‫ י‬by which the prayers of biblical personages in the Haggada are introduced. Abun base it on Job 23. The first thought is expressed by R.וירא‬Exod. Hama. Berekhja see it proclaimed in Ps. to His creatorship . ה ק ב ׳ ה מבין‬Exod. 21. 9. Haggai and R. according to others. ' He is One \ Owing to His Oneness He knows the judgement and mind of His creatures. 21. ' H e who formed together their heart. Hoshaja 24 or R. r. is one of the most firm religious convictions of the Scribes. ‫ר בהעי גלוי וידוע לפניך‬ ‫ י‬Lord of the whole world. 13 A. 14.

Hag. ‫ פרוזדוק‬b. 24. 34 M. Ps. i the eyes of the Lord. p. R.10. 'Can anyone hide himself in secret places that I shall not see him ? ‫ י‬R. David says before God : ' Thou knowest my resting and rising. 11. above. 1. Ps. Benjamin b. also Prov. Gen. Shetach. reading ‫ א ר א נ ו‬instead of ‫ א ר א נ ו‬. v. 68. ‫קודם ע ד ש ל א נוצר יצור כבר מ ח ש ב ת ו‬ ‫גלויה ל פ נ י‬. Who beholds all '. j. 1. ומי הוא א ל ו ה ה א ל ה י ם ה ר ו א ה ואינו נ ר א ה‬M. even before I was born (Jer. 12 and 25. 16). and I do not see . 3.4. r. 29 Tanh. which run to and fro through the whole w o r l d ' . 4. Everything is foreseen by God '. 17. 31 82 Tanh. 46. 79.35 He is not seen even by the creatures who carry His throne. Hoshaja. Jon. shall I not show him and put him to shame before the world Γ 30 Thirdly. Akiba's saying. Κ. Akiba. Levi interprets the sentence: 'If anyone hides himself in secret. 68 . Secondly. R. ‫ נ ח ש א‬in Ms n a m e . Hananja. 24 . 9.1. . 139. Peah 8 .29 R. ii. iv. so that insects issued from their tents : ' You think that you are acting in secret places. Isa. R.31 which 1s merely a repetition of. Jer.t Can a man hide in secret &c.9. there is no word on my tongue Thou dost not know ! 3 4 ‫י‬ Owing to God's omniscience he is also called ‫הרואה ואינו נראה‬ ' The Invisible. < Declaring the end from the beginning. and from ancient times that are not yet done. R. דין ד ח מ י ו ל א מ ת ח מ י א ל ק ב ל פ י ו ס ך‬b. PS. the latter r . R. Num. 5). 8 : ‫ . 24. Joshua b. B. ' Thou. B. 9. iv. or ‫יודע מחשבות‬. 35 v. also Tanh. Johanan b. Levi makes the Holy Spirit say to those Israelites who left the manna. 16.OMNIPRESENCE 159 actions are known to God. 1\ 9. 5 Β : ‫ . R. ‫ ' הבל צפוי‬Everything is foreseen \ 32 The doctrine of divine foreknowledge is older than R. Ο Lord.33 Fourthly. combining it with Zech. 16. Zakkai and his pupil. 23. 33 v. Ps. v. who used ‫' בעל מחשבות‬Lord of Thoughts'. R. taught the same. 50 Tanh. Simon : ‫ כ ל ה מ ע ש י ם רואה ואינו נ ר א ה‬. as one of God's names. according to ‫ כ ב ר ה י א גלויה לפניך‬. JUDAH b. תזכו להקביל פנים הרואים ואינן נ ר א י ן‬Deut. 10 and 2 Chron. or a support for. 528. i. 29 . Both were preceded by Simon b. knowest all '. all my steps I am going to walk in future (Job 14. Aboth iii. 15. Num. 91. Berekhja : ‫ .

and is free from magic and witchcraft. if God Himself was addicted to magical performances. Christianity. Akiba.36 (3) Omnipotence. 106. adapted themselves to a purer monotheism. If magic could influence God. even the highest. Whatever remained in dark corners of life and love. the Mystery Religions on the other. law and religion. then there is no room for the idea of omnipotence. Azzai adds that even the everlasting ministering angels cannot behold His glory. Num. likings and dislikings. If a god. 16 B. This attribute is another characteristic doctrine which places the religious thought of the Israelites higher than the climax of all the religions of Egypt. Megilla. v. Eleazar.160 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD R. educated and uneducated. the plans of the highest God. ch. There can be no doubt that people and scribes. Greece. Persia. 22. The goddess curtails by her sympathies and antipathies. which perished in the long fight during centuries. Here again the Christian religion could not rid itself entirely of pagan teachings. is not free in his actions and deliberations. A great drawback of the polytheistic religions is the idea of the sexes among Gods. and even the Greek Zeus is dependent on the members of his household. Cf. and disappeared from the soil of Palestine. consented to the belief and thought that 4 God's strength and might fill the earth'. and Rome. Israel knows no goddess. Mesopotamia. Ps. 2 . could not adapt itself completely to this higher conception. 14. The nature of polytheism and magical conceptions contradicts or denies this attribute of the Godhead. weakness of judgement and strength of feelings. owing to the influences of Hellas and Rome on one side. then His strength is not worth much. . 3 . Pirke R. E. 1 When the teachers 1 Siphra 4 β . priests and laymen. r. The religion of the Rabbis was free from all these shackles of superstition and misconception. the Zarathustrian god hindered by his counterpart. also b. R. habits and beliefs. Simon b.

OMNIPRESENCE 161 and preachers in the schools and houses of worship spoke of ‫ גבורה‬f Might '. For man's greatness lies not in his contribution to material progress of mankind. The Gospels (Matt. about nature and history. all the hearers knew without any need of further information that the all-powerful God. Curiously enough this most expressive word was not used when describing or depicting the miracles of life. We have seen that many Scribes of the first and following centuries knew this name. however. We do not meet at this stage of doctrine the idea of the incomprehensibility of God's power. and the almost incomprehensible work of creation. many traces of the teaching that man is unable duly to express God's greatness and power. The rebukes and warnings against those who tried to give utterance to God's greatness and might. We do find. Luke did not understand it. 62) quote this word and knew that God = ‫ — גבורה‬δύναμιy have the same meaning. the wonders of nature. life and death. some of which are recorded. 64. The ‫ י‬Gebhurah ‫ י‬was 4 the Power of God manifested in the light of the Torah. or who can praise Him according to His 2 v. L . Mark 14. of wisdom and might. but by making visible by moral and spiritual light. some unknown. 82. They were put in their right place. and who can show forth all his praise? Is there a being in existence who is able to utter the mighty deeds of God. therefore he added ' the might of God ' (τον Oeov). p. They must have had their own theories. by piety and wisdom the light of the unseen worlds. the Almighty Father in heaven was meant. which is superfluous (Luke 22. ' Who can express by words the mighty acts of God. 26. presuppose that there existed conceited people who pretended to do so. but to the great revelation of God's being and teaching to His people Israel on Sinai.2 By this testimony these men testified their own greatness and worth. God was the centre of all that is great and powerful. 69). The Scribes contribute a good many new points to the elucidation of this attribute. the riddles of the universe.

Hama went with R. R. Huna. Sa 3 . Such an attempt was earnestly rebuked and severely criticized by the teachers. 12 D . Jonathan. 33 b. 1 2 d . v.14. v. and greatness. R. who may or may not have been an adherent of some Gnostic sect. Johanan and R. I n the first place R. or ‫נטרד מן העולם‬. Abba b. based on Job 37. and not R. the second: . we can guess whom the teacher of Tiberias had in his mind when he pronounced his statement. B. more correctly. seems to imply the thought of the incomprehensibility of God's might. 159 f. Hana. another teacher of this age. not even the ministering angels are able to do so!' The angels. Meg. when visiting a place in the South. Ber. ideas and thoughts. Haninah b. Abbahu teaches this in the name of R.. and expressions. Johanan . can never convey the idea of God's power and might. Johanan b. in the second and third R. 20 . Ps. however M. Gnostics thought that by their intuition and magic one could penetrate into the chambers of heaven.3 cannot see God's glory. 18 A. Ps. they dared and pretended to reveal in their theosophical studies God's power. synonyms. Ber. Basing his words on Job 26. says : ' He who speaks or relates too much of God's praise will be uprooted from this world (life). he says : < All that thou seest is merely an infinitesimally small part v. where. ‫האל הגדול הגבור והנורא האדיר והאמיץ‬. R. 2. heard a reader. one of the authoritative spokesmen of the age. and these scribes ordered him to be silent ! 4 All the names and attributes. 163. say in the Eighteen Benedictions. power. ed. ‫נעקר מן העולם‬. p. Nappacha. M. pal. Ber. and ‫ מתבלע מן העולם‬are always used to express disfavour of heretic.162 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD greatness ? No. also b. especially Gnostic. Johanan. Strong words were used to condemn the heaping up of epithets in prayers or sermons. 163. we learnt above. b. There is a good historical reason for the fact that the teachers of the third century devote much attention to this problem. Jonathan. 19.'3a Since those expressions. nor can they utter all His praise.‫א ם ב א א ד ם ל ס פ ר גבורותיו ש ל ה ק ב ׳ ה מ ת ב ל ע מן העולם‬ 4 pal. We are told that R. The first preserved the saying : ‫ ה מ ס פ ר ש ב ח ו ש ל הקביה יותר מ ד א י נעקר מן העולם‬.

r. and put learning and wisdom on a very high level. 139. encouraged research. in his name . like Moses. Moses admitted the futility of man's endeavours to peneträte into the riddles of God's might. The answers to Whence and Whither are withheld. R. with all their love of and longing for. that man cannot come near to the knowledge of God's greatness and power. but his request is not complied with. 80 : ‫ יבולה ל ע מ ו ל‬. Johanan. also Tanh. also the parable of the medical practitioner. but there are barriers before the human mind. « M. according to R. how can he boast of being able to understand the ways of the King of all kings V 5 In this age the opinion was repeated that even the greatest men of antiquity. admitted modestly their inability to satisfy their desire of expressing God's omnipotence. note 22. Berekhja. 157. Β. ed. his wisdom. 1 . Ps. hurricane. storm. which prevent access to the gnosis of God's power.OMNIPRESENCE 163 of God's ways. Moses prays for such a revelation. God's answer is ‫אין א ת ה יכול ל ע מ ו ל‬ ‫ י על מ ר ו ת י‬man cannot fully grasp God's attributes \ ‫ י‬M. Eccles. 12. after many disappointments of research and seeking to reach it. 7) were understood to teach the incomprehensibility of God's creation on the part of man. 12. 6. 25.7 It has been pointed out already 8 that the omniscience of God. the Naamathite (Job 11. Buber. ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ 8 v. the gnosis. all the heavens folded into parchments. Mortal man is too weak or insignificant. Man cannot conceive the meaning of the thunder. 211. 527 .6 The words of Zophar. small and powerless to utter immortal God's power and might! This Gen.. which cannot be broken down. 1. If all the seas were ink. p. r. origins of world and man. . v. It is too much for the human mind. his own nature . fostered the value of knowledge. or . &c. The scribes. above. v. iii. all the forests supplied pens. all the hands and tongues of men could not approximately describe or depict God's power and greatness. could not reach a proper view of God's greatness. and David confesses. the order of the universe. 2. L 2 5 .‫אי} בריל‬ ‫ ע ל מ ע ש י ו‬. Ps. ed.

3. To Exod.' Thus says David : ' The whole earth and its fulness is unable to relate God's praise. &c. cites also Prov. and majesty. 19. 1926. J. Ps. are entitled to speak of the king's wealth and praise him. Jer. justice are much higher than the praise which can be expressed by man. 9. power. and 32. A very remarkable homily furnishes us with material on our problem particularly. 18. where he dwells. as a kindhearted man. 1 . faithfulness. wealth. 19. ii. and on the attributes of God especially. 3 . 3. 1. 10. B. 4. cf.'10 v. B. 112. R. Jer. Who is able to do so ? The heavens relate the glory of God. 21. 10. 8 . 'A king ruled over many cities. supplies Deut. 2. 10. 7. from Prov. 145. When a king enters a city. whilst he actually is weak . R. B. whilst he is cruel . as Farnell. 8. 2. love. 6. 1 in a shortened form and M. so and so many slaves. as a just judge.6. 9."‫ י‬A clever old man. 4. 10-16. 35 A. said : ' Whence do you know all this ‫ ?׳‬You are living so far from your king ? Have you seen his wealth ? The people of the city. but the rabbis did so likewise. p. 6. 1. b. beauty. J. 86. 42. Oxford. S. justice. 24. Mekli. 57 proves the attributes of wisdom. victory. Altogether the quotations and biblical proofs for the attributes are more complete in the Mekh. whilst he is poor . The M. 8 . b. than in the M. Ps. Ιδ. jewels. Isa. omitted here the passages for the attribute of power. 10 M.. Hag. 14. Quite different is the case with God (‫ ! )מי שאמר והיה העולם‬His power.Attributes of God. wisdom. For wisdom Mekh. wealth. whilst he is a fool . (. Ps. 17. Deut. 9 . 4 . assumes. In this sense sang the Israelites on the sea : " I will sing unto Him " ! 9 ‫ י‬In another homily a preacher explains Ps. for justice Deut. Mekh. 4 . 31 . as a rich man. Job 12. who listened to them. Dan. &c. 9 . J. The people of these ·places said : " The king has so much gold. is quoted Tanh. ' I will sing unto the Lord'. 24. 34. he is praised as a hero. The Mekh. Deut. Dan. Ps. 1 Chron. 6 . Deut. 211. an ancient preacher remarked : ' Unto God it is meet to attribute greatness. 25. 6. Isa. silver. Ps. for wealth Ps. We see here that not the Greeks alone attach importance to the attribute of beauty. love. 89. 2. 10. 11. glory. Ezek. although he refers to the Psalmist's 4 Out of Zion hath God appeared in perfect beauty ‫)י‬. and he has none of these virtues. as a wise man. R. 30. M. for love Ps. 454. 18.164 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD thought was repeated in homilies and parables. 1. b. S. 82. 9 and 32. 7 and 9. S. 2. Exod. Cant. 29. 1.

and ( / ) God's providence extends. M. 135 f. Abin . nos. 4 Therefore '. 2. 14 Mekh. Every reader who has followed with any attention the history and problem of the philosophy of religions. ' Wherefore does the text sa y. Abin ha Levy. Aha. Ps. 3 . 106.. 6 are not given there. the priest.12 ' man cannot express the multitude of God's kindnesses experienced by. Ps. and leads in war. ii. and shown to him. S. ed. 38 a . R. 88. Tanh. but man is unable to relate God's greatness and wonders. Judah ha Levy b. who performs wonderful things by HimselfV Does anyone help Him‫ ?׳‬or does He require help? No. soldiers. 2‫ג‬ M. They applied similes and parables to bring home this conception to their hearers. which he (man) enjoys. 1 β. R. ‫ לעושה נפלאות לבדו‬He. 5. 1 5 (b) His power and strength are unchanged through the ages . e. B. 9. Β. it is asked. and you will not find it sufficient ! ' Other contemporary teachers point out : ' David praised God with all the limbs of his body. Huna. B. R. battle-order. must credit this teacher of the first or second century with 11 M. 136. b. 518 . M. Shalom . 1. even during His fight against the Egyptians. Β. Berekhja formulates this thought : ' Praise Him as much as you can. 453. says R. § 751 r. פ י ח ד ו ר י א ב ר נ ח ש א‬V.' 13 In spite of this conscious weakness of the human mind. None of these deeds can be imitated by a human being. (e) God hears all who pray and cry unto Him in their distress . Ps. One tannaitic Haggadist develops the following aspects of our teaching : 1 4 (a) God has power and strength. Ps. . Î. pal. Yalkut Ps. 2. 13 v. J. 271 . also M. 1. 18. 1 .OMNIPRESENCE 11 165 A teacher extends this deficiency of human knowledge even to the understaDding of God's providence and care for His creatures.not neglect preaching on and dealing with this doctrine. in case they repent . ‫ . Ber. Simon and R. R. however mighty he may be. (c) God does not change His love and mercy even in chastising His creatures . (d) God changes His decrees issued against His creatures.. b. 15 ‫ ת כ ס י ס‬. the Haggadists did. 2. 4. and yet all his efforts proved unsatisfactory. . 61 has only nos. 1.' R.

His omnipotence is manifested further in the efficacy of prayers. poverty.166 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD deep insight in religious philosophy. God's power is unparalleled in this world. All of them are infinite. Yet the state of our literary documents is responsible for the brevity of the tradition. (God's power is unchangeable). and secondly. The efficacy of prayers was often. if God's decrees are settled. He touched. how could human prayer affect life. with the attributes of omnipotence. What God can do no human might can perform. there seems a hopeless contradiction between b. and children ? It is a well-established doctrine of Rabbinic theology that prayer can bring about changes and is effective. that of repentance in relation to God's immutability. or come near to His work. if God decreed death. how can prayer upset them? Consequently. famine. The attributes of love and mercy do not contradict His omnipotence. war. quite apparent. and in the original probably dealt at length. we must first of all discuss the question of prayer. The chief idea is. flood. He can be excused for cramming so many vital questions of religion in such a brief space. The latter again touches very closely on the mutability of God. argued about. drought. earthquake. Prayer is a means by which death. By the way. and storm can be averted from the individual as well . So far the tendency is clear. Here the question may have been : ' How can God hear all the prayers uttered at different places at the same time? How can God fultil the contradictory requests of the various worshippers in the same place ? ‫י‬ One wants rain. wealth. however. (God changes his decrees). the other drought ? Thirdly. Why has he filled it also with the other doctrines ? One can understand his references to God's love and mercy even when sitting in judgeinent over people. bears no comparison to our conception of power. or barrenness. To see clearly. seriously and lightly. In the hand of Philo such a series of subjects would require books or a volume. plague. the problem of God's immutability and infinity and the doctrines of God's love and mercy. and d.

It is interesting to compare here the views on this subject of the Church Father. So Jacob. 10 B. R. for there is nothing greater than prayer. 9 . R. M. teaches: 4 Great is prayer before God. 5A. indeed.17 Therefore must man rise early for prayers. 32. and the decree was annulled. 'The prayer of the humble pierceth the clouds 35. Eleazar says : ' Dost thou want to know the strength of prayer? If it does not accomplish the whole of it (sc. Meir. B. says : 4 There are appointed times for prayer ‫( י‬cf. 1). Kallali. R. and believe ! Old-world prayer. prayed on their behalf. Deut. Johai. b. Ber. Which time is the most favourable ? When the community deliver their prayers. xxix of his treatise on prayer. with those of the rabbis. Eleazar b. used to free from fires. ib. Joshua b. ever denied to prayer coming from spirit and truth‫ ?״‬What mighty specimens of its efficacy do we read. it was decreed concerning Moses that he should not enter the land. 197. Levi to his son. 17.v. Ps. R. 16 . who exacts it. 34. Johanan in his nnme. 14. Prov. it does half of it/ The instance of Cain is illustrated. ed. Nathan ‫מני[ שאי[ הקביה‬ ‫ מ ו א ס ב ת פ ל ו ת ן ש ל רבים‬. though v. Some texts have b. and from famine . Jose b. God has shown him the land (cf. Ber. Stettin. ch. R. ii. Tanh. b. in sending his sons to Egypt. which is styled Of the Power and Effect of Prayer : 4 For what has God. 127 Β . b. Maccoth. v. ed. Tr. R. s. Ps. and without these instances. ch.OMNIPRESENCE 167 as from the community. M. 65 . Hezekiah prayed. also the Apology of Aristides. Do know. Thanks to his prayers. and not see it. 18 pal. M. Simon b. and yet it had not then received its form from Christ V 1 6 Similar sayings are reported in the names of various scribes. Pedath. 8 A. 14). Hebrew. request). and hear. Ber. and teachings. The former writes in chap.. Tertullian. who owed it to his prayer that the ‫ נע‬of his punishment was forgiven.' R.18 R. and from beasts. . Coronel 16 A. B. 69. Sirach uses the phrase. who may be the author of the latter part of the saying. v. Lam. who is an older authority than Tertullian. 6 A. 17 As to the importance of communal prayers. Pes. homilies. Tahlifn. i. Halafta. xvi. Instances for this generally-held view can be brought from history as well as legends.

Qalir. As a second illustration there also the case of Hezekiah. 64. R. Abba. hands. nostrils.22 The angel to whom this function is allotted is called Sandalfon. 88. b. 4 . ' An angel is appointed over prayers. S. 10. and R. ה ק ו ש ר כתרים לקונו‬Deut. 506. v. Sifre Deut. who recovered from his illness and fifteen years were added to his life. 69 A . . R. ch. Jellinek. ib. 21. Exod. 31 A. Dukes. 8. Pes.' 21 We note here in passing that to croivn in Hellenistic phraseology is identical with to pray. 2 . Urchristentum. 312 . Jeremiah. He collects them and gathers them.. 65.. Abba. 23 b. 70 . R. 22. R. 2 ./‫ מ ה יפו דודץ‬. Lev. ears. jer. J. Phinehas in the name of R. legs. 475. 1. 1 .168 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD the ‫ )נר=( נוד‬remained.19 It was an accepted belief that prayers are useful and necessary. R.23 This extraordinary power of God is also the subject of another homily in the Tannaitic Midrash. Jeremiah in the name of R. fuller than the Mekh. 66 f. Β. also Gen. R. 2. 26. This is only possible with God.24 We have nineteen parallels drawn between the might of God (‫מי שאמר והיה העולם‬. Is. 21. Hijja b. r. Meir. r. Ber. 167 . the text is based on the M. 19 Deut. Joshua b. 188B f. especially the prayers of the community. 13 B. Obviously in the first place the names of R.. also 66 A. There may have been a more popular solution of this difficulty which answered it by applying an angelological doctrine. or ‫ )המקום‬on one side. ‫ . iii. and R. B. M. Jeb. מ ל ך אזור‬Yalk. Levi . 108. 376 . r. Phinehas . R. Berekhja says that Israel is called ten times ‫כלה‬. 1·. B. 20 M. God's ears hear all the supplications and entreaties addressed to him !‫ י‬It is one side of God's omnipotence. 9. ‫ . Phinehas in the name of R. Zur Kenntnis der neuhebr. Frankfort. rel Poesie. § 233 . 24 Mekh. R. 7. 47. 1842. is mentioned. Daniel's prayers.. 380 . Hijja have been omitted. Hijja. We read in another homily : 2 0 ' God hears all the prayers which are delivered in the same time. Heidenheim. 22 v. r. and the weakness of idols and men respectively on the other side. Sanhédrin 37 A. Ps. v. R. Ps. ‫ ב ה ' מ‬. gives similar teachings and instances in the name of R. s. corresponding to the ten garments of glory with which Israel crowns God .1‫י‬. 21 M. Making a crown of them he puts them on God's head. 'Idols have eyes. ii. M. Juda b. b. 41B . P. v. Hag. b. Ps. Exod. Levi. who is all-powerful. Mahzor ‫ ר ׳ ה‬i. 847. . B. Meir . Tanh. r. ed. Ber. r. 4. 19. J. Cant. Gfrörer. S.

does He not change His decrees at the prayers or signs of repentance on the part of the condemned or the wicked ? Is there no contradiction between these two attributes? How shall we reconcile with this doctrine the often repeated idea that the prayers of the just remove or upset God's decrees ? Is there no change in God's relation to his créatures caused by man's repentance and prayer ? Are there not manifold instances in primitive and higher belief that owing to prayers. yet He sees everything at the same time (Zech. and grant them. 11). 10. Or. fulfil the desires of all of them. did he think of God's power as finite t The general trend of rabbinic theology inclines to the . 10. His creative power in forming the Universe and children of men is also unparalleled/ Here again in this remarkable homily great stress is laid on God's power. he apparently lost himself in contradictions. The conception is laid down that with God it is possible to hear so many prayers and requests at the same time. 3. and repentance God's judgement is altered ? Our preacher treated these vexed questions rather lightly. His hands created the Universe. This wonderful thing is possible with God. hear all the creatures praying at the same moment. God's power equals his immutability. and wealth. and His thought is full of sweetness. however. has none of these things. to change His plans and actions. He accepts the sweet savour of the sacrifices. he moved in a circle. The old Haggadist ignores or does not know that any intervention on the part of the angels is wanted. This is really the chief theme of this homiletical gem. He hears the prayers of all (Ps. God. God can utter two words at the same time. 3). good deeds. 15.OMNIPRESENCE 169 and cannot use them. 4. their wishes for offspring. wisdom. But. Prov. There. When pointing out the third great attribute of the doctrine of God. in spite of His general immutability. men have thoughts and cannot control them. 65. His fear is greater on those who are near to Him than those who are far off. His love and mercy. Love and mercy induce God. He goes to war.

They came to the conclusion: f The God of the Jews is weak.' This state of mind is well reflected in the Titus legend. charity. B > 3 0 a n d p a r a l l .. but originally made on condition. Ps. who saw the failures of the Jews in politics and war. 30 p e a . ת צ ו ה‬Pes. v.30 The Jewish doctrine of the all-powerful God met with severe criticism in the pagan world. Such a view was alien to the heathens. Pes. pp. then the son repented. not so the decrees for evil and punishment. Sifre Zutta. 7 A . 7. tearing 28 b. Eleazar that prayer.9‫־‬ The Haggadists also like to contrast the power of a human king with God's. Volkeskunde. therefore. whose state was low and miserable. 81S. 20 v. 28 Eccles. Johanan taught in the name of R. An anonymous Haggadist 2 0 sees in God a father who condemned His son to death . Ber. r. could not suppress their contempt for the weakness of the God whose temple they destroyed. B. Jose b. 8 ‫ . may also be understood in this sense. also Tanh. The saying of R.170 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD doctrine that God's decrees are subject to change. r. Halafta: ' No word which went out from the mouth of God for good. whose land they devastated. however. 200 B. 351-362. r. who were used to threaten and punish their gods in times of misfortune and disappointment. B. and not omnipotent. ii. whose nation they crucified.28 Likewise the popular belief that the Zaddik annuls the decrees of God. The former promises and decrees. Ps and Midr. often repeated in our sources. 89. was withdrawn/ 2 5 Only those which are for the good of the world. 119. decrees and keeps them. even conditionally. 26 27 M. Yalk. God. and are not fixed. Titus is supposed to enter the most sacred parts of the Temple accompanied by two harlots. and repentance remove all evil decrees. Beiträge zur Religionsgeschichte u. 29. not changed. 40 . An older 27 source puts it that all the decrees for evil are put only conditionally. ch. Agada. ‫גהר ומקיים‬. based on Ps. Marmorstein. Romans. Deut. 176. R. and the father cleanses him of his sins. God's decrees are. 82. Yalk. which are subject to alteration. and does not or cannot keep his words.

5. Eleazar b. we will obey Him ! 3 3 ‫ י‬These words are quoted by these two Tannaim with reference to Exod. R. 20. The generation of the flood. 20. I will send the smallest of my creatures. 28A. Eliezer b. his power vanished. and provokes the ' God of the Jews'. 22. r. let Him come and defeat me if He is really all-powerful ? ‫ י‬On his homeward journey he met a terrific storm. Gittin 56 B . Nehemia.E. 6 . 52 B. Tanh. v. M. B. who said : ' If God is the Lord of all works. Lam. Hananja actually repeat the words of their fellow Jews. Pugio 258 . however. M. i. 22 . Hyrkanos and R. just as He is our God. the omnipo81 The Titus legend is preserved in Aboth R. also I. well. 18. perished by water. he is weak. 63 c. v. r. and asking : 4 Where is the God who has slain Sisera and Sennacherib ? I am in His dwelling-place. ' Shall I fight with thee 1 No. 5. 7 . 10. and it will conquer thee ! ‫י‬ Abba Hanan sees God's greatness and power in His longsuffering and patience with sinners like Titus. Pirke ch. The very words are repeated in the next generation by the contemporaries of R. 99 . and after the catastrophe in the year 135.34 According to the latter source the Jews doubted the three cardinal attributes of God : the universalism. r. B. Pharaoh. 9. iv. S . 49. be a mistake to assume that only pagans held such views about God's power as ascribed to Titus. 32. . r. Aha. 8 . a despicable flea. 81 reads instead of R. Joshua b.. Amalek is the Imperial Rome of the first century. 104 . On the dry land. Ps. i. 7‫ ׳‬and attributed to the Israelites trembling before Amalek. R. 4. Eccles. Zutta. Num. however. B. 34 Pes. 17. 6. Barukh 21.31 This explanation is dependent on Ben Zoma's conception and idea of power and strength generally.32 It would. then we will acknowledge Him ! If God is able to supply us with all our needs. Judah b. R . ii. 42f. Mekh. M . 32 33 Mishna Aboth iv. N. Tanh. Eccles.OMNIPRESENCE 17! asunder the veil of the Holy of Holies. r. R. J . There must have been many Jews after 68 c. Lev. Gen. b . under his authority . God replies. liai and R. It seems to him that the God of the Jews has power over the water and storm. Eleazar of Modiim. who doubted God's might. Hyrkanos.

Zöckler. The martyrs replied : ' They i. 7). is it right to do so. however.172 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD tence. and afterwards slay them? Does one say to his friend : ' Take a loaf of bread. 23. Taanith. v. says to the martyrs of Lydda. but of the Church. though not of the Synagogue. that was not Moses' question. the three young men. felt and expressed by sceptics. ii. Tineius Rufus. 8 . The Nile in Egypt supplied us with fish. Simon b. old. c Is it possible that Moses should say : " God (‫ )המקום‬is unable to supply us and our cattle. ch. Julianus and Pappus. Midrash Zutta. who are not just. Eccles. . must have been re-echoed by some contemporaries of the last Tannaim. and helpless. and the God of Jacob does not understand ‫( י ״‬Ps. 98. 36 Apology. e. that Thou shouldst give them food. Apologetik. we should not suffer by people. otherwise we could not account for the fact that nearly all the teachers dealt with this subject. corroborates these words of the Midrashim. before they were about to be executed : ' He i. God. we should not be tortured by them !‫י‬ These doubts. 6 . Justin. R. e. in case we acknowledge a God. and the omniscience of God. c cannot save you. a Roman. art unworthy. just like Titus in the legend. There are many wild beasts that could or should put us to death at God's command. as it is said : " The Lord does not see. In another legend135 again. 5 . 3. Semalioth.36 He says : 'Should some think. and the king also worthy that a miracle should be performed through them. Thou. knew the history of the Jews in the last decades of the Temple and after the destruction. because He grew old since then. who is able to help. r. well. 42. and we also are not without guilt. 18 B. and go to Sheol ‫ ? י‬Does one say to an ass : * Take a khor of barley 35 Sifra Emor 9 . and there was also enough for the Egyptians and their cattle!" ? No. ' were pious. What he said was this : "Lord of all the worlds. 11. 94. as He saved the three young men. Eleazar dwells at length on Num. Another martyr. must have been convinced that the 4 Jewish ‫ י‬God became weak. Thou art one of them !‫י‬ The Roman dignitary.

R. can God Himself be sick ? 39‫ י‬Bar Kappara teaches that God can make the impossible possible. also above. Johai and R. a contemporary of Justin Martyr and Tineius Rufus. B. Sotah vi. Johai. 1 if. 5. ed. 305. ed. where it is quoted in the name of Simon b. so did I sanctify Aaron." 37‫י‬ This curious dialogue between God and Moses and the treatment of the doctrine of God's power surely reproduced the scepticism of the age.Nathan teaches : ' God said. 37 . deal with and elaborate this attribute of God. Tos. and night into day. ed. everything is possible with God \ 42 Lam. why does He not help ? ' R. Johai. Ζ. B. 2.41 Christians must have been taunted by the same arguments as Jews: ' If God is powerful. i. in the name of R. Judah I. and the moon is substituted for the sun . Simon b.e. ' God is unable to supply us with food ‫ ? י‬Let them and hundreds like them perish. This accounts for the remarkable fact that nearly all the teachers of this age. Β. asking : ' Have you ever heard that the sun is sick. Simai." ' 3 8 R. but My hand is never short to give even for a short while.40 Finally. 9 . v. 23. the last three decades of the second century. 72b. Tanh. 87. B. 9. if our reading of the name is correct. repeats the parable of the sun. R.42 ' Have you ever heard '. 74. 39 Pes. Isaac. R. and is unable to discharge his duties ? that the moon is sick and unable to do her work ? God's servants are free from weakness . Simon b. ch. « v. " Even if all the magicians of the world gathered together and united their forces. asks the Haggadist. also further on. we can speak of God's descent and Moses's ascent .OMNIPRESENCE 173 and we will cut off thy head 1 ‫ " י‬God replied : " Is it better that they should say. they could not change day into night. 7. . the invisible visible. which no human power can alter any more). 130 A. The text reads: ‫ו מ ה ] ש מ ש [ א ח ד מ ש מ ש י שמשין הרי‬ ‫ י ה ו א ב א במקומו ו ש ל א במקומו ק׳ו ל כ ב ו ד ו ש ל מי ש א מ ר והיה העולם‬i n spite of the omnipresence of God. r. repeats the parable of the sun to refute the attack on our doctrine. in order to demonstrate the doctrine of God's omnipotence. 40 M. Simai. like R. Sam. v. Just as I separated between light and darkness (sc. Mekh. iv. Simai uses the parable of the sun. Rabbi. r.

prove plainly that some Jews and Gentiles alike must have raised serious doubts as to the omnipotence of God. r. B. ch. firm. p. . God's power is also limited by His heavenly Court. Ps. Marmorstein. like the dividing of the Red Sea. when all nations will live as citizens of the heavenly kingdom. v. 27. The Unity of God is.174 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD ' of the sun being ill ‫ ?׳‬or being too weak in discharging its duties 1 God's servant cannot become ill. the tendency of the finite power. 29B. God's Unity will be perfect only in the future. Tanhuma. How are the supernatural miracles. The latter point must be treated in the chapter of God's relation to both man and the world. Abba b. or Amalek. Hanina and R. or weak.4:i Here. to be explained ? If changes of the laws of nature are possible. and Jordan. again. therefore. Hama b. Here. or His Throne is not complete. &c. Midrash Haseroth witheroth. how can such a thing be thought of God Himself ‫ י ?׳‬These instances. as we have mentioned above. Our purpose in treating this point at some length is to throw light on an otherwise surprising idea in connexion with our subject. 43 The teaching is ascribed to R. note 106. M. at present limited to Israel and the pious believers in God among the nations. with the problem of Dualism and consequently also with that of God's character as Creator of man and the Universe. which God seems to have. or old . the doctrine of God's immutability is also threatened. Pes. We observe similar ways of thinking of the doctrine of God's Unity. before closing this discussion of the doctrine of God's omnipotence. Kahana. Pes. the Name of God. one problem must be touched : God's power to produce miracles. which are taken from the Apologies of Rabbis. rules in this world the Kingdom of Heaven. which can be here merely alluded to. 10B. and can easily be multiplied. or absolute. We read in many Midrashim the teaching that as long as Edom. ruled in the theology of the third century. These points are reserved left for discussion in the chapter treating the Unity of God. The attribute of God's power is closely connected with God's Unity. 12.

Eliezer. the bowing of the heavens before Moses (Deut. Num. r. Gen. 25 A: R. iii. . Taan. 4 . 4 . 5 . 77. 18. R. 1. 1.44 The miracles served the purpose of sanctifying God's name and of making His name great and recognized among the nations. Hai. Exod. 4 . to the eschatological wonders. was general in the ages of the Tannaitic and Amoraic teacher. 1915. 45 Sifre Deut. the feeding of Elijah by the ravens. bless the barren. Lakish . r. 9. Midr. 8. 50 Gen. Simon b. 577-591. Lakish. 3.46 Some of the teachers repelled scepticism by the favourite theory that the just in this world perform similar deeds . If human beings are able to do so. chap. r. Johanan and R. 17 . 1). R. 69. Ps. 132B. R. r. Marmorstein. The Doctrine of the Resurrection. 39. Tanh. whether natural or supernatural. teach that the rending of the sea. r. Cant. &c. ל ךלך‬R. Simon b. Taan. 47 Deut. Exod. 5. R. 10. r. Marmorstein. Judah b.‫ . 18.48 The greatest of the wonders to be performed is the resurrection from death. witheroth.6 .50 inclining to a conception of a finite power of God. the standing still of sun and moon in the time of Joshua. Pedath. 21. Jeremiah b. 8 . Has. Midr. Judah. 6. Eleazar b. how much more God Himself. r.. Judah and R. R. in 'Journal of American Theology'. r. 46 R. 21A. 4. R. Dosa. joined with the dogma of God giving or withholding rain in due season. they revive the dead. 32. Lev. Judah b. Simon taught with reference to the great changes in the world to come. i. 48 Gen. 77. Both dogmas comprise together the second number of the Eighteen Benedictions. v.OMNIPRESENCE 175 The belief in miracles and wonders. Nehemjah. Gen. M. Simon b. the escape of the three young men 44 v. This belief.45 Doubts and negations were expressed as to the truth of the Biblical wonders. 10. Simon b. Eccl. Berekhja. that such great things were already performed by the pious in this world. the material collected. Nahum of Gimso.47 R. v. r. Jellinek ‫ ב ה מ י‬. p. R. § 306.49 There is a consensus of opinion that Almighty God in His power can and will accomplish such a miracle. r. 43. Konen. Lakish Cant. heal the sick. 3 . is regarded as the ‫ גבורות‬especially. 5. 3. 17. There were teachers who displayed a more rationalistic tendency regarding this problem. pp. Hanina b. 49 v. r.

R. p. or that the latter is an outcome of the fact that God is eternal. a teacher of the latter period of the Tannaim. and asked : ' Light of Israel. without any reservation. who quickenest again the death. wherefore dost thou weep ? * 51 1 Midrash Haseroth. the everlasting Creator of the Universe. The names of God mentioned in the prayer of R. Simai. God of all praises.51 (4) The Eternity of God. Judaism left and kept no traces of such religious aspects. but they were ordered from the beginning so as to provide for these miracles. if Israel accepts the Torah or not. Rock of the worlds.176 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD from the fire. strong hammer. pal. the opening of the Heavens to Ezekiel. lions and whales. They were surprised. It is an everlasting merit of the Rabbinic theologians that they reopened the older prophetic conception and. . of Daniel in the lion's den. were all laid down as conditions at the creation of the world. in spite of the fact that Christianity could not entirely free itself from the influence of the latter.' 1 It seems natural to assume that the attribute of God's Eternity is a consequence of His power. note 162. R. Whatever may have been believed in Old Israel in the pagan period of the Jewish people about growing and perishing. Simai contain also ‫חי העולם‬. reviving and decaying gods. right pillar. Ber. God stipulated with fire and water. that they should change their nature on these occasions. 39. This is another deep contrast between monotheism and polytheism.. or the life of the world. taught the Eternity of God. Zakkai wept when his pupils surrounded the master's death-bed in the last hour of his life. The whole world was created only conditionally. 5. which may mean 'the Life of the World' or ' the Everlasting More frequent than this is the term ‫חי העולמים‬. 1. and the saving of Jonah in the whale. Nature does not change. prayed : 4 Lord of all creatures. in which the former excels the latter. Johanan b.

yet I would surely cry. Hananja : ‫נביא‬ ‫כ ש א נ י מ ז כ י ר צדיק עולמים א ת ם ת נ ו ב ר כ ה צדיק חי עולמים‬ Yalkut Exod. Sotah 13 A and Parall. 7 . V. b. Another scribe ordered. also sifre Deut. 2 ‫ר׳ א ו מ ר‬ b. Just as God lives and exists for ever. who is here to-day and to-morrow in his grave. 219. J. the righteous. should I not tremble and fear?' 2 The belief in an everlasting God could not be expressed in a more impressive way than in these words of the departing scribe. 3). M . Eleazar of Modiim praises a scholar who had heard the word of the law from his teacher. 67 Β. 28 B.7 Moses8 rebukes his people for being rebellious against or before ‫חי וקיים לעולמים‬. We see that the Tannaitic Haggada frequently emphasizes this doctrine. Ber. 37 A . Mekh. and people asked : ‫מה טיבו של מת להלוך עם ארון‬ ‫חי העולמים‬. ministered before Him. who cannot be bribed by words or money. the nephew of R. 31 Β . moreover.3 The ark of God. β Mekh. Now that I am about to appear before the King of all kings. 19 B. 48 Α. 4 Mekh. Hananjahu. b. the Everlasting (‫ )חי העולמיים‬was carried during the journey in the wilderness next to the ark of Joseph. Tosefta and Parall.ETERNITY 177 R. or bribe him with money. 24 Β . agrees with ed.‫כ ש ו מ ע מ פ י הקב׳ה‬ 8 ‫ ל‬Mekh. 5 Mekh. who lives and exists for all generations. Ζ. § 41 : . Yoma ‫א מ ר להם‬ ‫לישראל‬.6 The prohibition of idolatry is extended to all generations from the word ‫( על פני‬Exod. » Mekh. and who is ' Everlasting V5 R. Joshua b. punishment. to Him who created many souls and supplied their needs. ' for all that Thou hast created7. 46 A. to bless Him. the everlasting righteous. if he would bind me and kill me. Ber. and regards him as if he had served. 44 A .. whose anger. I could appease him with words. and sentence of death are eternal. who lives and exists for ever. it could not be for ever . when mentioning God. if he were angry it would not last for ever. b. said : ' If I were carried before an earthly king. צ ד י ק חי העולמים שני צדיק ה ׳ ב כ ל דרכיו תן ב ר כ ה א מ ן‬v. similarly the prohibition of idolatry holds good for everlasting generations. ‫זכר צדיק ל ב ר כ ה כ ש ה ו א מזכיר א ת ה צ ד ק‬ ‫ . Mekh.4 The blessing at drinking water is. 20.

two different attributes. 7. flattered by the eulogies of the city. 7 : ' A king.13 R. R. Where is he. e. The latter went about looking for his master. He sought God in his dead scrolls. Lev. Jer. 14 ‫ »נ‬Tanh. The priest had to leave for another place without the knowledge of the slave. 661. and Zidon &c. Lev. r. Tanhum b. our God is alive..10). the Glory of the Everlasting just as the Everlasting Righteous. 30 β . of Moab. He is a truthful God ‫( י‬Jer. who lost his son. R. B. 6 . Levi depicts Pharaoh first searching the scrolls containing the divine names of tribal and national deities. 1. about whom sectarians talk blasphemies. the priest !‫ י‬People said : ' You fool ! you are looking for a priest in the cemetery? ‫ י‬Thus Pharaoh. speaking of ‫צדיק חי העולמים‬. Hanilai developed R. and does not awake any more. public buildings and baths. R. Levi says : 4 Because He is a living and everlasting God. as in other cases also. 104. ii. 6.1 78 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD R. r.1. and water supply. 654. 14). 100. Judah b.10 We find also the term ‫כבוד חי עולמים‬. R. and asks : ' Was your lost son alive or dead ? ‫ י‬The Father replies : ' Alive !‫ י‬The stranger says : 9 10 Gen. Joshua b. iv.12 The teacher combines here. Zakkai's teaching. Tanh. pp. 18. 12 Pes. Theodor. and where his promises ? Not so God. and was looking for him in the cemetery.. 4 There was once a priest who owned a slave. A clever man meets him. liai uses the name of God ‫ חי העולמים‬in explaining the geographical name ‫( באר לחי ראי‬Gen. Why is He truthful ? R. 11 Gen.9 Bar Kappara joins it with ‫צדיק‬. and afterwards unable to discover the names of the God of the Hebrews. 10).11 R. and exists for ever ‫( י‬v. r. In another source14 R. and sought also in the cemetery. Levi illustrates a similar antithesis between God and the idols. promises them town halls. and adapted it in his homily on Ps. Isaac. Gen. 10. Amon. ed. 6. People asked him : ' Who is your master ? ‫ י‬The slave replied: ' So and so. . 10. Levi illustrates this with a parable. 12. r. r. Levi . 16. He goes to rest in the evening.g. Abin instead of R. Levi depicts a father. Truth and Eternity. Edom. 'The gods in your hand are dead ones . Johanan b. 26.

2 v. The gods of the nations of the world are dead (cf.). pp. 3 M.ETERNITY 378 ' You fool ! is it customary to look for the dead among the living. The next attribute of God we have to describe.'17 (5) Truth. our God is living. 210 . ' and we forsake the Everlasting and worship the dead‫ '?׳‬Here R. Alexander's exposition. 17 M. Antiochus. who is eternal can be true. A mortal being is unable. also R. 15. but God remains alive and exists. 351 . Meg. 160). 2 . Ps.2 Owing to God's eternity such a state of affairs cannot arise. above. often prevented from discharging his duties. Ps. 119.3 whose countrymen used to deposit with him their articles. 2. In spite of his best intentions. v. Sam. trustworthy. and exists to all eternities. iii. 19. their cities are destroyed. 'They perished. God is called ‫אלהים אמת‬ (Jer. Ps. 9. ' The Lord of Truth V In Rabbinic theology this attribute is connected with God's eternity. 10. ושחוקין והוא מחזירן חדשים‬. faithful to His creatures. 10. Romulus. Tanh. 178. says an Haggadist. 14 A. Breasted. Kahana teaches that 'everything perishes. v. 33‫־‬ R. God lives longer than His work \ l e An illustration of the former is given in the names of cities built by or named after Constantine. or the living among the dead ? The living provide for the necessities of the dead . M2 . We find also in an Egyptian hymn the designation. cf. based on our sources. 85. 31. p. b. 347. 1 v. ed. he is apt to make mistakes. Buber. 1. only God remains alive \ 15 ' Man s work lives longer than its maker. because he does not know Lev. p. There was a man. Alexander or Tiberius and Seleucus. Attributes. continues the preacher. Ps. do the dead care and toil for the living 1 ‫ י‬Likewise. 2. 115. 107. He. Judah b. ed. Abba b. Farnell.3 if. 8. 6. who develops this idea of God's truth on the assumption of God's tenderness and love to his creatures : ‫בשר ודם מפקידין בידו חדשים והוא מחזירן בלויין‬ 16 16 ‫ישינים אבל הקב׳ה מפקידין בידו בלויי. is that of Truth. Menasja. 2 . 25 2. B. r.

M. 3. Shabbath 5 5 a . A.22 . who faithfully returns them every morning. 15. 4: ‫׳ אפילו צדיק חי העולמים מאמונתו הוא חי‬Even the Righteous Eternal lives from His Truth. 15 an allusion to God. 1. 160 for the explanation of Gen. r.4 ' God's seal is Truth ' is a teaching of R. and He will reward the just and punish the wicked. Faithfulness'. 7. Ps. God is different. 9 The attribute of God's truth is also the basis of the belief in reward and punishment. 119.379 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD the articles. R. 48. Simon. Similarly ‫דובר אמת‬ 7 who speaketh the truth. Did it ever happen that God interchanged the souls entrusted to Him ? No. pal.1 . r. Merjon connects also truth with Eternity when he expounds Hab. Sanh.10). 9 Eccles. Shetach. however Bacher. A.5 The word ‫ אמת‬is explained after the Notarikon fashion to imply a protest against Gnostic dualism and < Jhristological ideas. ' In Thy hand do I trust my spirit'. iii. Alexander and Simon R. v. and '‫מ‬. to a great extent. 1 and as a refutation of dualistic theories. b. He is the God of Truth (Ps. This act of truthfulness is a symbol of their eschatological expectations. r. 4 Y. 9 . 64a : . 590 . 31. and not the Demiurgos . 8 Gen.e. . 25. Yoma 6 9 b . c God created in the beginning heaven and earth \ R. Gen. 3. The inner bearing of these two doctrines is brought home to students of Rabbinic lore in a story of Simon b. on the belief that human souls are nightly deposited with God. B. 10. R. 2 . 6). besides Him there is none. This teacher bought once an ass from an Ishmaelite. r. 116.6 An allegorist sees in all the character4 istics of Ps.‫ח ו ת מ ו ש ל ה ק ב ׳ ה אמת‬ 6 7 v. he returned them to their rightful owners. The ‫ א‬means God is the first. Ber 1. Jer. 1. P. is God ' (cf. 2. 4. God's word is Truth. Isaac b. ed. Isaac 8 uses Ps. for 4 He is a trustworthy God '. 5 b. the passage remains obscure. 5. Hama. Abba in the name of R. '‫ ת‬the last (He has no successor). Lara. Since God is omniscient such a mistake is with Him excluded. Ps. M. The doctrines of immortality and the future redemption of Israel are based. God is truthful. Hanina b. The Tannaitic Midrash sees in ‫ אני הי‬of the text this doctrine expressed. i.

and master of rewards and punishment. 3. 23). ch. 5. God could give no answer. as a source of law and order.' Simon b.TRUTH 181 The pupils of the master found a jewel on the neck of the animal. 121A . The pupils saw in this event a blessing of the Lord. (6) Justice- The attribute of Justice is even more closely attached to God's Eternity than Truth by the Haggadic theologians. r. Heretics and heathens.‫מאמונתו של בשר ודם את יודע אמונתו של הקב׳ה‬ If the words of a human being can be relied upon. based on the conception of God's truthfulness. 25). Many first-rate theological problems and teachings depend on this attribute. God kept silent. argued the Rabbis. trustworthiness of man. 3. The moral of the narratives was 11 . Jair. as the revealer of the moral. . social. who is faithful to reward Israel for the observance of the commandments. Hanina b. seem to have had a special pleasure in finding fault with God's justice and impartiality. The justice of God appears in His character and name of Judge. 1 . 5 and following note. and not a jewel. and political duties.. Dosa. v. thou canst learn that of God. Jeb. though its fulfilment seems impossible or supernatural. he said: ' 1 bought an ass. how much more. This is manifested in the name ‫צדיק חי עולמים‬. They referred to and cited Abraham's question : ' Should not the judge of the whole earth do justice? ‫( י‬Gen. b. 2 . and suggested to him to keep the ass with the jewel. pal. and the Ishmaelite said : ' Blessed be the God of Simon b. The scribe thought otherwise. 10 n Deut. and is. can we accept God's promises and threats as being trustworthy. Deut. Shetach/ Behold from the reliability. B. Phinehas b. 18.10 Similar events are recorded in the stories told about great men of antiquity like R. Demai. Shetach duly returned it. readers of the Bible and philosophers. ' Lord of Judgement '. ch. Abraham asked also : 4 Wilt thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked‫( '?׳‬ib. M. R. as we saw.

One becomes a king. 3. why He enriched and exalted him. 44. so that people should not say : " We can also speak with God ". whilst others were neglected. 19. or the vain-glorious gossipers who judge the Highest by their limited or superficial wisdom. passed on to her a basket of figs.2 and parall . . The scribe. r. the other a beggar . and criticize Him. and you assume that God does not know whom He has chosen as the best of His creatures ! 3 ‫י‬ A more serious discussion of this great and puzzling question is to be found in another dialogue between the 1 3 Tanh. Abraham becomes a king and rich !‫ י‬Reply to him : 4 Could you accomplish those deeds which Abraham accomplished ? ‫ י‬The same problem is met with in a dialogue between the Matrona and R. Why ? Because Abraham did not doubt my truthfulness and justice. The lady selected the nicest and ripest of them and enjoyed them. There is no arbitrariness with God but strict judgement. * I will not keep silent. is not just. Tobifc 4.2 If some tell thee : ' God makes rich and poor. 4. as Abraham did. instead of replying directly. which were left without answers. i. B. Agadath Ber. B. 1. looking at what she was doing. v. i. 2 Gen.e. and humble. others He makes poor. in a homily based on Job 40. 12).e. Jose b. Nam. and He could not defend Himself \ God replies : ' No. The same right cannot be conceded to those who deny or doubt God's justice. I will not keep quiet .1 Abraham. when I enjoined him to sacrifice his son Isaac. was entitled to raise such questions. owing to his strong faith in God's justice. 4 chooses whomsoever He likes V i. whom He likes He makes rich. 21. Halafta: ' Your God says the lady. although I told him previously that Isaac will be called his seed ‫( י‬Gen. observed : { You are clever in selecting the good figs out of the bad ones. The idea in this Haggada illustrates the thought that God knows why He has chosen Abraham. poor. yet I will answer thee. I did not answer Abraham. 91 . The scribe. r.182 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD A Haggadist dealt with these questions. 55.

9 b. R. The old question: ' Why is the wicked prosperous and the righteous man miserable 1 ' is not yet answered. ch. Hananja. and merits. 257 f.16 . merits or sins. " I did not seek. Joshua. wealth. This teaching could not satisfy. v. also Marmorstein. 1923. but as he is in the present . 2 . therein will I judge you \ God does not judge man after his past or future. ב ש ע ה ש ה ו א ע ו מ ד ב ה‬v.' 6 Rabbinic opinions are at variance whether blessings of life. are a result of piety or wickedness. Tanh. The problem was discussed at all times S. worth. Ps. Joshua tests the case of a blind man. a thinker of great eminence. 6 Β . 280 B. 10. R. v.' R. in ZfNW. H. Joshua replied : ' God knows the deeds of man long before he was born. Gen. and God shall open his eyes ! ' Thereupon R. H . j . . Erlebtes. or poverty. b. Harnack. and convinces the Emperor of God's justice. illness. " I sought and I found ". R . God judges man not according to his future actions but on his present deeds.5 R. ed. but I have found ! " do not believe him. faithless man. Z. 16 B. and children. 'Where is your God's sense of justice ? Why are children born deaf and dumb. who turns out to be a greedy. 28 (1926). Friedmann. blind and lame ? Why should they suffer ? They are innocent. Glessen.JUSTICE 4 183 Emperor and R. that God in His omniscience knows what He does. Levi : ‫ א ת ה א ד ם א ל א‬p Π'3ρΠ |‫אי‬ ‫ . Joshua b. which can hardly be reconciled with God's justice. or independent of such qualities or faults. 5 3 . like health. r. Jon. Daily life and common happenings appear in a light. The same idea in the Logia of Jesus. Exod. Erforschtes u. f. whether he is going to be good or bad/ Emperor: 'Let him repent.E. 4 Wherein I lind you. Meg. 572. 23. B 4 . Th. The attribute of justice was and is a stumbling-block to all who look upon great and small events merely from a narrow and selfish point of view. 21. r. Tanh. 57 A. " I have sought and could not find ! " do not believe him. 3. Joshua b. v. also Gen. R. has no other answer than this. then believe him. Isaac taught : ' If one tells you. and barrenness. As a matter of fact some teachers of the third century held just the contrary view. 3. 50. 41. 1.

Therefore. has failed to answer this simple question up to to-day. the material in my The Doctrine of Merits. Can it be also the same with seekers after wealth and happiness‫ ?׳‬The Gospels quote a similar saying : 1 Seek ye and ye shall find ! 8 ‫ י‬or ' He who seeks findeth \ 9 Speculation. philosophical as well as theological. exile. Nappaha : ' God will in future sit in judgement over pious and wicked alike. and is just. 7 . Whomsoever He likes. and elaborated by the Haggadists. whether in their darkest moments or at the height of their glory.10 Israel's suffering. The Doctrine of Merits. of God's guidance. Index. success and health of individuals as well as of nations. whether of man. 8. the might of God's enemies merely a shadow of Israel's future greatness and glory. 74. is successful and rich. are all signs of God's love. We are here especially interested in a saying of R. beast. * Rome'. v.v. must be according to a wise plan. Rome enjoys the blessing of Isaac. 7. The Religious Experience of the Roman People. One or two teachings testify to God's justice. or crop. and Hoenicke. or divided from. cf. Israel is poor and down-trodden. 432: ' Prosperity and fertility. ϊ0 v. The second. poverty. his father. the latter to Hell. nor the history of the world. Edom."' God says : " I did not want to publish your crimes. 21. W. The former go to the Garden of Eden.184 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD without reaching a final answer. 34 . s. whatever happens. depend on the Roman's attitude towards 8 his deities. p. God's providence. can be thought of without. MQWJ. v. and whom He dislikes He declares guilty. 37. 41. They were not happier in the solution of the bigger problems of suffering and death. and Handbuch. The wicked protest by saying: "God has not judged us properly. Rome. Hence the doctrine of the great Day of Judgment depicted by prophets and apocalyptics. 7. He justifies.' Matt. Fowler. Apparently by his saying he refers to students of the law.7 R. 8 . Neutest. e. i." What does v. The first is that God rewards the just and punishes the wicked. 9 lb. that neither human life. The happiness of the wicked is merely a faint dream of the future joy of the righteous . Johanan b. Apokryphen. Isaac advises people to seek and they will find.

yet they grind exceeding small. ch. Löwenthal. taught further that no wicked departed from this world until he saw or experienced his own downfall. 1... ‫ ״‬Estherr. Ps. with exactness grinds He all/ At this point we arrive at the conflict between the attributes of justice and goodness.JUSTICE 185 God do ? He causes their elogium to be read. Sachs. Akiba said: 4 Beloved are the sufferings !‫ י‬The master said to them : f Support me . who says that 11 M. He is long-suffering. ii. Azarja. 7. Aristoteles. 113 . ' He forgives all sins. taught 12 that God does not condemn a nation before he caused their books to be read aloud in Heaven. also Tanh. 93. i. This doctrine made a great impression on the popular mind. I I A . i. Steinschneider. B. Hanina b. which will be discussed in the next chapter. Beiträge. When the four Elders. Hyrkanos. I will hear the words of my pupil. R. 65. M. 10 D. 24B: ‫מ א ן ד א מ ר ר ח מ נ א ותרן ה ו א יתותרון‬ ‫ . no .13 The same teacher.g.' 11 An earlier Haggadist. r. 126 B. Ps. 145. Eliezer. M. This gave rise to the conception of the heavenly books of virtues and crimes. Though with patience He stands waiting. 8. but He pays for all sins. 11 . iii. Hama strongly opposed those who held that God never punishes . p.'15 This sounds like the saying of Sextus Empiricus. preserved in Heaven. ch.. Eleazar b. 1. מ ע ו ה י‬Tanh. Jubelschrift. 126. who resembles in many of his sayings the Rabbis : 'Though the mills of God grind slowly. Ozar Nehmad. 16 Estherr. 24 2‫ז‬ Gen. ed. Hananja. The individual tragedies and communal misfortunes which befell Jews gave rise frequently to discussions and observations on the meaning and origin of suffering.. and is one which contributed a great deal to misrepresent the general trend of Rabbinic theology. v. Joshua b. and R. R. ch. R. ch.14 R. R. Tarphon. 3. 28. 1 3 b : ‫אין ה ר ש ע יוצא מן העולם ע ד ש ה ק ב י ה מ ר א ה‬ ‫ מ י ת צ י ד‬.Ps. R.. 13 . Β. Jonathan. Eliezer b. Akiba entered the sick room of R. e. ch. f. Akiba.‫קנירן ד י ד י ה ה י א ך הוד‬. Kobak's Jeschurun. R. Jonathan b. B. p. 24B. and they go to Hell. Zunz.

Akiba. now that I see his pain I smile. 33. for 'the Scroll of Torah' was in pain. r. for all the time that I see my master without trouble. b. Is it possible that Hezekiah.but R. his oil. only sufferings brought him (Manasseh) back to the right path. 1).1-2) Further it says. and bound him with fetters.18 Sufferings are. whence do you derive this teaching 1 ' Akiba replied : ' I derive it from the plain text of the Scriptures ! It says : " Manasseh was twelve years old when he began to reign. 73 A.. 33. öopied out " (Prov. Ber.186 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD sufferings are precious ! Akiba. When the patient said : 1 There is a mighty anger in the world !‫ י‬the Scribes cried. as it is said : " And the Lord spake to Manasseh and to his people . Agad. Akiba was the first to emphasize the teaching that God makes the righteous pay in this world for the few 1 evil deeds ‫ י‬which they have committed. said: ' I smile. but they would not hearken.1 . lest my master " has already received his world " . because I am sure that he has not lost his share in the world to come. And when he was in affliction he besought the Lord his God. who taught the whole world Torah. the Scribes wept bitterly. I am afraid. r. . Hence thou dost learn that sufferings are beloved/ 16 At the same time. his flax. Lev. and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers" (2 Chron. 4. which took Manasseh among the thorns. in order to bestow upon them happiη ess and give them a good reward in the world to come. § 32. according to R. that his wine. 72B.. Akiba. S Gen. or another like occasion. in spite of all the great trouble and pain Hezekiah took with his son. his honey is good and well. Wherefore the Lord brought upon them the captains of the host of the King of Assyria. R. Akiba smiled. Pea. 25. Sifre Dfc. which the men of Hezekiah. Just the opposite is the case with the reward and punishment of the wicked. Manasseh 1 No. 27. 10-12). and he did evil in the sight of the Lord ! " (2 Kings 21. king of Judah. and carried him to Babylon. B. and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. however. &c.'17 R. should have neglected the education of his own son. "These also are proverbs of Solomon. 18 6 ‫י‬ Mekh.

' Thou shalt also know in thine heart.' R. 14 A . sufferings which Jews endured in this teacher's age. 7. for if man is happy he cannot acquire forgiveness of sin . cf. R. R. 8. The chastisements were not in accordance with thy deeds. Joseph says that. The words of Him " who spake. Tan. Mekh. Jacob refers to Prov. Hag. ' For whom the Lord loveth He correcteth . In the refutation of Pappus's sermons R. 33 A. .' R. and the sufferings by which I have chastened thee. so He will keep His promise to pay reward in the world to come for the good deeds and sufferings in this 19 21 20 Mekh. Meir refers to Deut. The teachers made an impression in this age upon the visitors to the schools and places of worship by saying : ' Man should welcome suffering more than happiness (‫)טובה‬.JUSTICE 187 signs of God's justice and love. 9. Meir means to say that our sufferings are always less than what we really deserve. He did so likewise with the sufferings'. § 32 . M. Akiba retorts : 4 There is no arbitrariness in God's deeds. b. ' Thou and thine heart are aware of the deeds thou hast done. He judges everything in truth and in justice !'19 Justice and love are God's thrones. 26. That means to say: ' God fulfilled His promise to bring our forefathers into the Land. The latter are signs of the Divine love and grace. and the world was created ". Sifre Deut.20 The great.12. through them the glory of God falls upon him who is being chastened. We have to thank God for the good and evil alike. 3. for. R. 72 B . It is remarkable how often this great teacher recurs to this subject. 'just as God made a covenant with the Holy Land. so the Lord thy God chasteneth thee '. Jose b. that. Eliezer b. 5. as a man chasteneth his son. even as a father the son in whom he delighteth '. What causeth the father to delight in his son ? The sufferings. Dan. Jonathan b. almost unbearable. how does he acquire it ? By suffering ! 21 ‫י‬ Seven contemporaries of the Bar-Kokhba war expressed their opinions on this problem.. cannot be refuted. supply us with the commentary on these sayings. Judah exclaims: 'Beloved are the sufferings before God! (‫)המקום‬.

‫ ויהב ל י ה ידיה ו א ו ק מ י ^ א מ א י לוקים ר׳ יוחנן ל נ פ ש י ה‬/ ‫י ד ן‬ ‫ מ ת י ר ע צ מ ו מ ב י ת האסורים‬. Johanan by R. § 32. Moreover. on 2. text reads : ‫ יוחנן ח ל ש ע ל‬. therefore. Ber. and the future life (Prov. 8. Ber. In all the three instances the answer given was: 4 No. 1. Jochanan b. for God gave three things to Israel. The Bab. Both of them atone for sins.188 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD world'. b. e. M. Jochanan became ill. received the punishments with joy '. if not. the Law. Hanina. then they will change into punishments. and the world to come.. R. Pedath. if ye murmur against them.12). Eliezer b. for the sufferings brought on them (the righteous) in this world (Lev. R. 25 B. Prov. Parta goes even a step further when saying that God stipulated with Israel at the revelation : ' If ye receive upon yourselves the chastisements (for transgressing the law) with joy. life. Judah b.1).5). health. R. They. R. All the three were given with sufferings.22 R. 47 A. 23 24 Mekh. R. R. Johai calls the sufferings 'beloved‫י‬ ‫))חביבים‬. Palestine (Deut. Aboth R. 2 and 5. liai depicts the righteous giving praise and thanks. which the nations of the world eagerly desire. The Torah (cf. M. 5 A . 5 B. who . b. The latter text throws light on the Babylonian report.25 R. ‫ר‬ ‫מ ב י ה ר ׳ חניניא א ״ ל חביבין עליך יסורין א ״ ל ל א הן ו ל א ש כ ר ^ א ׳ ל ה ב לי‬ ‫ א מ ר ו אין ח ב ו ש‬. Hama. Nappaha visited his pupils and friends. 63 B . chastisements have a greater atoning power than sacrifices. The latter affect men's money. 417-18.22). In both cases he asked : ' Do you love your pain and suffering? ‫ י‬The same question was asked of R. Abba and R. r. Nehemiah looks on sufferings as on the sacrifices. g. seeing the retribution of the wicked. Hijja b. The problem did not lose force and actuality. 6. Jochanan very 22 v. 32. 72 B. Cant. Tann. r. 5 A. the former men's body. then ye will receive reward . neither sufferings nor their reward!' 24 The answers are the more remarkable since the great teachers of the second century decided that sufferings have to be borne with love and patience. 26. Sifre Deut. Simon b. the Land of Israel. Nathan. Eleazar b. with variants. R. Ber.16. PS. Hanina b. Mekh.23 The sufferings which were the sources of these teachings repeatedly occurred in the third century.

H. R. Tanh. J. 290. : 1 But how great their reward !‫ י‬R. Eliezer . Ps. Judah b. The sentence : ‫ב ד הוינא מ ל ב ר‬ ‫הוינא ע ר ב לאחרונין וכדון ד א נ א מלניו לית א נ א בעי אהורנין דיערבוני‬ agrees with the saying ‫אין ח ב ו ש מ ת י ר ע צ מ ו מ ב י ת ה א ס ו ר י ם‬. did so. He knocks many times. and not vice versa. Naph. Jonathan b. After many days R. R. 10 D: ‫ג׳ שנים ו מ ח צ ה‬ ‫ ה י ת ה ש ב י נ ה ע ו מ ד ת ב ה ר הזתים ומכרזת‬. 1‫־‬. Jochanan's illness remind us of the general use of this number. 3. v. trouble. Aphraates. as assumed by the Babylonian text. H. Jochanan. and not by R. Jochanan suffered. 7. Once it became greater than usual. H. 4 Why did not R . ed. Test. Th. J.5). The potter is often mentioned in Rabbinic parables . R. and he said a word ( ‫א מ ר‬ ‫ >עלוי מ ל ה‬and the sick was at ease (‫)והוה נ ס ב נפש‬. I do not like them nor their reward.JUSTICE 189 often dealt with the problem of suffering. Dan. 9.' The three and a half years of R.).25 . in the name of R. v. r. ch. 87. Jochanan said : ' No. and said to the patient : ' What is with thee ? > (lit. Gen. ' God visits with pain those who are soft-hearted/ In another saying he speaks of the potter who examines his pots. ‫וירא‬ 20. J. Hanina became ill. 32. 16). replied : ' I have more on me than I can bear !‫י‬ R. raise himself?' Because no prisoner can free himself without other people's help from the prison. whose heart is tender like the lilies. Hanina. but say : 'The faithful God ! ‫ י‬When his (R. . 11. as it is said : < The Lord tests the just 5 (Ps. J. H. Apocalypse of Elijah. 2.26 That sufferings was by profession a medical man. An outsider can stand surety 01· bail for the prisoner who is inside. ‫ א י ת עליך‬. 12 . the same in the name of R. : 'Give me your h a n d / R. Hanina went to visit him. r. also cli. Hanina asked the patient : ' Do you like sufferings ? ‫ י‬R. He does not knock at the bad ones. 2 and 55. J. replied: ' H o w hard are the pains!' R. Jochanan. cf. Shalom. r. Cant. : ' 1 do not like them nor their reward/ R. now that I am inside others have to pledge themselves for my sake. on 2. 386. : ' W h y dost thou not say that word which thou didst say to me and thou wilt be at ease ?> R. R. he said 80. § 2 . i t is clear that this was said by R.‫« מר‬What is upon thee ? ‫ ) י‬R.' R. v.' R. and was healed. 12. R. but on the good ones. g.16 .13. 34. 11 f.'s) pain became very great. The version preserved in Cant. H. Hilgenfeld. Hanina again visited the sick. and R Jochanan went to visit him. &c. 7. said : ' I t is written. shows that à good deal is missing in this relation. e. v. however Gen. : ' When I was outside I stood as surety for others . according to that version. : 4 Thou must not speak thus. 27. and they do not break. Sirach 33. went to visit him. 7 . " h e feedeth among the lilies". 12. that means that the staff of God touches only such men (Cant. Apokalyptik. 29 . for three years and a half from ‫( צ מ ר מורייה‬fever). J. 2 . 8.. 14. and said : ' W h a t is with t h e e ? ' R. M. 14 . On whom does He cause suffering 1 The righteous.27 . J . God likewise does not chastise the wicked (‫ מנסה‬examine by illness. vgl.

is another teaching of R. or of prayer. Simon b. also Menahoth. v. means and agents by which our sins are removed and wiped out. Lakish. Idi and R.28 We may find a clue to these sayings in the dispute of R. police work. This term depends upon whether neglect of study. was the order of the day. We have seen that 27 28 b. Thus. They are signs of love or of God's covenant with men. according to both. Therefore. . as it is said. they were worried by conscientious troubles. in the first instance against the study of the Law and performance of the commandments. 5 A. Β. is entailed or not. 2 . Ber. " Through them (sufferings) will the world be saved ‫( ' ״‬Isa. Jochanan. They speak of sufferings of love.Taan. 5 A . just as then. Deut. R. and in the middle of the third century on the other side. put it this way : ' Suffering departs from him who studies the Torah'. Simon b. R. AZ. Now.4). Jews in Galilee were burdened with communal slavery. Jochanan and contemporaries of R.29 Entirely in the spirit of this age rings another saying of the same teacher : 4 All sufferings which befall a man and disturb him from study are sufferings of rebuke. otherwise they are sufferings of love*. Both older pupils of R. 55 A . the problem of the suffering. and other tiresome services. There is a great resemblance between the conditions prevailing before and after the Bar-Kokhba war on one side. 64. so that they were unable to perform their religious obligations.190 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD are brought 011 the righteous when they have a chance to study the Torah and they neglect it. will bring sal vation to the whole world. Ib. Jacob b. many other teachers of this age also deal with the cause and meaning of suffering. Aha b. especially of the just. 27 Sufferings are. Levi says: 'He who rejoices at the sufferings which befall him. Lakish. Besides the strenuous physical work. Hanina. We know that the persecutions in R. Johanan's time were aimed. Joshua b. His colleague. 53 B. r. 8a: ‫ביסורין שבאין עליו מביא ישועה לעולם שני‬ ‫בל השמח‬ ‫בהם עולם ונושע‬.

31 Owing to slavery. Alexander says : ' There is no one without suffering \ It is a fallacy to assume that the wicked are absolutely happy. and the greatness of the study in the night exaggerated. די שיש ל ה ם סוף‬Gen. Eleazar b. r.JUSTICE 390 R. 32. His parable illustrates the case by the dealing of the flaxgrower with flax. who enslave men and women for their statute-labour. R. 'All sufferings are signs of love \ 30 R.1 : ‫מ ד ת‬ ‫כ ל יסורים ש ה ם ב א י ם על ה א ד ם ומבסלין אותו‬ ‫של תוכחות‬ ‫יסורים‬ / ‫ה ^ א ב ל יסורים שהן באים על ה א ד ם ואין מ ב ט ל י‬ ‫אותו מ ד ׳ ת ש ל א ה ב ה ה‬/ . Jochanan did not agree with this view. 4 Happy is the man who suffers. on the stronger ! ' 3 3 These sayings reflect the sufferings of the righteous. 3. It reads : ‫ הוי א ד ם ח ו ש ש בעינו ו א י נ ו‬/ ‫אין א ד ם בעולם שאינו ב א לידי י ס ו ד י‬ ‫ ו א ד ם ער כ ל ה ל י ל ה‬/ ‫ בשינו אינו יכול לישון ו א ל א ער כ ל ה ל י ל ז‬/ ‫יכול ל י ש ו‬ ‫ויגע בתורה זה ער וזה ע ר הוי אשרי א נ ו ש שיסוריו בתורה‬. b . 92. Pedath brings home to his audience this doctrine by the parable of the farmer who had two cows. Hoshaja. »! Gen. r. 3 and parall. or upon whom suffering comes on account of the Torah 1 . Bisna. r. surely. 92. which reads : ‫ והקביה א מ ר ל ה ם‬/ ‫א ש ר י א ד ם שיסורין באין ע ל י‬ ‫ . . one is lean. 92. This is the reason why the duty of study is so emphatically urged by the teachers of this age. attributed to R. Tanh. 8 12 . Righteous and wicked. 1 gives it in the name of B. Prov. 33 Gen. B.32 R. R Alexanders statement is in the Tanhuma. v. Johanan or R. given above. u 201 f. good and bad people. in the day-time the scholars were prevented from study by day.1 : ‫אין ל ך בן א ד ם ב ל א יסורים אשריו ל א ד ם שיפורים‬ ‫ ב א י ם עליו מן ה ת ו ר ה‬. r. explains the suffering of the righteous similarly to R. Hanina. i. Jonathan. A third teacher. ' On which will he put the burden 1 Surely. the other strong. 202 has a different saying of this teacher on our subject. means to say that the prohibition or the neglect of study causes him pain and suffering. That. r. cf. Jose b. Gen. and had to use the hours of the night for this purpose. 32 y. also Tanh. 32. suffer equally under the foreign rulers. which we detected in another group of sayings by the same 30 Gen.

pal. Β.41 Considering the general poverty of the Jews in this time. Ammi held a similar opinion : ' There is no death without sin and no suffering without guilt. pal. 2. illness or death. breaks his bottle. 33. r. <1 Pes. 5 . because God said to Satan: 1 Thou hast provoked Me against him. 1*. Pedath : ‫ ׳‬Chastisement is caused by giving alms or bread to a man who has no knowledge/ 35 Further. in order to destroy him without cause ! } 38 R. 5. Pes. The Doctrine of Merits. He loses his fowl. who committed sin is guilty of death by Heaven.‫כ ל הנותן פ ת ו ל מ י שאין בו ד ע ה יסורין באין עליו‬ ο b. 89. 3 . 1 . Nahmani. to whom we owe a direct historical reference to the general suffering of the people in this period.39 developed a new theory that the sufferings in this world will be recompensed by the wonders and rewards in the world to come.192 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD Rabbis also. 23. which throws light on the fact that nearly all the teachers deal with this problem.ואין יסורין ב ל א עון‬cf. 98. Akiba and R. who mocks. Eccles. Samuel b. Β. ed. Sabbath 55 A: ‫אי) מ י ת ה ב ל א ח ט א‬ ‫ . sanh. in ‫ מעין גנים‬of Samuel b. Cant. Nimin. <0 Pes. 92 a : . 101b: ‫וביותר ש א ג י חולים מן ה מ ל כ ו ת א ר ם‬ ‫מתאוה לשמוע‬. 18. E z . An idea which is somewhat akin with that of R. In two sayings are preserved the causes of suffering as advanced by Eleazar b. Assi taught also that Job had deserved much more suffering than he actually suffered. wounds his little finger.34 The very teacher of whom we are speaking here may help us to find the key to these events. Isaac. All these are substitutes for greater losses. B. ‫ ״‬b. Marmorstein. 2 7 . Sota 17 A. 38 Source unknown. suffering will come \ 36 R. 157 A.4 and Ps.' 37 R. it is no surprise that the loss of a chicken or a bottle should be regarded as a matter ?4 v. 4 . Both go back to moral and religious conditions. 18B: . the details of which are still to be discovered. r.40 Some of the more or less serious losses and visitations vicariously exempt or free men from more serious suffering. 7. A man. he sees the root of this evil in scoffing : 4 Upon him. 165 B : Eccles. Buber 8. r. Az.‫כל ה מ ת ל ו צ ץ יסורין באין עליו‬ 3‫ ז‬Lev.

He tries to show that suffering. yet they were reluctant to receive them. your real wages are kept with me/ Israel is the orphan. 'They said to God : " Depart from us (‫)יסורין = סור‬. he asserts that even the greatest sufferer occasionally experiences God's benefits. Whatever Israel enjoys in this world is due to the sufferings . The farmer. and clothes. R. 4. Akiba that the sufferings are destined to free Israel from their sins in this world. Β. ב ש ם ר׳ שמעון בן י ו ח א י‬r. Aha regarded sufferings. 30. These blessings are due to the sufferings they endure. who was brought up by a farmer. )תורה‬what is the Almighty that we shall serve Him (‫)קרבנות = עבודה‬. so that they shall be worthy to inherit the world to come. The teaching reads: ·‫בשביל לנקותך מ ע ו נ ו ת י ך לעולם הבא‬ ‫מ י ס ר ך אני ביסורין בעולם‬ 44 Exod. ב ר נחמן‬v. and what profit shall we have if we pray unto Him ( 4 4 ‫נ פ ג ע‬ = ‫פלה‬ meaning of this homily points rather to the conditions of the teacher's own age than to that of the people of the Flood. the knowledge of Thy ways. 10. study of the Torah. This teaching is illustrated by a parable in which an orphan boy figures. and with more originality than ‫ י‬There is none who does not suffer '. worship of God and prayer. 152 Β.42 R. r. The provisions made for him are his wages. The boy thought that he was being provided for on account of the work that he did. perhaps ‫ש מ ו א ל‬ ‫בשיר‬ ‫ . r. their real reward is kept for the next world. in the name of R. drink. by filling a barrel of water. have atoning power before God.JUSTICE 1 93 of great grief. « Pes. and apprenticed him. Torah. 151 Β.Jeremiah. Helbo connects likewise the problem of suffering with the doctrine of reward and punishment. 29 : ‫ . who provided him with food. מ א י ר‬Lev. r. 3. Ν . also Pes. sacrifices. we desire not (= ‫ . r. and prayers as the four things which God offered to the generation of the Flood . or hewing wood . « Deut. β . Helbo repeats also the doctrine of R. : ‫די ב ר כ י ה ר׳ ח ל ב ו בשיר שמעון בן יוסינא ב ש ״ ר‬ ‫ .43 R. however. which do by no means diminish man's reward. says : ' You get your fçod and drink and clothes for occasional works. Differing from the teachings we heard above.

if a man should die without suffering the measure of judgement is spanned against him (‫)מדת הדין מתוחה כנגדו‬. I d i . 4. Huna. Sam. r. When. I will start with thee ! 4 0 ‫ י‬The same teacher sees in Israel's suffering in this world a preparation for the next world. 2 : ‫א מ ר ה ק ב ׳ ה א י ס ר ם אני ביסורין בעוה״ז א ב ל לע״ל‬ ‫ ל א א ו ס י ף ע ו ד עבור לו‬. we have a remarkable passage by R. * I n order that Jacob should be enabled to receive the blessings'.47 A similar thought is reported by R. ch. Eleazar b. who says: ‫יצחק ח י ד ש יסורין‬. Precisely the same saying is quoted M. Thou bringest upon him suffering. R. in the name of R. the father of Esau.‫נתחלקו הייסורין א ח ד לדורות‬ ‫ ל מ ל ך ה מ ש י ח‬. r. R. also R. Idi . Azarja. Papa suggested. the measure of judgement is not spanned against him !‫ י‬God said : ' Thou didst ask for a good thing. One part was apportioned to the Fathers. Abraham asked for old age (in order that father and son could be distinguished by the signs of old age). 101. who prays: 'Lord of the Worlds. M. gave one answer. 65. ed. Simon. Hanina b. in three different parts. 2. ed. by R. There seem to have been earlier disputes on that point. Hanina b. M. The same is given by R. e. 33. however.194 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD The sufferings were divided. 4. the second to the generation of the persecution.45 By the ‫דורו של‬ ‫ שסד‬here the contemporary persecutions and sufferings were meant. 28. B. this teacher taught. g. Judah b. The reading ‫ א ח ת נ ט ל ו א ב ו ת העולם וכל הדורות‬is to be preferred to the reading ‫ . Judan 48 and by R. and the third part is preserved for King Messiah. As to the sufferings of the Fathers. Ps. 4 ‫ ל‬Lev. Levi. advances the view that Isaac became blind in order that he should be spared to mix with people. 121. The passage shows that the Rabbis discussed the question : Why was Isaac suffering from blindness ? This teacher. B. Simon. Isaac prayed for suffering. 16. Ps. Jacob for illness (that man should not depart from this world suddenly). 92. read perhaps ‫ ר' א ח א‬instead of ‫ ר׳ א י ד י‬. 9. R. Levi in the name of R. Huna in his name : ‫ל ש ל ש ה חלקים‬ ‫ ו א ח ד לדורו ש ל ש מ ד ו א ח ד‬y ‫ ו ל א ב ו ת‬. Anonymous sayings connect Isaac's infirmity with the sacrifice on Moriah. r. 4(5 Gen. לדורות ו ל א ב ו ת‬v. ed. not those of the Hadrianic time. We are here concerned about Isaac. 19.1 : ‫ו מ ה ה ל ל ו שן )עבדו( שאינן ב כ ל גופו ש ל א ד ם א ל א א ח ד‬ 45 . Judah b. who spoke evil of him.. Β. R. 48 Gen.

i. combining Gen. God says : 4 Take upon thyself sufferings ! 53 ‫ י‬Finally. 92. Sanh. the teachers should not speak of my sins in their lectures and sermons. Hama with the blind man. ß1 Deut.2 .JUSTICE 1 95 Isaac. 4 In case of trouble or suffering coming on thee. ח ל ק לעולם ה ב א‬4 he is like Abraham.2 : . r.17 : ‫א ם ב א ו עליך יסורין קבל אותן ב ח י ב ה א ל ת ת ח ר‬ ‫ ב מ צ ל י ח דרכו זה עשו‬. 82 Cf. e.e. God : 4 1 forgive them/ 4 1 shall be innocent from my great transgression'. r. 90.10 with Ps. so is Thy chastisement'. Ps. 53 b. 12.13. מ י שיסורים ב א י ם עליו שהן ב כ ל גופו‬ ‫ . of those who fear thee. The idea is expressed in Ps. and do not despair at seeing the wicked Esau being happy and prosperous ! 51 ‫ י‬The great power of atonement vested in suffering is vividly described in a sermon of R.e. 11 : ‫* וכיראתך ע ב ר ת ך‬and according to the fear of Thee. 40. or forgive me that sin I committed! God says: 4 It is impossible !‫ י‬David : 4 Am I lost altogether ‫בל הכי נטרד ההוא( י ?׳‬ ‫ גברא‬4 Is there no remedy for me ? '). Buber 393 : ‫בל מ י ש ק ד מ ו ה ו יסורין בעולם הזר^ י ש ל ו‬ ‫ . Tahlifa of Caesarea. 1. but bear it patiently like Abraham. like R. who is called ‫יירא א ל ה י ם‬. ‫מ ה כ ת י ב ב א ב ר ה ם ו א ב ר כ ה ו א ג ד ל ה ש מ ך‬ ‫כיון ש י צ א קפץ עליו רעבון ו ל א קרא ת ג ר ו ל א ה ק פ י ד א ל א וירד א ב ר ם וכר‬ ‫ויהו רעב ב א ר ץ‬. derives from the example shown by Abraham that the sufferer must not murmur against God. Joshua Ν2 .50 A similar admonition is contained in a sermon of R. we notice that some of the ‫מאיברין א מ ר ה תורה ל ח פ ש י ישלחנו.16. who used the term . ed. also the story of R. Ps. or complain of his trouble. 107 A. 19. either it shall not be written at all. Dosithai of ‫ בירי‬. ש ל א ד ם ע א כו״ב‬v. 50 Gen.‫ש א ת בן חורין לעוה״ב‬ 49 m. g. i.49 R. 12. receive them with joy. Hanin of Sepphoris. c f. David's sins and deeds were commented on very unfavourably by some of the teachers and the people. He depicts David as a Samaritajn merchant. 94. Many teachers of the third century preserved valuable material on this point. 90. David says before God : ' Lord of the whole world ! Who can understand (avoid) errors ? God says : 4 1 forgive them/ 4 Cleanse me from my secret sins Γ God: ' 1 forgive them/ 4Keep thy servant back from presumptuous sins !‫ י‬God : 4 I forgive them/ 4 Let them not have dominion over me'.

113 and 129 . R. so His mercy is upon the cattle and birds \ l Another preacher calls attention to the fact that God has mercy even at the time of punishment with the wicked and their cattle. v. cf. and not a universalistic. 3. Isaac. a true picture of Israel's fate and history. R 147 B. .196 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD teachers saw in Job and his suffering. forgiving. answers and sayings reflect an earnest grappling with these questions. 41. r.2 ' He who loves his fellow créab. Ps. 21 and 25.1. Samuel b. that the spread of the Christian doctrine of love changed the face of the world and the hearts of mankind. They boast. so will Israel at the end of the days regain the right place in the world. JDiodor of Tarsus. R. we can see with what right. b. 8 . 10 B. r. these queries and doubts. pal. Ps. As Job ultimately was rewarded and justified. 6. B. r. 30 A. 421. ‫נ‬ 2 Deut. Pes. good and bad. Ber. in his loss of wealth and children. ' Just as God's love extends to human beings (‫)אדם‬. r. 26B. God. Horn.54 (7) Goodness. Ami. How is God's justice to be reconciled with a beneficent God ‫ ?׳‬How can God's goodness prevail in face of all the evils of this world ? If God is compassionate. Writers on Christian theology are wont to point out this as a result of Jesus's teaching. Sabb. Lam. This is just as great a fallacy as the generally held view that Rabbinic theology teaches a particular. human beings and the animal world alike. cf. M. M. then all the doors stand open to sin and licentiousness ! Since the teachers of Judaism opposed dualistic theories just as much as they combated polytheistic influence. The heretics of the Church liked to display their animosity and malice when referring to David. Clem. One preacher concludes his sermon . If there is one teaching which can be regarded as unquestioned and unopposed. Gen. in his illness and condemnation of his right. 1 . Pes. 3. Ketzeroeschichie. ed. Exod. it is the doctrine of God's love. Levi . R. 102. Samuel b Nahman.1. 2. Pes. 84 v. Hilgenfeld. 12. B. which extends to Jews and Gentiles. 5 c. Harnack. iii. long-suffering.

13 Gen. 8 above. God's loving providence extends to all creatures. Gamaliel II stated : 4 God feeds the world. 10). S. took deep roots in the minds and souls of all believers in God and worshippers in the synagogues.5 Even in battle. 38 A . Gamalie! II. but even to the wicked. according to a variant. Sifre Deut. also b. sustains the plants and herbs in His goodness and grace. He provides even for the beasts of the field. S.' 3 God is.6 4 He feeds and sustains all/ 7 This act of lovingkindness is shown not only to those who are just and righteous. 7 Ib. A. 145. 59 A. Midr. or R. uses the very words : 4 Why does your God cause the wind to blow? the rain to descend? the herbs to grow on Sabbath ? 13‫ י‬A Min (unbeliever) taunted the Elders in Rome with the same question.. Cant. 12B . v. β Mekh. 38 A. Pes. note no. v. Judah b. 3. ‫( תוכו רצוף אהבה‬Cant.10 . from the mighty unicorn to the smallest vermin/ 10 Rab repeats this by saying: 'God is occupied for a third of the day in feeding the mightiest and smallest. 62. b. plants to grow. J. Prov. more so of Israel. Akiba. 9 10 Mekh. moreover.9 R. r. § 38. according to R. 59 A . and His tender mercies are over all His works ‫י‬ (Ps. 3b. 12 A . Gamaliel II. R. expresses this view of God's pro vidence. 32 B .4 4 The Lord is good to all. M. R. to all comers of the world (‫)באי העולם‬. further in the chapter on the existence of God 11 12 b. B. r.8 God's love and providence know no limits between just and. wicked . big and small. Ib. in his dialogue with R. Zadok. causes wind to blow. who created the world. sun to shine. Shabb.' 11 In another connexion R. 12. v. Zadok . R. in these words : 4 God. J. using the very 4 b. R. M. 11. Num. He deals mercifully with His créatures.Z. They are supplied according to their needs and provided sufficiently. 151 B. Kid. in fighting the Egyptians. 3. 5 3 . repeated daily by Jews. in which all creatures share equally. b. 8 Ib. 6. 62. He is the saviour of mankind. and decks a ready table to all ! 712 It is noteworthy that Tineius Rufus. rain and dew to descend. 37 A . the midst of it being paved with love. 9). Simon.GOODNESS !97 tures (‫ )על הבריות‬will be loved by God.

Pes. p.18 An anonymous Haggadist says : ' God supplies with food all His creatures without expecting or receiving any reward . The latter gives alms to a poor beggar once. R. 479. a table is ready before everyone. in saying grace at the table of his Egyptian master. further on. above. 24 . 482. 196. To the same school must have belonged the interlocutor of R. Joshua b. Gen. 18 19 v. 1. and Seneca. Grünhut. r. for the Stoics. 23 A. r. but God gives food to man all the days he is alive. according to a second version. in God the provider of food and sustenance. God. plants to grow and ripen. are we not bound to thank Him ? 19‫ י‬Another dwells on the contrast between God and men. clouds to lift. Gamaliel : ' A man buys a pound of meat. Bergmann. Pazzi compared God in the manner of the Stoics with the soul. of R.17 Joseph. Joshua b. 6 . Simon b. 82. who supplies food for all. Hananja. Both the Roman general and the nameless Min must have belonged to the Stoics. Buber. 65. Yet their philosophy objected to God's resting and working on Sabbath in the same breath. ed.Gomperz. 20 Jelamdenu. Tanh. Judaica. M. there were Jews who doubted whether God can supply even His people with food. Zakkai.1G R. and saw in the soul the sustainer of the body. thanked God. and of R. ‫תשא‬ Deut. before and after the BarKokhba war. Diogenes of Babylon. Rain is provided by God for all.20 Exod. Ps. Ps. 4.198 14 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD same words. Korha. r. 13 . 136. according to some texts. ed. a month. who believed in the providence of the gods. B. rain and dew to descend. 17 v. . or a year. M. mundi. r. 23 .38 . ed. God is the sustainer of all . r. of the whole world. Hama. ch. all the creatures get all they need. to a third reading. Johanan b. I. 15 14 . p. Jannai repeats the words of R. v. Genesis. twice. How much trouble and pain does it cause him till he sees it cooked. cause wind to blow. 7 .' The same words are varied by R. cp. each person according to his requirements. 16 Eccles. without distinction of creed and race. 80. de opif. Philo. Phinehas b.15 In the time of great distress. 23 .

Levi : 4 He. 9. Tanh.. said. surely you will be provided for to-morrow. according to Abba Hanin : ' God pays due regard even to the honour of those who transgress His will. Β. κ. was not weakened and did not fade away in the times of the Rabbis. cf. 25 sifre Num. הבריות‬b. cit. who trusts in God is worthy to become like Him. 9. was regarded as lacking in faith.19 : * If ye get satisfaction to-day. Johanan b. pal. Tos. 4 Do you know whom you shall trust ? Him. 88A. 22 M. b. Simon b. r. If you do not get it. 5.13. but he who puts his trust in the idols is bound to become like them. Epictetus. Eliezer b. how much more that He does so to the honour of those who do His will ! ' 2 5 That we have to supply here the words ‫על כבודן של‬ ‫ עוברי רצונו‬is apparent from a third teaching of this type. Their trust in God's goodness and mercy knew no limit. 2 . which was later on very often developed and enlarged upon. r.כמה גדול כבוד הבריות‬y. the passages. in the so-called age of the 4 Spät-Judentum '.' R.' 23 This scribe sees in man's unchangeable and immovable trust in God the highest form of the imitation of God. Marmorstein. his reward will never cease Î ' 2 2 R. 9.. what shall we eat to-morrow ? wretched people ! if you got to-day. § 11: ‫ ?חס המקום על עוברי רצונו‬v. then commit suicide ! 9 What a world of difference between the Stoic philosopher and the Jewish teacher ! v. and are despairing of to-morrow.41 The immovable trust in God. § 192 . ‫ריות‬ . also sifre Deut.GOODNESS !97 This belief in God's providence was so firm and unshakable in the creed of the scribes that a man who worried about his food for the next day. We 4 mean the saying : 24 regard to the honour of the creatures.10: ‫בא וראה כמה חס המקום על כבור‬ ‫ . i. 11 . a very rigorous judge of human character. Diss. 7. אם ככה חפה תורה עע עוברי רצונו‬Num. Hyrkanos. 434 f. « Deut. well. 4 God has pity on the wicked'. Ps. f. 175. Joshua b. who created Heaven and earth. loc. who trusts Him. Zakkai. Sotah 14 A :‫ . taught and shown by Prophets and Psalmists. 79B: ‫ . Β. 11 A. K. A second aspect of God's goodness is to be found in a teaching expounded by R. Pazzi says in the name of R. Bergmann. Sotah 2. says an anonymous teacher 21 v. The Doctrine of Merits. 24 Mekh. He.

4. Abin. 3). Exod. Israel. guards the honour of all His creatures. by R..200 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD of the Tannaitic period. How 1 ' Solomon sits on God's throne (1 Chron. f. and became honourless by their misdeeds. 7. If a human being sinned. nor will He ever reveal it ! See what is written! " And if a woman approach unto any beast. even of those who sinned against Him. 29 Tanh. Ps. ' how much more on the honour of the righteous \2G R. what is the crime of the beast 1 Why should one kill the beast ? In order that people should not point at the beast. 8. God. Augustus. Th. Elijah rides on God's horse (cf.' Those who fear Him. Huna in the name of R. f. the Messiah will wear God's crowns (Ps. 36 A: ‫ צדיק יותר‬1‫ח ס המקום ע ל כבודו של‬ ‫ מכבודו‬. 4). 141-2. 2). Gen. by R. r. based on the Mishna Sanh. Buber 177. Buber ii. Levi goes even a step further ! ' God did not reveal the name of the tree Adam ate from. 14. r. Moses uses God's sceptre (Exod. &c. 20. " Through it X got stoned I " If God is so particular about the honour of His creatures. 4. others should wear their uniform. 27 26 . 23)." (Lev. M. or Βασιλβν?. B. with additions and variants . Num. R. God's name!' All these things are unthinkable with human kings. God's garment (P8. 84 a. For God Himself honours them. They are so near Him that they become like God ! 29 We notice thirdly that the scribes have been contending against the opinion whether God could satisfy His créaT. 2. Tanh. God makes those who fear Him share these honours. 15. 29. ed. 22 f. Moses. how much more is He considering His own honour 1 2 7 ‫ י‬On the other hand. or use their sceptre. horse. certainly. r. Simon. 1 . Joshua b. ed. are put a grade higher. neither to Adam. 29. 15 A. 28 Pes. Κ. Idi taught that God pays more attention to the honour of the Zaddik (righteous) than he cares for his own honour. or throne. 3. 21. 1). 21.28 ' He shows honour to those who fear Him. crowns. . saying. Tanh.16). They would never tolerate that others should be called by the titles Καίσαρ. 71B . 8. Nah um 1.

B. We read that Ahasuerus did ' according to the wish of each man \ God said to him : 4 1 cannot do according to the request of each of my creatures' (‫)אני איני יוצא מידי בריותי‬. 13. whom we know as a zealous opponent of heretic ideas. Supposing two men were to ask for the hand of one woman. one will be exalted and the other crucified ! R. one for the north wind and the other for the south wind. It was revealed and known to Him. whether good or bad. like the service of two winds at the same time. 2. if two ships wait in the harbour. Cant. 31 Pes. 31 . and thou dost seek to fulfil the wish of each individual. Benjamin b. ch. 145. 32 The Christian Doctrine of God. 200 A. r. will be possible '. 1909. satisfy both of them ? No. ' that this happens in this world . v. r. deals with the problem whether God can do justice to all parties. is as we see. . r. f. also Yalkut Makh. a Jew and a wicked person. 4 Why did he attempt to offer it to them (lit. can one fulfil both ? No ! Either it is a south or a north wind. ( ‫ב ר י ו ת י ו‬ God's love to His creatures. 283 B. either one or the other ! Further. Canst thou do justice . He does not punish His creatures lest He gave them a chance to do the right thing. 3 . one of the most emphatic and characteristic doctrines of Rabbinic theology. R. 4. Gentiles or Jews. can both of them marry her ? No. in the world to come these things.GOODNESS !97 tures. end . Lev. 5 . Levi. In future there will stand before thee in judgement two men. ‫ מפני מה יצא ידיהן‬Why did He desire them to acknowledge it ‫ ' '?׳)?׳‬For this is the measure with Him. 9.30 R. ed. 4 who said and the world was created ' (‫ )גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם‬that the nations of the world will not receive the Torah. W.. 26. We are taught by Dr. Benjamin adds to this the thought which may be turned against those who believe that God is not almighty. Newton 32 that ' various true views of 30 Esther 1·. Tanh. Abbahu held to the contrary that God can fulfil the desires of each of His creatures. Num. 84. for He does not force His c r e a t u r e s ' ( 3 1 .

which show a very uncompromising attitude towards all those who do not agree. If Christianity had acknowledged God's love as the highest principle of religion and believed in God as the God of love. ch. v.g. either in thoughts or in deeds. " A wise son makes a glad father" (Prov. and deplored on very many occasions the application of this love. if that had been the real conception of religion up to this day. Christians themselves. and as a matter of fact. r. not only on historical grounds. 10. r. pp. 48 Α. . 27 B. 4 God is the Father of all beings. Num. he desired to make partner33 85 37 14 Midr. spoken or written with greater force and power. according to another version. goodness and mercy. who is the Father of the whole world ! ' 3 3 God provides food even to those who provoke Him (e. note 31.34 The same sentence is repeated in the teaching derived from the story of Israel's rebellion in the wilderness. 3. have seen very little of its beneficial influence. 37 or. 10. 18 A on Prov. to sinners. when they doubted God's power to give them bread and meat.35 He does not desire the downfall and destruction of the wicked. Rabbinic teachings extend God's love and grace. Jews. Ami teaches 8 that God desired to lodge with His creatures since the first day of the creation'.1. 36 Ib. Β. Prov. No wonder that the new song is a song of the love of God. Samuel b. the history of the world ought to appear quite different from that picture which lives in the mind of all those who know it! There are in the Gospels glowing passages of God's love . of the whole world. This is the Christian speciality . The father is God.. but that God is love has never been proclaimed as truth and wrought out into a message of grace and help. the daughters of Lot). Mekh. with the teachings of Christianity.1). Pes. r. 7. and a religion that has such a truth to offer could not set in anywhere but at the front. above. 13 . 36 A.' We dare to challenge this statement.36 R. how much more to those who do His will. but many more. Gen.202 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD God have been entertained by men.

. 31 A. and does not extend it to the wicked. R. and His mercy extends over all. that 'God supports and erects even the wicked ! ' 3 9 To each living creature is granted the desire of its heart.' 41 ' The world was created out of goodness. 304. B. Taan. 29. Abba adds : ' Even if it was not uttered. Ber. 42 43 M. cruel. 48. Ber.43 The same teacher. r. when he gets poor. cleaves to him.GOODNESS !97 ship with the creatures. 151-2 .' R.' R. pal. Meir. bear out that we have in it an adage known to and uttered by many people. 613. Exod. Levi says: ' God is good to all. Ber. Th. ed. Further we come across the name ‫רחמנא‬ ' the Merciful '. He was called ‫ ' הטוב‬the Good '. 69A. Rab. also Ag. he ridicules him. ' A human being who has a friend. as long as the latter is rich. which is closely associated with our teaching.Tadshe. r. 13. r. b. 123-4. Joshua b. only thought of in the heart. 3. ed. Akiba. Gen.9) expressing God's love to all is explained by three teachers of the third century.' 40 Owing to this nature of God. and who does good. Hijja puts this teaching somewhat differently. R. ch. 33. Nahmani expounds : ' God is good to all. to all who are His works. For rain and good tidings the blessing in the time of the Mishna was : ‫ברוך‬ ‫{ הטוב והמטיב‬Blessed be He. R. 2 . 41 . the Good One.' 42 The morning prayer expresses this with ‫ ובטובו מחדש תמיד‬and ‫המחדש בטובו‬. Akiba taught : ‫ י כל מה דעביד רחמנא לטב עביר‬What God does is done for some good purpose. emphasizes that W Gen. When a man becomes poor. 13D . God is different. R. 60 B. God lifts him up and helps him/ Yet this teacher limits God's support only to the righteous. 4 God is good to all. 89 40 Tanh. for His nature is to be merciful. who are connected with the saying. Samuel b. which agrees with that of the Mekhilta. R. pal. Th. and the greatest good is that His creatures learn of Him to be merciful to each other/ 38 Again the imitatio Dei! R. The classical verse of the Psalmist (104.3. though it seems to us sometimes harsh. or incomprehensible '. Levi sees in it a higher idea. Ber. Huna. His view opposed a perhaps older view. 9. v. 24. i. loves him . R. M. b. Taan.

M. ed. Those of God are full of mercy. 83. 103. r. 33. 67. 314. so has God turned his love away from them '. Buber. Exod.. The nations say : Come and let us cut them off" (Ps. He applied to them the verse in Job 24. They received the Torah. We have not consumed it. all are created in the image of God. with variants . « B. ' H e who shows no love to his fellow-men can expect no love from Heaven. " Thou dost renew us every morning. for they are called God's children. his words did not make the slightest impression on the audience. When R. all of them created in the image of God. p.49 Another teacher taught : ' We know that the mercy of God will last for ever. 3. Buber. as it is said : ' The Lord is merciful and gracious ‫י‬ (Ps. 15 . "His compassions do not fail us Moreover. Tanhuma preached at such an occasion of general distress : ' My sons ! Fill yourselves with mercy toward each other. as he turned to the history of Job. Akiba preached in ‫ מדי‬1?‫ גנזק ש‬on the subject of the people of the Flood. § 97 and 117. The love of God. As soon.. 20. however. and God will be filled with mercy to you ! 4 8 ‫ י‬The teachers of Judaism never wearied of describing or speaking of the great mercy shown by God to mankind. r. 33. Sifre Deut. 8). 6c .'44 Israelites took a somewhat higher place. The character and the deeds of man are crooked. for they were merciless. 7. 94 A. ch. 33. « Gen. 5). 132. all of them cried. 44 ‫באי‬ . Prague. Aha said : ' When drought comes. 3. knows no distinction. 1. and raisest us By this we know that Thy faithfulness is great to all Thy creatures' ( 5 0 . ( ‫ע ו ל ם‬ 45 Aboth iii. and the creatures are merciful to each other. ed.' 46 R. p.45 The generation of the Flood found no sympathy even in their tragic fate. 2.. 48 49 lb. however. 50 M. The attributes and ways of God are full of mercy and lovingkindness. Mekh. Lam. God is also filled with mercy toward them/ 47 R. K. Gen. His mercy is still with us. Ps. 'They have shown no love and mercy to their fellow creatures.204 { ATTRIBUTES OF GOD all creatures are loved by God. r. ed.

63A. 65B. for which the reader in the public service is removed from the reading desk. compassionate. הקביה‬further ‫ ר ח מ נ א ליצלן‬. ch. One of these instances is. I am the Lord. T. M. Kid. Β.. where we read ‫ . Yeb. I. Ber. The slightest doubt as to God's mercy and love was considered heretical. Ps. 54 v.61 for His mercy is upon Him.57 The proper text of this Mishna was a matter of contention as far back as the third century. i. therefore thou couldst not hear them . I have mercy on them ! 5 6 ‫י‬ The conceptions of God's providence and love have been subjected to criticisms in many quarters. There were obviously two distinct readings.GOODNESS !97 worldly king sends his legions against a city which rebelled against him. 56 Eccles. 7. Tanh. does not punish in the first instance with death. K. iii. r. 4 . 7 . but for me there is no mercy '. 773. r. Ber. moreover. 57 M. 74 A.1. who says: am the Lord your God. i. 17. m 10. 436. The mercy of men extends more to the male than to the female. saves the life of the righteous. R. B. e. 85 Lev. 53 Sifre Num. 84 B. r. 2. am the Lord. i. and faithful to pay reward ! 03 ‫ י‬These ideas were so widespread and well-known that we find besides the name54. 111A. "who spake and the world was". Taan. Yalk. The first M. 9-10.‫ רחמנא‬the name ‫ בעל הרחמים‬for God. Ag. Sanh. v. r. Ket. Sabb. Ruth r. if he read : ' Thy mercy reaches the bird's nest. even the cattle. whether faithful or rebellious . God's compassions are alike to male and female . 8. M. 81A. I am the judge to punish. 2. K. § 183 . Pes. Meg. Levi says : ' The Lord of Mercy does not touch the souls first. Gittin 17 A. 9. b. they include all creatures. the saying : ‫ ר ח מ נ א ל ב א בעי‬God wants the heart . An old Mishna enumerates three instances. j. I am full of mercy. God.' 52 This aspect of Rabbinic theology is most concisely put by a Tannaitic teacher. b. 88 B . 52 01 . and from many points of view. the Lord of mercy .55 God says to Moses : ' Thou art a human being. 33 B. They kill all the inhabitants of the city. 6. Sanh. Exod. 25 A. v. I am the judge. however. 106B.. however. 17.

Pazzi. He cannot leave off His ways ! ' God replies : 4 Abraham. 58 . however. but for smaller things. 16 f. because they are natural . Sabb. for it is written. very well. who say of God ' that is His custom. Phinehas b. that of the towerbuilding. the Babylonian teacher.' 59 There is another comment on this Mishna. Others tried to prove the idea that God is cruel. 22. If. 57. their reason or intention being obscure. it does not care. v. come and see for yourself ! All the generations I have destroyed shall pass before thee. taught : ' God provides for all creatures. Jose in the name of the same teacher. 14. 3 . Hama in the name of R. &c. p. It may be that the heretics thought of the bird's nest as the smallest of the small things to which providence may extend. Meg. insects. I will do so no R. teach thou me . also b. 107 B . God's lov which is infinite. teach me. Jose b. 38 Β. Jose b. Ass. "That which I see not.. Ber. thou shouldst think I meted out their punishment too severely. Rab. He destroyed the generation of Enosh. above. The Haggadists repeat the words of the critics. is limited. 197. Abun and R. and thou shalt see that they were not punished by me according to the measure of their wickedness. b. and I will do according to what thou dost say. Such heretics are meant. where R. 25 A. He destroys the generations in a cruel way (‫)כך היא אומנתו לחייב את הבריות במרת אכזריות‬. Ber. 5. 6-7. doubted or limited God's mercy. other commandments. MGWJ. v. Mosis 12. 4. and b.' 58 It is still doubtful of what the heresy consists in this saying. under Epicurean influence. Meg. need not be observed. Simon b. There must have been Jews who. who hold that only those commandments are obligatory which are as clear as that of Deut. which do not appeal to common sense. 59 v.60 The words of the text seem to favour the first interpretation. like worms. j. from the mightiest beast to the smallest worm. 60 ν Aptowitzer. Zabdi give a different Palestinian tradition. if I have done iniquity. 10 and R. according to it. 4 The second had : ‫ על קן‬Upon the bird's nest.206 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD read: '‫' עד קן צ‬Thy mercy reaches up to the bird's nest'.

' The sins men commit changed the merciful and gracious God into a cruel God. God. Deut. 17). Yalk.. we notice that the teaching of God's mercy gave 62 Tanh. 25.. and he did not listen to him ! 6 4 ‫י‬ ‫י״‬ The teachers of the thir century dealt with the same question.62 The latter Haggadist wanted to weaken that impression. 'not like the nature of God is that of man. B. Tanh. B‫׳‬. and further : ' God is cruel ! See how much Moses prayed. so that God did not grant his request '. ed. 6‫ג‬ Sifre Deut.' 63 This reproach resounds in another passage also : ' God says to Moses. Even Moses. does not dare to approach Him. which implies cruelty. 2.. 61 . § 311.'65 Another difficulty of the same type was the commandment : ' Remember what Amalek did unto thee ‫( י‬Deut. 66 Pes.. says an Haggadist. Indeed. 22. Ber. He assumes that before Abraham appeared. and when they acquired their freedom. Β. God punished the world rather cruelly. 820. A man never rids himself of some wrong done to him by his fellow-man. " Enough ! By thy prayers thou bringest me and thyself into ill-fame. and did so many wrongs to Israel. 23.. an earlier teacher faced the same objection to the doctrine of God's mercy. God is different. ' Moses must have been a great sinner. 13). Yalk. 32). Deut. enjoins them. 1. ch.8). 527.61 We must presume that only stringent reasons moved the Haggadist to invent this strange dialogue between God and Abraham.GOODNESS !97 more I ‫( י ״‬Job 34. Β. They derived hence a new aspect of the relation between God and man. and contradicts the words: ' Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite ‫( י‬ib. i. 65 64 Mekh. the teacher of all the prophets. 91 . "Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite ! " '. A g. who was of the seed of Esau. 22 Β.66 Thirdly. only in the way of supplication. 1. 45. Johanan said: 'Hence we learn that no creature can claim anything of his Creator. r. ' Come and see '. Hos. They will say. then came Amalek. notwithstanding all these. Israel was enslaved in Egypt (Exod.

Jer. v. 2 v. put ye not confidence in a friend ! " If the evil inclination tells thee : u Sin. i. He rebuked them by pointing to the words of Micah (7. Abba b. Jonathan says of the daughters of Israel. full of lovingkindness and forgiveness . that they are ‫קדושות וטהורות‬ 'holy and pure 7 A Midrash fragment 2 contains an exposi67 pal. Lam. f. 3. פ‬pal. r. R. " God is too pitying his life should be cut off! 67 ‫ י‬It may be that R. b. . 5). The real meaning of purity in the Haggada is applied to a life free from sexual errors and moral stains. R. He never punishes. K. also Büchler. chaps. 93 . No deed is so bad that it should find no pardon with Him. Β. who is compassionate/ 69 (8) Purity and Holiness. i. sin and virtue. who taught that God forgives all sins except immorality. מ‬pal. Hag. Nahmani. the famous Meturgeman. also raised his voice against people of this caste. ed. are wiped off/ One of the greatest mercies of God is the Jewish aspect of forgiveness of sin. Hanina turned against Bar Kappara. b. Esther r.. and others. Kahana's saying. Piety. Beza 62 B. R. Ps. 50 A . 68 Judah b. 26 . also M. 24 D. 21). Ps. Tanh. 4. Taan. Judah. Shek. God. 2. 69 Cf. 48 ‫ . ‫בתי מ ד ר ש ו ת‬. 08 Tanh. e. 126 Β . This doctrine must have led to great and regrettable abuses. Hanina taught therefore in a very frequently reported and seriously pronounced saying . and put not your confidence in a leader. ' He who says. Whatever 1 the words ‫ טהור‬pure and ‫ ' טהרה‬purity might hav veyed to the primitive mind. M. Types of Jewish Palest.208 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD rise to the notion that God forgives all sins. God will forgive thee ! " do not trust such a friend (cf. § 214 . 1 Sifi. 7 and 8 . Buber. 4 . v. 1\ 6. Wertheimer. in the ages of the Tannaim and Amoraim it was conceived in this sense. Gen. Gen. 16 A. others taught that He is too compassionate . *God is gracious and merciful. 53 f. then all the lines between righteousness and wickedness. 48 ‫ .e Deut.. 8. 1. Whilst some thought the Merciful cruel. R. Trust ye not in a friend . 41.

who teaches that God says to man : 'Behold. if Quoted in Halakoth Gedoloth. however. 60. as will be shown later. 3.4 Jewish religion in our period was free from this view. that all birth is intrinsically impure. however. Die Apologie des Apulejus. 6 One Haggadist compares the fruit of the womb (children) to the fruits of the ground. 7 Eleh Debarim rabba . Kultische Keuschheit in Altertum. Abt. God.5 King Hezekiah was visited with a severe illness because he did not want to marry. 5 6 Num. Nadab and Abihu died because they remained unmarried. I l l f. . The Attributes of God. my abode is pure. and not moral impurity. 848. God says : c Just as the latter are produced without sin or iniquity. Hijja bar Abba says : ‫כל אשה‬ ‫שמייתחמת מן בעלה בקדושה ובטהרה לא קפח הקב׳ה שכרה אלא נותן‬ ‫ מנא לן משמואל הנביא דכת' בו ובו׳ אשר‬. 189 f. Ber. This is admirably expressed by R. . Yalkut Sikili. In Jewish thought there is no room for any sexual idea in connexion with God.PURITY AND HOLINESS 209 tion of Lev. Fehrle. r. only physical. p. the soul I give thee is pure : if thou shouldst return her as I gave her to thee.B. ed. 38.' 7 How is this difference between Jewish religious feeling and the generally conceived opinion of the Greek-Roman world 8 to be explained Ί Surely by the doctrine of God's purity. Origenes. Harnack. It is. 11 A. Hildesheimer. R.3 This conception con‫־‬ tradicts a very wide-spread feeling among primitive and advanced peoples. v. MS. 31 . R. v. 3A.. saying : ‫בניי אם מבקשין אתם לירש את הארץ‬ ‫הזאת שמרו עצמכם מן העריות ומכל דבר של קלקלה והיו טהורין‬ ‫ וקדושים ואתם יושבין לבטח‬. The aberrations of antique religions as well as of Christianity are to a great extent due to this fact. my ministers are pure. The influence of this omission cannot be highly enough calculated in the development of Jewish religion. i.‫לה בן צדיק כמשה ואהרן‬ ‫שאלתי מעמו למה שנזרע בקדושה ובטהרה‬. v. so bringing forth offspring is without sin or iniquity. s v. They imply. Bodl. Many traces of these doctrines can be found in our sources as well. Abdimi of Haifa. unstained and undefiled. Yalkut Deut. 4 3 Ο . 18. the only religious system where no goddess appears or figures in any way. Meir saicl that the sons of Aaron. I am pure. as a matter of fact. Farnell. well . is purity itself.

B. 9 10 Eccles. r. 18.‫ מטמאין אותו הרבה‬.‫ מקדשין אותו הרבה‬. I burn her before thee ! 9 ‫ י‬The purity of God and the human soul are often compared. 32. who sanctify themselves a little. Akiba says that ' Israel has no one else to purify him but his Father in Heaven'. Ber. b. Joma 39 A). Levi. they will be hallowed in the world to come. from above. Lev. We find this idea expressed in an ancient Boraita : ‫ת״ר ולא תטמאו בהם וכוי‬ . ‫ י‬He.' The same happens to those. Pes. . Gen. M. Here. 15. and the virtues of pious deeds performed in this world.‫ת״ר והתקדשתם והייתם קדושים‬ .‫אדם מטמא עצמו מעט‬ . will become defiled in the future world. towards our fellow-men and ourselves. beneath and in this world. 11 . 8. and in the future world.10 God shuns even the mention of an impure word. M. 12 13 Pes. just as the providence of God for the world and the care of the soul for the human body. Ps. therefore it is said ‫ אשר איננה טהורה‬in Gen. r. 7 . who defiles himself a little. Sin defiles man. Midr. Joshua b. The sins increase self-defilement from above. 1 and 12. according to R. beneath. 3 A. 13 R. Exod. 1·.‫אדם מקדש עצמו מעט‬ . The threefold defilements and sanctifications respectively describe the sins against ourselves. and God. chaps. In this world. . Lev. instead of ‫טמאה‬. will be defiled a good deal. and a great deal (b.11 'God is called pure and He will purify Israel \ 12 R.‫מלמטה מקדשין אותו מלמעלה‬ ‫בעולם הזה מקדשין אותו לעולם הבא‬.409 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD not. 71 Β. Ps. 31A. 12. . r. r. 18. b. 7. will be defiled from above. Akiba meant purification from all kinds of sin and transgreesion. Pes. our fellow-men. Yoma end. Virtues and merits have the opposite result. B.‫מלמטה מטמאין אותו מלמעלה‬ . 5.

R. and sanctification for a life according to the Law. R. or in order to hold communion with God. ' Why 1 Because the city was full of idols and abominations. Moses did so. However great may have been the fear of and belief in evil spirits in certain circles and different periods. A similar conception is to be found with the Greeks. Abbahu. probably for this very reason (Mekh. ο 2 . Body and soul together aspire to become like God's purity.'14 Owing to this idea. impurity. the synagogues in the diaspora were built near the river. The High Priest followed this example by removing seven days before the Day of Atonement to the precincts of the Temple. which is most befitting the vehicle of the soul. There seem to have been two different views. Nathan thought that Moses waited for forty days before he ascended the Mount. In spite of these conceptions we find that some of the Rabbis held the view of man's physical impurity. Media. that the primary motive of these purifications of the body was the endeavour to attain physical purity. or 011 the fields. God is with His people in Egypt. A sage of the third century.PURITY AND HOLINESS 211 Impurity stands for sin generally. and sin of idolatry and immorality. God's purity does not suffer. apart from human habitation. in order to rid himself of all chances of physical impurity. The Shekhina is not revealed outside the Holy Land. prayers. This is not the place to describe what role they played in ritual life among Jews. Jose the Galilean teaches that those who intend to enter the camp of the Shekhina have to separate (‫ )פרישה‬from their ordinary habitation. entering the sanctuary. Yet. whose purity is akin to the purity of God. Moses left the city in order to deliver his prayer. Babylon. The teaching of God's purity gave rise to many questions. and Persia. after certain natural functions are closely connected with this idea of purity. God's omnipresence presupposes that even in the defilement. 2 B). this cannot be denied. R. The washings before meals. 2 B. was 14 Mekh.

or a Gnostic. 16A. A teacher derives from Ps. 1(? Pes. God and the sinner cannot live in the same world. B. Sanli. Ιβ Β. . 11.212 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD questioned by a Min : ' Your God is a priest . is being removed from earth. 31 A. 51. the Shekhina. 40 ‫ת‬. Zakkai. ch. The former apply this attribute to men and angels—to the whole community and nation. God's holiness must be man's highest guiding ideal. Isaac : ' He who commits sins in secret is as if he had pushed the feet of the Shekhina/ 18 Many sins are in such a degree impure that God's presence. R.‫ דו‬Sin and impurity are identical. The teachers must have felt the contradiction between God's omnipresence and the temporary disappearance of the Shekhina from a place. is not certain. the answer might mean an attack against the doctrine of baptism writh water. when he read such passages as : ‫׳‬Ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves. Abbahu lived in the place of the Churchfather Origen. nor the water purifying/ 16 Here Jewish religion reached a height which was rarely surpassed by theological speculation. Phinehas b. for R. What it means was conveyed to the reader of the Scriptures. 39 A. If he were a Christian. which is quite probable. God has removed His Shekhina from the place. He became defiled . 45). Hag. 281. 18 b. 5 that sin and transgression defile man like the dead body. Ps. who taught : ' Neither is the dead defiling. Whether the questioner was a Christian. The influence of sin on the Shekhina is expressed in the words of R. Purity and holiness are correlatives. ed. Yet this lofty idea could not achieve great popularity. 17 M. Jair also connected these two attributes. 51. and is frequent in our sources. and ye shall be holy: for I am holy' (Lev. and Parall. This correlation is seen in the Biblical writings. when He buried Moses. which is greater than that of water. Johanan b. Kid. In reality the accepted thought may have been that of R. Β. how did He purify Himself ? surely not by water ! 1 5 ‫ י‬The teacher proved God's purification by fire.

22. 22. For this very reason we are taught that with the death of Rabbi 'Holiness ceased among men'. ' I will be hallowed among the childrèn of Israel . Bacher. or. by imitating His ways. 4 And ye shall be holy men unto me ‫( י‬Exod. 100. Men. 7 . 5 : ‫ומנין שישראל נקראו קדושים ב ע ת ששומרים‬ ‫עצמן מן הניאוף ומן ה ז מ ה לכן כתיב ו ה ת ק ד ש ת ם ו כ ר מ כ א ן בזמן ש ה ם‬ Î ‫ קדושים הוא ל ה ם לאלוה‬. ii.19 R. Phinehas ben Jair states: ‫( י ש ר א ל קדושים הן‬b. similarly. God alone is ‫ קדוש‬and ‫ גדול‬together also in Num. Jose b. Tanh. R. Halafta with the words: a great man. 4. r. ‫ מ ה ו נרפים ? איל קדושים א ת ם‬. and the audience of the Rabbinic preachers.. or. v. by following God's commandments. by attaining virtue and morality man can acquire holiness was familiar with the readers of the Bible. ii. also with ‫ . With the adoption of the name ' the Holy one ' for God. R. 4 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests and an holy nation ‫י‬ (ib. a chaste man! (‫ א ד ם גדול ארם קדוש א ד ם צנוע‬.PURITY AND HOLINESS 213 or. Simon. a holy mouth should say such a thing? (b. Weiss. 148 . Ishmael says: ‫ כ ש א ת ם קדושים הרי א ת ם שלי‬. Sanh. even the greatest and most pious. 32). Ber. ‫א מ ר ו רבותינו שני דברים‬ ‫היו קדושים וגדולים וכסבורין בני א ד ם שהן קשים‬. ' Ye shall be holy. 15. 38. 2). Dor Dor we Dorshaw. 98a. 6) ‫ ?׳‬Surely the deep thought that by abstinence from evil. I am the Lord which hallow you ‫( י‬ib. ii. Mekh. Even in the Tannaitic period certain men were still called ' holy ones ' . 22. 19. AT. Meir's teaching. 19 . for I the Lord your God am holy ! ' (ib. r. 5 β. 7 . a great change is to be observed. Gen. Special attention may be drawn to the saying of R Judah b. who was styled ‫רבינו הקדוש‬. a holy man.‫כל ב י ת אבי היו צנועים וקדושים‬ 20 v. pal. we hear from Haggadic teachers in this age. or. cannot and must not be called 4 holy ‫ י‬any more. or. Simon ben Lakish is surprised at R. Meir is introduced to the people of Sepphoris by R. * Be holy unto your God ‫( י‬Num. 30). the great editor of the Mishna. 9 . צ נ ו ע‬ibid. Hullin 7b). and exclaims : ‫פה קדוש י א מ ר זה‬. 23 A). 20 R. 19. to this Num. . Great men were addressed in this way. ii. 5). r.40).

' Isaac ‫ ' ?׳‬and God said. deal with this subject. " Blessed be the Lord. Ps. 28) . Tanh. 73 f. 21). in His praise (Exod.22 Very instructive is an anonymous homily. and sanctified me with your name by saying. . the idea that there were ministering angels before the creation of the world. 3). Isaac b. 3. Ps. iii.‫שהוא קדוש בכל מייני קדושות‬. Abba. with the words : ' If ye are worthy. 49. 12 D . M. are liable to err and stumble. ' Jacob V Then God said. Num. 1 Chron. from eternity to eternity". 14. he is a drunkard!' (cf. in His walk (ib. who is called Israel ' (cf. he is a stranger (proselyte) ' . Then came Noah. after quoting a parable of a king. R.23 God says to Israel : ' Before I created my world the angels praised me. ' Yes. Josh. 24 Tanh.10). The homily concludes. is this he in whose name we praise Thee ? ‫ י‬God says : ' No.10): and after him his offspring. Afterwards appeared Abraham.19 : .' 21 The teaching preserved in the name of R.11). ‫י א ל ה י ם קדושים הוא‬ v. Hanina. Gen.214 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD holy. ib. Hama. God said : ' Since ye were sanctified after My name before the world was created. Teachers of the third century. 52. B. be hallowed as I am holy'. and preach on the subject of God's holiness. This homily deserves a more detailed treat‫־‬ ment from various points of view. which throws welcome light on our doctrine. 63. 35. 25. ' God is holy in His speech (cf. the God of Israel. 72 f. and the revelation of His strength (Isa. Isa. ib. ye are called the " congregation of the holy ones if not. 77. in His appearance (ib. No wonder that the teachers turn away from the idea of man's holiness. err are est liumanum. under the heavy 21 22 23 v. he is a thief ! ' (cf. 9. who married a queen. Ber. and God said again: 'No. he is the man. 36.17). . 60. iii. 8). 15. ' He loves mine enemies' (cf. and they said: ' Is this he?' God: 'No. First of all. 3). men whilst alive.' 24 When Adam was created. Aha b. 26). 24. ib. ‫ י‬God's holiness is perfect. 27 . Then God sanctified them after His name (cf. they said : ' Lord of the World. and explained by R. " the wicked community ‫( ' ״‬cf. 16. pal.14).

28 Jews. 9. Β. G*n. 3. Menahem b. iv. Jose the Galilean taught that 974 years before the creation the angels existed already.27 An old Jewish exorcism has the same doctrine. Zeitsch. 540. M. attention may be paid to the rather harsh treatment of the Fathers from Adam up to Isaac. chaps. 90. and Jacob. Nachgelasse iii. p. note 5 . Fabricius.Ps. 2. 16 ‫וישלח‬ . could not have sought simply to exhibit human weakness and to belittle the greatness of the heroes of yore. ch. 31. 7. allied with Christian attacks against our doctrine. ch. Noah. Isaac. MGWJ. Tanh. Hag. Tanh. Deut. 1 and 12. That enables us to date the homily before the change introduced by R. Th. Jer. Ps. . 29 v. ed. R. kept as days of special importance. 24. Codex Pseudep. 318 . are the true Israel. but not the new nation. Haraanhig. 1855. B.29 Owing to this fact Jews are never called in our sources ‫יהודים‬. Das Christentum. Volkskunde.25 These days were. ch. M. Pirke R. Ps. Tanh.PURITY AND HOLINESS 215 pressure of Gnostic propaganda. 105. r. 3 . 1. 6. 24 . 5 . the offspring of Adam. Friedmann. i. ‫ל ך ל ך‬ 11.. E. Secondly. 5. 4 3. or Romans. ch. 13. 3 . Luke 18. 3. All the Haggadas which contain a more or less condemning word about the Fathers of old. pp. 191 . Syriacs or Arabs called them. r. 19 B. Halakhoth Gedoloth j . ' Who are His holy ones ? Israel. Thirdly. Ps. v. 28 M. und Volkskunde* in Jahrbuch für jüd. 76. 145 . 1·. as we know. τ. Hanina was effected. 27 Aboth R. ed. taught that God created the angels on the second or the fifth day. Hypomnesticum Josephi. N.. Geiger's Wiss. Geiger. 47 A . 9-18. but Israel. 61. Schechter.26 Yet in the Tannaitic Haggada this teaching of the creation of the angels was not known at all. 26 v. The latter idea occurs in other homilies and sayings. i. 64 c . that the angels were created about a thousand years before the Universe. B. Taan. as the Church-Fathers taught. Abraham. Achelis. ii. Ex. ch. my Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. Seder El. 4. 12. 104 . as Greeks.. Gen. Graetz. 221 . 4. ed. the children of Jacob. 14 A.' cf. 117. 86. 15 and 22. R. 377. the holiness of Israel is especially pointed out. 3. Johanan and R. 130. now Marmorstein. 25 v. on this question. Midr. Soferim 21. 4 Beiträge zur Religionsgesch.

20 A. 9 . Abajji. some read R. Judah b. Pal. Jeb. R. 1. who was also called ' holy. Pappa. you might think like God Himself ? No. who was much older than R.216 ATTRIBUTES OF GOD Simai was called the son of the < holy ones \30 This teacher belonged to the circle of Rabbi. Z. Hanina. 50 A . Both.35 used here older material. my Holiness is of a higher degree than yours \ This change of outlook is even more apparent in the saying : 4 No pious man is called holy whilst he is alive . A. Eccles. ii. 3 56 ' b. . b. 37 M. Phinehas . as the language and context prove. and R. Z. But apart from this internal evidence we have other proofs that the ideas and conceptions about the holiness of man. 4. r. Judah b.36 who says : ' Ye shall be holy . The latter name is not quite settled . This alteration of attitude is discerned in a saying of R. 32 33 pal. 20. Pazzi. 3 « Lev. Lakish. ii. 3. 120 . Joshua b. 31 b. 6 F. R. 24.' 31 and who addressed the Exilarch Hananja ‫ ׳ לקדושת חנניה‬His Holiness \ 32 To this age belong the sayings : ‫כל הגודר עצמו‬ ‫ נקרא קדוש‬. 19 A. one text reads erroneously R. Hama. it is written.. Pappa . Pappa. b. Z. A. Levi. Hama b.‫כל המקבל עליו דברי חכמים נקראקדוש‬ in spite of the fact that the latter is taught in the name of Abajji. Bogmengeschichtezi 1894. v. Simon b. 118 B . 38 v. Sanh. Ps. r. Shabb.9 : ‫והדין קדושים תהיו יכול כמוני ת ״ ל כי קדוש אני ק ד ו ש ת י‬ ‫למעלה מקדושתכס‬. " for I am holy " .' This teaching must be of the third century because teachers of the fourth century dwell and comment upon it 3 7 What was the reason for this change ? We know the reaction in Christianity which took place in the Church after the middle of the third century. 42 c. Harnack. cf. must have experienced great changes. comments on the former saying. Hijja b. Hama b.‫ מן הערוד‬33 and34. 7. ch. 24. ' Even the Fathers of the world are not called " holy " before their death. as can be seen from the parallels in the Palestinian Talmud.38 The crudest superstition arose from the lowest parts of the population 30 b. 104 A . and the former by R. Pes. . Le•. 1·. Aha b. A. others R. Pazzi. are older sayings. Gen. Β. 6. Pal.

and perversity which arose from their surroundings and threatened the whole edifice of holiness. and man must become like unto God. even the Fathers are not holy. their changes and development. observing his Sabbath and Festivals. Holiness is not the tabu of primitive and more advanced religions. under which lurked the demons of idolatry. superstitions. What Harnack sees in the Church of the third century can be observed by the study of Rabbinic writings of the third and fourth centuries. it must bring God near to man. How far this and other attributes influenced the religion of the Rabbis.PURITY AND HOLINESS 217 and covered with its darkness all the purity and morality of ancient Christianity. This induced the leading Scribes to discard the old names and put in their place the name of ‫ הקדוש ברוך הוא‬. The false beliefs. All his deeds and words are emanating from the Divine Holiness. It is the expression of what the religious Jew feels when discharging his religious duties. Jewish teachers saw the same peril hovering over their religion. The earliest Christians and Apologists would have hidden their faces in shame at beholding the union of paganism and Christianity. which changed Christian religion. was the worship of saints. ' Only One is Holy : God '. saint-worship. which it brought from the Father's mansion. A change was therefore necessary. If religion has a purpose in life and the world. The holiness of God is in Judaism the essence of religion. . Man is not holy. crudeness. One of these dangers. will be shown in the next chapters dealing with the anthropomorphism and imitation of God.

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