Appendix A: Sample Email and Survey Form

When coming up with our questions, we agreed we wanted to keep our interviews consistent. We drafted questions and then created a survey in Google Forms to collect our responses. Below is the sample e-mail we sent out as well as the nine interview questions. To whom it may concern: Our names are Brenda Estupinan, Jacqueline Grundberg, and Krista Jennings Irish. We are graduate students at the University of Maryland University College, in the United States. We are currently taking the course Integration of Technology: Global Perspectives and are working on a group project. We selected Japan as our country to research and develop a case study. We will focus on learning about technology integration in Japan in grades Kindergarten through twelfth grade. We are asking for your help and support in completing this assignment, by answering a few questions. Please take a look at the questions and answer them to the best of your knowledge and ability. We appreciate your time. Thank for your help in this matter. You can reach us by e-mail: Brenda.estupinan@gmail.com, jacqueline.fung@hotmail.com, and istakirish@gmail.com. 1. What is your current position? 2. Please take a moment to provide a short professional biography. 3. What is your experience with technology and education? 4. How does your country integrate technology into the curriculum? 5. What kind of technology is available for students to use in your schools? A. B. C. D. E. F. Computer Internet iPad/Tablet Smartphone Aps TV Other: Please describe.

6. How do you ensure that every student has equal access to technology? 7. Is there a person at your school to assist you and other teachers with technology use and support? 8. Is there an organization that establishes educational policy, specifically technology integration policy, for schools? 9. How do schools get their funding for technology? Kind Regards,

Brenda, Jacqueline, and Krista

Appendix B: Screenshot of Google Form Interview Results

Appendix C: Interview Transcript and Summary
Interviewee: Mr.Tatunori Kato What is your current position? I am a chief teacher now. Please take a moment to provide a short professional biography. I have been a high-school teacher for 27 years after graduating from an university. My school is managed by the Tokyo government. Please describe your experience with technology and education. Nine years have passed since I started the education on information and communications technologies (ICTs). How does your country integrate technology into the curriculum? 30 % of the curriculum on ICT is spent for lectures. Basic digital technologies and morals for ICT are taught. The rest 70 % is spent for practical exercises including Internet, Excel, Word and Powerpoint. What kind of technology is available for students to use in your schools? Computer, Internet How do you ensure that every student has equal access to technology? Not in particular. Is there a person at your school to assist you and other teachers with technology use and support? Yes, our school has a contract with an ICT company. Support and maintenance is by it. Simple support and maintenance are done by myself. Is there an organization that establishes educational policy, specifically technology integration policy, for schools? No, I establish educational policy. Our school has PC committee. PC commitee is made up of 4 members. The task of PC committee is, (1) to determine the amount for budget request (2) to maintain the home page of our school (3) to maintain PCs and Internet network How do schools get their funding for technology?

Our school doesn't receive funds for technology. Our school get funds for all needs in our school. The funds for technology is divided in the funds for all needs. Interviewee: Midori Hori What is your current position? I am a teacher of Chemistry. Please take a moment to provide a short professional biography. My name is Midori Hori. I have been a high-school teacher for 25 years after graduating from an university. My school is managed by the Tokyo government. Please describe your experience with technology and education. I can use PC and I can make a lecture with it. But I don't use PC in my classroom. I have two reasons that I don’t use PC. One reason; Every class has one PC. However it is locked. It takes more than 5 minutes to unlock it and put on screen on the black board. It is waste of time. Another reason; I think that to understand the subject of Chemistry, handwriting on notebook is more effective than using PC. How does your country integrate technology into the curriculum? As I don't use PC, I omit to answer the below questions. What kind of technology is available for students to use in your schools? None How do you ensure that every student has equal access to technology? Omit Is there a person at your school to assist you and other teachers with technology use and support? Omit

Is there an organization that establishes educational policy, specifically technology integration policy, for schools? Omit How do schools get their funding for technology? Omit

Interviewee: Aya Kinjo An extra interview was conducted by Brenda in Japan. A Japanese friend helped translate and it was difficult to get some of our questions answered because she couldn’t understand what was being asked. In talking to Aya Kinjo, she said that it is uncommon to use technology in government schools. From what was understood and translated, there are government schools, public schools, and private schools. Private schools are rare and have been popping up recently; they are also more westernized. The people have to pay for school, even government ones, but they pay fees not taxes like we do. I was a little confused by government and public schools, but she said that most people attend government schools because it is cheaper and teaches the basics. Public schools are more expensive and usually tied to Universities so people who want their kids to do better and have more money send their kids there. Public schools are more rigorous from what she said. She said that most schools teach technology separately as a class and don’t integrate it. She said students learn about technology and how to use it but teachers don’t use it to teach, or least in her experience they didn’t. She wasn’t taught about technology integration and I asked her if she thought it had changed and she said no, because that’s not how Japanese schools work in Okinawa.

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