Hexa Meshing

4.2.6: Pipe Blade

This tutorial example uses the “Collapse” function to create a degenerate topology in a Conjugate Heat transfer problem around a blade located in the center of a cylindrical pipe.

a) Summary of Steps

The Blocking Strategy Starting the Project Creating Parts in the Mesh Editor Starting Blocking Using Prescribed Points to Fit the Blocking Splitting the Topology Using Prescribed Points Collapsing Blocks to Represent the Blade Material Edge to Curve Association on the Blade Moving the Vertices Generating the O-grid Defining Surface Parameters for the Mesh Defining Edge Parameters to Adjust the Mesh Checking mesh quality for determinants and angle
ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 189

Hexa Meshing

Saving before Quitting
b) The Blocking Strategy

In this lesson, the blade is regarded as a Solid region, while the region surrounding the blade is regarded as the Fluid region. Using Block Splitting at “Prescribed point”, the user will generate a Hexahedral Mesh for both of the regions, so that the topology of the solid region is a degenerate ‘Hexahedral’ mesh. Before the user employs the Collapse function for his/her own applications, confirm that the solver accepts degenerated hexas (for a structured solver) or penta_6 elements (prism) for an unstructured solver. Note: Settings >Selection>Auto pick mode should be turned OFF for ANSYS ICEM CFD to behave exactly as this tutorial describes.
c) Starting the Project

The input files for this tutorial can be found in the Ansys installation directory, under ../v110/docu/Tutorials/CFD_Tutorial_Files>PipeBlade. Copy and open the geometry.tin file in your working directory.
d) Creating Parts in the Mesh Editor

Right click in the Display Tree on Parts > Create Part to create different Parts and assign the different surface of the geometry to the appropriate part. Refer to the figure below for the Surface part assignments.

ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual


Hexa Meshing

Figure 4-147 The Pipe Blade configu ration


Surface Parts

After the Pipe Blade project is open, activate the Points and Surfaces from the Display Tree. Switch on Points > Show Points Names. Begin the Surface part reassignment by changing the region enclosed by GEOM/4 - GEOM/7 to the part OUTLET. The region that is denoted by GEOM/0 - GEOM/3 should be reassigned to the part INLET. The Surface defining the Cylinder pipe will be placed in the Surface part, CYL. The surfaces belonging to the solid blade in the middle of the cylinder should be classified as BLADE. When all of the Surface parts have been assigned (INLET, OUTLET, CYL, BLADE), press the middle mouse button to exit from continuous mode.
f) Curve Parts and Point Parts

For this tutorial, we will leave the curves and points assigned to the initial part GEOM.
ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 191

0 Tutorial Manual 192 . Now enter SOLID as the new Part Name in the Create Body window. right mouse select on Parts > Delete empty Parts. The Create Block window ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Press the middle mouse button to accept. Press the location selection icon and select two locations on the blade surfaces so that the midpoint will be inside of the blade. by going to Blocking > Create Block will open. this location would be important. > Initialize Block . With Hexa meshing. The material point that will be created will help us to keep the FLUID region separate from the SOLID region. and press Apply. Press the middle mouse button to accept the selection. Delete any Empty Parts: From the Display Tree. select two locations on the opposite sides of the cylinder.x x Hexa Meshing g) Creating the Material Points Select Geometry > Create Body > Material Point Enter FLUID in the Create Body window that appears. After accepting this Parts assignment. it is not. When this is complete. dynamically rotate the model to confirm that SOLID is inside the blade. Note that the FLUID material point should not be within the BLADE. With the left mouse button. File > Save Project As to save the updated model before continuing on in this tutorial. h) Blocking Initialize blocking. but is not necessary since blocks can simply be created in the FLUID part rather than creating a material point. all components of the Geometry should now have part name assignments. Give the project any name you want. and press Apply and the Body name FLUID should appear within the geometry (midway between the selected locations). Rotate the model to confirm that FLUID is in an appropriate location. which will create the first block. If tetra meshing.

0 Tutorial Manual 193 .x Hexa Meshing Figure 4-148 Create block window Select the block Type as 3D Bounding Box (default) from the pull down arrow. i) Association of vertex to point To fit the Initialized Blocking more closely to the geometry. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Name the Part as Fluid. > Associate Vertex and the Select Blocking > Associate window shown will open. Press Apply without selecting anything. Toggle ON Blocking > Vertices and right mouse click on Vertices > Numbers under Blocking in Display Tree. and the initial block will be created around the whole model. the user will associate vertices to points.

associate the other vertices and points for the inlet and outlet so that after completion the geometry should look like below. Press the point and select Point GEOM/7 and press Apply to associate selection icon them as shown below. Similarly. Press the vertex selection icon and select Vertex 42. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.x Hexa Meshing Figure 4-149 Associate vertex window Select Point under Entity.0 Tutorial Manual 194 .

Hexa Meshing Figure 4-150 Moving the vertices Figure 4-151 Geometry after associating all vertices to corresponding points ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 195 .

x xx xx Hexa Meshing Note: When possible. j) Associating edges to curves Select Associate >Associate Edge to Curve . Press the edge selection icon then select the four edges shown in the figure below and press the middle mouse button. 225. and 315 degrees around the circle. confirming their association with the curve.0 Tutorial Manual 196 . Notice that the block edges then transform from “white’ to ‘green’. Figure 4-152 Association window ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Then press the curve selection icon and select the four curves shown in the figure below and press the middle mouse button. Also notice that the four curves become one color. This results in the best mesh quality. 135. indicating that they have been grouped into one curve. the Block vertices on any circular geometry should be placed so that edges are equal in length and the angles between edges are 90 degrees. This amounts to vertices being placed at 45.

To see a confirmation of these associations.0 Tutorial Manual 197 . right mouse click on Blocking > Edges > Show Association in the Display Tree.Hexa Meshing Figure 4-153 Edges and Curve selection for association Similarly. associate the four edges on the other circle to the corresponding four curves. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.

as is the case with longitudinal edges. By default. Note: This section does not need to be performed on the model. and appear as blue. The association can be set to this default using Associate > Associate Edge to Surface . by default. by pressing k) Grouping curves .x x Hexa Meshing Figure 4-154 The Edge Projection Note: If the edges lie on the geometry. This operation is useful to correct any Edge to Curve Association mistakes. have no association. which is really deleting an association. Select Blocking > Associate > Group curves. all external edges are surfaceassociated to the nearest active surface and appear as white. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. You can set this association. All internal edges.0 Tutorial Manual 198 . the projection arrows are not shown. but it shows the user how to manually group curves.

then Fit Window Turn off Vertices at this stage. while the j-direction splits will be made by visual judgment.0 Tutorial Manual then select 199 . Press View > Top. The k-direction splits will be created through the prescribed point method. Select the edge selection icon ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. l) Splitting the Topology Using Prescribed Points and Screen Select The following steps instruct the user to split the block in the ‘k’ and ‘j’ directions around the blade. >Split Block and it will open Choose Blocking > Split Block the window as shown in the figure below.x xx Hexa Meshing Figure 4-155 Group curve window Select the four curves corresponding to OUTLET as shown in the figure and press Apply to group them. thus creating further blocking topology for the blade. Choose All visible and Split method as Prescribed Point.

The final result will have three horizontal splits as shown in below. Note: Make sure that the Edge that is selected lies within the range of the Prescribed Point that will be selected. make another split using the same edge but through the Prescribed Point. GEOM/8. make another horizontal split through the prescribed point GEOM/12. After selecting the edge it will prompt you to select the point Select the Prescribe point. GEOM/9 and press middle click to accept the selection. Similarly.Hexa Meshing one of the edge which is along z-direction. Figure 4-156 Split block window ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Similarly.0 Tutorial Manual 200 .

Press the edge selection icon and select any of the horizontal edges (which is along xANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 201 . Now select the Split method as Screen select. The next set of splits will be in the ‘i’ direction.xx Hexa Meshing Figure 4-157 Make the horizontal splits in the block These are the splits in the ‘k’-direction.

If Auto pick mode is ON. Select on a curve or edge on any location that is vertically in line with the right side of the blade. press Apply.0 Tutorial Manual 202 .Hexa Meshing direction) to create a vertical split. you should left mouse click on the edge and hold the button while dragging the split to where you want it. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. and it will ask for a location on the screen to split through. If Settings>Selection>Auto pick mode is OFF. Then use the same method to create another vertical split on the left side of the blade. Press the middle mouse button to complete the split operation.

Hexa Meshing Figure 4-158 Horizontal splits on blade sides ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 203 .

Add Blocks to Part . Change the Index control for the ‘I’ dimension so that the Min is 2 and the Max is 3. The restricted topology consists of four blocks. After the splits are complete.xx Hexa Meshing Note: Every time a block Split is performed. right mouse click in the Display tree on Blocking>Index Control. Right mouse click on SOLID>Add to part underneath Parts in the Display Tree. the new range of the K index will be from 0-6. For clarity in these operations. Select Blocking Material. m) Collapsing Blocks to Display the Blade In this section. Turn OFF the Points from the Display window. Figure 4-159 Assigning the blade blocks ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. the Index control is updated. the material representing the blade. and it will open the Add to Part window. Before collapsing the blocks. change the Part family of the two center blocks to SOLID. and select the blocks of the blade as shown below.0 Tutorial Manual 204 . then press the middle mouse button to complete the operation. the Collapse feature is introduced to create degenerate blocks for the blade. where the two center blocks belong to the blade.

Select the two blocks shown in the figure below.x Hexa Meshing Now select Blocking > Merge Vertices > Collapse Block . Press Apply to Collapse the blocks.0 Tutorial Manual 205 . ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Figure 4-160 Collapsing the blade Blocks After collapsing we get the model as shown below. In this case it is the shortest edge of the selected blocks. Choose the edge that should be collapsed.

The ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. . Note: Make sure Project Vertices is disabled.0 Tutorial Manual 206 .x Hexa Meshing Figure 4-161 The Collapsed Blocking n) Edge to Curve Association on the Blade Choose Blocking> Associate >Associate Edge to Curve Associate edge to curve window will open as shown below.

The geometry should look as shown.Hexa Meshing Figure 4-162 Association Edge to Curve Window You should associate the Edges and corresponding blade curves as shown below.Do this to the top and bottom of the blade. on both sides. After associating. Switch on Blocking > Edge > Show Association from the Display Tree. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 207 .

Hexa Meshing Figure 4-163 Blade edges to be association to curves ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 208 .

Switch off Edges > Show Association.All Visible should be toggled Associate ON. Snap the appropriate block vertices onto the geometry by selecting > Snap Project Vertices .0 Tutorial Manual 209 . inlet and outlet are moved to the locations as shown below. All the vertices belonging to blade. Then Press Apply. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.x Hexa Meshing Figure 4-164 Blade edges Associated to curves o) Moving the Vertices This section shows the user how to move all the associated vertices onto the geometry in one step.

0 Tutorial Manual 210 . all the vertices lying on the block material boundary are white and are free to move on any surface. Vertices associated with Prescribed Points are red and are fixed at a point. internal surfaces are blue and can be moved along the blue block edges to which they are connected. with orthogonal grid on the pipe walls. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.Hexa Meshing Figure 4-165 The final positions of the vertices before the O grid p) Vertex Color Distinction Notice from this lesson and from previous lessons. The following steps will improve the overall mesh quality. the existing blocking would result in skewed cells on the four ’corners’ of the pipe. Additionally. The colors of the vertices indicate their associations and degrees of freedom. Vertices associated to a curve are green and can be moved on the associated curve. Converting the existing H-Grid type topology to an O-grid type topology inside the pipe will produce a mesh that is low in skewness. that the movement of the vertices is restricted to the associated Curve. q) Generating the O-Grid If the pre-mesh is generated at this point. By default.

Similarly.0 Tutorial Manual 211 . and Press Apply to create the O-grid. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.x x xx xx xx Press Blocking >Split Block Hexa Meshing > O grid Block Press and select all the Blocks of both the FLUID and SOLID regions since the O-grid will be added in the entire pipe as shown in below. the blocking will appear as shown. Press the middle mouse button to accept. Press the middle mouse button to accept. Figure 4-166 Add the faces of the outlet and inlet to O-grid After creating the O-Grid. press and select the two INLET faces and two OUTLET faces as shown.

0 Tutorial Manual 212 . the user will define node distributions on the blocking using surface parameters.x Hexa Meshing Figure 4-167 The O-grid r) Defining Surface Parameters for the Mesh In this step. as shown. Then select all the surfaces by box selecting the entire model or pressing “a.25. Height as 0. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Select Mesh > Surface Mesh Setup and select the surface selection icon . Surfaces should be turned ON in the Display Tree so they can be selected from the screen.03 and Ratio as 1.3.” Enter the Maximum Element size as 0.

0 Tutorial Manual 213 . ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.Hexa Meshing Figure 4-168 Surface mesh size window Press Apply to assign the surface parameters. The surfaces will show hexa icons as shown. Display the surface parameters by right mouse clicking in the Display Tree on Geometry> Surface > Hexa Sizes.

Perform these next steps to redistribute points along the diagonal (radial) edge of the O-grid. This will compute the node distributions on the blocking edges from the surface parameters.Make sure Update All is toggled on (default). Turn ‘ON’ Blocking > Pre-Mesh from the Display Tree. The mesh will look like as shown below when viewing the OUTLET. the mesh quality of more complex models can be improved by defining additional edge parameters. when it says. Mesh is currently out of date – recompute? Right click on Blocking > Pre-Mesh > Solid and Wire in the Display Tree to display the mesh in Solid/Wire for better Visualization. For the convenience of selecting the edges. Then make sure Vertices in ON.0 Tutorial Manual 214 . ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Press Yes. right mouse click in the Display Tree to turn ON Vertices > Numbers and Edges > Bunching. Select Blocking >Pre-mesh Params >Update Sizes . and Press Apply.xx Hexa Meshing Figure 4-169 The surface parameters Switch OFF Surface > Hexa Sizes. s) Defining Edge Parameters to Adjust the Mesh Although it may be enough to define the meshing with surface parameters. Zoom-in on the OUTLET area of the blocking.

ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Turn OFF Blocking > Pre-Mesh so the edges can be easily seen and selected. The near wall elements will have the same initial height that was set on the surface parameters. which will allow it to go as large as possible.25) can be met. Set Spacing2 to 0.x x xx xx Hexa Meshing Figure 4-170 Mesh before changing mesh parameters The mesh is denser at the walls. Select Blocking >Pre-mesh Params >Edge Params .015.0 Tutorial Manual 215 . Or you can select the same edge shown in the figure below. which is the blocking Edge 196-118. Set Spacing1 to 0.03. Increase the number of nodes to 13 so the Ratio1 (1. Then press Apply. It may be desirable to have denser near-wall spacing. Select any of the “radial” edges. which was 0. These are the edges created by the O-grid that are oriented radially in relation to the grid lines that run circumferentially around the tube. which is half the previous value. Enable ‘Copy Parameters’ and select Method ‘Copy to Parallel edges’ to duplicate these settings on parallel edges in the blocking.

Hexa Meshing Figure 4-171 Setting edge meshing parameters ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 216 .

Choose Yes when asked to recompute the mesh.Hexa Meshing Figure 4-172 Selection of edge for changing Parameters Note: Spacing1 is the first element size at vertex 118 while spacing2 is the first element size at vertex 196. you should see Project faces checked ON by default. If you right click on Blocking > Pre-mesh. Switch OFF Edges > Bunching in the Display Tree. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.0 Tutorial Manual 217 . Side 1 and Side 2 are indicated by the direction arrow that displays on the edge after it is selected. Switch OFF Geometry. Switch ON Blocking > Pre-Mesh in the Display Tree. Turn off the SOLID volume part name from the Display Tree and right click in the Display Tree to turn on Blocking > Pre-mesh > Solid and Wire if it is not already on. Vertices and Edges in the Display Tree.

select Blocking >Pre-mesh Quality Histogram . Max-X value 1. Select the criterion as Determinant (2x2x2) and enter the Min-X value 0. The histogram will be displayed in the lower right. Press Apply.2 is acceptable for most commercial solvers.0 Tutorial Manual 218 .Hexa Meshing Figure 4-173 The final mesh displayed in Solid and Wire t) Checking mesh quality for determinants and angle To check the mesh quality. Max-y height 12 and Num of bars 20. A value of determinant greater than 0. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11.

Hexa Meshing Figure 4-174 Pre-mesh quality window while selecting Determinant 2x2x2 Figure 4-175 Histogram showing Determinant 2x2x2 Then. A new histogram will appear for the internal angles of elements as shown. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. select Angle from the Criterion pull down. in the Pre-Mesh Quality window at the upper left. Enter the values as shown below and press Apply.0 Tutorial Manual 219 .

In most of the cases. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. The user should then inspect the elements and decide on a solution. block vertices can be moved or edge parameters can be changed to improve the area.0 Tutorial Manual 220 . select a histogram bar and then select Show. Figure 4-177 Histogram showing Angle Note: As taught in the 3DPipeJunct example. to display cells of a particular determinant or angle value.Hexa Meshing Figure 4-176 Pre-mesh quality Window while selecting Angle An angle greater than 18 degrees is acceptable for most commercial solvers. Cells within that range will be highlighted.

The node position changes made by the pre-mesh smoother will not be saved to the blocking.Hexa Meshing u) Running Pre-mesh smoother Before converting the Pre-mesh to an unstructured or structured mesh. The Pre-mesh smooth window Select Blocking > Pre-mesh Smooth will then appear. Select the Criterion as Angle and enter Smoothing iterations 3 and Up to quality 0.5 as shown. you should not recompute the mesh. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. Changes in the minimum angle of the mesh can be seen in the histogram as shown. . So reloading the blocking and computing the mesh will always produced the mesh before smoothing. Select the Method as Quality. Figure 4-178 Pre-mesh smooth window Press Apply to smooth mesh.0 Tutorial Manual 221 . the user may choose first to smooth the mesh. So at this point.

and immediately load the mesh. ANSYS ICEM CFD 11. save the project. This will write the default name “hex. To write the mesh in a structured format. right mouse click in the Display Tree on Blocking > Pre-mesh > Convert to MultiBlock Mesh. such as b1.uns” to the working directory.Hexa Meshing Figure 4-179 Histogram after running smoother v) Saving Select File > Blocking > Save blocking As and enter a name. To save the mesh to a different name.blk. Finally. To write the mesh in an unstructured format. Saving the blocking will allow the user to change any meshing parameters in the future by reloading the blocking onto the geometry.0 Tutorial Manual 222 . right mouse click in the Display Tree on Blocking > Pre-mesh > Convert to Unstruct Mesh. the user can then select File>Mesh>Save Mesh As.

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